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Bonadio, Francis TonyWho benefits from usual care? Using latent profile analysis to identify differential treatment outcomes
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Clinical
As more treatments are developed to address youth behavioral and emotional problems, an increasing number of studies seek to identify subgroups of youth for whom treatments are more effective. Previous research has shown differential treatment effects when grouping youth based on characteristics such as comorbidity, problem severity, gender, and age. However, the vast majority of this research has been conducted with evidence-based treatments (EBTs), and to date no research has directly examined differential treatment outcomes within usual care. Usual care receives minimal attention in research, and thus little is known about its effects. Additionally, the term usual care can include a variety of services including but not limited to standard outpatient, intensive outpatient, home-based services, and psychiatric services. Given the prevalence of usual care as a form of treatment, it is necessary to further explore its treatment effects. Further, the vast majority of studies exploring differential treatment outcomes use moderation as the primary method for subgroup analyses. However, moderation analyses have several limitations, and there has been a recent call for more person-centered approaches, such as latent profile analysis (LPA), as a more appropriate means of conducting subgroup analyses. The current study aims to advance the understanding of usual care by determining if some subgroups of youth, identified through LPA, are better served by specific types of usual care. The current study utilized 953 parent-reports and 553 youth-reports of youth emotional and behavioral symptoms across multiple time points, as well as archival records of usual care services received at a local community mental health center (CMH). Symptoms and demographic data collected at intake were used in a LPA to identify subgroups of youth arriving for treatment. Subgroup differences in treatment outcomes were then explored across the array of usual care services. Results indicated that usual care services were related to a significant reduction in symptom severity across time, and that there were differences in the relation between usual care services and outcomes across subgroups. These results suggest that different subgroups of youth respond differently to certain types of usual care services. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

Committee:

Carolyn Tompsett, Ph.D. (Advisor); Raymond Swisher, Ph.D. (Other); Eric Dubow, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Russell Matthews, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

treatment outcome; latent profile analysis; person-centered approach; usual care; comparative effectiveness

Normann, Andrew JArt is Not a Crime: Hip-Hop, Urban Geography, and Political Imaginaries in Detroit
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Music Ethnomusicology
This thesis examines the relationship between hip-hop culture, urban geography, and politics in Detroit, Michigan. I begin by discussing the work of the hip-hop music and arts collective the Raiz Up collective from Southwest Detroit. After discussing the political situation out of which this group of artists emerged, I describe how the Raiz Up works in their community to mediate the spatial antagonisms spawned by the city’s urban development policies. Specifically, I argue that the work of this collective articulates the structural interconnections of issues separated by space and time. Next, I write about visual artist Tyree Guyton’s neighborhood installation the Heidelberg Project and the hip hop and theater group Complex Movements’ piece “Beware of the Dandelions.” My analysis of these two pieces frames them as critical aesthetic and political interventions into urban design itself. Additionally, I argue that these pieces gesture towards alternative political possibilities regarding urban spatial organization. Finally, I analyze the track “Detroit vs. Everybody” by a variety of Detroit hip-hop artists and the work of rapper Danny Brown. My discussion of these songs emphasizes the extent to which they critique media narratives of Detroit’s “revitalization.” Additionally, I suggest that these tracks articulate the precarity that characterizes marginalized subjects’ movements through space.

Committee:

Sidra Lawrence, PhD (Advisor); Katherine Meizel, PhD (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Hip-Hop, Aesthetics; African-American Studies; Political Economy; Neoliberalism; Geography; Critical Geography

Razgoniaev, AntonDesign, synthesis, and characterization of photoresponsive materials using coordination bonds and other supramolecular interactions
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Photochemical Sciences
When designing light-responsive, healable materials and adhesives, these materials need to include controllable reversible, bonding interactions. Such dynamic interactions are difficult to control, however. In this work, we present how these interactions can be controlled by incorporating photoactive metal ions into supramolecular polymer network what allow the tuning of optical and mechanical properties of the polymers with light. Utilizing this approach, we created a series of supramolecular polymer melts and studied their mechanical and photo physical properties. We have shown that the photochemistry and photophysical properties of the metal center can be used to control the mechanical properties of the materials, and introduce new optical and mechanical properties not seen in the traditional covalent polymers. In particular, photo-induced metal-ligand bond labilization led to partial depolymerization of the supramolecular assembly, and softening of the materials. When the light stimulus was removed, the material recovered the initial stiffness back. We also investigated structure-property relationships in such systems where mechanical properties of the supramolecular polymers are controlled by coordination environment around metal cross-linking center. We also considered how polymer host matrix impacts on the photophysical and photochemical properties of chromophores that undergo molecular motion in the exited state. In particular, change in excited state dynamics of [Cu(dmp)2]+ can be used to sense viscosity of various polymers. A linear dependence of excited state lifetime and emission wavelength on viscosity was correlated with restricted photoinduced structural distortion of Cu(I) complex in more flow-resistance media.

Committee:

Alexis Ostrowski, Ph.D. (Advisor); Scott Rogers, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alexander Tarnovsky, Ph.D. (Committee Member); R. Marshall Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Materials Science; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Keywords:

Photochemistry; Chemistry; Materials Science; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Walters, ElizabethThe Relationship Between Athletic Training Program Directors Self-Reported Leadership Style and Program Success
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
This dissertation explored the relationship between Athletic Training Program Directors’ (ATPDs) self-reported leadership style and Athletic Training Program (ATP) success. The metrics of determinants of ATP success were derived from data that the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) annual report seeks from all ATPs for continuing accreditation. Forty-six ATPDs from CAATE-accredited Athletic Training Programs (ATPs) completed the survey. Most ATPDs from this sample came from undergraduate ATPs, with a few responsible for graduate degree programs, and even fewer responsible for undergraduate and graduate programs. All ATPD participants completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ; Avolio & Bass, 2004), demographic information, educational history-related questions, years of experience as an ATPD, and other leadership roles/experience. This study established that ATPDs’ self-reported predominant leadership style is transformational in nature. This study demonstrated a statistically significant relationship when examining ATPDs’ self-reported leadership style and ATP success within one of the four ATP success metrics examined: Percent ATS post-graduation employment. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between ATPDs’ self-reported leadership style and percent ATP retention, ATP percent first-time Board of Certification (BOC) pass rate, or percent ATP graduation rate. The lack of significance in three of the four variables likely is due to the small sample of participants. This study was underpowered. Furthermore, additional variables likely should be considered when determining the relationship between ATPD leadership style and ATP success.

Committee:

Chris Willis, EdD (Advisor); Sara Worley, PhD (Other); Debra Ball, EdD (Committee Member); Paul Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Kristina LaVenia, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

Athletic Training Program Directors; Leadership; Program Success

Tuck, Paul TMorning Flight Behavior of Nocturnally Migrating Birds in Relation to a Geographic Obstacle
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
Many bird species that normally migrate during the night have been observed engaging in migratory behaviors during the early morning, a behavior known as morning flight. There has been little formal investigation into the possible purpose this behavior could serve nocturnal migrants. However, the work that has been done seems to indicate that morning flight behavior is a way to compensate for wind drift that the birds have experienced during the night. The purpose of this study is to further explore this hypothesis in a unique geographic context; namely, in the presence of a geographic obstacle. In this study, the orientation of morning flight behavior was observed along the southern shore of Lake Erie. This orientation was then compared to the orientation of nocturnal migration from the previous night. The orientation of the birds engaged in morning flight following nights with drifting winds was then compared with those following non-drifting winds. The prevailing migratory direction was largely to the northwest, following the southern coast of Lake Erie, while the nocturnal migration was primarily north. The morning flight direction did not seem to be related to the direction of nocturnal migration. In addition, the morning flight orientation was not different whether the morning flight was following nights with drifting or non-drifting winds. These results seem to indicate that morning flight might serve additional purposes other than compensation for wind drift, particularly in the presence of geographic barriers.

Committee:

Verner Bingman, Dr. (Advisor); Karen Root, Dr. (Committee Member); Paul Moore, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

bird migration; morning flight; Lake Erie; geographic barrier; wind drift; nocturnal migrants

Osborn, Jacqueline ElizabethLa Traduccion Poetica y su Manifestacion en la poesia caribeña
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Spanish
Por todo nuestro mundo tan globalizado y avanzado tecnologicamente es muy comun encontrarse con la idea y la actitud de que la traduccion es bastante trivial y sencilla, incluso hasta la posibilidad de utilizar traductores electronicos para cualquier tipo de tarea. De verdad, hay ciertos tipos de textos y situaciones que son adecuados para traducciones bien directas, como los manuales y las direcciones; sin embargo, la mayoria no son tan claras y necesitan no solamente la mente humana, pero una medida de lo artistico tambien. Por esa razon, las traducciones, y particularmente las traducciones de la poesia, siempre son muy complicadas y ambiguas, muchas veces sin una sola respuesta correcta, y se ve necesario considerar muchos elementos literarios ademas de personales en los estudios de la traduccion. Entonces, el primer capitulo tratara de esa traduccion tradicional, mientras que la traduccion literaria y poetica se explicara en el segundo capitulo. Por otra parte, hay varias regiones que presentan retos en el proceso de traduccion, incluyendo el Caribe por su cultura hibrida y sus modismos. Con tanto flujo humano, hay que determinar y elegir cuales elementos se aplican en la traduccion segun la situacion, añadiendo mas complejidad en el proceso. Al final, investigare estos fenomenos al traducir tres poetas cada uno de los paises principales caribeños: Cuba, Puerto Rico, y la Republica Dominicana.

Committee:

Francisco Cabanillas (Advisor); Valeria Grinberg Pla (Committee Member); Pedro Porben (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Caribbean Literature

Keywords:

Traduccion de la Poesia; Traduccion; Traduccion Artistica; Traducciones de Wendy Guerra; Traducciones de Rita Indiana Hernandez; Traducciones de Mairym Cruz-Bernal; Poetry Translation; Translation

Rana, Dhan BElectrical transport and photo-induced phenomena in Ga2O3 single crystal
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Physics
Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) is a highly resistive material because of its wide band gap. However, the conductivity of Edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) Ga2O3 crystal increased by three orders of magnitude when doped with Sn and the conductivity decreased when doped with Fe. This work presents the first study of photoconductivity in Ga2O3. It has been carried out on Ga2O3 bulk single crystals grown by Czochralski (CZ) method. Illumination by sub-band gap light of 400 nm led to 5 orders of magnitude persistent photoconductivity and 8 orders of magnitude increase in carrier density. Such levels are higher than any reported photoconductivity in bulk materials. However, photoconductivity was only observed in undoped CZ grown bulk crystals. Fe and Mg doping led to an opposite effect and decrease in conductivity upon illumination. Gamma Induced Positron Spectroscopy (GIPS) and Digital Coincidence Doppler Broadening of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (CDBPAS) measurement was carried to study the defects in the crystal. Both lifetime and S-parameter values indicated that all Ga2O3 single crystals have the same level of defects regardless of the method of growth.

Committee:

Farida Selim, Ph.D. (Advisor); Marco Nardone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alexey Zayak, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physics

Keywords:

Gallium oxide; Transparent semiconducting oxide; Photoconductivity; Persistent photoconductivity; Hall effect, GIPS

Spencer, Malorie IsabellThe Zweigesque in Wes Anderson's “The Grand Budapest Hotel”
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2018, German
This thesis examines the parallels between narrative structures, including frame narratives and narrative construction of identity, as well as poetic and thematic parallels that exist between the writings of Stefan Zweig and the Wes Anderson film, The Grand Budapest Hotel. These parallels are discussed in order to substantiate Anderson’s claim that The Grand Budapest Hotel is a zweigesque film despite the fact that it is not a direct film adaptation of any one Zweig work. Anderson’s adaptations of zweigesque elements show that Zweig’s writings continue to be relevant today. These adaptations demonstrate the intricate ways in which narrative devices can be used to construct stories and reconstruct history. By drawing on thematic and stylistic elements of Zweig’s writings, Anderson’s The Grand Budapest Hotel raises broader questions about both the necessity of narratives and their shortcomings in the construction of identity; Anderson’s characters both rely on and challenge the ways identity is constructed through narrative. This thesis shows how the zweigesque in Anderson’s film is able to challenge how history is viewed and how people conceptualize and relate to their continually changing notions of identity.

Committee:

Edgar Landgraf, PhD (Advisor); Kristie Foell, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Germanic Literature

Dai, ZehuiCaregiving and social support: Feminist health communication approach to understanding doulas in China
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Media and Communication
Doula and doula workers are a group of maternal health care workers. The doula care phenomenon--as it emerges as a viable profession for women in China--reveals nuances and contradictions and lends itself to an examination through a feminist health communication lens and a relational communication perspective. This dissertation project broadly focuses on an examination of the emergence of the doula phenomenon and the role that the doula workers play in the context of struggles for women's autonomy in the contexts of pregnancy and childbirth in China. I look at post-1980s contexts of midwifery--referred to as "doula care" and how it is manifested in China. I conducted in-depth interviews with 16 professional doulas in China to collect data for this project. I examine how Chinese doulas construct multiple identities, in terms of serving as lactation consultants, child care providers, and child care educators for women during pregnancy and childbirth. Chinese doulas develop a close relationship with pregnant women, as sisters and families. Therefore, I suggest that doula support not only has been explored in labor and childbirth, but also has been introduced to women in pregnancy and women in general as a notion of respectful maternal health care. The provision of doulas' support to Chinese pregnant women and expectant mothers constructs a space outside of mainstream Chinese medical and hospital-based health care settings.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala, Dr. (Advisor); Alberto Gonzalez, Dr. (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, Dr. (Committee Member); Lynne Hewitt, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Health Care; Womens Studies

Keywords:

health communication; doula care; Chinese women; feminism; maternal health care

Abadi, LayalCollege Students' Spiritual Resources and Struggles in Coping with Intimate Partner Verbal Aggression: A Longitudinal Study
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Psychology/Clinical
To my knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study to examine how college students’ use of religious/spiritual strategies to cope with being the target of verbal aggression by a romantic partner may change the frequency of verbal aggression by both partners over the following year and contribute to whether the couple split up or stayed together. Predictor variables included religious/spiritual resources to cope effectively with partner aggression as well as religious/spiritual struggles in response to being the target of verbal hostility by a partner. The sample was comprised of 60 college students who indicated at Time 1 (T1) that that they were in a current romantic relationship were they had been the target of at least once incident of verbal aggression from a romantic partner in the prior year and who then completed measures one year later at Time 2 (T2; 21% retention rate of eligible participants). At both T1 and T2, participants reported the frequency of verbal aggression by both partners and whether the relationship was intact. Correlational analyses did not yield any significant links between religious/spiritual strategies to cope with verbal aggression by the partner at T1 and subsequent verbal aggression by either partner or relationship status. Possible reasons for the non-significant results could be the very low base rates of verbal aggression among couples in this sample and low levels of religious coping. Follow-up analyses indicated that subjects who participated in both waves of data collection reported attending more religious services and praying more often, but utilizing collaborative R/S coping mechanisms less often at T1 to deal with verbal aggression from their partner compared to T1 subjects who did not participate in T2 data collection .

Committee:

Annette Mahoney, PhD (Advisor); Stephen Demuth, PhD (Other); Kenneth Pargament, PhD (Committee Member); Anne Gordon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Religious Coping; Spiritual Coping; Intimate Partner Violence; College Students; Depression; Anxiety

Kujjo, Keji CInvisible Scholars: Racialized Students from Immigrant Backgrounds in Honors Programs
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Cross-Cultural, International Education
ABSTRACT Dr. Christopher Frey, Advisor The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the diverse academic and social experiences of first-generation college students of color from immigrant backgrounds in honors programs. Data from for this research were collected from semi-structured, one-on-one interview sessions with interested students. The findings and implications can educate institutions and offer valuable feedback for recruitment and retention. The recommendations could also be used to increase educational support for minority students in honors programs. This study thesis sought to address the following research questions and sub-questions: 1) What are the academic and social experiences of first-generation, immigrant and/or refugee students of color in honors colleges? a) How do they describe their experiences? b) How and why do they join an honors program? c) What precollege experiences are most influential in their preparation for the honors college and persistence? d) What challenges do they face in honors? How do they cope with these challenges? 2) How do these students develop a sense of belonging in the Honors College? a) What makes them fit into the honors program? b) Why do they stay in the Honors College? c) What issues of belonging do they experience in the honors college? How do they respond to these issues? Keywords: immigrants, minority students, Honors College, honors program, first-generation

Committee:

Christopher Frey, PhD (Advisor); Sherri Horner, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Krueger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

immigrants; minority students; Honors College; honors programs; first-generation

Haman, John TThe energy goodness-of-fit test and E-M type estimator for asymmetric Laplace distributions
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Statistics
Recently the asymmetric Laplace distribution and its extensions have gained attention in the statistical literature. This may be due to its relatively simple form and its ability to model skewness and outliers. For these reasons, the asymmetric Laplace distribution is a reasonable candidate model for certain data that arise in finance, biology, engineering, and other disciplines. For a practitioner that wishes to use this distribution, it is very important to check the validity of the model before making inferences that depend on the model. These types of questions are traditionally addressed by goodness-of-fit tests in the statistical literature. In this dissertation, a new goodness-of-fit test is proposed based on energy statistics, a widely applicable class of statistics for which one application is goodness-of-fit testing. The energy goodness-of-fit test has a number of desirable properties. It is consistent against general alternatives. If the null hypothesis is true, the distribution of the test statistic converges in distribution to an infinite, weighted sum of Chi-square random variables. In addition, we find through simulation that the energy test is among the most powerful tests for the asymmetric Laplace distribution in the scenarios considered. In studying this statistic, we found that the current methods for parameter estimation of this distribution were lacking, and proposed a new method to calculate the maximum likelihood estimates of the multivariate asymmetric Laplace distribution through the expectation-maximization (E-M) algorithm. Our proposed E-M algorithm has a fast computational formula and often yields parameter estimates with a smaller mean squared error than other estimators.

Committee:

Maria Rizzo, Ph.D. (Advisor); Craig Zirbel, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wei Ning, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joseph Chao, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Statistics

Keywords:

asymmetric Laplace; multivariate Laplace; EM algorithm; goodness-of-fit

Rae, Rebecca CMeasures of Voice Onset Time: A Methodological Study
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Communication Disorders
The current investigation aimed to compare four different measurement approaches for the determination of voice onset time for the six English stop consonants, where VOT is defined as the "burst to onset of phonation". The signals of interest were the wideband airflow, microphone, electroglottograph, and the spectrographic display. A primary question was whether the use of the wideband airflow signal results in shorter VOT measurements. Two adult males and two adult females produced "CV-the-CV" utterances (e.g.,"pa the pa") containing the six English stop consonants across two conditions, habitual vs. clear speech. Visual measurements were from the burst to the initial detection of phonation (IDP). The wideband airflow gave the shortest VOT measures. For habitual speech and for the voiceless stop consonants, the airflow signal revealed glottal airflow oscillations on average of 1.7 ms sooner than the microphone signal, 8.1 ms sooner than the EGG signal, and 13.6 ms sooner than spectrographic formant detection. The VOT differences between the airflow and microphone signals were not significant. For voiced stop consonants, the airflow signal typically also gave similar values of VOT as the microphone signal, and on average 6 ms sooner than the formant excitation and 5 ms sooner than the electroglottograph signal. The study emphasizes the finding that the initial detection of phonation often appears earlier after the consonant burst for the wideband airflow and microphone signals in comparison to the electroglottograph and spectrographic signals.

Committee:

Ronald Scherer, PhD (Advisor); Jason Whitfield, PhD (Committee Member); Brent Archer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physiology; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

voice onset time; VOT; stop consonants; measurement approach; methodology; airflow; wideband airflow; aerodynamic measures;electroglottography; spectrogram; oscillogram; micophone signal

Gardiner, Christopher JamesQuasiconformal maps on a 2-step Carnot group
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Mathematics
In this paper, we find all the quasiconformal maps on a particular non-rigid 2-step Carnot group. In particular, all quasiconformal maps on this Carnot group preserve the vertical direction. Given that a Carnot group is a Lie algebra with a group structure, we employ concepts from linear algebra and abstract algebra to gain information about the group. Utilizing the theory of Pansu differentiability along with the biLipschitz nature of quasisymmetric maps, we use an analytical approach to help determine the form of any quasiconformal map on the Carnot group. The main result has consequences for the rigidity of quasiisometries of negatively curved solvable Lie groups.

Committee:

Xiangdong Xie (Advisor); Kit Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics

Keywords:

Algebra; Linear algebra; Analysis; Calculus; Lie algebra; Carnot group; Quasiconformal; Quasisymmetric; biLipschitz; Pansu differentiability; graded isomorphism

Reeder, Kory RayThe Location of Lines
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Music Composition
The Location of Lines is a nine-minute work for orchestra theoretically and structurally based the piece on the wall murals of Sol LeWitt. The piece follows the standard orchestral arrangement, with three each: flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, trumpets, and trombones; four horns; one tuba; three percussion parts playing various instruments each; harp; piano; timpani; and strings in divisi throughout. Using LeWitt’s work as inspiration, The Location of Lines explores ideas of perception, structure, and texture from a sonic perspective with musical elements, such as harmony, rhythm, and melody abstractly sonifying LeWitt’s technique. Taking LeWitt’s 1995 Wall Drawing 797 as an example, The Location of Lines was written with a single initial melodic line that fluctuates across the mid-treble register on a horizontal plane (through time), yet is vertically (or harmonically) self-referencing. Background material in the piece supports the initial line by sustaining pitches for greater durations in various octaves, thereby further blurring harmonic movement of the material in the foreground, expanding the frequency content, establishing invariance relationships, and creating a rather seamless kaleidoscopic shifting of color. Further, this line, as well as the accompaniment, is exchanged and redistributed throughout the ensemble.

Committee:

Elainie Lillios, Dr. (Advisor); Mikel Kuehn, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

orchestra; symphony orchestra; full orchestra; painting; LeWitt; Sol; mural; music theory

Contat, Bradley D.Ethical Principal Leadership Through Acts of Virtue: A Phenomenology
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
This study addressed the lack of emphasis and understanding related to the benefits of the practice of ethical principal leadership. The purpose of this study, to address the noted problem, was to explore the practice of principal ethical leadership through acts of virtue and was viewed through the Framework of Foundational Virtues of Educational Leadership: consisting of the virtues of responsibility, authenticity, and presence (Starratt, 2004). This phenomenological study consisted of interviewing six principals in Northwest Ohio. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and written personal codes of ethics. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed in conjunction with other noted forms of data. This data produced the essence of the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue via the following five themes: the virtue of responsibility, the virtue of authenticity, the virtue of presence, the virtue of perseverance, and student centrality. The identified essence and themes of the study provide a greater understanding of, and benefits related to, the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue. Also, this study expands the literature related to ethical leadership and principal leadership by identifying practical and theoretical implications that impact both areas of leadership.

Committee:

Paul Willis, EdD (Advisor); Salim Elwazani , PhD (Other); Tracy Huziak-Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin Pfefferle, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Ethics

Keywords:

leadership; ethical leadership; transformational leadership; educational leadership; ethics; virtue; responsibility; authenticity; presence; perseverance; student centrality; education; principal; phenomenology; 21st century

Neudeck, Michelle JoanTolerance of Planktothrix agardhii to nitrogen depletion
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
Sandusky Bay is plagued by recurrent cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs). A persistent bloom occurred in 2015 from June into October even though the levels of nitrogen dropped to near undetectable levels due to high rates of both assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Planktothrix agardhii is the main organism of the cHABs despite being non-diazotrophic. This cyanobacterium produces microcystin, a hepatotoxin. The Sandusky Bay waters were sampled every two weeks. RNA was extracted from the samples and sequenced. The metatranscriptomes were analyzed for genes pertaining to nitrogen storage and retrieval. P. agardhii stores N as cyanophycin, a polymer of arginine and aspartic acid. This is produced by cyanophycin synthetase which is encoded by cphA. P. agardhii has two paralogs of this gene. cphA is associated with cphB, the gene that encodes cyanophycinase that hydrolyzes cyanophycin into arginine-aspartic acid dimers. cphA' is monocistronic. N was replete from June until mid-July, while the discharge of the Sandusky River was high, cphA' was transcribed at this time. When the N levels dropped to 0, cphB and cphA were transcribed. Degradation of the phycobilisome is another source of N that can be scavenged by P. agardhii. A small protein that triggers the degradation of the phycobilisome is encoded by nblA. The transcripts from P. agardhii demonstrated that nblA was not transcribed until after cphB was transcribed. This indicated that P. agardhii utilized the N stores of cyanophycin before utilizing the N sequestered in the phycobilisome. The Sandusky Bay was turbid throughout the sampling season which is ideal for low light tolerant Planktothrix. The transcripts of hliA, which encodes for a protein that protects the photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damage, was almost continuously present in the samples.

Committee:

George Bullerjahn, Ph.D (Advisor); R. Michael McKay, Ph.D (Committee Member); Paul Morris, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Microbiology

Keywords:

cyanophycin; phycobilisome; Planktothrix agardhii; nitrogen stress; highlight stress

Yadav, PoojaQuantitative Analysis of Microbial Species in a Metagenome Based on Their Signature Sequences
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
ABSTRACT Xu, Zhaohui, Advisor McKay, Robert Roy, Sankardas Shotgun metagenomics has provided a relatively new and powerful approach to study the environmental samples to characterize the microbial communities in contrast to pure cultures by conventional techniques. To determine the microbial diversity and to understand the role of microbes in the ecosystem, quantitative studies are important whose values are comparable across different studies and samples. We have developed a statistical approach to microbial profiling which encompasses quantitative characterization and comparison of relative abundance of the microbes in a metagenome sample based on their signature sequences (unique k-mers). We demonstrated the utility of this approach by characterizing and quantifying the relative abundance of the microbes in 4 different simulated metagenome samples (Comp_25, Comp_50, Comp_75, and Comp_100). The suffix of simulated metagenome name represents the gene content percentage of reporter species in the simulated metagenomes. The analysis of simulated metagenomes for data volume 6e9 and 6e10 furnish the information about the abundance of species by identifying the unique k-mers (signature sequences) of the six reporter species B. licheniformis, L. brevis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, P. ananatis, and P. vagans. Our developed approach has efficiently identified the abundance of 4 reporter species i.e. B. licheniformis, L. brevis, L. fermentum, P. ananatis whereas 2 species L. plantarum and P. vagans were overestimated in the simulated metagenomes. So, application of advanced statistics, refinement of the algorithm, and an increase in data volume would be our next steps to improve the accuracy of our approach to estimate the ratio of species of a metagenome.

Committee:

Zhaohui Xu (Advisor); Robert McKay (Committee Member); Sankardas Roy (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Metagenomics; Genomic signature sequences; Quantitative analysis

Russell, Jamie LBehavior of Sympatric Young-of-the-Year Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and Invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the Presence of a Potential Predator
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
At the species-interaction level, invasive species can change the behavior, and ultimately the survival of certain native species. Notably, the invasion of the Great Lakes by the Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the early 1990s has raised questions regarding the impact they have on native Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), which occupy the same habitat. Round Gobies (RG) are known to aggressively evict young Smallmouth Bass (SMB) from shelter habitats and epibenthic substrate, which could lead to reduced growth, increased predation risk, and ultimately, population decline. I quantified the behavior of young SMB, in terms of shelter use, in the presence of invasive Round Gobies in comparison to native Logperch (Percina caprodes) (LP) with a replicated experiment set up in small pools with PVC pipe shelters. Time spent in shelter was measured using video footage. In the presence of Round Gobies, with or without a predator present, SMB spent little to no time in the shelter (0.019 and 10.09 percent, respectively). An increase in shelter use by the SMB occurred in the presence of LP and when in the presence of a predator and no other species. SMB were unable to remain in the shelter in the presence of Round Gobies because they were aggressively evicted, which is an indication that behavior of young-of-the-year Smallmouth Bass is negatively affected in the presence of Round gobies.

Committee:

Jeffrey Miner, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Wiegmann, Dr. (Committee Member); Christopher Winslow, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biology

Keywords:

Smallmouth bass; Round goby; Logperch; Great Lakes

Penzinski, Kyle RomanNot Another Fishing Tale: Lake Erie's Story of Eutrophication, Remediation, and the Current Struggle for Life
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2018, History
Lake Erie. One of the most influential bodies of water in The United States is dying. It has a history of struggle, and it continues this very day. Whether the failings are due to pollution, agricultural run-off, or an invasive alien entity, Lake Erie is besieged by human based effects. In this project, the chapters run chronologically through the most recent history of remediation and issues at hand. It starts off with discussion on the role of industrialization and the increase of the agricultural sector. The project then makes its way into the discussion of Lake Erie’s remediation. Lastly, the current issues of the present are addressed. The project discusses what has been, what is, and what could be, in the scope of Lake Erie’s life.

Committee:

Amilcar Challu (Advisor); Michael Brooks (Committee Member); Nathan Hensley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Studies; History

Keywords:

Eutrophication; Remediation; Lake Erie; Environmental History; Sustainability

Rodriguez-Klein, TatianaAcceptance and Commitment Therapy for Latinos Living with HIV/AIDS: A Pilot Randomized Control Outcome Study
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Psychology/Clinical
HIV/AIDS continues to be a problematic disease that affects all ethnic groups. Latinos are likely to experience challenges associated with poor quality of life, HIV stigma, language, and cultural barriers. Latinos are also at risk of experiencing multi-layered stigma. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been associated with improved health outcomes among diverse medical and psychiatric populations, including HIV. However, the potential benefits of a mindfulness based intervention have not been explored among Latinos with HIV. The primary goal of this study was to develop and empirically evaluate a brief ACT protocol tailored to HIV-positive Latino individuals living on the U.S./Mexico border with the goal of improving quality of life and reducing HIV stigma. Two separate sets of data are presented. Study 1 evaluated cross-sectional data on measures of acceptance, cognitive fusion, quality of life, viral load, and language among HIV-positive Latinos. Study 2 evaluated the feasibility of a one-day, three-hour ACT group to improve quality of life and reduce HIV stigma. There were three primary hypotheses for this study: a) acceptance would be positively associated with quality of life and lower HIV stigma and viral load; b) cognitive defusion would be positively associated with quality of life and lower reports of HIV stigma and viral load; and c) participants in the ACT group would report improved quality of life and reduced HIV stigma at posttreatment and follow-up assessments compared to pretreatment assessment and to participants attending an HIV education group. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted to evaluate associations among all study variables. Repeated measures ANOVA, nonparametric analyses, and single-subject analyses were conducted to evaluate treatment outcome data. Results were mixed and provide only partial support for study hypotheses. The ACT intervention was not helpful in reducing reports of HIV stigma or improving quality of life. Results from correlational analyses indicate that acceptance, mindfulness, and cognitive defusion were associated with better quality of life and reduced HIV stigma. Language was associated with higher quality of life and viral load, suggesting that low acculturation can be a protective factor for Latinos. Clinical implications and interpretation are discussed.

Committee:

William O'Brien, Dr. (Committee Chair); Eric Dubow, Dr. (Committee Member); Howard Cromwell, Dr. (Committee Member); George Bullerjahn, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

HIV; AIDS; Latinos; ACT; acceptance; mindfulness; cognitive defusion; HIV stigma; quality of life; acculturation

McKersie, SaraSo You've Had the 'Ah Ha' Moment, Now What? Sustaining Organizational Creativity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
This dissertation addressed two key areas within the creativity literature: how we conceptualize and subsequently measure creativity and how creativity is (or is not) sustained over time. Data was collected at three time points from 394 full-time employees using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Results indicated that incremental creativity and radical creativity are two distinct constructs and can both be sustained over time. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was found to have a reciprocal positive relationship with both incremental and radical creativity over time. Results also indicated that employees who participate in incremental creativity may experience creativity fatigue, however creativity fatigue is not related to a reduction in incremental creativity in the future. These results provide support for measuring creativity from a more specific lens, and provide a foundation for researchers to continue to explore the contextual and individual factors that affect creativity over time. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.

Committee:

Russell Matthews, PhD (Advisor); Dawn Anderson, PhD (Committee Member); Clare Barratt , PhD (Committee Member); Carolyn Tompsett, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

psychology; creativity; over time; incremental; radical

Horton, MichaelHow Texas Discovered Columbus
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
This project examines the Columbus legacy in U.S. history textbooks used in Texas from 1919 to 2017. This study argues that the traditional and glorified interpretation of the life of Columbus dominated his coverage in U.S. history textbooks adopted for use in junior high and high school classes in Texas during the twentieth century. The wave of scholarly criticisms of Columbus at the end of the twentieth century had only sporadic effects on textbooks published at the turn of the century. Inconsistent representations of the new debate over Columbus’ legacy in these textbooks show at best a delayed response and at worst a reluctance to change the traditional story of Columbus as an American hero.

Committee:

Ruth Herndon (Advisor); Amilcar Challu (Committee Member); Kyle Ward (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Education Policy; History; Teaching

Keywords:

Christopher Columbus; History Education; US History; Textbooks; Twentieth Century

Fang, QijuanAttachment, Bullying, and Romantic Relationships in College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Developmental
Some studies have examined the relationships between early attachment and bullying, bullying and romantic relationships, and attachment and romantic relationships. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding how later adverse experiences during adolescence, such as in-person bullying and cyberbullying, combines with early attachment to predict later romantic attachment and romantic relationships. In other words, my dissertation examines how early attachment style during childhood and online and offline bullying experience during adolescence may together affect someone’s later attachment styles and romantic relationships. There are some interesting findings. For instance, the more securely attached someone is to his or her mother in early childhood, and the less they were involved in bullying as an adolescent (regardless of online or offline), the more likely it is for them to be securely attached to their romantic partners later as a young adult. They also trust their romantic partners more and are more satisfied with their relationships. Childhood attachment and adolescent bullying involvement uniquely contributes to later romantic attachment as well as romantic relationship satisfaction. There are also some interaction effects on gender. Detailed differences between inperson bullying and cyberbullying as well as the interactions between predictors were examined.

Committee:

Marie Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); John Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); Carolyn Tompsett (Committee Member); Michael Buerger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Individual and Family Studies; Psychology

Keywords:

Attachment, traditional bullying, cyberbullying, romantic relationships, adolescent, college students

Orchard, Rebecca LEye of the Firmament
Master of Fine Arts (MFA), Bowling Green State University, 2018, English
This thesis is comprised of short fiction ranging from four to eighty pages, inhabiting worlds as familiar to the reader as a suburban home and as alien as a magical, spirit-filled wasteland. I assembled this collection along three key thematic lines, the first being feelings of ambivalent motherhood. Characters in this collection come to terms with their pregnancy or reject it; they leave their families wondering if they should have had children at all; and they live in a liminal space where love is expected of them but not easy to procure. The second thematic concern present in many of these stories is grappling with mythology. In “Ithaca”, a young woman is introduced to a cosmic mythology by her aging employer. In “Investigation No. 5,” a family mythology is investigated as if it holds as much importance as one of the major world religions. Disillusionment with Judeo-Christian mythology is portrayed in “In the Pool,” and “Shoulder, Midrib, Neck” deals with the retelling of a Scottish myth. The final theme running through these stories is that of generational legacy: what a parent bequeaths to their children far beyond physical possessions. How is that legacy corrupted by the actions of the parent? How can a child fit themselves into the world, bearing these often-sordid gifts? Characters struggle with these questions in “Nomads,” “Shoulder, Midrib, Neck,” and the novella that ends the collection, “The Ballad of Baby MacCrae.” The novella is the story where all of these themes come back and braid together. The solitary narrator must grapple with the worldview she’s been indoctrinated into by her aunt: pagan Celtic beliefs, Old Testament Christianity, and blood rituals. This novella concerns how a woman can bring a private mythology into the public world, and how she can make peace with the legacies that have been left to her.

Committee:

Lawrence Coates (Committee Chair); Wendell Mayo (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Fine Arts; Literature

Keywords:

fiction; short story; novella; creative writing; myth; folk tale; short fiction; feminist fiction; ambivalent motherhood; motherhood; mythology; scotland; astronomy;

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