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Jones, Richard EarlKeep it Local: Music Streaming & Local Music Communities
Master of Fine Arts, Miami University, 2017, Art
The Napster revolution at the turn of 21st century toppled recorded music revenue streams as peer-to-peer file-sharing and piracy tore listeners away from music retailers and left a power vacuum at the center of the music industry. From 2008-2016, streaming services like Spotify, Apple Music, and YouTube emerged as the de facto leaders in the free culture of recorded music. This paper examines the impact of streaming services on local musicians and explores possible design interventions to improve financial returns of streaming for local acts. Streaming revenues accounted for 51% of recorded music revenue in 2016, but local artists, without the financial resources of major record labels, are not enjoying the financial revival. Favoring regional talent in streaming algorithms and incorporating existing plugins or widgets into the user interface of streaming platforms can funnel more revenue toward local artists.

Committee:

Dennis Cheatham (Committee Chair); Richard Campbell (Committee Member); Diane Fellows (Committee Member); Chris Strobel (Other); Glenn Platt (Other)

Subjects:

Fine Arts; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Multimedia Communications; Music; Performing Arts; Technology

Keywords:

music; streaming; spotify; apple; recording artists; live performance; music streaming; napster; pandora; iTunes; iPod; YouTube; Netflix; RIAA; design; soundcloud; bandcamp; record labels; experience design; music industry; revenue; radio; college radio;

Burnett, Andrew PatrickCome Shale Away: Estimating Short-run Supply Elasticities of Shale Natural Gas
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, Economics
The existing literature generally fails to reject that natural gas producers are perfectly inelastic in the short-run, consistent with common conservationist concerns regarding non-renewable resources. To investigate if there is evidence of such perfectly inelastic behavior in the case of shale natural gas, I develop a model for the short-run own-price elasticity of supply for natural gas from unconventional shale reservoirs. I find statistically significant elasticity estimates that are consistent with theory with respect to both current and future prices, suggesting that production of shale gas is at least somewhat responsive to present and future market conditions.

Committee:

Charles Moul, PhD (Advisor); James Brock, PhD (Committee Member); Gerald Granderson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

natural gas; supply; elasticity; short-run

Maloney, Jessica K.Role of activated microglia in spinal cord plasticity following peripheral axon injury
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Biology
Our overall objective was to understand the role of activated microglia in the spinal cord plasticity observed following transection of sympathetic axons. Microglia activation was dampened with the antibiotic minocycline (Mino) and microglia proliferation and survival, plasticity of other glial cells as well as neuronal plasticity and long term survival were examined. At one week post injury, microglia exhibited a reduced activation state, with fewer amoeboid microglia and more ramified microglia following Mino treatment, but no effects on microglia proliferation or survival were observed. Mino treatment also resulted in reduced numbers of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of injured animals and blunted the typical decrease in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression by the injured neurons. Dampened microglia activation and reduced neurotransmitter plasticity of the injured neurons during the first week post injury may have contributed to the observed long term loss of ChAT+ neurons. However, Mino had no effect on the regrowth of ChAT+ axons into the SCG at 16 weeks post injury, suggesting that target derived factors are more important in facilitating target reinnervation. These results provide evidence of beneficial crosstalk between spinal cord microglia and both glia and neurons following peripheral injury, possibly to promote neuronal survival.

Committee:

Lori Isaacson, Ph.D (Advisor); Kathleen Killian, Ph.D (Committee Member); Dawn Blitz, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

minocycline; glia-neuron crosstalk; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; preganglionic; sympathetic; reinnervation

Prasad, Anurag ShivamMAKING MILLIMETER WAVE COMMUNICATION POSSIBLE FOR NON-LINE-OF-SIGHT SCENARIOS: 5G
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Computational Science and Engineering
This thesis, provides for an enhanced version of the 5G Channel Simulator, NYUSIM, developed by NYU Wireless Lab for Millimeter Wave outdoor communications at New York University. This research is performed in the physical layer for Non-Line-of-Sight scenarios. Our goal is to increase the received signal power and establish a viable transmission link, reducing the degrading effects of multipath and atmospheric noise. To achieve this goal, a search algorithm is implemented to find the main spatial energy lobe with maximum power concentration and separate it from other spatial lobes that mostly contain noise. This will act as a reference point in order to perform adaptive beamforming needed for increasing the total received signal power and noise reduction.

Committee:

Donald Ucci (Advisor); Dmitriy Garmatyuk (Committee Member); Qihou Zhou (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering

Keywords:

5G;mmWaves;NYUSIM;Search Algorithm;Phased Array Antenna;Adaptive Beamforming

CHEN, JIJUNExperimental Method for Measurements of Time-resolved Reflectance in Scattering Media
Master of Science, Miami University, 2018, Physics
When a pulse of light propagates through scattering media, the temporal information of the light carries can be used to extract the optical properties of the media. To achieve this goal, we used a supercontinuum laser source with a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) based coupled to a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) to measure the time-resolved reflectance signals using fibers. This thesis focuses on building an optimal set-up for the measurement by measuring the instrument response function (IRF) and the distribution for photon time of flight (DTOF). To find the optimal set-up, which has the IRF that is consistent with the manufacture and show the difference of DTOF of medium with different optical properties, we not only collected the data from different detectors but also collected it from set-up with different optical configurations and with different fiber probes. Finally, we measured signals from solid tissue phantoms and deduced its optical properties of it using diffusion theory. Preliminary results indicate that data are well modeled by theory. In the future, this system can be used to measure signals from real biological tissues and extract their optical properties.

Committee:

Karthik Vishwanath (Advisor); Samir Bali (Committee Member); Urayama Paul (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biophysics

Keywords:

Time-resolved; Reflectance; Diffusion theory; TCSPC system

Bandara, DhanukaT.S. Eliot and the Universality of Metaphysics; a Buddhist-Hegelian critique of post-structuralist and post-colonial theory through a reading of Eliot’s poetry and criticism
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2018, English
-structuralist and post-colonial theory through a reading of T.S. Eliot’s poetry and criticism. The reading of Eliot will draw upon the Buddhist and Hegelian description of metaphysics and establish the possibility of “universal metaphysics.” Within this universal understanding of metaphysics “theory” will be critiqued. The thesis argues that theory (post-structuralist and post-colonial in particular) posits divisions that in actuality do not exist. As a result theory fails to grasp the immanence in the ephemeral, patterns in chaos. The thesis argues that the post-structuralist metaphysics (its critique of the “Sovereign Subject” and “Self-Presence”) is in the service of the metaphysical logic of capitalism, and urges a return to “universality.”

Committee:

Andrew Hebard , Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

Eliot, Metaphysics, Buddhism, Hegel, Theory, Universality

Munroe, Mary KContributions of Peer Rejection and Family Discord to Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Trans Children.
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Psychology
Although high rates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology have been documented among transgender and gender nonconforming (i.e., trans) youth (Aitken, VanderLaan, Wasserman, Stojanovski, & Zucker, 2016; Steensma et al., 2014; Zucker et al., 2012), some research indicates that trans children who have the support of their parents may not be at elevated risk for psychopathology relative to their cisgender peers (Hill, Menvielle, Sica, & Johnson, 2010; Olson, Durwood, DeMeules, & McLaughlin, 2016). Little research has tested contextual factors influencing the development of psychopathology among trans kids. The current study tests the relation between parent-reported peer rejection, family discord, and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of 49 trans children. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that peer rejection was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms. High family discord (vs. healthier family functioning) was associated with greater internalizing symptoms among kids without peer rejection. However, among kids who experienced peer rejection, there was no significant difference in internalizing symptoms between kids with high (vs. low) family discord. The current research indicates that peer rejection and family discord are differentially related to internalizing and externalizing symptoms among trans youth, and that experiences of peer rejection may be transient, rather than stable, over time.

Committee:

Elise Clerkin, PhD (Advisor); Katherine Kuvalanka, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Vaishali Raval, PhD (Committee Member); Aaron Luebbe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

trans; transgender; transgender children; peer rejection; family discord; family functioning; internalizing disorders; externalizing disorders

Cook, Gregory PANTARCTIC CHLAMYDOMONAS STRAINS C. SP. UWO241 AND ICE-MDV EXHIBIT DIFFERENTIAL RESTRUCTURING OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS IN RESPONSE TO IRON
Master of Science, Miami University, 2018, Microbiology
As an integral cofactor for many redox-associated processes, iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial in order to produce sufficient energy for the organism. Fe limitation, or excess, can cause major alterations in the function and structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Photosynthetic psychrophiles grown under permanent low temperatures exhibit novel adaptations in their photosynthetic apparatus to deal with this permanent stress. The ice- covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys harbor many species of cold-adapted algae, including Chlamydomonas sp. UWO241 (UWO241). As a consequence of adaptation to multiple permanent extreme conditions, UWO241 exhibits a remodeled photosynthetic apparatus for maintaining redox poise. One unusual characteristic of UWO241 is the absence of a PSI-associated 77K fluorescence emission under a wide range of growth conditions. This phenotype resembles Fe deficiency in other model organisms such as C. reinhardtii. We hypothesized that adaptation to permanent iron deficiency in its native environment may contribute to this unusual phenotype. We compared the effect of Fe availability on the physiology and photobiology of UWO241 with the model C. reinhardtii as well as a second psychrophilic alga, Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-MDV (ICE). The impacts of a restructured photosynthetic apparatus on the unique Fe-associated phenotype in UWO241 will be discussed.

Committee:

Rachael Morgan-Kiss, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Microbiology

Schmitz, Benjamin PPost Translational Modifications and How to Use Them
Master of Science, Miami University, 2018, Cell, Molecular and Structural Biology (CMSB)
Enzymes, while incredibly complex, are limited in functionality to their twenty canonical amino acids. To shortcut this limitation, nature has evolved to utilize post translational modification (PTM) of protein structure to regulate cellular functions. Whether this be as essential cofactors or acting as regulators of enzyme activity, controlling cellular processes by PTMs are absolutely essential to the molecular-level events that coordinate and sustain life. Within a massive population of possible binding sites, enzymes responsible for PTMs manage to find their precise target through highly selective recognition sites. LplA has been shown to be a convenient tool for attaching small molecule precursors to its recognition site. The aim of this study is to modify the enzyme Lipoic acid ligase A (LplA) to effectively carve a tunnel through the backside of the enzyme. By carving a tunnel through the ligase, this work aims to broaden the substrate compatibility range of LplA for post translational modification of target proteins. Additionally in this study, crystal structures of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) will be solved and analyzed for evidence of S-nitrosylation. It is the goal of this study to gain a better understanding of how this PTM regulates heme binding to GAPDH.

Committee:

Richard Page (Advisor); Michael Robinson (Committee Chair); Yoshi Tomoyasu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry

Keywords:

Protein Engineering; Structural Biology; PTMs; GAPDH; LplA

Ma, ShaoyingThe Effect of Income Inequality on Household Consumption: Evidence from China Household Finance Survey Data
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, Economics
This paper tests the effects of within-province income inequality on household consumption and education expenditures using the China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) data. Income inequality has a significant and positive impact on household consumption net of education expenditures in China, and no urban-rural heterogeneity of such effect is found. Income inequality significantly and positively affects education expenditures by the poor, and it has no impact on education expenditures by the middle class and the rich. The effect of income inequality on household consumption net of education expenditures varies across different quantiles of consumption distribution, and it is stronger at higher quantiles. The results are robust to various sets of household level control variables.

Committee:

George Davis (Advisor); Jing Li (Committee Member); Janice Kinghorn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

Inequality; Consumption; Education expenditures; Keeping up with the Joneses; Status-seeking

Egan, Bryce DavidLow-Cost Molecular Spectroscopy Microscopy Instrumentation
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Chemistry
This thesis describes two unique projects that involve the investigation of low-cost molecular spectroscopy and microscopy instrumentation. This investigation was performed using both existing spectroscopic instrumentation and those constructed in the laboratory. The first project entailed building a custom Raman spectrometer using a low-light level monochrome digital camera as a detector to see if improvements could be made over another homebuilt Raman spectrometer which utilized a commercial digital photographic camera. The second project involved a comparison of infrared instruments from different periods in time and the investigation of the new SurveyIR microscope accessory that can be placed directly into an FTIR sample compartment. Results for the first project demonstrated that incorporation of the lowlight level camera as a detector into the lab constructed Raman spectrometer provided no major advantages over the commercial digital camera. Results for the second project showed that while older instruments and accessories could potentially be used for certain applications, newer instruments and accessories provided notably higher light throughput and signal to noise values. For both light throughput and signal to noise, the highest values were achieved using the SurveyIR microscope interfaced to a Frontier FTIR. The SurveyIR was also able to utilize its ATR functionality to reproduce the quantification of pigments in pigment loaded polypropylene fibers which had previously been performed using transmission infrared techniques

Committee:

Andre Sommer (Advisor)

Subjects:

Analytical Chemistry; Chemistry

Keywords:

Spectroscopy;Microscopy;Infrared;Raman;Low-Cost

Thomas, Bryant DavidNew Retro: An Exploration of Modern Video Games With A Retro Aesthetic
Master of Fine Arts, Miami University, 2017, Art
This research paper is about the differences in experiences video game players have when playing retro games, modern games, and recent games created using a retro aesthetic. The definition of modern games using a retro aesthetic is any game made for modern video game hardware (consoles, handhelds, and computers) that uses game design choices or visual stylings of older video games. The paper focuses on the types of games video game players enjoy, and the different emotions they associate with the games from different generations. A total of 17 participants took the survey, and a total of 6 study participants chose to be interviewed. Both of these research methods were utilized to gain a better understanding of how video game players experience games from different generations. The outcome of the study is a proof of concept experience that takes elements from across gaming generations and combines them into one event.The prototype is usability tested to see if video game players connect well with the multiple experiences converging together.

Committee:

Dennis Cheatham (Committee Chair); Eric Hodgson (Committee Member); Ray Claxton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Design; Technology

Keywords:

Video Games; Nostalgia; Retro; Final Fantasy; Shovel Knight; New Retro; Miami University

Banks, Laurie AUnderstanding implementation, student outcomes, and educational leadership related to Ohio's Third Grade Reading Guarantee
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
This study explores the outcomes of policy implementation from the perspective of the policy makers and the educators who are charged with implementation, specifically examining the decision-making process for district leaders during implementation. The study identifies the outcomes from the perspective of the policy-maker utilizing accountability measures, while examining the decision-making process by district leaders during implementation particularly focusing on doing what is “right” and what is “good” as defined by Strike (2008). The author provides an overview of Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee (TGRG). Ohio’s TGRG is one of many literacy policy’s in America that include retention as a consequence for students not able to demonstrate proficiency by the end of third grade. Quantitative and qualitative data provide a robust data set to inform the scholarship around policy and implementation from a dual perspective. The study reveals the statewide trends in reading proficiency in third grade did not change after implementation, only after a new type of assessment was administered during SY 15-16, resulting in a drastic decline in proficiency as assessed through high-stakes assessment. The K3 literacy measure, an accountability measure for schools and districts tied to Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee, had a significant negative correlation to student demographics across all three years of initial implementation. This study found one cohort of students placed on Reading Improvement and Monitoring Plans (RIMPs) in a local education agency (LEA), after being found not on track in third grade, and then promoted to fourth grade, were assessed as fourth graders and found still to be off track as assessed by the fall diagnostic. Interviews were conducted with six educational leaders from an LEA. Those interviewed were asked to reflect on the implementation of Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee and the decisions they tackled during implementation to ensure they acted as functionaries, focusing on what is “right” and “good” (Strike, 2008). The data set was evaluated utilizing Strike’s (2008) work on ethical leadership and decision making. The author concludes the study with policy recommendations and considerations for those in K-12 Leadership.

Committee:

Andrew Saultz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Literacy

Keywords:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership, Literacy, Retention; Literacy Policy; Reading Instruction, Intervention

Gatlin, DeAngelo CRelations Between Family Cohesion and Social Competence Among Youth Living in Poverty
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2017, School Psychology
Research abounds that explores the impact of economic disadvantage on youth and their families. An increased likelihood of the development of assorted negative outcomes has been revealed, yet researchers have also presented various protective factors for these families. The current study employs a correlational research design to investigate (a) the relationship between family cohesion and social competence among a large and ethnoracially diverse sample of U.S. families living in poverty, and (b) the potential moderating role of grade level on that relationship. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES IV; Olson 2011) and Harter’s Perceived Competence Scale (Harter, 1985) were adapted to measure family cohesion and social competence. Results revealed that family cohesion was significantly and positively related to social competence among the sample. A regression analysis demonstrated that grade level did not significantly moderate the relationship between family cohesion and social competence. Practical implications and future research directions are provided.

Committee:

Amity Noltemeyer, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anthony James, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Bush, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Families and Family Life

Keywords:

family cohesion; social competence; poverty; economic disadvantage

Craig, JacquelineIntergenerational Mobility of Men and Women 1880-1910
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, Economics
Previous research shows a notably higher degree of economic mobility for men in the 19th century in comparison to today. However, due to data limitations, changes in female economic mobility over time are not well understood. I study intergenerational income mobility of both men and women during the end of the 19th century to early 20th century, providing the first direct estimate for female mobility during this time period. Using a set of marriage certificates from Massachusetts over the period of 1880-1910, I link men and women to their 1880 and 1910 census records to obtain a measure of occupational standing for two generations. I measure intergenerational mobility for men by regressing the son's occupational income score on that of the father. Due to the absence of women in the work force during this period, intergenerational mobility for women is measured by the correlation in husband's occupational income score and the wife's father's occupational income score. The direct-linked intergenerational elasticity of income for women is lower than for men, meaning that mobility for women is higher than mobility for men during this time period. I find an overall higher mobility level during this time period compared to the modern period.

Committee:

Gregory Niemesh (Advisor); Charles Moul (Committee Member); Melissa Thomasson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic History

Ellerbe, Jennifer ChristineGAINING INSIGHT INTO ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION: THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF ALTERNATIVE EDUCATORS
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
What do the lived experiences of alternative school teachers reveal about the state of alternative education? This study sought to reflectively examine the experiences of three alternative school teachers that serve at-risk populations of students. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the experiences of alternative school teachers to extract the lived experiences and realities of these teachers. This interpretive narrative inquiry explored the phenomenon of regional alternative school teachers’ attitudes and perceptions toward alternative education. The focus of the study was on how regional alternative school teachers in a county in Southwest Ohio understand what makes a good alternative education program and what they understand to be the restraints on developing or implementing such programs. The research participants have all been working in the field of alternative education for at least 5 years and all have been teaching for at least 10 years. In this study, qualitative case study methods such as interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis were used to triangulate the data and reveal the lived experiences of these educators. This study found four major themes that emerged from the experiences of the alternative school teachers and what they believed to be true about alternative education. The four major themes highlighted in this study are that: 1) Certain resources and services must be accessible/available to students; 2) A negative image/stereotype teachers in alternative education are a focal point and important contributing factors to the overall program quality; 4) Certain factors must be in place to improve the effectiveness and is associated with alternative education that creates obstacles for students and teachers; 3) The functioning of alternative schools.

Committee:

Thomas Poetter, Dr (Committee Chair); Kate Rousmaniere, Dr (Committee Member); Joel Malin, Dr (Committee Member); Molly Moorhead, Dr (Committee Member); Leah Wasburn-Moses, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Alternative Education; Education; Alternative

Devine, Racheal ARegulatory Features of the 5' Untranslated Leader Region of aroL in Escherichia coli K12 and the sRNA, ryhB, in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Microbiology
RNA is an important regulator of gene expression within bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal cells. This work focuses on two aspects of RNA regulation: the first half investigates the role of regulatory features within the 5’ untranslated leader region (UTR) of the E. coli aroL mRNA and the second half focuses on an sRNA in S. oneidensis MR-1. The 5’UTR of mRNAs contain information necessary for ribosome recognition and subsequent translation initiation. Translation initiation is a prominent part of gene expression, as it is the rate-limiting step of translation. The 70S ternary initiation complex contains initiator tRNA and the mRNA’s start codon positioned in the P-site of the 70S ribosome. The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence within the 5’UTR of the mRNA is an important feature that helps facilitate the initial interaction between the mRNA and the 30S subunit. Translation of mRNAs lacking an SD has been reported and suggests that alternative mechanisms of mRNA-30S interactions exist. The aroL mRNA contains a short open reading frame within its 5’UTR. Ribosome binding and expression assays showed that this open reading frame gets translated, and its translation affects aroL translation downstream. The upstream open reading frame binds 30S subunits in the absence of a canonical SD sequence. In this work, we have shown that multiple signals in the mRNA (upstream and downstream of the AUG) contribute to 30S binding to and translation from the AUG start codon. In this work we have also characterized an sRNA, a ryhB homologue, in S. oneidensis MR-1. sRNAs contain regulatory features in their sequence and structure that help regulate translation of bacterial mRNAs in response to environmental cues. Similar to what has been reported in E. coli, the sRNA is regulated in response to iron limitation in S. oneidensis MR-1 and may have a regulatory role in iron metabolism.

Committee:

Mitch Balish (Advisor)

Subjects:

Microbiology; Molecular Biology

Keywords:

translation initiation; non-canonical translation initiation; Shine-Dalgarno; non-Shine-Dalgarno led mRNA;

Schuepfer, KurtThe Impact of Anthropomorphism Type on Social Exclusion Recovery
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Psychology
Anthropomorphism, or perceiving non-human entities in human-like ways, is motivated by the need to socially connect. Although previous research has shown that engaging in anthropomorphism satiates belongingness needs, it has not addressed the possibility that particular types of anthropomorphizing may aid more than others. The current work presents three experiments that explored the effect of anthropomorphism type on recovery from social exclusion. Specifically, in a Pilot Study I tested the hypothesis that reading about an animal anthropomorphized with experiential capacities (versus agentic capacities) would more greatly facilitate recovery of basic needs and mood following exclusion. In Study 1, I attempted to replicate the Pilot Study findings using a more construct-valid operationalization of anthropomorphism. In Study 2, I examined the possibility that this effect would blunt a downstream behavioral consequence of exclusion, namely aggression. Overall the results provided mixed support for the hypotheses. In only one of three studies did I find evidence that experiential anthropomorphism facilitates greater recovery of basic needs following social exclusion. Implications of these findings for the literatures on both social exclusion and anthropomorphism are discussed.

Committee:

Heather Claypool (Committee Chair); Kurt Hugenberg (Committee Member); Jonathan Kunstman (Committee Member); Neil Brigden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

anthropomorphism, mind perception, social exclusion, ostracism, social psychology

Stapleton, Jacob DSYNTHESIS OF UPPER CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMPERATURE POLYMER FOR APPLICATIONS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Chemical, Paper & Biomedical Engineering
There has been significant interest in the conjugation of proteins with lower critical solution temperature (LCTS) polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). These protein-polymer conjugates, which become insoluble with an increase of temperature, have been studied as a means to increase protein stability, modify enzyme activity, and for applications such as biocatalysis, bioseparations, and drug delivery. There are very few examples of protein-polymer conjugates with upper critical solution temperature (UCST) polymers. In this case, proteins conjugated with UCST polymers would become insoluble by lowering the temperature below the UCST temperature. This type of protein-polymer conjugate could be especially useful for recovery and recycling of temperature sensitive proteins. In this study, RAFT polymerization was used to create a family of UCST polymers composed of a random copolymer of acrylamide and acrylonitrile (p(AAm-co-AN) and of the zwitterionic polymer poly(N,N’-dimethyl(methacryloylethyl)ammonium propane sulfonate) (pDMAPS). The resulting polymers were studied to determine the impact of polymer chain length, polymer composition, solution pH and salt concentration on the cloud point temperature. Different approaches to synthesize protein-polymer conjugates with UCST polymer were explored.

Committee:

Jason Berberich (Advisor); Justin Saul (Committee Member); Jessica Sparks (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering; Chemistry; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Cummins, Adam RLocal Solid Waste Management Planning in Ohio: A Case Study of Adams-Clermont Solid Waste District
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2017, Environmental Sciences
This report provides historical context on how solid waste management has evolved in the United States, particularly in Ohio, and identifies the key federal and state legislation adopted to address solid waste management challenges experienced in the mid and late 1900s. Furthermore, it describes the regulatory framework for the solid waste management planning process both at the state and local levels in Ohio. Finally, it summarizes my role as an intern, describes the challenges I experienced while preparing the Adams-Clermont Solid Waste Management Plan, identifies opportunities to those challenges through legislative and policy recommendations, and describes several non-legislative solutions I subsequently implemented as a solid waste planner at the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency.

Committee:

Suzanne Zazycki (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Law; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Urban Planning

Keywords:

solid waste, solid waste management, solid waste management planning, Ohio solid waste management, solid waste management district

Loss, KelseyCORRELATES AMONG OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER ADULTS, AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION
Master of Science in Exercise and Health Studies, Miami University, 2017, Exercise and Health Studies
Evidence has shown relationships between physical activity (PA) and cognitive function (CF) in older adults. Yet, there is little research comparing subjective measures PA (SMPA, CHAMPS questionnaire) and objective measures of PA (SMPA, accelerometry) in older adults, 65 years+. Thus, the primary PURPOSE of this study is to examine the validity of the CHAMPS questionnaire and accelerometry data to assess PA in older adults 65 years+. The secondary purpose of this study is to determine if SMPA or SMPA is a better predictor of CF. METHODS: In sixty-five older adults (age: 77.1±7.9 years) we examined the relationship between SMPA and OMPA using partial correlations (controlling for age, gender, and BMI). Hierarchical regression was utilized to determine if SMPA or OMPA was a better predictor of CF. RESULTS: Both total and moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA) OMPA and SMPA were correlated (p< 0.05). CF was correlated with: counts/min (r=0.38, p<0.01), OMPA MVPA (r=0.40, p<0.001), and sedentary:moderate minutes/day (r= -0.53, p<0.0001). Sedentary:moderate ratio, MVPA, and sedentary minutes/day contribute (p < 0.05) to predicting CF. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that the CHAMPS questionnaire may serve as an acceptable proxy for OMPA. Our findings also show that OMPA is superior to SMPA for the prediction of CF.

Committee:

Kyle Timmerman (Advisor); Thelma Horn (Committee Member); Randal Claytor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Kinesiology

Fyffe, Deanna LynneMethods to Monitor Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms: A Fellowship with the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2017, Environmental Sciences
To fulfill the professional experience requirement for a Master of Environmental Science degree at Miami University, I completed a fellowship with the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR). My work involved investigating data trends of recent Lake Erie harmful algal blooms and potential monitoring methods. Data trends revealed monitoring stations closest to the mouth of the Maumee River had the highest average cyanobacteria concentrations. Bloom biomass distribution tended to favor the surface of the water column but was likely influenced by wind speed in 2016 and 2017. I also compared chlorophyll-a data from a CIGLR-owned bbe FluoroProbe to laboratory extraction data. The bbe FluoroProbe provided consistent results when used in the field and in the laboratory, but generally identified less chlorophyll-a than pigment extraction methods. Additionally, I performed field, laboratory, and analytical work to evaluate commercial in situ fluorometers. Due to proprietary reasons, the individual fluorometer data could not be presented in this report. I provided an example field deployment evaluation for the YSI EXO2 Multiparameter Sonde, a CIGLR-owned fluorometer that was used during the field tests for ancillary data. The EXO2 ultimately had low accuracy when compared to traditional laboratory methods, but both methods produced similar data trends.

Committee:

Suzanne Zazycki, JD (Advisor); Bartosz Grudzinski, PhD (Committee Member); Vanni Michael, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Freshwater Ecology; Microbiology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Lake Erie, Great Lakes, harmful algal bloom, HAB, water quality, in situ, fluorometer, cyanobacteria, biomass, microcystis, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, pigment, research, laboratory, EXO2, FluoroProbe, NOAA, GLERL, CIGLR, monitoring

Unamboowe, Heshan BandaraTransient Dynamics of Curved Beams under Thermal Loading
Master of Science, Miami University, 2018, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering
Curved beams are an essential structural form widely used in the engineering industry. When loaded past a critical point, they may buckle in a bifurcation or snap-through mode. Studies have shown that structural buckling problems are highly sensitive to slight changes in thermal properties. A shallow curved beam model subjected to a harmonic excitation was considered in this paper. A simplified, dimensionless one degree of freedom numerical model was obtained following the works of [1]. Using this model, transient dynamics of the system were evaluated for varying forcing parameters. The effect of the arch rise (λ) was examined as varying thermal properties affect the geometry of the beam system. A shallow arch experiment was introduced to validate the numerical model obtained. Arch rise due to thermal loading was recorded in the experiment and a function for λ due to change in temperature and time was developed to be incorporated in the numerical model. Receptance transfer functions of both experimental and numerical models verified that the numerical model is a valid approximation. Wavelet analysis was utilized to analyze time series data in the frequency domain and to produce an effective representation of system responses localized in both time and frequency.

Committee:

Amit Shukla, PhD. (Committee Member); Edgar Caraballo, PhD. (Committee Member); James Chagdes, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Curved beams; transient dynamics; thermal loading; nonlinear dynamics; arch rise

Najfach, Aaron JacobEFFECT OF MANGANESE AND ZEOLITE COMPOSITION ON ZEOLITE-SUPPORTED NICKEL CATALYSTS FOR DRY REFORMING OF METHANE
Master of Science, Miami University, 2017, Chemical, Paper & Biomedical Engineering
Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a reaction of interest for utilizing two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, for syngas production. Catalysts are used to facilitate DRM as high temperatures are required. Noble metals are chosen for their effectiveness; however, these metals are expensive. Nickel as a substitute for DRM catalysts has interest for its low relative cost while still exhibiting effectiveness. Carbon deposition from side reactions is a concern as it causes catalysts fouling. To address this, addition of a second metal has shown success at facilitating the consumption of built-up carbon. Manganese has shown promise as an inexpensive second metal for this purpose. This study examines the effect of manganese loading on nickel catalysts and the effect different zeolites have on DRM. Samples were characterized with BET analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Catalysts were tested for activity and carbon deposition. It was found that the addition of manganese has a beneficial effect on reducing catalyst fouling. It was also found, over 24 hours, zeolite type had some effect on catalyst activity and may influence carbon formation. The role of manganese and sodium on zeolite destruction is also discussed.

Committee:

Catherine Almquist (Advisor); Andrew Paluch (Committee Member); Douglas Coffin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering

Keywords:

Catalysis, Dry reforming, methane, carbon dioxide, syngas, nickel, manganese, zeolites

Young, Cheryl DeniseEncountering the Emergence of Curiosity in a Sojourn Experience
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Institutions of higher education in the United States are undertaking strategies to comprehensively internationalize across all realms of the university. Embedded into institutional strategies is an expectation that a study abroad cultural immersion experience for undergraduates will increase their intercultural and global competence. One of the competencies identified as important to cultivate through the sojourner experience is curiosity. The object of this study is curiosity as an intercultural competence. The literature on curiosity as an intercultural competence is focused on a pre-conceived notion of curiosity, and from this arises a need to examine the manifestation of the phenomenon of curiosity in a sojourn experience to recognize it and subsequently understand through future research projects how it can be cultivated through intentionally designed curriculum and pedagogy. The question that guided this study is: What is the lived experience of human interpersonal curiosity as it manifests in an intercultural learning experience that takes students into an unfamiliar culture? This study was designed to examine undergraduate, American, study abroad students’ experiences of the phenomenon of curiosity during a cross-cultural study abroad experience, and to explore the essence of curiosity. Interviews with and observations of students in the pre- and post-study abroad phase, as well as during their sojourn experience, revealed that student curiosity is strongly influenced by teachers and cultivated by school enrichment programs. Intercultural wonderment encompasses student curiosity and involves a willingness to engage with the discomfort of the unknown. The discomfort of intercultural wonderment leads to a breakthrough in which the threshold concept of culture-as-meta-context propels the students into a transformed worldview. The currere method brought a richness of depth of the exploration to engage the students in reflecting on their educational experiences, as well as social media images and text. The narrative is framed through the researcher’s currere perspective which serves as a signpost throughout the exploration while moving it through hermeneutic circles framed in regressive, progressive, analytical, and synthetical steps.

Committee:

Thomas Poetter (Committee Chair); Denise Taliaferro Baszile (Committee Member); Joel Malin (Committee Member); James Shiveley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

curiosity; currere; study abroad

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