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Bonadio, Francis TonyWho benefits from usual care? Using latent profile analysis to identify differential treatment outcomes
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Clinical
As more treatments are developed to address youth behavioral and emotional problems, an increasing number of studies seek to identify subgroups of youth for whom treatments are more effective. Previous research has shown differential treatment effects when grouping youth based on characteristics such as comorbidity, problem severity, gender, and age. However, the vast majority of this research has been conducted with evidence-based treatments (EBTs), and to date no research has directly examined differential treatment outcomes within usual care. Usual care receives minimal attention in research, and thus little is known about its effects. Additionally, the term usual care can include a variety of services including but not limited to standard outpatient, intensive outpatient, home-based services, and psychiatric services. Given the prevalence of usual care as a form of treatment, it is necessary to further explore its treatment effects. Further, the vast majority of studies exploring differential treatment outcomes use moderation as the primary method for subgroup analyses. However, moderation analyses have several limitations, and there has been a recent call for more person-centered approaches, such as latent profile analysis (LPA), as a more appropriate means of conducting subgroup analyses. The current study aims to advance the understanding of usual care by determining if some subgroups of youth, identified through LPA, are better served by specific types of usual care. The current study utilized 953 parent-reports and 553 youth-reports of youth emotional and behavioral symptoms across multiple time points, as well as archival records of usual care services received at a local community mental health center (CMH). Symptoms and demographic data collected at intake were used in a LPA to identify subgroups of youth arriving for treatment. Subgroup differences in treatment outcomes were then explored across the array of usual care services. Results indicated that usual care services were related to a significant reduction in symptom severity across time, and that there were differences in the relation between usual care services and outcomes across subgroups. These results suggest that different subgroups of youth respond differently to certain types of usual care services. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

Committee:

Carolyn Tompsett, Ph.D. (Advisor); Raymond Swisher, Ph.D. (Other); Eric Dubow, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Russell Matthews, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

treatment outcome; latent profile analysis; person-centered approach; usual care; comparative effectiveness

Normann, Andrew JArt is Not a Crime: Hip-Hop, Urban Geography, and Political Imaginaries in Detroit
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Music Ethnomusicology
This thesis examines the relationship between hip-hop culture, urban geography, and politics in Detroit, Michigan. I begin by discussing the work of the hip-hop music and arts collective the Raiz Up collective from Southwest Detroit. After discussing the political situation out of which this group of artists emerged, I describe how the Raiz Up works in their community to mediate the spatial antagonisms spawned by the city’s urban development policies. Specifically, I argue that the work of this collective articulates the structural interconnections of issues separated by space and time. Next, I write about visual artist Tyree Guyton’s neighborhood installation the Heidelberg Project and the hip hop and theater group Complex Movements’ piece “Beware of the Dandelions.” My analysis of these two pieces frames them as critical aesthetic and political interventions into urban design itself. Additionally, I argue that these pieces gesture towards alternative political possibilities regarding urban spatial organization. Finally, I analyze the track “Detroit vs. Everybody” by a variety of Detroit hip-hop artists and the work of rapper Danny Brown. My discussion of these songs emphasizes the extent to which they critique media narratives of Detroit’s “revitalization.” Additionally, I suggest that these tracks articulate the precarity that characterizes marginalized subjects’ movements through space.

Committee:

Sidra Lawrence, PhD (Advisor); Katherine Meizel, PhD (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Hip-Hop, Aesthetics; African-American Studies; Political Economy; Neoliberalism; Geography; Critical Geography

Razgoniaev, AntonDesign, synthesis, and characterization of photoresponsive materials using coordination bonds and other supramolecular interactions
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Photochemical Sciences
When designing light-responsive, healable materials and adhesives, these materials need to include controllable reversible, bonding interactions. Such dynamic interactions are difficult to control, however. In this work, we present how these interactions can be controlled by incorporating photoactive metal ions into supramolecular polymer network what allow the tuning of optical and mechanical properties of the polymers with light. Utilizing this approach, we created a series of supramolecular polymer melts and studied their mechanical and photo physical properties. We have shown that the photochemistry and photophysical properties of the metal center can be used to control the mechanical properties of the materials, and introduce new optical and mechanical properties not seen in the traditional covalent polymers. In particular, photo-induced metal-ligand bond labilization led to partial depolymerization of the supramolecular assembly, and softening of the materials. When the light stimulus was removed, the material recovered the initial stiffness back. We also investigated structure-property relationships in such systems where mechanical properties of the supramolecular polymers are controlled by coordination environment around metal cross-linking center. We also considered how polymer host matrix impacts on the photophysical and photochemical properties of chromophores that undergo molecular motion in the exited state. In particular, change in excited state dynamics of [Cu(dmp)2]+ can be used to sense viscosity of various polymers. A linear dependence of excited state lifetime and emission wavelength on viscosity was correlated with restricted photoinduced structural distortion of Cu(I) complex in more flow-resistance media.

Committee:

Alexis Ostrowski, Ph.D. (Advisor); Scott Rogers, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alexander Tarnovsky, Ph.D. (Committee Member); R. Marshall Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Materials Science; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Keywords:

Photochemistry; Chemistry; Materials Science; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Walters, ElizabethThe Relationship Between Athletic Training Program Directors Self-Reported Leadership Style and Program Success
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
This dissertation explored the relationship between Athletic Training Program Directors’ (ATPDs) self-reported leadership style and Athletic Training Program (ATP) success. The metrics of determinants of ATP success were derived from data that the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE) annual report seeks from all ATPs for continuing accreditation. Forty-six ATPDs from CAATE-accredited Athletic Training Programs (ATPs) completed the survey. Most ATPDs from this sample came from undergraduate ATPs, with a few responsible for graduate degree programs, and even fewer responsible for undergraduate and graduate programs. All ATPD participants completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ; Avolio & Bass, 2004), demographic information, educational history-related questions, years of experience as an ATPD, and other leadership roles/experience. This study established that ATPDs’ self-reported predominant leadership style is transformational in nature. This study demonstrated a statistically significant relationship when examining ATPDs’ self-reported leadership style and ATP success within one of the four ATP success metrics examined: Percent ATS post-graduation employment. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between ATPDs’ self-reported leadership style and percent ATP retention, ATP percent first-time Board of Certification (BOC) pass rate, or percent ATP graduation rate. The lack of significance in three of the four variables likely is due to the small sample of participants. This study was underpowered. Furthermore, additional variables likely should be considered when determining the relationship between ATPD leadership style and ATP success.

Committee:

Chris Willis, EdD (Advisor); Sara Worley, PhD (Other); Debra Ball, EdD (Committee Member); Paul Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Kristina LaVenia, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

Athletic Training Program Directors; Leadership; Program Success

Tuck, Paul TMorning Flight Behavior of Nocturnally Migrating Birds in Relation to a Geographic Obstacle
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
Many bird species that normally migrate during the night have been observed engaging in migratory behaviors during the early morning, a behavior known as morning flight. There has been little formal investigation into the possible purpose this behavior could serve nocturnal migrants. However, the work that has been done seems to indicate that morning flight behavior is a way to compensate for wind drift that the birds have experienced during the night. The purpose of this study is to further explore this hypothesis in a unique geographic context; namely, in the presence of a geographic obstacle. In this study, the orientation of morning flight behavior was observed along the southern shore of Lake Erie. This orientation was then compared to the orientation of nocturnal migration from the previous night. The orientation of the birds engaged in morning flight following nights with drifting winds was then compared with those following non-drifting winds. The prevailing migratory direction was largely to the northwest, following the southern coast of Lake Erie, while the nocturnal migration was primarily north. The morning flight direction did not seem to be related to the direction of nocturnal migration. In addition, the morning flight orientation was not different whether the morning flight was following nights with drifting or non-drifting winds. These results seem to indicate that morning flight might serve additional purposes other than compensation for wind drift, particularly in the presence of geographic barriers.

Committee:

Verner Bingman, Dr. (Advisor); Karen Root, Dr. (Committee Member); Paul Moore, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

bird migration; morning flight; Lake Erie; geographic barrier; wind drift; nocturnal migrants

Kujjo, Keji CInvisible Scholars: Racialized Students from Immigrant Backgrounds in Honors Programs
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Cross-Cultural, International Education
ABSTRACT Dr. Christopher Frey, Advisor The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the diverse academic and social experiences of first-generation college students of color from immigrant backgrounds in honors programs. Data from for this research were collected from semi-structured, one-on-one interview sessions with interested students. The findings and implications can educate institutions and offer valuable feedback for recruitment and retention. The recommendations could also be used to increase educational support for minority students in honors programs. This study thesis sought to address the following research questions and sub-questions: 1) What are the academic and social experiences of first-generation, immigrant and/or refugee students of color in honors colleges? a) How do they describe their experiences? b) How and why do they join an honors program? c) What precollege experiences are most influential in their preparation for the honors college and persistence? d) What challenges do they face in honors? How do they cope with these challenges? 2) How do these students develop a sense of belonging in the Honors College? a) What makes them fit into the honors program? b) Why do they stay in the Honors College? c) What issues of belonging do they experience in the honors college? How do they respond to these issues? Keywords: immigrants, minority students, Honors College, honors program, first-generation

Committee:

Christopher Frey, PhD (Advisor); Sherri Horner, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Krueger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

immigrants; minority students; Honors College; honors programs; first-generation

Rae, Rebecca CMeasures of Voice Onset Time: A Methodological Study
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Communication Disorders
The current investigation aimed to compare four different measurement approaches for the determination of voice onset time for the six English stop consonants, where VOT is defined as the "burst to onset of phonation". The signals of interest were the wideband airflow, microphone, electroglottograph, and the spectrographic display. A primary question was whether the use of the wideband airflow signal results in shorter VOT measurements. Two adult males and two adult females produced "CV-the-CV" utterances (e.g.,"pa the pa") containing the six English stop consonants across two conditions, habitual vs. clear speech. Visual measurements were from the burst to the initial detection of phonation (IDP). The wideband airflow gave the shortest VOT measures. For habitual speech and for the voiceless stop consonants, the airflow signal revealed glottal airflow oscillations on average of 1.7 ms sooner than the microphone signal, 8.1 ms sooner than the EGG signal, and 13.6 ms sooner than spectrographic formant detection. The VOT differences between the airflow and microphone signals were not significant. For voiced stop consonants, the airflow signal typically also gave similar values of VOT as the microphone signal, and on average 6 ms sooner than the formant excitation and 5 ms sooner than the electroglottograph signal. The study emphasizes the finding that the initial detection of phonation often appears earlier after the consonant burst for the wideband airflow and microphone signals in comparison to the electroglottograph and spectrographic signals.

Committee:

Ronald Scherer, PhD (Advisor); Jason Whitfield, PhD (Committee Member); Brent Archer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physiology; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

voice onset time; VOT; stop consonants; measurement approach; methodology; airflow; wideband airflow; aerodynamic measures;electroglottography; spectrogram; oscillogram; micophone signal

Gardiner, Christopher JamesQuasiconformal maps on a 2-step Carnot group
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Mathematics
In this paper, we find all the quasiconformal maps on a particular non-rigid 2-step Carnot group. In particular, all quasiconformal maps on this Carnot group preserve the vertical direction. Given that a Carnot group is a Lie algebra with a group structure, we employ concepts from linear algebra and abstract algebra to gain information about the group. Utilizing the theory of Pansu differentiability along with the biLipschitz nature of quasisymmetric maps, we use an analytical approach to help determine the form of any quasiconformal map on the Carnot group. The main result has consequences for the rigidity of quasiisometries of negatively curved solvable Lie groups.

Committee:

Xiangdong Xie (Advisor); Kit Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics

Keywords:

Algebra; Linear algebra; Analysis; Calculus; Lie algebra; Carnot group; Quasiconformal; Quasisymmetric; biLipschitz; Pansu differentiability; graded isomorphism

Reeder, Kory RayThe Location of Lines
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Music Composition
The Location of Lines is a nine-minute work for orchestra theoretically and structurally based the piece on the wall murals of Sol LeWitt. The piece follows the standard orchestral arrangement, with three each: flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, trumpets, and trombones; four horns; one tuba; three percussion parts playing various instruments each; harp; piano; timpani; and strings in divisi throughout. Using LeWitt’s work as inspiration, The Location of Lines explores ideas of perception, structure, and texture from a sonic perspective with musical elements, such as harmony, rhythm, and melody abstractly sonifying LeWitt’s technique. Taking LeWitt’s 1995 Wall Drawing 797 as an example, The Location of Lines was written with a single initial melodic line that fluctuates across the mid-treble register on a horizontal plane (through time), yet is vertically (or harmonically) self-referencing. Background material in the piece supports the initial line by sustaining pitches for greater durations in various octaves, thereby further blurring harmonic movement of the material in the foreground, expanding the frequency content, establishing invariance relationships, and creating a rather seamless kaleidoscopic shifting of color. Further, this line, as well as the accompaniment, is exchanged and redistributed throughout the ensemble.

Committee:

Elainie Lillios, Dr. (Advisor); Mikel Kuehn, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

orchestra; symphony orchestra; full orchestra; painting; LeWitt; Sol; mural; music theory

Contat, Bradley D.Ethical Principal Leadership Through Acts of Virtue: A Phenomenology
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
This study addressed the lack of emphasis and understanding related to the benefits of the practice of ethical principal leadership. The purpose of this study, to address the noted problem, was to explore the practice of principal ethical leadership through acts of virtue and was viewed through the Framework of Foundational Virtues of Educational Leadership: consisting of the virtues of responsibility, authenticity, and presence (Starratt, 2004). This phenomenological study consisted of interviewing six principals in Northwest Ohio. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and written personal codes of ethics. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed in conjunction with other noted forms of data. This data produced the essence of the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue via the following five themes: the virtue of responsibility, the virtue of authenticity, the virtue of presence, the virtue of perseverance, and student centrality. The identified essence and themes of the study provide a greater understanding of, and benefits related to, the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue. Also, this study expands the literature related to ethical leadership and principal leadership by identifying practical and theoretical implications that impact both areas of leadership.

Committee:

Paul Willis, EdD (Advisor); Salim Elwazani , PhD (Other); Tracy Huziak-Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin Pfefferle, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Ethics

Keywords:

leadership; ethical leadership; transformational leadership; educational leadership; ethics; virtue; responsibility; authenticity; presence; perseverance; student centrality; education; principal; phenomenology; 21st century

Neudeck, Michelle JoanTolerance of Planktothrix agardhii to nitrogen depletion
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
Sandusky Bay is plagued by recurrent cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs). A persistent bloom occurred in 2015 from June into October even though the levels of nitrogen dropped to near undetectable levels due to high rates of both assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Planktothrix agardhii is the main organism of the cHABs despite being non-diazotrophic. This cyanobacterium produces microcystin, a hepatotoxin. The Sandusky Bay waters were sampled every two weeks. RNA was extracted from the samples and sequenced. The metatranscriptomes were analyzed for genes pertaining to nitrogen storage and retrieval. P. agardhii stores N as cyanophycin, a polymer of arginine and aspartic acid. This is produced by cyanophycin synthetase which is encoded by cphA. P. agardhii has two paralogs of this gene. cphA is associated with cphB, the gene that encodes cyanophycinase that hydrolyzes cyanophycin into arginine-aspartic acid dimers. cphA' is monocistronic. N was replete from June until mid-July, while the discharge of the Sandusky River was high, cphA' was transcribed at this time. When the N levels dropped to 0, cphB and cphA were transcribed. Degradation of the phycobilisome is another source of N that can be scavenged by P. agardhii. A small protein that triggers the degradation of the phycobilisome is encoded by nblA. The transcripts from P. agardhii demonstrated that nblA was not transcribed until after cphB was transcribed. This indicated that P. agardhii utilized the N stores of cyanophycin before utilizing the N sequestered in the phycobilisome. The Sandusky Bay was turbid throughout the sampling season which is ideal for low light tolerant Planktothrix. The transcripts of hliA, which encodes for a protein that protects the photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damage, was almost continuously present in the samples.

Committee:

George Bullerjahn, Ph.D (Advisor); R. Michael McKay, Ph.D (Committee Member); Paul Morris, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Microbiology

Keywords:

cyanophycin; phycobilisome; Planktothrix agardhii; nitrogen stress; highlight stress

Yadav, PoojaQuantitative Analysis of Microbial Species in a Metagenome Based on Their Signature Sequences
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
ABSTRACT Xu, Zhaohui, Advisor McKay, Robert Roy, Sankardas Shotgun metagenomics has provided a relatively new and powerful approach to study the environmental samples to characterize the microbial communities in contrast to pure cultures by conventional techniques. To determine the microbial diversity and to understand the role of microbes in the ecosystem, quantitative studies are important whose values are comparable across different studies and samples. We have developed a statistical approach to microbial profiling which encompasses quantitative characterization and comparison of relative abundance of the microbes in a metagenome sample based on their signature sequences (unique k-mers). We demonstrated the utility of this approach by characterizing and quantifying the relative abundance of the microbes in 4 different simulated metagenome samples (Comp_25, Comp_50, Comp_75, and Comp_100). The suffix of simulated metagenome name represents the gene content percentage of reporter species in the simulated metagenomes. The analysis of simulated metagenomes for data volume 6e9 and 6e10 furnish the information about the abundance of species by identifying the unique k-mers (signature sequences) of the six reporter species B. licheniformis, L. brevis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, P. ananatis, and P. vagans. Our developed approach has efficiently identified the abundance of 4 reporter species i.e. B. licheniformis, L. brevis, L. fermentum, P. ananatis whereas 2 species L. plantarum and P. vagans were overestimated in the simulated metagenomes. So, application of advanced statistics, refinement of the algorithm, and an increase in data volume would be our next steps to improve the accuracy of our approach to estimate the ratio of species of a metagenome.

Committee:

Zhaohui Xu (Advisor); Robert McKay (Committee Member); Sankardas Roy (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Metagenomics; Genomic signature sequences; Quantitative analysis

Russell, Jamie LBehavior of Sympatric Young-of-the-Year Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and Invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the Presence of a Potential Predator
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
At the species-interaction level, invasive species can change the behavior, and ultimately the survival of certain native species. Notably, the invasion of the Great Lakes by the Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the early 1990s has raised questions regarding the impact they have on native Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), which occupy the same habitat. Round Gobies (RG) are known to aggressively evict young Smallmouth Bass (SMB) from shelter habitats and epibenthic substrate, which could lead to reduced growth, increased predation risk, and ultimately, population decline. I quantified the behavior of young SMB, in terms of shelter use, in the presence of invasive Round Gobies in comparison to native Logperch (Percina caprodes) (LP) with a replicated experiment set up in small pools with PVC pipe shelters. Time spent in shelter was measured using video footage. In the presence of Round Gobies, with or without a predator present, SMB spent little to no time in the shelter (0.019 and 10.09 percent, respectively). An increase in shelter use by the SMB occurred in the presence of LP and when in the presence of a predator and no other species. SMB were unable to remain in the shelter in the presence of Round Gobies because they were aggressively evicted, which is an indication that behavior of young-of-the-year Smallmouth Bass is negatively affected in the presence of Round gobies.

Committee:

Jeffrey Miner, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Wiegmann, Dr. (Committee Member); Christopher Winslow, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biology

Keywords:

Smallmouth bass; Round goby; Logperch; Great Lakes

McKersie, SaraSo You've Had the 'Ah Ha' Moment, Now What? Sustaining Organizational Creativity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
This dissertation addressed two key areas within the creativity literature: how we conceptualize and subsequently measure creativity and how creativity is (or is not) sustained over time. Data was collected at three time points from 394 full-time employees using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Results indicated that incremental creativity and radical creativity are two distinct constructs and can both be sustained over time. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was found to have a reciprocal positive relationship with both incremental and radical creativity over time. Results also indicated that employees who participate in incremental creativity may experience creativity fatigue, however creativity fatigue is not related to a reduction in incremental creativity in the future. These results provide support for measuring creativity from a more specific lens, and provide a foundation for researchers to continue to explore the contextual and individual factors that affect creativity over time. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.

Committee:

Russell Matthews, PhD (Advisor); Dawn Anderson, PhD (Committee Member); Clare Barratt , PhD (Committee Member); Carolyn Tompsett, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

psychology; creativity; over time; incremental; radical

Horton, MichaelHow Texas Discovered Columbus
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
This project examines the Columbus legacy in U.S. history textbooks used in Texas from 1919 to 2017. This study argues that the traditional and glorified interpretation of the life of Columbus dominated his coverage in U.S. history textbooks adopted for use in junior high and high school classes in Texas during the twentieth century. The wave of scholarly criticisms of Columbus at the end of the twentieth century had only sporadic effects on textbooks published at the turn of the century. Inconsistent representations of the new debate over Columbus’ legacy in these textbooks show at best a delayed response and at worst a reluctance to change the traditional story of Columbus as an American hero.

Committee:

Ruth Herndon (Advisor); Amilcar Challu (Committee Member); Kyle Ward (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Education Policy; History; Teaching

Keywords:

Christopher Columbus; History Education; US History; Textbooks; Twentieth Century

Fang, QijuanAttachment, Bullying, and Romantic Relationships in College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Developmental
Some studies have examined the relationships between early attachment and bullying, bullying and romantic relationships, and attachment and romantic relationships. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding how later adverse experiences during adolescence, such as in-person bullying and cyberbullying, combines with early attachment to predict later romantic attachment and romantic relationships. In other words, my dissertation examines how early attachment style during childhood and online and offline bullying experience during adolescence may together affect someone’s later attachment styles and romantic relationships. There are some interesting findings. For instance, the more securely attached someone is to his or her mother in early childhood, and the less they were involved in bullying as an adolescent (regardless of online or offline), the more likely it is for them to be securely attached to their romantic partners later as a young adult. They also trust their romantic partners more and are more satisfied with their relationships. Childhood attachment and adolescent bullying involvement uniquely contributes to later romantic attachment as well as romantic relationship satisfaction. There are also some interaction effects on gender. Detailed differences between inperson bullying and cyberbullying as well as the interactions between predictors were examined.

Committee:

Marie Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); John Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); Carolyn Tompsett (Committee Member); Michael Buerger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Individual and Family Studies; Psychology

Keywords:

Attachment, traditional bullying, cyberbullying, romantic relationships, adolescent, college students

Upadhyaya, ShrinkhalaDetection of Eating Disorders Among Young Women: Implications for Development Communication
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Media and Communication
Eating disordered behavior is a crucial health issue that has been studied by several researchers over the years and continues to be addressed by many. Extreme concern for body image is acknowledged as one of the foundations for eating disorders and thinness ideal. Therefore, it becomes imperative to understand how young adults will react to universal messages related to body image and body dissatisfaction issues displayed in various forms of media. In this study, an important objective is to examine the prevalence of body dissatisfaction among young adult users of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. Yet another objective is to examine if body dissatisfaction among these users is associated with disordered eating behaviors. The present study, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, investigated the socio-cultural factors that may influence self-reported disordered eating behavior in young adults, especially females. To address these objectives, quantitative data were collected using a self-administered online survey. The data analysis found that more the number of hours spent on social media sites, higher is the body dissatisfaction among young adults. The data also show that body dissatisfaction is predicted by low levels of self-esteem, and high level of internalization of thinness ideal. When comparing the association of body dissatisfaction with eating disorders, it was found that among young adult female users of social media, body dissatisfaction levels are positively associated with eating disorder behaviors. When TPB variables were employed to screen for intentions to engage in strict dietary behavior as well as intention to engage anorexic and bulimic behavior, it is found that attitude, subjective norms and peer norms relating to food and thinness, and perceived behavioral control are statistically significant. Furthermore, when intention to perform the desired behavior, along with all other variables, namely attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were regressed to predict self-reported disordered eating behaviors, the model was significant with very high R2 value. The findings will be crucial to the future health communication campaigns for recognizing the importance of intentions and TPB variables to predict self-reported disordered eating behavior. Moreover, the larger aim of the study is to broaden development communication (devcom) as a field of study by focusing on how it could deal with building the capacity of people to live meaningful, expressive lives. The empirically supported findings of this study clearly showcase how devcom could help foster an empowered community of social media users with a countervailing voice to deal with the problem inhibiting their capacities and capabilities due to the universal media and societal messages of the thinness ideal.

Committee:

Srinivas Melkote, PhD (Advisor); Lara Lengel, PhD (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati, PhD (Committee Member); Alfred DeMaris, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Brooks, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Communication; Health; Mass Media

Keywords:

Health Communication; Development Communication; Media and Communication; Eating Disorders; Body Dissatisfaction; Body Image; Social Media Use; Women

Hinman, Nova G.The Impact of Trait Cognitive Defusion and Cue Elaboration on Chocolate Craving and Cognitive Resources
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Psychology/Clinical
Chocolate cravings are among the most prevalent type of food craving in the U.S., especially among women. Although not inherently pathological, food cravings are related to a variety of detrimental outcomes, such as increased calorie intake, difficulty managing weight, disordered eating, anxiety, and depression. The Elaborated Intrusion theory of desire (EI theory; Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) explains that food craving arises from spontaneous intrusions (e.g., emotions, sight or smell of food) that may initiate increasingly vivid and intense mental imagery about the craved item. Further, Cognitive Theory (Tiffany, 1990) proposes that thinking about and managing food cravings expends cognitive resources. This dissertation examined the relationship between specific types of food cravings (simple versus elaborated), a facet of mindfulness (cognitive defusion), and impacts on state craving intensity and cognitive resources (working memory). Results showed that trait mindfulness (trait cognitive defusion) may moderate the relationship between food craving level and working memory processing speed. Individuals with low levels of cognitive defusion, or the ability to distance oneself from reactions to external and internal cues for craving, were significantly slowed down on a working memory task when they were exposed to a more elaborate chocolate craving cue. In contrast, individuals high on trait cognitive defusion demonstrated slow responses across levels of craving cues, perhaps reflecting a slow and thoughtful response style, but were not impacted by craving elaboration. Further, individuals low on cognitive defusion demonstrated increased state chocolate cravings post-craving cue compared to individuals with higher cognitive defusion, regardless of level of craving elaboration cue. The present research built upon existing literature regarding the salutary effects of mindfulness on cognitive resources toward understanding effective ways individuals can manage chocolate cravings. However, these two study findings diverged from hypothesized relationships, for example that high trait mindfulness at all levels of craving elaboration cue was not found to be related to superior working memory capacity. Reasons for unpredicted findings are discussed and include stimuli and study design characteristics and alternative applications of EI and Cognitive Theories for craving.

Committee:

Dara Musher-Eizenman, Ph.D. (Advisor); Abby Braden, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Hyunsuk Choo, Ph.D. (Other); William O'Brien, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

chocolate cravings; mindfulness; cognitive defusion; working memory; elaborated intrusion theory; cognitive theory

Wright, Matthew RCohabitation among Older Adults: Well-Being, Relationships with Adult Children, and Perceptions of Care Availability
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Sociology
Cohabitation has been increasing among older adults over the past decade. Despite the growth in cohabitation, research on this population remains limited. It is well established that the married enjoy better health than the unmarried, and while previous research has considered the psychological well-being of older cohabitors, it is less clear whether cohabitation provides physical health benefits. It is also unclear how cohabitors compare with the married and unpartnered on parent-child relationships. These omissions are notable because families play a key role in the lives of older adults. Using 2008 and 2010 Health and Retirement Study data, I assess psychological well-being and physical health differences between continuously married, remarried, cohabiting, divorced, widowed, and never married older adults. Second, I examine how cohabitors compare to the continuously married, remarried, divorced, and widowed on relationships with adult children. Finally, I explore marital status differences in parent’s beliefs that their children would help in the future with basic personal care. Throughout the project, gender differences are considered. I find that older cohabitors have poorer self-rated health than the continuously married and remarried, but the disadvantaged profile of cohabitors explains the differences. Cohabitors and unpartnereds have similar physical health. Cohabitors do not differ from the continuously married and remarried on psychological well-being, but enjoy better well-being than unpartnereds. There is little variation by gender. On parent-child relationships, cohabitors have less frequent contact and lower positive relationship quality than the continuously married and widowed, but are similar to the remarried and divorced. Mothers reported more frequent contact and higher positive and negative relationship quality with children than fathers. Moreover, positive quality differs by marital status for fathers but not mothers, whereas negative quality differs for mothers but not fathers. Finally, cohabitors are the least likely to list a child as someone they believe is willing to provide future help with basic personal care. Parent-child relationship characteristics explained the differences in care perceptions. Overall, my study extends prior research on the well-being of older cohabitors, and sheds new light on how cohabitation is linked to parent-child relationships and perceptions of future care receipt from adult children.

Committee:

Susan Brown, Ph.D (Advisor); I-Fen Lin, Ph.D (Committee Member); Karen Guzzo, Ph.D (Committee Member); Kei Nomaguchi, Ph.D (Committee Member); Susan Peet, Ph.D (Other)

Subjects:

Aging; Demography; Families and Family Life; Sociology

Keywords:

cohabitation; aging; marriage; older adults; health; parent-child relationships

Yang, LiuEffect of product review interactivity, social inequality, and culture on trust in online retailers: A comparison between China and the U.S.
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Media and Communication
This study is the first study that compared the predicting strength of the effect of the micro factor (interactivity of product review use experiences) and macro factors (social inequality and culture) on consumers’ trust in online retailers. It examines the predictor of online trust by information asymmetry theory, reciprocity, in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, and social presence. Consumers of the two largest e-commerce sites in the United States and China, Amazon and Tmall, are compared. The results show the interactivity of product use experience is the strongest predictor of consumers’ trust in online retailers compared to social inequality and culture. The interactivity is positively related to consumers’ trust in famous brands, third-party retailers, and fulfilled third-party retailers of both Amazon and Tmall. In contrast, social inequality is negatively related to consumers’ trust in famous brands, third-party retailers, and fulfilled third-party retailers of both Amazon and Tmall. Individualism is positively related to trust in third-party retailers while collectivism is positively related to trust in third-party retailers fulfilled by Amazon or Tmall. Power distance exerts a positive impact on trust in famous brands only. Collectivism plays a more critical role in predicting trust in fulfilled online retailers in Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. The relationship of trust in online retailers and consumers’ actual online purchases is different across countries. Trust in online retailers is an important direct predictor of online purchase diversity and indirect predictor of the amount of money spent online in both the U.S. and China. And it is a direct predictor of online purchase frequency in the U.S., but an indirect predictor of purchase frequency in China. Trust in online retailers is positively related to the amount of money spent on Amazon/Tmall indirectly by affecting shopping frequency on Amazon/Tmall.

Committee:

Louisa Ha, Professor (Advisor); Gi Woong Yun, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Philip Titus, Associate Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Information Technology; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Social Research

Keywords:

interactivity; online trust; product reviews;e-commerce;social inequality;culture;comparative study;China;US

Coulianos, Natalie N. G.Regulation of hemT expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.9.
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
The metabolite 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is essential to all cells, as it is the precursor to tetrapyrroles that include vitamin B12, heme and bacteriochlorophyll. Among bacteria, formation of ALA via the C4 or Shemin pathway, in which succinyl-CoA is condensed with glycine in pyridoxal phosphate-dependent reaction catalyzed by ALA synthase, is limited to the ¿ class of proteobacteria, which include the facultative prototroph Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In fact, these bacteria have two ALA synthase isoenzymes, and relatives encode as many as four ALA synthases. Despite decades of studies, only recently has it come to light that the R. sphaeroides enzymes differ with respect to their sensitivity to feedback inhibition by heme (1). However, understanding the full significance of this finding requires knowledge as to the presence of the two enzymes in the cell. It is also necessary to explain how it is that the performance (growth) of wild type strains whose genomes only encode one enzyme appears to equal that of other wild type strains whose genomes encode both enzymes. To learn more about the distinctive roles of the isoenzymes, the products of the hemA and hemT genes, lacZ transcription reporter plasmids were used to examine their expression in four wild type strains; 2.4.1, 2.4.9 and KD131, all of which encode both hemA and hemT, and 2.4.3 which has only hemA. It was found that, in all four strains, hemA is induced under anaerobic conditions, but that the induction levels differ. The hemT gene is transcriptionally silent in strain 2.4.1 under all growth conditions, including nitrosative stress, while it is actively transcribed in strains 2.4.9 and KD131, and strongly upregulated when cells are respiring on dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared to aerobic-dark and phototrophic conditions. The picture that emerged from these studies, together with the different susceptibilities of the enzymes to heme-mediated feedback inhibition, is that the bacteria employ different strategies to ensure that adequate amounts of ALA are available for synthesis of whatever kinds and levels of tetrapyrroles are needed according to growth conditions. In some strains hemA transcription is strongly upregulated in order to compensate for inhibition by heme; in other strains in which hemA transcription is weakly upregulated, the less sensitive HemT enzyme is present, when needed, to augment ALA synthase activity. Further examination of hemT expression in strain 2.4.9 identified cis-acting sequences, as well as two extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors that are absent from strain 2.4.1, as being important for hemT transcription. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified sigma factor proteins it was determined that both ECF-type sigma factors directly transcribe hemT. EMSAs also confirmed that a second gene, which was suggested from transcriptomic data, is transcribed by these sigma factors. It encodes a periplasmic protein that binds C4-dicarboxylic acids, which are then transported into the cell by proteins whose genes are co-transcribed with the solute binding protein. For one of the ECF-type sigma factors evidence of the presence of a redox-active disulfide bond within the sigma factor itself was obtained, which explains, in part, upregulation of hemT transcription under reducing conditions. Since genes encoding a transporter of C4-dicarboxylic acids are transcribed by these sigma factors, the influence of one such compound (succinate) on the activities of the sigma factors was evaluated. The evidence suggests that succinate acts as an activating signal for the anti-sigma factor whose partner sigma factor contains the redox-active disulfide. While the signal for the anti-sigma factor of the second sigma factor remains to be determined, it is clear that the transcriptional activity of that sigma factor is also responsive to changes in cellular redox.

Committee:

Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls (Advisor); George Bullerjahn (Committee Member); Raymond Larsen (Committee Member); Paul Morris (Committee Member); I-Fen Lin (Other)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Molecular Biology

Keywords:

ALA synthase; 5-aminolevulinic acid; gene regulation; ECF sigma factors

Grant, Scott SA Multiple Case Study Analysis of Ohio Interscholastic Extracurricular Pay to Participate Policies
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
Due to the increasingly widespread utilization of interscholastic athletic pay to participate policies within the state of Ohio, this study focused on analyzing specific pay to participate policies within Ohio High School Athletic Association (OHSAA) member school districts through a qualitative, multiple case study methodology. This study aimed to contribute to the overall gap in research regarding pay to participate policies from a policy analysis perspective. Utilizing the policy process model outlined by Kraft and Furlong (2015) as a framework, policy document and interview data analysis assisted in the development of key elements such as contributing factors and goals of the specific policies, implementation methods and procedures unique and different among districts, as well as evaluation processes and criterion utilized to define success. This study did not intend to generalize pay to participate policies that implement the most evident fee typology within the state of Ohio, but rather provide depth within the stories of specific districts, intending to add value to district discussions surrounding pay to participate policy utilization. The study results described key policy elements from district contextual perspectives regarding their development, implementation, and evaluation methods. These key components provided unique perspectives based upon perceptions of athletic administrators, and actions of the policies themselves, as well as resulted in the development of a pay to participate discussion guide (Appendix C) that can be utilized by districts during policy discussions.

Committee:

Paul Willis, Ed.D. (Advisor); Christopher Kluse, PhD (Other); Tracey Huziak-Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); John Marschhausen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

pay to participate; interscholastic athletics; pay to play; high school sports; athletics; interscholastic extracurriculars

Turner, Tyler NormanEffects of Human Land Use on the Activity, Diversity, and Distribution of Native Bats
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Biological Sciences
Bats play critical roles in the numerous ecosystems they inhabit as nutrient cyclers, pollinators, and major sources of pest control. In agricultural landscapes, such as those in the Oak Openings, these services can be extremely valuable. Unfortunately, bats face population declines due to threats such as wind farms along migration routes, the lethal fungal disease white-nose syndrome, and habitat degradation and loss due to anthropogenic pressures. The objective of this study was to examine how native bats are using both natural and human dominated landscapes within this region while identifying features within these landscapes that promote bat activity and diversity. To do so I developed a three-part study to observe spatial and temporal trends. First, driving transects were conducted from May through September to analyze activity and diversity in three different landscape types (natural, mosaic, and agricultural landscapes). Second, paired stationary sites were set up overnight to compare core sites within Oak Openings Preserve to edge sites to assess how bats responded to areas of natural landscapes directly facing human pressure. Finally, with the help of citizen science volunteers, walking surveys were conducted through three different parks, as part of an ongoing project of the Root Lab at BGSU, to look at temporal trends in bat populations. Over the course of five months and more than 50 nights, I recorded and identified over 2,200 bat calls. The majority of these calls (95%) were dominated by just three bat species (big brown, silver-haired, and eastern red). I found a significant decrease in activity in agricultural landscapes (p=0.04, Pearson’s Test), compared to mosaic and natural landscapes. I also found certain landscape features, such as canopy cover and distance to riparian systems, were correlated with bat activity. Within the Oak Openings Park, I found that core natural sites had significantly more activity than edge or savanna sites. There was no difference between interior edges and exterior edges, suggesting human impact has little to do with how bats are using these edges. However, vegetation density and canopy cover were predictors of increased relative foraging activity, increasing our understanding of how the bats are using their environment. This finding suggests that both natural and human dominated landscapes can be managed to promote bat activity and diversity. This is important as there was evidence of long term population declines and declines in total number of observed species in the third study. By properly managing both natural and human dominated landscapes, we can help mitigate both current and future threats that bats may face.

Committee:

Karen Root, PhD (Advisor); Kevin McCluney, PhD (Committee Member); Helen Michaels, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Bats; Agriculture; Landscape Ecology; Ohio; Chiroptera; Citizen Science; Acoustic Monitoring;

Santangelo, Constance Ruth MichaelaSensory discrimination and refuge recognition in amblypygids
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
Displacement experiments with amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and subtropics, revealed that they are rather extraordinary navigators and that their abilities are severely impeded when access to olfactory information is experimentally abolished. These results and the fact that amblypygids possess exceptionally large mushroom bodies, brain regions that process olfactory and, perhaps, spatial information led to the hypothesis that olfaction facilitates their navigation behavior. The amblypygid Phrynus marginemaculatus wanders nightly and shows strong shelter fidelity in a laboratory arena. Here, individual subjects were trained over a 26-night session in a square arena that contained two shelters to determine the extent to which shelter recognition is dictated by odor. The target shelter was positioned at a specific location in the arena near an acrylic well that contained 15 µl of geraniol. The other shelter was likewise positioned at a particular location in the arena, but near an acrylic well that contained 15 µl of water. The session consisted of nights on which the entrance to the target shelter was open and the entrance to the other shelter was closed, referred to as forced choice trials, and nights on which a subject had access to both shelters, referred to as probe trials. Probe trials involved manipulations of the locations of the shelters and their associated acrylic wells after a subject emerged from the target shelter. The probes consisted of three types of manipulations: control manipulations in which the shelters and associated acrylic wells were removed and replaced with identical shelters and dishes in their original locations; manipulations in which the positions of the two acrylic wells were swapped; and manipulations in which both shelters and their respective acrylic wells were moved from their original, trained locations. The odor-cued shelter was chosen in more than 90 percent of the control probes, but in the other two probe conditions shelters appear to have been chosen randomly. Thus, shelter choice was not dictated by odor. In addition, subjects did not rely primarily on path integration, a commonly applied navigation strategy in arthropods, as they did not chose the shelter in the original location of the odor-cued shelter in probes where only the positions of the acrylic wells were swapped. Instead, the results suggest that amblypygids, like ants, may use a configuration of cues to relocate and identify a shelter.

Committee:

Daniel Wiegmann (Advisor); Verner Bingman (Committee Member); Paul Moore (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

amblypygid; amblypygids; sensory; cues; cue; olfaction; navigation; homing; scent; antenniform leg; antenniform legs; whip spiders; whipspiders; whip spider; whipspider; mushroom body; mushroom bodies; sensory integration; refuge recognition

Hotmire, JessePrincipals' Role Perception and Implementation of Educational Reform
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
A theme in education stems from comparing international students’ scores on standardized tests with sub-par American students’ scores. The gap between the scores of international students and American students has prompted educational reforms to be passed by state and federal legislatures in the United States. This study begins with an investigation in the A Nation at Risk report and includes No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Common Core, and the Every Student Succeeds Act. States and school districts across the United States have struggled with adapting these educational reforms over the last few decades. Therefore, research on educational leadership over the decades has provided insight into strategies educational leaders can utilize to successfully implement educational reform. Additionally, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) established the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (2015) to provide a set of updated standards for educational leaders. Often tasked with implementing educational reform, principals routinely bear the brunt of guiding the people in their buildings through the maze of changes. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to discover how six principals see their role and what those six principals do to implement educational reforms. The intended method of coding and data analysis is an existing method by Moustakas (1994). The research questions guiding the study are (1) What do principals from secondary schools in Northwest Ohio perceive to be their role as instructional leaders concerning the implementation of Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments? and (2) What leadership strategies do principals utilize to carry out implementation of Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments in their school environment? Themes from this study that revealed principals’ role perspective included their desire to practice distributed leadership and build relationships to foster a culture of collaboration. The emergent themes regarding leadership strategies included principals’ facilitation of teacher preparation and instruction to implement Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments. Another major theme was challenges of rural high school principals. The implications for principals include to: maintain a positive attitude, search for solutions to challenges that predictably arise during times of change, utilize proven instructional leadership practices, and leverage their rural community characteristics to care for people. These qualities will help principals effectively lead their buildings through educational reforms.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor); Stephen Demuth (Other); Jamison Grime (Committee Member); Tracy Huziak-Clark (Committee Member); Paul Johnson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Instructional Leadership; Role Perception; Leadership Strategies; Principals; Educational Reform

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