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Simmons, Darren AllenOn Lagrangian Algebras in Braided Fusion Categories
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Mathematics (Arts and Sciences)
This work is part of an ongoing study of a generalization of the notion of symmetry. In mathematics, the notion of symmetry is formalized into the concept of a group. Examples of groups arise naturally throughout mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other fields. However, recent developments in high-energy and condensed matter physics show that not all kinds of symmetry that arise in nature can be captured by groups. A versatile, more general tool that does this job is a certain class of tensor categories known as fusion categories. We add to the study of these categories by constructing certain analogues to the classical algebraic notion of an associative algebra over a field inside them, and then expounding the properties of these generalized algebras.

Committee:

Alexei Davydov (Advisor); Sergio López-Permouth (Committee Member); Vladimir Uspenskiy (Committee Member); Kenneth Hicks (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics

Keywords:

Fusion categories; Braided categories; Group cohomology; Finite groups

Venezia, Shannon M.The Relationship Between Financial Aid and Graduation Rates for Rural Community College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Higher Education (Education)
This study was designed to examine the relationship between financial aid and graduation rates for rural community college students. The main purpose of this study is to help fill the large gap in research that currently exists about rural community college students, and, more specifically, financial aid and rural community college students. This study uses data collected for the 2004/2009 Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), as well as data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Two research questions focused on the descriptive statistics. Four additional questions used logistic regression for the findings. Two of these questions focused on all community college students, and two questions focused solely on rural community college students. All of the data for the six research questions were analyzed using STATA. The findings from this study are that there is a relationship between financial aid and graduation rates for both all community college students and rural community college students separately. Rural community college students showed the highest graduation rates through six-years for associate degree graduates, and rural community college students had the highest graduation rates through three- and six-years for associate degree and certificate graduates. In terms of financial aid, the Federal Unsubsidized Loan was found to be negatively related to graduation rates for both groups of students. The Pell Grant was found to have a positive association with graduation rates for rural community college students through three-years for associate degree and certificate graduates.

Committee:

Lijing Yang (Committee Chair); Michael Williford (Committee Member); David Horton (Committee Member); Hyun-Ju Oh (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Rural community colleges; financial aid; graduation rates

Ye, EnTeamWATCH: Visualizing Development Activities Using a 3-D City Metaphor to Improve Conflict Detection and Team Awareness
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
Awareness of others’ activities has been widely recognized as essential in facilitating coordination in a team among Computer-Supported Cooperative Work communities. Several field studies on software developers in large software companies such as Microsoft showed that coworker and artifact awareness are the most common information needs for software developers; however, they are also the most frequently unsatisfied information needs. As a result, they may duplicate work, or create conflicts without knowing the status of others and the whole project. To address this problem, we propose a new approach to visualize the developer’s activities using a 3-D city metaphor and implement it in a workspace awareness tool named TeamWATCH (Team based Workspace Awareness Toolkit and Collaboration Hub). TeamWATCH extracts awareness information of artifacts, revisions, and developers from their local workspaces, version control repository, and bug tracking system. It then visualizes both real time and history awareness information together in a 3-D common view shared by the whole team. It also highlights active artifacts that are being changed locally via eye-catching animations and provides the customized personal view for each developer. The main contributions of this dissertation are 1) a 3-D software visualization scheme that improves workspace awareness and enhances team collaboration; 2) the design and implementation of the workspace awareness tool TeamWATCH using this visualization scheme; and 3) evaluations of the effectiveness of such awareness tools using TeamWATCH as an example in maintaining project awareness and detecting and resolving conflicts via three controlled use experiments. The experiment results showed that the subjects using TeamWATCH performed significantly better in software revision history and project evolution comprehension, and early conflict detection and resolution.

Committee:

Chang Liu (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Software collaboration; software visualization; workspace awareness

Bodle, Sarah J.Adhesion Based Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Biomedical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death with 135,430 new cases and 50,260 deaths predicted to occur in the United States in 2017 “Cancer Statistics Center,” ACS Available: http://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/. With current screening tests, the percentage of diagnosis occurring at localized, regional, distant, and unknown stages are 39, 35, 21, and 5 percent with corresponding 5-year survival rates of 90.1, 71.2, 13.5, and 35.5 percent, respectively “Cancer of the Colon and Rectum - Cancer Stat Facts,” NCI Available: https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/colorect.html. The high mortality rate can be attributed to the percentage of later stage diagnosis. As such, there is a demand for novel diagnostics that increase the percentage of diagnosis occurring at an early stage when the survival rate is most promising. It is possible that a novel diagnostic could be designed based on the increased expression of adhesion molecules on transforming tissue relative to normal tissue. Transforming tissue would be identified by detection constructs consisting of microparticles conjugated to ligands cognate to the adhesion molecules. The detection constructs would be administered to the epithelium of the colorectum via a spray catheter through the biopsy channel of an endoscope during colonoscopy. The broad working hypothesis of this study is that differential expression of adhesion molecules on transforming and cancerous, relative to normal tissue, can be exploited to develop a ligand conjugated particle based in situ diagnostic assay. As a first step, the goal of this thesis was to characterize the expression of sialyl Lewis A (sLeA), sialyl Lewis X (sLeX), and CD44 on transforming and cancerous, relative to normal, cell lines and tissues. Expression levels of CD44 proteins as well as sLeA and sLeX glycans on cancerous relative to normal human colorectal cell lines were quantified by flow cytometry. This analysis revealed that CD44v3 and CD44v5 proteins have increased expression on cancerous relative to normal human colorectal cell lines when identified by anti- CD44v3 mAb 3G5 and anti- CD44v5 mAb VFF-8. In addition, sLeA and sLeX glycans have increased expression on cancerous relative to normal human colorectal cell lines when identified by anti- sLeA mAb KM231, anti- sLeA mAb C241:5:1:4, anti- sLeX mAb CSLEX1, anti- sLeX mAb FH6, and anti- cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) mAb HECA-452. Expression levels of sLeA and sLeX were characterized on human colorectal tissues by immunohistochemistry. The average percent staining of each core for sLeA is significantly lower on normal tissues and normal adjacent tissues compared to stage I adenocarcinoma tissues when identified by anti- sLeA mAb KM231 and anti- sLeA mAb C241:5:1:4. Results also show the average percent of staining of each tissue core for sLeX is significantly lower on normal tissues and normal adjacent tissues compared to stage I adenocarcinoma tissues when identified by anti- sLeX mAb CSLEX1. Anti- CLA mAb HECA-452 recognizes a carbohydrate domain shared by glycans including sLeA and sLeX. Results show the average percent of each core staining positive for glycans identified by anti- CLA mAb HECA-452 is significantly lower on normal tissues and normal adjacent tissues compared to stage I adenocarcinoma tissues. Interestingly, the results indicate that the average percent of glands staining positive for sLeA is significantly higher on normal tissues compared to neoplasia tissues when identified by anti- sLeA mAb C241:5:1:4. In summary, this thesis revealed differences between the expression of CD44, sLeA, and sLeX on transforming and cancerous versus normal cell lines and tissues. These differences in adhesion molecule expression could be exploited for the design of a novel assay for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

Committee:

Douglas Goetz (Advisor); Monica Burdick (Committee Member); David Drozek (Committee Member); Ramiro Malgor (Committee Member); Amir Farnoud (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering

Keywords:

colorectal; cancer; diagnostic; CD44; sialyl Lewis A; sialyl Lewis X

Holcombe, Evan W.Multi-Scale Approach to Design Sustainable Asphalt Paving Materials
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Civil Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The continuous use of recycled material in asphalt pavement mixtures, specifically Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS) and Re-Refined Engine Oil Bottoms (REOB), have developed an increasing need to further evaluate the performance of these mixtures at the micro and macro-levels, as the use of such materials reduces cost of virgin materials and energy consumption. Although asphalt binder, including recycled or additive materials, may meet a desired performance grade (PG) using macro-scale tests, they may lack critical nano-mechanical properties that largely affect long-term performance, such as adhesion and diffusive efficiency between virgin and recycled binders. These commonly overlooked properties can correlate with performance behaviors such as fatigue and low temperature cracking during field performance. This study was conducted in two major parts. Part one was performed with the intent to evaluate the nano-mechanical and blending-diffusive efficiency of toluene and trichloroethylene extracted RAP and RAS binder using tapping mode imagery and force spectroscopy using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, this study was set to correlate the findings from micro-testing to macro-scale laboratory performance tests including Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) to evaluate fatigue cracking resistance at intermediate temperatures, Asphalt Concrete Cracking Device (ACCD) to evaluate low temperature cracking and AASHTO 283 ITS to study moisture damage susceptibility of intermediate course mixtures with high RAP and RAS contents. Results showed that tear-off RAS material have a significant effect on fatigue and low temperature cracking performance, primarily at long-term aged conditions. Neither tear-off nor manufactured waste RAS binder blend well with virgin binder, whereas RAP shows a zone of blending. AFM imaging indicated all extracted RAS binder had a much rougher surface texture than RAP or virgin binders and did not contain any “bee” structures. The procedure of splitting RAP material for sampling during the volumetric mix design process has a significant effect on the optimal virgin binder content design, which in turn has a large effect on performance properties. Part two of this thesis summarizes the results of laboratory tests that were conducted to evaluate the microstructure, adhesion and other mechanical properties of asphalt binders meeting the same Performance Grade (PG) but produced using different processes and modifiers. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tapping mode imaging and force spectroscopy experiments were conducted on different straight run and modified asphalt binders meeting the same performance grade. In addition, Bitumen Bond Strength (BBS) and Semi-Circular Beam (SCB) tests were conducted on the different binders evaluated and mixes prepared using those binders, respectively, for comparison. The AFM images indicated that the microstructure of the modified binders was different than those of the straight run binders. The AFM force spectroscopy test results showed that binders with same PG grade could have significantly different adhesion properties. The results of the SCB tests indicated that the fatigue performance was affected by the adhesion properties of the binders evaluated. The AFM bonding energy had a very good correlation with the flexibility index parameter obtained from SCB test results. The results of this part suggests that the adhesion properties of asphalt binders should be included in their evaluation process and specifications.

Committee:

Munir Nazzal, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Materials Science

Keywords:

reclaimed asphalt pavement; recycled asphalt shingles; re-refined engine oil bottoms; atomic force microscopy; fatigue cracking; adhesion; diffusion, moisture damage; thermal cracking

Tams, Sean T.Modeling Longitudinal Associations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior from Pre-school to Adolescence
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Child externalizing behavior (i.e., defiance, impulsivity, disruptiveness, aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity) places children at risk for a broad range of adverse outcomes. Parenting has been implicated as a factor in the expression and maintenance of child externalizing behavior, but limitations exist that hinder the interpretation of findings from prior studies of associations between child externalizing behavior and parenting behavior. The current study used a large, nationally representative dataset that included multiple assessment points across child development and multiple informants and methods of assessment to examine the relationships between child externalizing behavior and parenting practices, including the moderating effect of child gender and elevated ADHD/ODD symptoms. Results of cross-lagged path model analyses revealed reciprocal relationships among child externalizing behavior and effective/ineffective parenting practices, though the pattern of results differed slightly between mothers and fathers. Child gender moderated these relationships such that some associations were stronger for males and others were stronger for females. Elevated ADHD/ODD symptoms did not emerge as a robust moderator, though group differences were identified for one model that was tested. These results underscore the need for early intervention that targets elevated child externalizing behavior and ineffective parenting practices, which may help to foster positive parent-child relationships and mitigate the risk of children with these problems developing more severe, clinically significant externalizing symptoms (e.g., ADHD and/or ODD).

Committee:

Brian Wymbs (Advisor); Steven Evans (Committee Member); Julie Owens (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology

Keywords:

externalizing behavior; parenting practices; child development

Cogar, Jessica L.Pearl Anthology: Prose Poems
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2017, English (Arts and Sciences)
Pearl Anthology: Prose Poems is a collection of prose poems, preceded by a critical introduction, that explore the ins and outs of queer femininity. The language of these poems borrows signs and symbols from Egyptian myth, augury, and hiking signposts. While utilizing surreal elements and dream logic, the poems aim to document the disorientation of a queer speaker as she tries to navigate a world of painful beauty rituals, queer love, and performative masculinity.

Committee:

Jill Rosser (Advisor); Eric Lemay (Committee Member); Mark Halliday (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory

Keywords:

Heterosexuality; formal poetry

Wang, ValerieHumor Usage by Salespeople: A Socio-Psychological Inquiry of Antecedents and Outcomes in Professional Selling
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Individual Interdisciplinary Program
As a cue for laughter in interpersonal communications, humor has been observed in various professional selling occasions. This dissertation aims at quantitatively investigate the antecedents and outcomes of salespeople’s humor usage in sales communications. A research framework with ten hypotheses is built to describe why or when humor messages are created by salespeople, and then why or how humor messages, as an interpersonal sales communication tool, influence various performance outcomes in professional selling. It is proposed that humor usage by salespeople is positively influenced by higher creativity, stronger learning orientation, greater sales effort, and a higher degree of role stress represented by role ambiguity, role conflict, and task overload. In turn, humor usage by salespeople may positively influence customer relationship quality in terms of trust, commitment, and relationship satisfaction, as well as salespeople’s job performance. To test the hypotheses, a series of multiple regression analyses are performed using survey data collected from 407 salespeople. The results provide insights about salespeople humor usage in a number of aspects. First, creative salespeople are more likely to find the appropriate and actionable contextual cues to form humor messages in professional selling. Second, with higher learning orientation through routine observation and interaction with customers, peers, and competitors, salespeople can become more adept at creating humor messages for particular customers and situations. Third, humor usage is a stress reliever for stressed salespeople who encounter role ambiguity. Fourth, through improving customers’ cognitive and affective experiences, salespeople’s humor usage in sales communications ultimately enhances customer relationship quality and job performance. Overall, the findings suggest that salespeople humor usage in sales communications act as a useful marketing mechanism that produces positive organizational outcomes. The new knowledge created by this dissertation not only offers a fresh perspective for researchers, but also shed light on sales management practices and marketing communications.

Committee:

Gregory Newton (Committee Chair); Parul Jain (Committee Member); Catherine Axinn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Marketing

Keywords:

Marketing; Sales Communication; Learning Orientation; Creativity; Job Performance; Customer Relationship

Murphy, Julianna E.Catalytic Effect of Iron Oxidizing Bacteria on the Production of Pigment from Acid Mine Drainage
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Civil Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Abandoned and underground mines have been the known source of a persistent pollutant known as acid mine drainage. Coalmines are abundant in the Appalachian area, which results in multiple heavily polluted streams and waterways. The iron leached from the mines coats the streambeds with a thick orange slurry destroying the aquatic habitat. Specifically, for this research, the Sunday and Raccoon Creek watershed were investigated. The objective of this thesis was to manipulate the environment in order to optimize the growth and catalytic oxidation effects of locally collected iron oxidizing bacteria during the production of a viable iron oxide pigment. Temperature and pH of the environments were controlled to find prime conditions for the bacteria to thrive. While it was found that the pigment created in the lab had minimal hiding power and did not form goethite, the iron oxidized with bacteria oxidized at rates averaging at least 30 times faster than those without at all pH values. Through statistical comparison, it was found that all seeps oxidized iron at a faster rate than the sterile control at a confidence value of 95%. While there was no statistical difference found between the Carbondale Seep’s oxidations rates, both were found to have the faster oxidation rates then Batgate. All oxidation rates were found to be significantly faster at the higher temperature and high pH. The failure in the production of goethite was found to be a consequence of the overabundance of sulfate within the tanks, estimated at least 6 times the concentration at the seeps.

Committee:

Guy Riefler (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

iron oxidizing bacteria; pigment; catalytic effects; oxidation rates

Wells, Logan ScottAmong the Stars and Other Stories
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, English (Arts and Sciences)
Two brothers dream of being astronauts. A man wakes up to read his own obituary in the newspaper. A failed country musician seeks to reconnect with his estranged daughter, and a woman deals with the aftermath of her husband’s alien abduction. In these five stories of cosmic happenings and intimate relations, characters seek to control their lives—both past, present, and future. They hide from their guilt and search for notoriety. They distort reality to fit their needs and learn too late that the universe does not answer to yearning.

Committee:

Patrick O'Keeffe (Advisor); Eric LeMay (Committee Member); Joan Connor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Language Arts

Keywords:

Short story; Literature; Creative Writing

Jacomet, Gregory A.The Use of Unschooling as a Potential Solution to the Complex and Chronic Problem of Educating Foster Children
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2018, Educational Administration (Education)
Pedagogical and existential problems of the foster child population were examined including the history of orphan management and current methods for care. Also examined was the increasingly popular practice of homeschooling as well as its most autonomous variant, unschooling. Utilizing the methodology of bricolage, I leveraged the literature spanning both foster care and homeschooling juxtaposed against my own unschooling practice (with my own children) and interviews with other unschoolers to suggest a potential avenue for improvement to the education and subsequent life outcomes of the fostered population.

Committee:

Charles Lowery (Committee Chair); Krisanna Machtmes (Committee Member); Karl Wheatley (Committee Member); Laura Harrison (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Pedagogy; Social Work

Keywords:

foster care;foster children;aging out;emancipation;homeschooling;unschooling

Ogallo, Godfrey G.IoT – Enhancing Data-driven Decision-making in Higher Education. Case Study of Ohio University
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Computer Education and Technology (Education)
The rapid advancement in information technology and the ubiquitous penetration of the Internet are heralding an experience in the world where every physical device is interconnect-able to other devices and the Internet. IoT forms the core of this new wave of ubiquitous technologies. This nascent technology is opening new and virtually inexhaustible sources of innovation in various sectors. As the education sector transitions to technologically augmented learning, IoT offers a great potential in the realm of higher education where some principles of IoT are already in use. The purpose of this study was to explore how IoT can enhance data-driven decision- making (D3M) in the teaching and learning process in higher education. Six faculty, seven students, and four administrators participated in this study. A qualitative case study was used to explore how IoT can be used to enhance D3M. Individual interviews and document analysis approach was used in data collection. Multiple techniques facilitated the data analysis. Provision coding was applied in the first cycle coding to organize the data into categories. Pattern coding was implemented in the second cycle coding to condense code summaries from first cycle coding into precise themes. Unified framework of construct validity was applied to enhance the credibility and dependability of the study. Findings revealed that participants engaged with IoT to enhance the learning experience, improve collaboration on projects, augment student-centered teaching, support customized teaching, and learning, facilitate seamless learning, and parity for diverse learners. Participants had mixed concerns about the issue of individual privacy, data security and connectivity challenges. The constructs of UTAUT2 framework was used to explore the beliefs and perceptions that influence the adoption of IoT amongst the participants in higher education. The conclusion drawn from this study elucidated that if correctly implemented, IoT can support the development of strategies that could be used to enhance the reaching and learning process.

Committee:

Greg Kessler (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Software; Educational Technology; Information Systems; Instructional Design

Keywords:

IoT; IoE; Data-drive decision-making; Big Data; Ubiquitous learning; Context-aware computing; Smart devices; UTAUT2

Long, Andrew M.Design, Construction, and Evaluation of a Bioretention Cell in Marietta, Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2018, Civil Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Parking lots are a large contributor of undetained and untreated stormwater runoff in urban watersheds. Green infrastructure (GI) practices, such as bioretention cells (BRCs), can be implemented to offset the negative effects of parking lots. In this study, a BRC was designed to intercept the WQv from an existing asphalt parking lot before it entered nearby Goose Run in Marietta, Ohio. Construction errors limited the ponding storage volume of the BRC to only 18% of the design. Average infiltration rates ranged from 2.66 in/hr to 7.67 in/hr with an overall average rate of 5.24 in/hr. The ability of the undersized BRC to reduce runoff volumes, mitigate peak flows, reduce runoff temperature, and remove TSS from the parking lot runoff before it discharged to Goose Run was investigated. The BRC reduced runoff volumes by 51.1% and 76.4%, reduced peak flows by 66.4% and 81.5% and lagged peak flows by 1.01 hr to 1.58 hr. These conclusion were drawn from inflow and outflow data that were adjusted due to limitations in the monitoring methods and therefore contain some uncertainty. The BRC reduced parking lot runoff temperatures by 3°C. The BRC reduced event average TSS concentrations by 92.1% to 98.7% and EMCs by 93.4% to 97.3%. Effluent TSS concentrations were lowered once a capped orifice design was implemented to control the flows from the underdrain outlet, but further research is still needed.

Committee:

Guy Riefler (Advisor); Tiao Chang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Bioretention

Krichbaum, Steven P.Ecology and Conservation Biology of the North American Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) in the Central Appalachians
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
My study presents information on summer use of terrestrial habitat by IUCN “endangered” North American Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), sampled over four years at two forested montane sites on the southern periphery of the species’ range in the central Appalachians of Virginia (VA) and West Virginia (WV) USA. The two sites differ in topography, stream size, elevation, and forest composition and structure. I obtained location points for individual turtles during the summer, the period of their most extensive terrestrial roaming. Structural, compositional, and topographical habitat features were measured, counted, or characterized on the ground (e.g., number of canopy trees and identification of herbaceous taxa present) at Wood Turtle locations as well as at paired random points located 23-300m away from each particular turtle location. First, I report and discuss basic morphometric and activity area data of the VA and WV turtles. Chapter two uses a nine-year dataset of adult WV Wood Turtles to estimate population size, population growth rate (lambda), and survivorship with open population Cormack-Jolly-Seber and Pradel models in program MARK. My third chapter assess Wood Turtle thermal ecology by examining three data sets of environmental and turtle temperatures: 1) temperatures in three different microhabitat types (unshaded by ground cover [exposed], under vegetation [UV], under litter [UL]) recorded by iButtons at arrays throughout the two study sites; 2) ground temperatures at the locations of radio-tracked individuals and their paired random points measured within 300 meters and 30 minutes of each other; 3) body temperatures estimated with iButtons attached to the shell bridges of adult Wood Turtles. In the fourth chapter, I examine highly localized conditions resulting from short-term weather patterns and fine-scale microhabitat characteristics by comparing ground-level relative humidity at the locations of radio-tracked Wood Turtles to those at paired random points. I use the GIS-based water balance model developed by Dr. James Dyer to examine landscape conditions (such as water deficit [“DEF”] and actual evapotranspiration [“AET”]) resulting from long-term climate patterns and broad-scale habitat conditions (e.g., topographical aspect and soil types). The final two chapters are the heart of my dissertation. Vegetation was identified, measured, counted, or characterized in plots at 640 locations (394 in VA, 246 in WV), evenly distributed between adult turtle and random points. Importance values for overstory trees = 10cm dbh were calculated in 400m2 plots; herbaceous plant taxa were identified in 400m2 and 1m2 plots; woody seedling taxa were identified in 1 m2 plots; forest types were specified at the 400m2 plot and stand (5-20ha) scales. I used the R program “indicspecies”, paired logistic regression, and classification and regression trees (CART) to analyse these data. Over thirty herbaceous and woody seedling taxa were indicators for Wood Turtle presence at the 400m2 and/or 1m2 scales at the VA and WV study sites. I used a series of conditional logistic regressions to quantify habitat use of Wood Turtles at multiple scales across a range of different forest types. At each of the turtle and random points proportions of ground cover were visually estimated within 1m2 plots to assess microhabitat use; structural, compositional, and topographical habitat features were measured in 400m2 circular plots to capture meso-scale ecological data; and stand scale (5-20ha) designations of forest type and seral stage were used to assess macro-scale habitat use. I found that Wood Turtles showed a preference for specific environmental conditions: older forest sites with relatively more herbaceous ground cover, large woody debris, canopy openness, and turtle-level obscurity, and with gentler slopes and warmer aspects.

Committee:

Willem Roosenburg, Professor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Animals; Ecology; Environmental Science; Forestry; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

habitat selection; turtle population biology; program MARK; forest temperatures; turtle temperatures; forest floor humidity; forest herbaceous flora; tree importance values

Corbett, Joseph P.Spin Structures of the L10-MnGa(001) and α-Cr(001) Surfaces
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Physics and Astronomy (Arts and Sciences)

This work focused on two different material systems, the L10-MnGa on η sub>⊥-Mn3N2, and α-Cr on MgO with further experimental developments on spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy tips. Our primary goal is the understanding of the spin configurations on magnetic materials, as well as morphological and crystallographic features on the surface that impact the magnetic structures.

The two aspects of a scanning tunneling microscopy tip, the macroscopic profile and the nanoscale apex, can be tailored by controlling the tension during electrochemical etching and the solution-electrode contact area via acetone vapor. The apex diameter is shown to be proportional to the square root of the tension, and is demonstrated over apex diameters of 150–500 nm. The apex was found to be created in four distinct shapes where a secondary etching can reshape the tip into a single geometry. Improvement in tip height and stability of the profile are demonstrated versus a non-acetone fabrication control. An optimal range of apex diameters 100–250 nm for the round tip geometry was found to be the best recipient for ultra-thin Fe coating. In this apex diameter range a good balance between tip sharpness and roundness was found.

Antiferromagnetic Cr films 100010 nm thick were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(001) substrates achieving an atomically smooth staircase morphology. The c(2×2) surface structure of the Cr(001) surface was found via atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images and dI/dV spectroscopy. A practical method of interpreting spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy dI/dV images was developed and applied to the c(2×2) Cr(001) surface structure. An in-plane layerwise antiferromagnetic spin structure was observed with 180° spin reversal between atomic layers. The quantization axes of the c(2×2) spins was found to depend on the staircase with possible spin alignments along the (100), (010), and (110) planes.

Ferromagnetic L10-MnGa was grown by molecular beam epitaxy under ultra-high vacuum conditions to a 73 ± 5 nm thickness atop of 50 ± 5 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown antiferromagnetic η--n3N2 on a MgO(001) substrate. The MnGa grew along the c-axis with an out-of-plane spacing of c = 3.707 ± 0.005 Å and a relaxed in-plane spacing of a = b = 4.0 ± 0.05 Å measured with X-ray diffraction and reflected high-energy electron diffraction respectively. Scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and reflection high energy electron diffraction, are combined with first-principles density functional theory calculations to determine the reconstructions of theL10-MnGa(001) surface. We find two lowest energy reconstructions of the MnGa(001) face: a (1×1) Ga-terminated structure and a (1×2) structure with a Mn replacing a Ga in the (1×1) Ga-terminated surface. The (1×2) reconstruction forms a row structure along [100]. The manganese:gallium stoichiometry within the surface based on theoretical modeling is in good agreement with experiment. Magnetic moment calculations for the two lowest energy structures reveal important surface and bulk effects leading to oscillatory total magnetization for ultra-thin MnGa(001) films.

Williamson-Hall analysis reveals 67 ± 17 nm tall columnar grains with a residual stress of 2.4 ± 0.26(x10-3). A radial distribution plot of screw dislocations observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images found an in-plane coherence length of 15 ± 5 nm. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction analysis of the in-plane lattice spacing during growth reveals a critical thickness of 0.7 ± 0.25 nm for the MnGa, by which the MnGa film relaxes by incorporating dislocations of both edge and screw type. Vibrating sample magnetometry was employed to produce hysteresis loops of the bilayer system. It is found that the dislocation density plays a chief role in understanding the measured moments per unit cell; where a large dislocation density lowers the moment per unit cell significantly due to chemical layering incoherence. Exchange bias was measured in this unconventional bilayer system with 66 ± 31 Oe shift to the left in the in-plane hysteresis loop with an exchange energy of 0.2 ± 0.1 erg/cc. Additionally, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed with an anisotropy constant of 4.96 ± 0.01 Merg/cc.

Committee:

Arthur Smith (Advisor); Martin Kordesch (Committee Member); Keith Milam (Committee Member); Horacio Castillo (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physics

Keywords:

SP-STM; L10; MnGa; Spin Structures; Cr; Dislocations

Hong, YeIntegration and Experience of International Student-Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Higher Education (Education)
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to analyze and develop an in-depth understanding of the integration and experience of international student-athletes at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions in the United States. International student-athletes who participated in this study were not born in the U.S., and English was not their native language. An online questionnaire that contained 36 questions was emailed to international student-athletes at randomly selected NCAA Division I institutions. A total of 48 international student-athletes, including nine interviewees, from nine NCAA Division I conferences completed the online questionnaire. One-on-one interviews were conducted with international student-athletes who expressed their willingness to participate in the interviews. In-depth information was collected from the one-on-one interviews to better understand the challenges that international student-athletes faced during their time in the U.S., as well as the factors that eased their integration to the campus life in the U.S. The research data aligned with five main themes regarding the integration and experience of international student-athletes in Division I: • Motivations. • Recruitment process. • Adjustment and integration. • Development of international student-athletes. • Areas of improvement from participants’ perspectives. Results revealed that the recruitment process of international student-athletes, which was different from that of domestic student-athletes in terms of the initial contacts from the coaches, the start of the recruitment process, the campus visits, as well as some recruiting advantages. This research also uncovered some specific challenges that international student-athletes might face such as the different educational and athletic systems, the balance between academics and athletics, the relationship with coaches and teammates, cultural differences and other challenges in life. Regardless of the challenges and difficulties during the adjustment, most participants valued and appreciated the opportunities of being student-athletes in the U.S. This research also provided constructive recommendations to athletics personnel to create the best possible environment for international student-athletes to excel in both academics and athletics. Recommendations for future international student-athletes were also highlighted based on the research data shared by interviewees.

Committee:

David Horton (Advisor); Ming Li (Committee Member); Peter Mather (Committee Member); Lijing Yang (Committee Member); David Moore (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

intercollegiate athletics; international student-athlete; integration; adjustment; development

Pollock, Asher WPhase Shift
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Ohio University, 2017, Studio Art
Phase Shift is the thesis of Asher Pollock, submitted for graduation from the Honors Tutorial College of Ohio University. It contains writing and paintings that collectively question concepts, genres, and methods of story-telling known well to many audiences.

Committee:

Laura Larson (Committee Chair); Jennie Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art Criticism; Art Education; Art History; Arts Management; Performing Arts; Personal Relationships; Personality; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Religious History; Rhetoric; Social Research; Spirituality; World History

Keywords:

queer, poseidon, neptune, phase, shift, water, story, stories, painting, paintings, art, artist, man, they, them, gay, men, myth, mythology, mythic, myths, gods, god, family, love, loneliness, despair, ice, independence, conceptual, contemporary, modern

Hockenberry, Jacklyn M.Economic, Social, and Regional Barriers in Appalachian Migration
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2017, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
Research suggests that Appalachian migration patterns mirror those of rural migration patterns (Franklin 2003). The young, single, and highly educated tend to leave less prosperous areas in search of economic advancement (Franklin 2003). Understanding migration patterns sheds light on why rural areas might experience high rates of outmigration and issues such as brain drain. However, there is no research examining the migration patterns occurring within distressed and non-distressed regions of Appalachia. My study examines predictors for migration including unemployment rates, age, and educational attainment for distressed and non-distressed counties within Appalachia. Results of regression analysis on county-level and individual-level variables suggest unemployment and educational attainment rates affect migration possibilities out of distressed counties. Additionally, the distressed status of a county can be used as a predictor for migration mobility. Individuals who reside within distressed counties have limited mobility due to the increased likelihood they will end up in a distressed county later in life. Surprisingly, the age of an individual is not a predictor of which county someone is likely to move. In other words, being within the work force age (25-39) does not have a large impact on migration outcome. Examining migration patterns for distressed and non-distressed counties of Appalachia can help to build the literature regarding migration and provide more detail for which counties within Appalachia experience the most outmigration. By understanding which counties are being affected most by migration, new policy can be brought forward to improve residential retention and community life in Appalachian communities.

Committee:

Cynthia Anderson (Committee Chair); Howard Welser (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Appalachia; Distressed; Migration; County-level Migration

Roy, EnakshiSocial Media, Censorship and Securitization in the United States and India
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Journalism (Communication)
Using the theoretical perspectives of Spiral of Silence and Securitization, this dissertation examines (1) how censorship practices such as content removal were employed by the United States and the Indian governments to securitize the internet and social media, and (2) whether such practices contribute to an online spiral of silence. To explore these aspects, this study used a mixed-method approach with in-depth interviews and surveys. Seven interviews with authors of Transparency Reports and legal experts provided information about the U.S. and Indian government-initiated content removal process from Google Web Search, Blogger, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter between 2010 and 2015. Surveys with 587 respondents from the United States and India explored self-censorship on Facebook and Twitter, on issues related to national security and government criticism. The findings indicate that in the United States, “defamation” is the frequently cited yet an often-misused reason for content removal, while in India “religious offense” and “defamation” are prominent reasons for content takedowns. On several occasions, protected speech was removed from the internet and social media in both countries. Such acts of state-level censorship, in turn impacts self-censoring on controversial issues by individuals on social media. The implications here are that using the law to criminalize dissent increases self-censorship and this is counter-productive to democratic discourse.

Committee:

Yusuf Kalyango, Jr., Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Aimee Edmondson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Eve Ng, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nukhet Sandal, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Information Technology; International Law; Journalism; Legal Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Technology

Keywords:

Transparency Report; Internet censorship; Internet censorship USA, India; Internet Securitization; Spiral of Silence public opinion; public opinion social media; social media censorship; content removal; Google, Facebook, Twitter transparency reporting

Burback, KyleExpanded and Integrated Entries from the Orthogonal Encyclopedia on Nature
Bachelor of Arts, Ohio University, 2017, English
Self-addressed apostrophe within a Leibnizian Modal Realist's world deconstructs a modal self, reassembling it to arrive at the precipice of anotherness. Theoretical implications of the self-addressed apostrophe call solipsistic skepticism (an ontological position claiming only the self exists) into doubt by first pluralizing the self, and then redefining the self in plural terms. Three spheres carry out the deconstruction and reassembly of the self: an anachronistic, timeless sphere in which the plural selves operate, an opening produced by the self-addressed apostrophe; a temporal sphere in which take place the historical events culminating in the apostrophe; and a logical sphere in which conceptual dilemmas are addressed and reconciled. The timeless sphere presents the plural selves' dialogue, which frames the historical sphere. This framing reorganizes the historical events within a timeless present; the ahistorical organization produces, out of a determinate set of events, indeterminate possibilities in terms of which a plural self may be defined. The logical sphere pervades both the historical and timeless spheres. The logic therein described, delivered via episodes of dialogue, provides a conceptual schema within which Modal Realism may be used to locate the self across plural selves.

Committee:

Joan Connor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature; Logic

Keywords:

apostrophe; anachronism; modal realism; realism; romanticism; magical realism; solipsism; determinism

Burke, Alex NortonAn Integrated Toolbox to Assess the Viability of Solar PV at OHIO University
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
Ohio University demands over 120,000 Megawatt Hours of electricity annually and plans to reduce the institutional greenhouse gas emissions to 0 by 2075. The demand for electricity includes a significant environmental footprint under the current electricity procurement contract. Addressing the best option for an energy user therefore requires careful examination of the environmental, social, and financial costs and benefits of each scenario. This research develops optimal scenarios for a solar PV installation in Athens, OH and assesses the sustainability of four solar PV installation scenarios and two status quo scenarios. Finally, Analytical hierarchy process is used to simulate decision making process with multiple criteria. The criteria are categorized as environmental, social, and financial and decisions are simulated with three sets of weighting on each criterion. A solar installation helps verify modeled results within the research which concludes that a solar PV farm with tracking or rooftop would serve as the most sustainable electricity procurement decision for OHIO University.

Committee:

Derek Kauneckis, Ph. D (Advisor); Daniel Karney, Ph. D (Committee Member); Greg Kremer, Ph. D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Sustainability

Keywords:

Sustainable energy, solar PV, cost benefit analysis, life cycle assessment, sustainability assessment, sustainability, energy, decision making modeling, solar PV modeling, analytical hierarchy process, environmental studies

Hassani, KianooshMultispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Quaternary Sediments in Tule and Snake Valleys, Lake Bonneville, Utah
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Lake Bonneville was the largest water body that accumulated in the Great Basin during the late Pleistocene. Its latest major lacustral cycle lasted from 30 ka to 12 ka and much evidence of the lake remains are still evident in the landscape today. This thesis investigates the use of Landsat-8 multispectral imagery for mapping the Quaternary deposits in the Tule Valley portion, and Hyperion (EO-1) hyperspectral data for mapping part of the adjacent Snake Valley of Lake Bonneville. Maximum likelihood classification was applied for Landsat 8 data, and the two spectral analysis approaches of linear spectral unmixing and spectral angle mapper (SAM) were applied to the Hyperion dataset. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a Lake Bonneville marl sediment sample characterized the dominant minerals in that sample. This investigation relied on Sack's (1990) Quaternary geologic map of Tule Valley as the reference for the remote sensing analysis. This study investigates if those sources of information can approach in quality and detail the traditional map that relies on fieldwork and air photo interpretation. Results illustrate that hyperspectral and multispectral data have potential value for Quaternary geological mapping. Maximum likelihood classification yielded overall accuracy of 51% with successful discrimination of Qlf, Qeg, Qes, Qlm, Qac, and bedrock. However, complete separation between several lacustrine and alluvial classes was not achieved. In general, the Hyperion spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral unmixing results discriminated relatively well among the three endmembers of calcite, gypsum, and quartz across portions of the Snake Valley study area. The high fraction abundance values on the fractional images reliably represented pixels dominated by calcite, gypsum, or quartz. Some confusion between classifications are attributeded to the local mixing of classes at the pixel scale, overlap in mineralogy, similarities in the nature of surface weathering, and the limited spectral resolution of the Landsat image. Results indicate that these methods have value for mapping extensive areas of Lake Bonneville and other desert lake basins faster and more efficiently than has previously been possible.

Committee:

Dorothy Sack (Advisor); Edna Wangui (Committee Member); Timothy Anderson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geographic Information Science; Geological; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

multispectral remote sensing; hyperspectral remote sensing; Quaternary sediments; geological mapping; Lake Bonneville; Tule Valley; Snake Valley; Paleolake

Speakman, Burton C.Digital Gatekeeping and Interaction on Community Media Websites: Are Outlets Selective in User-Generated Content Publication and Audience Communication?
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Journalism (Communication)
The Web 2.0 era increasingly relies on submissions of content from non-professionals and interaction between the masses. Community newspapers work within a changing media market and one where the audience moves to digital consumption while economics greatly favor print. This study seeks to examine how community newspaper websites choose to engage in gatekeeping as it relates to user-generated content. It also seeks to learn the manner in which those who operate these sites interact with the public. This dissertation uses two content analyses to separately gauge the publication of UGC and interaction on community newspaper websites. Furthermore, the researcher seeks through survey to learn the attitudes of those who operate community newspaper websites toward both the publication of UGC and where they believed it was important to interact with the public. The study suggests there may be no easy answers in terms of technology for getting the public to contribute UGC. Simply making multiple requests for contributions, providing numerous manners for the public to submit, or even offering a special location on the web for all submitted content does not seem enough to convince the public to contribute more content. However, this dissertation indicated direct interaction does appear to increase the number of comments a site receives and the attitudes of managers UGC and interactivity also may influence public actions in terms of participation.

Committee:

Hans Meyer, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Interactivity; networked gatekeeping; economic gatekeeping; user-generated content; community journalism; community media; gatekeeping

Boarman, McKaila J. S.Trade-offs and Temporal Variation in Predator-Mediated Natural Selection and Sexual Selection on the Wings of the Damselfly Calopteryx splendens
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
Evolutionary theory predicts a trade-off between sexual selection and natural selection on secondary sexual traits. Understanding the relationship between mating success and predation risk can give insight into the evolutionary dynamics that interact to promote or constrain phenotypic change, yet it has been little studied in the wild. I conducted a two-year cross-sectional field study on the Banded Demoiselle damselfly (Calopteryx splendens) to test for trade-offs between sexual selection and predation risk, and to assess variation in sexual and natural selection. At the study population, the White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) captures C. splendens in flight, then flies to feeding stations where it removes the wings and consumes the body. I used geometric morphometric techniques to quantify damselfly wing morphology, and compared wing shape and secondary sexual traits of wings from feeding stations to a random sample of wings from the population to quantify the strength, mode, and direction of natural selection on males. Simultaneously, I measured wing traits from individuals caught in the act of mating and compared them to a random sample of wings from the population to quantify the strength, mode, and direction of sexual selection on male wings. By comparing natural selection and sexual selection on wing traits simultaneously, I tested for trade-offs between types of selection. My results suggest that predator-mediated selection fluctuates through time, and is especially variable in how it operates on the size of secondary sexual traits displayed by males. Sexual selection operated almost exclusively on secondary sexual traits, and was consistent across years. Predator-mediated selection acted differently on fore- and hindwings, favoring males with long, narrow forewings and short, broad hindwings. A trade-off between natural and sexual selection was revealed on wing patch characteristics, with males possessing larger and darker wing patches experiencing higher predation rates, while achieving the highest mating success.

Committee:

Shawn Kuchta, PhD (Advisor); Willem Roosenburg, PhD (Committee Member); Kelly Johnson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Entomology; Evolution and Development

Keywords:

geometric morphometrics; selection trade-offs; predation; sexual selection; natural selection; Calopteryx splendens; selection gradient; selective agent; secondary sexual trait

Rohit , Akanksha Optimization and Characterization of a Capillary Contact Micro-Plotter for Printed Electronic Devices
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
Printed electronics is emerging as an integral part of the electronic industry due to its low cost fabrication and flexibility of devices against the rigid and expensive technology using silicon. Various methods for printing have existed for a long time with inkjet printing being the most common method used for electronic devices. This thesis explores a new and innovative printed technology using a capillary based microplotting approach implemented via Sonoplot Microplotter II. Unlike the inkjet printing technique which prints in overlapping spots with resolution between 30µm-100µm, the Microplotting approach helps to prints continuous features with a higher resolution as low as 5 ¿¿. Capillary action is used to fill picoliter amount of ink into a micropipette which is used for printing. Thus, the focus of this thesis is the optimization of this new printing technology under various conductions using different conductive inks and on a broad range of substrates and different tip diameters. In addition, passive resistive, capacitive and inductive components were printed to characterize the printing process and operation of electrical devices under different conditions. The applications of this Microplotter was further demonstrated by printing a flexible resistive strain sensor. The procedures involved for the fabrication of micropipettes using a glass puller for different diameter tips attached to the dispenser head is also explained in this thesis.

Committee:

Savas Kaya (Advisor); Chris Bartone (Committee Member); Jeffrey Dill (Committee Member); Eric Stinaff (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Nanotechnology

Keywords:

Printed Electronics; Microplotter; Capacitive; Indictive; Resistive; Micropipettes

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