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Wiley, Antoinette MarchelleThe Familiar Stranged
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
The Familiar Stranged is a collection of four horror stories written in the vein of George Saunders, Kelly Link, Shirley Jackson, Tananarive Due, and Brandon Massey. Focusing on the unconventional/unusual point of view and also voice, these stories follow unsuspecting characters—an artificial intelligence, dead writers who seek revenge, mannequins who come to life at night, and an imaginary “friend” who all reside in an upside down, familiar made strange, slightly off kilter world, bound and imprisoned by various circumstances. These stories are intended to feel episodic—paying homage to The Twilight Zone in tone and theme. There is a critical introduction followed by the text.

Committee:

Imad Rahman, MFA (Committee Chair); Mike Geither, MFA (Committee Member); Adam Sonstegard, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; American Literature; Literature

Keywords:

creative writing; short stories; horror; Zora Neale Hurston; Harlem Renaissance; psychological thriller; mental illness; mannequins; uncanny; Freud; speculative fiction; artificial intelligence; human experience

Williams, Tiffany RMinority Stress and Career Attitudes of African American Students
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Education and Human Services
Increasing diversity in psychology practice and training programs has been a focus of the profession within the last few decades. To continue to enhance diversity, trends within the minority pipeline must be continually monitored. Minorities are underrepresented in all areas of psychology. There has been rapid growth in undergraduate degree completion, but less growth for earned graduate degrees, especially among African Americans. Minority stress theory served as a theoretical framework to examine how racial and ethnic microaggressions affects African American psychology graduate students’ career attitudes. The current study used structural equation modeling to investigate the hypotheses: (a) There would be a negative relationship between racial and ethnic microaggressions and career attitudes. (b) The relationship between racial and ethnic microaggressions and career attitudes would be moderated by mentoring support. While no support was found for the present study’s hypotheses, the findings suggested that mentoring support was significantly related to career attitudes. Implications for theory, research, practice, and training are provided on how to retain African Americans in psychology graduate and training programs.

Committee:

Donna Schultheiss, PhD (Committee Chair); Graham Stead, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Horvath, PhD (Committee Member); Julia Phillips, PhD (Committee Member); Justin Perry, PhD (Committee Member); Aaron Ellington, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Higher Education; Psychology

Keywords:

microaggressions; minority stress; African Americans; psychology graduate students; career attitudes

Ghods, MasoudEffect of Convection Associated with Cross-section Change during Directional Solidification of Binary Alloys on Dendritic Array Morphology and Macrosegregation
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
This dissertation explores the role of different types of convection on macrosegregation and on dendritic array morphology of two aluminum alloys directionally solidified through cylindrical graphite molds having both cross-section decrease and increase. Al- 19 wt. % Cu and Al-7 wt. % Si alloys were directionally solidified at two growth speed of 10 and 29.1 µm s-1 and examined for longitudinal and radial macrosegregation, and for primary dendrite spacing and dendrite trunk diameter. Directional solidification of these alloys through constant cross-section showed clustering of primary dendrites and parabolic-shaped radial macrosegregation profile, indicative of “steepling convection” in the mushy-zone. The degree of radial macrosegregation increased with decreased growth speed. The Al- 19 wt. % Cu samples, grown under similar conditions as Al-7 wt. % Si, showed more radial macrosegregation because of more intense “stepling convection” caused by their one order of magnitude larger coefficient of solutal expansion. Positive macrosegregation right before, followed by negative macrosegregation right after an abrupt cross-section decrease (from 9.5 mm diameter to 3.2 mm diameter), were observed in both alloys; this is because of the combined effect of thermosolutal convection and area-change-driven shrinkage flow in the contraction region. The degree of macrosegregation was found to be higher in the Al- 19 wt. % Cu samples. Strong area-change-driven shrinkage flow changes the parabolic-shape radial macrosegregation in the larger diameter section before contraction to “S-shaped” profile. But in the smaller diameter section after the contraction very low degree of radial macrosegregation was found. The samples solidified through an abrupt cross-section increase (from 3.2 mm diameter to 9.5 mm diameter) showed negative macrosegregation right after the cross-section increase on the expansion platform. During the transition to steady-state after the expansion, radial macrosegregation profile in locations close to the expansion was found to be “S-shaped”. This is attributed to the redistribution of solute-rich liquid ahead of the mushy-zone as it transitions from the narrow portion below into the large diameter portion above. Solutal remelting and fragmentation of dendrite branches, and floating of these fragmented pieces appear to be responsible for spurious grains formation in Al- 19 wt. % Cu samples after the cross-section expansion. New grain formation was not observed in Al-7 wt. % Si in similar locations; it is believed that this is due to the sinking of the fragmented dendrite branches in this alloy. Experimentally observed radial and axial macrosegregations agree well with the results obtained from the numerical simulations carried out by Dr. Mark Lauer and Prof. David R. Poirier at the University of Arizona. Trunk Diameter (TD) of dendritic array appears to respond more readily to the changing growth conditions as compared to the Nearest Neighbor Spacing (NNS) of primary dendrites.

Committee:

Surendra Tewari, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jorge Gatica, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Orhan Talu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rolf Lustig, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kiril Streletzky, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Materials; Automotive Materials; Chemical Engineering; Condensed Matter Physics; Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; High Temperature Physics; Materials Science; Metallurgy

Keywords:

Directional Solidification; Natural Convection; Fluid Flow; Binary Alloys; Macrosegregation; Dendritic Array; Dendrite Morphology; Solutal Remelting; Thermosolutal Convection; Aluminum Alloy; Cross section Change

Camardo, Andrew TC-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE INHIBITORY NANOTHERAPEUTICS FOR REGENERATIVE ELASTIC MATRIX REPAIR IN ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS
Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are localized expansions of the aorta wall that continue to grow until they reach a critical size and fatally rupture. This growth is driven by the chronic disruption, degradation, and subsequent loss of aortal wall elastic fibers by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by inflammatory cells recruited to the aorta wall following an injury stimulus, and the inherent inability of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to naturally repair or regenerate elastic fibers. This leads to a net loss of elastic matrix and the continuing weakening of the aortal wall until eventual rupture. Current treatments seek to reinforce the vessel wall with grafts or stents, but do not arrest or reverse AAA growth. Therefore, inhibiting the proteolytic degradation of the elastic matrix while also stimulating elastic matrix neoassembly is needed to stop AAA growth and regenerate the vessel wall. We have previously shown utility of doxycycline (DOX), an MMP inhibitor drug, to stimulate elastic matrix neoassembly and crosslinking at low µg/ml doses in addition to inhibiting MMPs. We currently show in aneurysmal SMC cultures, that effects of exogenous DOX in this dose range are linked to its upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß1) via its inhibition of the regulatory protein c-Jun-N-terminal kinase isoform 2 (JNK 2). We have identified a DOX dose range that stimulates elastogenesis and crosslinking without adversely impacting cell viability. Using JNK 2 inhibition as a metric for pro-regenerative matrix effects of DOX, we further demonstrate that sustained, steady state release of DOX at the useful dose, from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) provides pro-elastogenic and anti-proteolytic effects that could potentially be more pronounced than that of exogenous DOX. We attribute these outcomes to previously determined synergistic effects provided by cationic amphiphile groups functionalizing the polymer NP surface. Released DOX inhibited expression and phosphorylation of JNK to likely increase expression of TGF-ß1, which is known to increase elastogenesis and lysyl oxidase-mediated crosslinking of elastic matrix. Our results suggest that JNK inhibition is a useful metric to assess pro-elastic matrix regenerative effects and point to the combinatorial regenerative benefits provided by DOX and cationic-functionalized NPs.

Committee:

Anand Ramamurthi, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Chandrasekhar Kothapalli, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nolan Holland, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering

Parks, Tomas AA Theoretical and Empirical Study of Global Talent Management: Three Operationalizations of GTM and their Impact on Firm Performance
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2017, Monte Ahuja College of Business
This theoretical and empirical study of Global Talent Management (GTM) analyzes the four major theory and practice gaps of GTM as identified in the literature. It proposes three operationalizations of GTM and empirically analyzes their impact on perceived firm performance. A thorough literature review provides the framework for the operationalizations of GTM. The empirical analysis includes a replication of six scales using a sample of Talent from firms using GTM systems. These scales represent the constructs of the three operationalizations of GTM. Then a series of multiple regression equations analyze the impact of the operationalizations of GTM on perceived firm performance and perceived hiring practices. The scales are all replicated except for one, thus contributing to the literature. In addition, support for the impact of GTM on perceived firm performance is found. The result is theoretical and empirical support for the impact of GTM on perceived firm performance for a sample of 369 talented individuals in firms using GTM systems.

Committee:

Susan Storrud-Barnes, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rajshekhar Javalgi, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Richard Reed, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Doren Chadee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Talent; Talent Management; Global Talent Management; Human Resources; Strategic Human Resources; Multinational Corporation; Multinational Enterprise; Engagement; Development; Support; Retention; Alignment; Deployment; Evaluation; TM; GTM; HRM; IHRM; SHRM

Al Ghmiz, Ahoud TurkiSympathy, Skepticism and Conversation in Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy and Henry Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
While Tristram Shandy and The Man of Feeling have received continuous literary attention, few has been done in reading the skeptical and sentimental aspects of the two novels. This thesis glances through “conversation”, a reader-author conversation may be defined as a dialogue with a reader which is mediated by text. Both Sterne and Mackenzie engage in a conversation with readers by making them laugh, question, criticize, sympathize, and reflect on the deeper meaning of the novels. Moreover, this author-reader conversation is impossible without the wide use of conversations in both novels, through which characters convey their emotions and thoughts. Both novels use conversation in all its forms and manifestations. As thesis shows, these novels employ satire, skepticism, and sympathy in a way that engages readers in conversation with the authors and their own beliefs and preconceptions. While some critics analyze Tristram Shandy and The Man of Feeling by separating their didactic spirit, or treating either side as the “winning” side. This is a false dichotomy as these novels neither strictly sentimental nor strictly skeptical, but they offer two sides perpetually in conflict. Sterne and Mackenzie balance sentimentalism and skepticism in a way that make them complementary rather than competitive.

Committee:

Rachel Carnell, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Julie Burrell, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Gary Dyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Mohammed, Alahmad SuleimanElectrochemical and Electroflotation Processes for Milk Waste Water Treatment
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
The dairy industry generates abundant milk waste waters characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations that can be very harmful to the environment, if left untreated. Electrocoagulation (EC) has been in use for waste water treatment. The treatment application uses aluminum electrodes and iron or the combined hybrid Al/Fe electrodes. Milk waste water contains high concentration organic pollutants and the main constituents of those organics are carbohydrates, proteins and fats, originating from the milk. The process of separating the flocculated sludge from waste water that has been treated using the electrocoagulation process can be accomplished by the flotation processes. The electroflotation technology is effective in removing colloidal particles, oil, grease, as well as organic pollutants from waste water. This study uses electrochemical and electroflotation treatment of milk waste water by means of an aluminum electrode with specific parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, turbidity, transmittance, and temperature. Even though the electrochemical and electroflotation treatment processes have been around for some time, it has not been thoroughly studied. This study is going to highlight the importance of this technique as a pre-treatment method of milk waste water and its contribution to the reduction of pollutants in the milk processing industry. Furthermore, the process of electroflotation and electrochemical flotation continuously prove to be effective in remediation of varieties of pollutants of different chemical compositions and have the ability to achieve a very high treatment efficiency.

Committee:

Yung-Tse Hung, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Walter Kocher , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lili Dong, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chung-Yi Suen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Saili Shao, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Electrochemical, electroflotation and electrocoagulation;Total organic carbon;Chemical oxygen demand; Biochemical oxygen demand ;Transmittance;Turbidity and pH

West, Sarah M."Serviam": A Historical Case Study of Leadership in Transition in Urban Catholic Schools in Northeast Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Education and Human Services
The purpose of this historical case study was to explore, through the lens of knowledge transfer, answers to the following two questions: how did the Sister-educators from one community in Northeast Ohio prepare themselves for leadership, and when it became clear that the future of their urban school depended on transitioning to lay leadership, how did Sister-principals prepare their religious communities and their school communities for that change. This qualitative study focuses on six members of one active, engaged, service-based community which has supported schools Northeast Ohio for over a century. The research revealed that a successful Sister-to-laity leadership transition will have its foundation in charismatic love, encourage faith-filled mentoring of faculty and students, honor the mission of the founding community, and support an overarching leadership culture of magnanimity to all stakeholders. This model can be employed in other educational and nonprofit settings where non-hierarchical servant leadership would be an effective approach.

Committee:

Marius Boboc, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Lehfeldt, Ph.D (Committee Member); Adam Voight, Ph.D (Committee Member); Matt Jackson-McCabe, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Religion; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; School Administration; Teaching

Keywords:

qualitative research, case study, religious education, Catholic school culture, urban school leadership, religious congregations, Catholic school leadership, leadership models, education policy, Northeast Ohio Catholic education, education history

Donley, Genie AThe Gathering Storm: The Role of White Nationalism in U.S. Politics
Master of Arts in History, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
White nationalism has played a critical role in shaping United States politics for over 150 years. Since the Reconstruction era, whites have fought to maintain their power and superiority over minorities. They influenced U.S. politics by attempting, and in some cases succeeding, to prevent minorities from voting. Moreover, politicians began to help them. This became most evident in the 2016 U.S. presidential election when Republican Donald J. Trump appealed to racist white voters, gained their support, and won the election. Those voters, who united as the Alt-Right, supported Trump because he appealed to them by playing on their fear of becoming a minority in their country. This thesis traces white nationalism back to Reconstruction. It analyzes the memberships of separate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, Neo-Confederates, and Citizens’ Councils to show how and why those various groups united as the Alt-Right to support Trump in the 2016 election. This study examines the writings of various white nationalists, including their Twitter accounts, to identify their goals and how they spread their ideology. This work also analyzes race as a political concept and identity by investigating how politicians appealed these groups. Ultimately, this thesis illustrates the presence and significance of white nationalism in United States politics and how it culminated in Donald Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign.

Committee:

Thomas Humphrey, Ph.D (Advisor); Robert Shelton, Ph.D (Committee Member); Karen Sotiropoulos, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; History; Modern History

Keywords:

white nationalism; Alt-Right; racism; twentieth-century politics; twenty-first-century politics; Donald Trump; David Duke; Richard Spencer; Jared Taylor; Ku Klux Klan; Neo-Confederacy; white supremacy; African Americans; white separatism

Alswillah, Turkeyah STHE USP14 DEUBIQUITINASE REGULATES NHEJ DNA REPAIR IN PROSTATE CANCER
Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical-Bioanalytical Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Ionizing radiation (IR), a prototypical DNA damaging agent, induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). IR-induced DNA-DSBs are predominantly repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. IR-induced DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, an intracellular degradation process that delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosome. Here, we examined the interplay between autophagy and DNA damage response (DDR), with a particular emphasis on an E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168, which is negatively regulated by a deubiquitinase (DUB) enzyme, USP14. Akt, a serine/ threonine protein kinase, is known to mediate the phosphorylation of USP14 on Ser432. Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog, results in hyperactivated Akt signaling, commonly reported in human malignancies, including prostate cancer (PCa). Autophagy inhibition was coupled to diminished RNF168-mediated histone H2A ubiquitination. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168 is essential for recruitment of the DNA-DSBs signaling proteins, including 53BP1, a critical DDR signaling effector at the DNA-DSBs sites. IR induced sustained ¿-H2AX, and reduced 53BP1 in autophagy-deficient PCa cells. Autophagy-deficient cells showed also reduced activity for DNA-PKcs, a kinase that is required for the NHEJ repair pathway. A defect in recruitment of DNA repair proteins could be caused by hyperactivity of the deubiquitinase USP14. In response to IR, we show that USP14 was upregulated and generated foci in autophagy-deficient cells. Importantly, inhibiting autophagy following radiation-induced recruitment of USP14 onto chromatin. There was an inverse correlation between USP14 and RNF168 expression in autophagy-deficient PCa and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, indicating that USP14 may contribute to the aberrant inhibition of the NHEJ-DDR signaling pathway by targeting RNF168. USP14 inhibition by IU1, an enzymatic activity inhibitor or Akt inhibition rescued the activity of NHEJ-DDR proteins in autophagy-deficient cells. These findings uncovered a novel negative NHEJ regulation mechanism by USP14, which provided unique insights into the link between autophagy and NHEJ-DDR.

Committee:

Alexandru Almasan (Committee Chair); Aimin Zhou (Committee Co-Chair); Girish Shukla (Committee Member); John F Turner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Biology; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology

Idippily, NethrieEVALUATION OF A SMALL MOLECULE AGONIST OF EPHA2 RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE AND COPALIC ACID ANALOGS AS PROSTATE CANCER THERAPEUTICS
Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical-Bioanalytical Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Project I: Chemotherapeutic drugs have many side effects that are undesirable and are highly toxic. Therefore, there is a growing need for the development of drugs with enhanced efficacy, specificity, and potency to provide cancer patients with a better prognosis. It was discovered that a member of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase family, EphA2, may prove to be a viable target in developing anti-cancer agents. In the presence of its ligand, EphA2 receptor is responsible for apoptotic and anti-migratory activity. However, in the absence of ligand, EphA2 is able to stimulate cell migration and therefore tumorigenic activity. These conflicting roles of EphA2 and the upregulation of this receptor that is seen in many cancers have provided a novel strategy in designing therapeutic agents. Therefore, small molecules can be used to stimulate ligand-dependent pathways of EphA2 that induce anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells in order to inhibit metastasis and tumor progression. A small molecule, doxazosin, was identified as an EphA2 agonist in a recent study. It demonstrated positive results in that its actions were similar to those of the natural ligand. Subsequently, a library of compounds was generated using doxazosin as the lead compound in order to improve its activity. These compounds were tested for their activity in stimulating EphA2 receptor. Two of them showed improved activity compared to doxazosin while mimicking a mechanism similar to the native ligand. The structure activity relationship of these derivatives, the in vitro mechanisms and pharmacokinetic profiles were also analyzed, which provides a basis for further optimization and subsequent in vivo studies of these compounds in the future. Project II: Copalic acid which is one of the diterpenoid acids in copaiba oil inhibited the chaperone function of ¿-crystallin and heat shock protein 27 kDa (HSP27). It also showed potent activity in decreasing the level of an HSP27 client protein, androgen receptor (AR), which makes it useful in prostate cancer treatment. In order to develop potent drug candidates to decrease the AR level in prostate cancer cells, copalic acid analogs were synthesized. Using AR level as a readout 15 copalic acid analogs were screened, which showed that two of those compounds were much more potent than copalic acid. They inhibited AR positive prostate cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they also inhibited the chaperone activity of a-crystallin.

Committee:

Bin Su, Ph.D. (Advisor); Aimin Zhou, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yan Xu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yana Sandlers, Ph.D (Committee Member); Andrew Resnick, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry; Biochemistry; Biology; Biomedical Research; Organic Chemistry; Pharmacology

Johnson, Jessica LeighShriekers
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
In every horror sub-genre, there is a fear that the narrative exploits. In ghost stories, the fear is that of the unknown; in alien movies, it is the fear of the other; and in stories involving the undead we are confronted with the nature of living itself. In using creatures that were once human but now act only on instinct, we are forced to examine ourselves. Further, most stories involving zombies are set in a world where society is crumbling or has crumbled, and humans are forced to make difficult decisions, which brings us to question the nature of survival. Shriekers is the start of a short novel that deals with the nature of living and the cost of survival.

Committee:

Imad Rahman, MFA (Committee Chair); Caryl Ann Pagel, MFA (Committee Member); Michael Geither, MFA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

horror; science fiction; creatures; undead

Alagandula, RavaliDEVELOPMENT OF LC-MS/MS ASSAYS FOR URINE DRUG TESTING AND QUANTIFICATION OF HUMAN STOOL HEMOGLOBIN FOR COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING
Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical-Bioanalytical Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Mass Spectrometry allows the accurate determination and quantitation of drugs and proteins with high sensitivity and specificity, making it a powerful method to provide insights into various diseases using biological samples. My dissertation research focuses on the development of mass spectrometry-based methods to quantitate drugs and protein biomarkers in clinical specimen. The background on the development of robust mass spectrometry-based methods to quantify drugs and proteins in biological samples and various sample preparation techniques are described in Chapter I. My dissertation research is composed of two parts. In the first part, I developed three mass spectrometric methods to quantitate several important drugs related to pain management and drug abuse, solving the low-throughput problem encountered in clinical labs. Chapter II discusses the method developed for quantitating phenobarbital (a pain management drug) in human urine. Chapter III describes the method developed for quantitate ethyl-glucuronide (an alcohol biomarker) in human urine. In Chapter IV, I describe a method for quantification of phenobarbital and ethyl-glucuronide in urine using one MS/MS method. We have demonstrated that these methods developed have a throughput of ~700 samples/per day, much higher than the throughput of current methods. In the second part, my research focused on the development and application of a novel immunocapture-MRM method for quantitation of protein biomarkers in stool. Immunocapture-MRM combines immunoassays with mass spectrometry, taking advantages of targeted enrichment of protein biomarkers from complex clinical specimen using immunoassay and specific quantitation by mass spectrometry. Currently, less quantitative elution and digestion of the proteins captured by immunoassay have been a major problem associated with immunocapture-MRM based methods. The part of my research was devoted to the development of methods to solve this problem. Chapter V describes new methods I developed, which enable the quantitative elution and digestion of proteins captured by immunoassay. In Chapter VI, I discuss the development of an immunocapture-MRM method for quantitation of stool proteins and application of this assay to analyze stool samples.

Committee:

Baochuan Guo, Ph.D. (Advisor); Aimin Zhou, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Xiang Zhou, Ph.D. (Committee Member); John F Turner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chandrasekhar Kothapalli, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry

Bardhipur, SeemaModeling the Effect of Green Infrastructure on Direct Runoff Reduction in Residential Areas
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Urbanization causes a serious impact on storm water systems by expansion of impervious surfaces. Low Impact Development (LID) is a technique growing in popularity to solve the issue of storm water management. However, to evaluate the benefits of LIDs is a difficult task due to realistic parametrization of LIDs and subcatchments for modeling. The goals of this study are: a) to provide a practical guideline to parameterize and simulate LIDs (bio-retention and rain barrels) in residential areas; and b) to evaluate the resulting effect on the current drainage system under various design storms. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model 5 (SWMM5) was used to simulate the hydrologic performance of LID controls and their effects on reducing direct runoff from a residential area, Klusner Avenue in Parma, Ohio. This study conceptualized the study site in reasonable detail, including house, garage, backyard, tree lawn, driveway, sidewalk, and street, so that the performance of LID controls could be identified easily. Specifically, a street catchment was carefully modeled using an open-conduit routing option, which simulated the street drainage systems more effectively. SWMM5 parameters were calibrated using the observed rainfall-runoff data which was collected before implementing LID practices at Klusner Avenue. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) had a value of 0.69 for the calibrated model which indicates a strong fit between the output and observed data. Finally, the calibrated model was used to add LID controls to evaluate its effects under various design storms, 1-year, 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year return periods. The results show that two types of LID controls, bio-retention cell and rain barrel installed in the study site reduced the total runoff volume from 9 to 13% and the peak flow by from 11 to 15% depending on rainfall intensities. The analysis of results suggested that the performance of LID controls should be based on not only their capacity and treatment area but also target design storm and unit cost.

Committee:

Ung Tae Kim, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jacqueline Jenkins, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yung Tse Hung, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Low Impact Development; Storm Water Management Model; Bio-retention; Rain Barrels; Green Infrastructure; Modeling

O'Melia, KellyTruth and the Language of War
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
TRUTH AND THE LANGUAGE OF WAR KELLY OMELIA ABSTRACT According to modernist Friedrich Nietzsche in On Truth and Lies in an Extra-Moral Sense, language is a constructed system which fails to represent reality because of its inherent metaphorical nature. Modernist writer Virginia Woolf and postmodernist writer Tim O’Brien implicitly address Nietzsche’s belief as they warn against and represent the horrors of war in the novels Jacob’s Room and The Things They Carried. Nietzsche and Woolf develop new modernist styles, forsaking the conventions of nineteenth-century realism. O’Brien pays homage to high modernism and to Woolf in his novel through direct reference and through the modernist strategies utilized to present the unpresentable. The strongest bond between these two novels is each text’s metafictional acknowledgement that it has failed even before it has begun, echoing Nietzsche. The novels Jacob’s Room and The Things They Carried circumvent language’s limitations and make the reader feel that s/he understands war and will therefore seek peace.

Committee:

Rachel Carn (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

Language and war; Virginia Woolf; Tim OBrien; Language failure; Representing war; Friedrich Nietzsche

Cannavino, LaurenTHE CREATION OF SPACE FOR ENGAGED READING AND CREATIVE INTERPRETATION IN THE COLLECTED WORKS OF WALLACE STEVENS
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
Wallace Stevens presents a creative space in his poems, opening the role of the reader and inviting active participation. This defies ready interpretation and instead encourages creative reading and interpretive freedom. Wallace Stevens chooses to write from a removed space that allows him to invite the reader in as the original observer. Stevens directly observes and his words, through his stance, create a level of active involvement for the reader. This highlights a focus on nature, nostalgia, removal and his place in between reverie and action. This position builds the body of his poems through much more than simple imagery.

Committee:

Fredrick Karem, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); David Lardner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brooke Conti, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature

Tyler, Carmen MHow the Illness Experience Predicts Key Psychosocial Outcomes in Veterans with Brain Injury
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Sciences and Health Professions
The object of this thesis was to examine the illness experience of veterans who have suffered either a stroke or traumatic brain injury. Predictors of key psychosocial outcomes were identified by looking at the illness experience through the veterans’ perspective via self-report measures. Results confirmed relationships between the stressors role captivity, low self-esteem, decreased socialization, and dyad relationship strain and the outcome of depression and between the stressors physical strain and emotional strain and the outcome social/recreational participation for this population. More importantly, role captivity, social/recreational strain, and self-esteem uniquely predicted depression, and both physical and emotional strain uniquely predicted social/recreational strain in veterans with brain injury. Not only has this study demonstrated how the illness experience predicts key psychosocial outcomes in VBIs, it has also illustrated that self-reports from VBIs are reliable and valid indicators of their illness experiences and should be seriously considered when constructing treatment goals and plans.

Committee:

Katherine Judge, PhD (Committee Chair); Harvey Sterns, PhD (Committee Member); Eric Allard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Developmental Psychology; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

veterans; illness experience; brain injury; psychosocial outcomes; stressors; stress process model; perceived distress; appraisal; self-report; role captivity; social-recreational strain; dyad relationship strain; depression; self-esteem;

Fox, Jonathan MCathepsin K Targeting Matrix Regenerative Nanoparticles for Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
Master of Science in Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the loss of elasticity in the aorta wall leading to a chronic increase in diameter and resulting in rupture. This is due to the lack of regeneration of elastic fibers and chronic proteolytic breakdown of elastic fibers within the aorta mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-2 and -9. Previous studies in our lab have shown cationic amphiphile-surface functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with doxycycline (DOX) to inhibit MMP activity and stimulate elastic matrix synthesis, effects we attributed to both low doses (< 10 mg/ml) of DOX released and independent effects of cationic amphiphile pendant groups on the NP surface. This promises application of these NPs to arrest or regress AAA growth since high oral DOX dosing inhibits new elastic matrix formation in the AAA wall and has undesirable side effects. In this study, we investigated feasibility of antibody-based active targeting of intravenously infused NPs to the AAA wall. Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease, is a biomarker for AAA and overexpressed in abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue making it an ideal target moiety. We have shown using a covalent conjugation method of modifying the surface of the NPs with a cathepsin K antibody resulted in a more robust antibody attachment which did not affect the DOX release profile. Cathepsin K expression was confirmed to be localized on the cell surface and utilizing cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NPs, we demonstrated an increased NP localization to the cathepsin K overexpressing cells in vitro and ex vivo. Importantly, the DOX-loaded NPs demonstrated pro-elastogenic and anti-proteolytic effects in aneurysmal smooth muscle cells supporting their use as regenerative therapies to arrest and regress AAA growth. Preliminary data has been collected indicating cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NP targeting to AAAs in elastase-injured rat models. The study outcomes support the feasibility of using cathepsin K Ab-conjugated NPs as a targeted therapy for elastic matrix regeneration in AAA tissue and will serve as a basis for already initiated follow up studies to assess NP biodistribution, in situ retention in the AAA wall, and safety as a function of time.

Committee:

Anand Ramamurthi, Ph.D. (Advisor); Nolan Holland, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chandrasekhar Kothapalli, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering

Barto, TaylorDesign and Control of Electronic Motor Drives for Regenerative Robotics
Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Two regenerative motor drives, a voltage source converter and a bidirectional buck/boost converter, are studied for energy regeneration and joint trajectory tracking. The motor drives are applied to two different robotic systems—a PUMA560 robotic arm and a hip testing robot / prosthesis system. An artificial neural network controller is implemented with the two motor drives and provides joint trajectory tracking with an RMS error of 0.03 rad. The control signals produced by the artificial neural network contain a large amount of high frequency content which prevents practical implementation. A robust passivity-based motion controller is modified to include information about the motor drives to overcome the limitations of the artificial neural network controller. The modified robust passivity-based controller outperforms the artificial neural network controller by maintaining a 3 V RMS error between the voltage generated by the converter and the desired voltage while maintaining comparable trajectory tracking. The high frequency content of the robust passivity-based controller contains less high frequency content than the artificial neural network controller. The modified robust passivity-based controller is implemented inside the semiactive virtual control energy regeneration framework to demonstrate energy regeneration with one of the motor drives. The motor drive implemented with the energy regeneration framework shows that energy can be regenerated while using the bidirectional buck/boost converter.

Committee:

Dan Simon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Hanz Richter, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Zhiqiang Gao, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Wiet, RyanThe effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels and cognition in postmenopausal women
Master of Education, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Education and Human Services
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the peripheral BDNF levels after aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. It was be hypothesized that exercise would induce greater peripheral BDNF levels and improve choice reaction time. Methods: The subjects consisted 14 active females (7 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal). The subjects went through two different trials: an exercise trial and a controlled reading trial. The exercise trial consisted of running on a treadmill at 75% of their VO2max for 30 minutes. The control trial consisted of a reading session. A Stroop test was given and a blood sample was obtained before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the exercise and control trial. Results: The results show a significant difference between the groups over time (P < .05). There were interactions between age and FSH with BDNF levels immediately following exercise (P < .05). There was a positive correlation between age and Stroop Test time over all time points (P < .05). Conclusion: Within the study, there was not statistical evidence that acute exercise affects BDNF levels nor choice reaction time for the Stroop incongruent test, regardless of menopausal status. There was evidence of a significant interaction between groups (pre and postmenopausal) in the post-exercise time point for BDNF levels but came to result insignificant changes. However, a decline in choice reaction time after menopause was observed within this study. There were observations made that highlight the need for future research within this subject matter.

Committee:

Emily Kullman, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kenneth Sparks, Dr. (Committee Member); Douglas Wajda, Dr. (Committee Member); Jeremy Genovese, Dr. (Committee Member); Kristine Still, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Physiology

Walker, DonaldThe Effect Of Contact Type On Perceptions Of Sex Offender Recidivism Risk
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Prior research has found that the general public perceives sex offenders negatively as a whole (Edwards & Hensley, 2001). These perceptions have enabled sex offender management policies that create ironic conditions for sex offender rehabilitation and reintegration (Hanson, & Harris, 2000). More recent research has found that when sex offenders are presented as subcategories the public has more varied, though still negative attitudes toward sex offenders (King & Roberts, 2015). Furthermore, a burgeoning area of research has developed around the differentiation of child sex offenders based on the contact that they have had with their victims: non-contact, contact-only, and mixed-contact. The present study examined the effect that contact type has on perceptions of recidivism for child sex offenders, and whether the presentation of statistical information would affect these perceptions. There was a significant differentiation of perceptions of recidivism across contact types. Participant sex had a significant effect such that women perceived sex offenders as more likely to recidivate than male participants. Moreover, presenting statistical information to participants significantly reduced their perceptions of recidivism; although these perceptions remained significantly higher than the empirical data for recidivism. These results have significant implications for outreach programs that may seek to better educate the public about sex offenders and the development of sex offender management policies with a more empirically-based approach.

Committee:

Ilya Yaroslavsky, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Christopher France, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Allard Eric, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

contact type; non-contact; contact-only; mixed-contact; recidivism; sex offender; perception; risk; effect; management; policy; outreach; empirical; gender; attitudes; public; Walsh Act; Sorna; rehabilitation; reintegration; negative;

Lacdao, ClaudineInfluence Of Cross-Section Change During Directional Solidification On Dendrite Morphology, Macrosegregation And Defect Formation In Pb-6 wt Sb Alloy
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
The purpose of this research is to examine the dendrite array morphology, macrosegregation, and defect formation caused by the fluid flow at the abrupt cross-section changes during directional solidification of Pb-6% Sb alloy. Four 24-cm long cylindrical alloy samples were directionally solidified in graphite crucibles: two having a constant diameter (9-mm) grown at 10.4 and 63.1 μm s-1 , one having an abrupt cross-section decrease (from 12.7 to 6.35 mm) and one having an abrupt increase (from 6.35 to 12.7 mm) by pulling down the alloy containing cylindrical graphite crucibles from the upper hot-zone of a stationary vertical furnace into its cold-zone below. Microstructures were examined on transverse slices cut along the length of the directionally solidified samples. Dendrite spacing and distribution were characterized on these transverse sections. The Pb-6% Sb alloy was selected as a low melting point analog for commercially used multicomponent nickel-base superalloys, because its thermophysical properties are well characterized. Also, a density inversion occurs in the inter-dendritic melt in the “mushy-zone” during directional solidification of this alloy, because the density of the melt decreases as Sb content increases from the array tips at the top of the mushy zone to the eutectic at their bottom. In constant cross-section crucibles, the formation of dendrite-trees in the mushy zone will be subject only to this “plume type” convection as solidification proceeds from the bottom end of the crucible to its top. Whereas in crucibles with abrupt cross-section change, the solidifying mushy-zone will be subject to additional “cross-section change induced” solidification shrinkage flow, when the speed of the liquid flowing downwards to feed the solidification shrinkage occurring below, will either suddenly accelerate or decelerate, because of the abrupt area change. This sudden change in the incoming fluid speed may break slender side-branches of dendrite trees. These broken dendrite fragments may rotate, sink, and grow further to develop into misaligned “spurious” grains. The “plume type of flow” is different than the “steepling convection flow” which was recently examined during directional solidification of Al-19% Cu and Al-7% Si alloys by Dr. Masoud Ghods in our laboratory.

Committee:

Surendra Tewari, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Orhan Talu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Christopher Wirth, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nolan Holland, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering

Keywords:

Cross-Section Change; Directional Solidification; Dendrite Morphology; Macrosegregation And Defect Formation In Pb-6 wt Sb Alloy; Density Inversion; Dendrite Trunk Diameter; Nearest Neighbor Spacings; Lead Antimony Alloy; Binary Alloy

Alexandrova, Svetoslava NThree Essays On Sellers’ Behavior In The Housing Market
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2017, Monte Ahuja College of Business
Housing markets exhibit some puzzling behavior that cannot be completely explained by rational market dynamics. The neoclassical economic theory posits that rational sellers and rational buyers in the housing market will look at the current market price in order to determine a value of a property. Studies, however, show that physiological biases may affect the decision- making process of both sellers and buyers. I examine the behavior of sellers in the housing market in three different settings. In essay 1, I analyze the effects of the health of the housing market on mobility. In Essay 2, I study the effects of sellers’ loss aversion on listing price and time on the market within the prospect theory framework. In Essay 3, I focus on identifying stress in the housing market by developing a stress index and commencing the design of an Early Warning System that incorporates signals from the market and behaviors from sellers to indicate increasing levels of pressure. I utilize a data set of private home sale transactions of corporate relocations for the period 2004-2014. The results of the first study from the stepwise logit models on series of economic variables and demographic factors show that relocating employees facing negative equity situations and equity less than 5% of home value have a greater chance of rejecting relocation while economic factors like affordability and credit availability have a positive effect on their ability to move. Essay 2 results indicate that a seller who faces a loss will set up an asking price 5.69 percent higher than they would otherwise. Additionally, sellers facing a loss will experience a reduction in the hazard rate of sale resulting in longer time on the market while income and family status have effect on loss aversion and time on market. In the last essay, I hypothesize that economic signals and home sellers' behaviors can explain the variability of the housing market stress index proxied by a transformed S&P;P500/Case Shiller Index. The preliminary results of the autoregressive models find that housing variables and market expectations of the 'informed sellers' have statistically significant explanatory power.

Committee:

Alan Reichert, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Haigang Zhou, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Dieter Gramlich, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Walter Rom, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Finance

Keywords:

behavioral finance; housing market; relocation; early warning system; seller behavior; biases; mobility; loss aversion; prospect theory; stress index

Kriner, Bridget AnnWriter Self-Efficacy and Student Self-Identity in Developmental Writing Classes: A Case Study
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Education and Human Services
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how instructional approaches to teaching developmental writing at a large urban community college foster the development of college students’ self-efficacy regarding academic writing and self-identity as college students. The case study examined the perspectives of four instructors and six students. The research considered: 1) how students experience the development of self-efficacy related to their academic writing; 2) how students experience their self-identity as college students; 3) how writing instructors foster students’ development of self-efficacy as writers; and 4) how writing instructors foster students’ self-identities as college students. The findings of this study provided a description of some of the specific ways students enrolled in developmental writing courses experienced the development of self-efficacy and self-identity. The study illuminated some of the practices that instructors use to facilitate both self-efficacy and self-identity in their approaches to teaching. With regard to students, what emerged in the analysis of this data was a sense that they felt both more empowered toward writing in an academic context and more self-identified as college students. The significance of the study demonstrated that fostering relationships among students and with the institution itself, along with scaffolding and contextualizing assignments, builds effective pathways to student success.

Committee:

Catherine Monaghan, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wendy Green, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary McDonald, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education

Dinca, DragosDevelopment of an Integrated High Energy Density Capture and Storage System for Ultrafast Supply/Extended Energy Consumption Applications
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
High Intensity Laser Power Beaming is a wireless power transmission technology developed at the Industrial Space Systems Laboratory from 2005 through 2010, in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory to enable remote optical `refueling’ of airborne electric micro unmanned air vehicles. Continuous tracking of these air vehicles with high intensity lasers while in-flight for tens of minutes to recharge the on-board battery system is not operationally practical; hence the recharge time must be minimized. This dissertation presents the development and system design optimization of a hybrid electrical energy storage system as a solution to this practical limitation. The solution is based on the development of a high energy density integrated system to capture and store pulsed energy. The system makes use of ultracapacitors to capture the energy at rapid charge rates, while lithium-ion batteries provide the long-term energy density, in order to maximize the duration of operations and minimize the mass requirements. A design tool employing a genetic algorithm global optimizer was developed to select the front-end ultracapacitor elements. The simulation model and results demonstrate the feasibility of the solution. The hybrid energy storage system is also optimized at the system-level for maximum end-to-end power transfer efficiency. System response optimization results and corresponding sensitivity analysis results are presented. Lastly, the ultrafast supply/extended energy storage system is generalized for other applications such as high-power commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications.

Committee:

Hanz Richter, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Taysir Nayfeh, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lili Dong, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Majid Rashidi, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Petru Fodor, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Hybrid energy storage; ultracapacitor; battery; power system optimization; laser power beaming; vertical multi-junction solar cells; wireless power transmission; laser; photovoltaic; high intensity lasers; electric propulsion; unmanned air vehicles

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