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Kiskowski, William LARAB AMERICAN IDENTITIES AND THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF DEARBORN, MICHIGAN
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Dearborn Michigan is perhaps the most notable Arab American community in the United States. This dissertation examines how Arab Americans in Dearborn have altered landscapes to suit their needs and tastes. Using qualitative approaches to landscape observation and participant engagement, I have explored the Dearborn community and neighborhood, focusing on the visual built environment to identify alterations to the landscape affected by Arab Americans. Informants also offered varied perceptions of the neighborhood’s ongoing redevelopment and Dearborn’s symbolic position as an Arab American enclave. In the context of Dearborn’s ethnic enclave and two of its major Arab American Organizations, the Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS) and the Arab American National Museum (AANM), I discuss the development of Arab American identities. The relationship between the various subgroups in the Arab American community is complex, and Dearborn is not perceived as an in-group enclave by all Arab American groups. It appears that the sense of pan-Arabism fostered by major organizations has yet to become salient among the majority of Arab Americans. There is, however, a growing level of comfort for Arabs, non-Arab Muslims, and other Middle Easterners within the Dearborn neighborhood and the surrounding area. Dearborn offers an inviting setting for visitors and students who wish to practice traditional culture without drawing notice.

Committee:

David Kaplan, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sarah Smiley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jacqueline Curtis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Landon Hancock, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Ethnicity; Immigration; Arab; Enclave

Alaql, Omar abdulrahmanGENERAL PURPOSE APPROACHES FOR NO-REFERENCE IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
The last decade has witnessed great advances in digital images. Massive numbers of digital images are being captured by mobile digital cameras due to the increasing popularity of mobile imaging devices. These images are subjected to many processing stages during storing, transmitting, or sharing over a network connection. Unfortunately, these processing stages could potentially add visual degradation to original image. These degradations reduce the perceived visual quality which leads to an unsatisfactory experience for human viewers. Therefore, Image Quality Assessment (IQA) has become a topic of high interest and intense research over the last decade. The aim of IQA is to automatically assess image quality in agreement with human judgments. This dissertation mainly focuses on the most challenging category of IQA - general- purpose No-Reference Image Quality Assessment (NR-IQA), where the goal is to assess the quality of images without information about the reference images and without prior knowledge about the types of distortions in the tested image. This dissertation contributes to the research of image quality assessment by proposing three novel approaches for NR- IQA and one model for image distortions classification. First, we propose improvements in image distortions classification by introducing a training model based on new features collection. Second, we propose a NR-IQA technique, which utilizes our improvement in the classification model, and based on a hypothesis that an effective combination of image features can be used to develop efficient NR-IQA approaches. Third, a NR-IQA technique is proposed based on Natural Scene Statistics (NSS) by finding the distance between the natural images and the distorted images in 3D dimensional space. Forth, a novel NR-IQA approach is presented, by utilizing multiple Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) with multiple regression models. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed and some existing models on a fair basis. The obtained results show that our models give better results and yield a significant improvement.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu (Advisor); Austin Melton (Committee Member); Kambiz Ghazinour (Committee Member); Jun Li (Committee Member); Mohammed Khan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Lusher, Katelyn JRecognizing Student Emotion: Resistance and Pathos in the Composition Classroom
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
Scholars have neglected the topic of or pathos, or emotion, in the classroom particularly student emotion; usually it is only the emotional labor of instructors that is analyzed at length. It is my belief that student emotion is at the core of their resistance in the classroom; when a student resists a teacher’s instruction, it is not necessarily “something to be overcome.” According to critical pedagogical endoxa/values students must eventually accept the teacher’s critical goals, but this perspective does not consider the potential for emotion-based resistance. My thesis demonstrates that critical pedagogy neglects student emotion rather than addressing this resistance. I also consider how and why pathos is underutilized in the composition classroom and suggest it as a way to understand resistance. To these ends, I use Laura Micciche’s definition of emotion: “emotions are enacted and embodied in the social world [and] produced between people and between people and things. That is, we do emotions—they don’t simply happen to us” (Micciche 2007 1-2). According to Micciche, students must be able to explore the emotions of their fellow classmates and their instructor. Understanding student emotions and acknowledging the need to address them will benefit composition instructors (particularly the inexperienced) and add another dimension to emotion studies; furthermore, I believe acknowledging student emotion will assist instructors in developing effective pedagogies for their classrooms.

Committee:

Sara Newman, Dr. (Committee Chair); Keith Lloyd, Dr. (Committee Member); Bill Kist, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Literacy; Rhetoric

Keywords:

critical pedagogy, emotion, students, composition, classroom, rhetoric, pedagogy, resistance, pathos, instructors, teachers

Alexiou, KostasOrganizational Legitimacy in Entrepreneurial Contexts: Hybridity, Crowdfunding, and Social Entrepreneurship
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
This dissertation contains three essays investigating entrepreneurship under conditions of institutional uncertainty; conditions in which clear, well-defined rules or logics are not available. Under such conditions, new organizations experience greater difficulty in building legitimacy, a critical first step for new ventures seeking capital and other necessary resources. This dissertation builds on prior research in social entrepreneurship, conceptualizing social enterprise as a type of hybrid organization - organizations that combine institutional logics in new and often unexpected ways - and explores the effects that hybridity has on legitimacy and crowdfunding outcomes. Essay 1 develops and validates a multi-dimensional, perceptual measure of legitimacy over the course of five studies. While this dissertation is focused on the context of entrepreneurship, a measure of perceived legitimacy should be most useful to researchers interested in the “microfoundations” of institutional theory. Essays 2 focuses on social entrepreneurship (social enterprise) as a form of hybrid organization. By definition, social entrepreneurs use market-based mechanisms to achieve a specific social cause or purpose. As a result, they simultaneously act as both a commercial organization as well as a charity, resulting in what is referred to as a hybrid identity. This can create conflicting sets of expectations in terms of how these organizations should behave, which can be a threat to an organization’s legitimacy. Essay 2 uses an experimental design and the measures developed in Essay 1 to examine how social entrepreneurs’ hybrid identities, in combination with the organization’s chosen legal form (for-profit, non-profit, B-Corp), influence perceptions of the different dimensions of organizational legitimacy. Essay 3 examines the relationship between social entrepreneurs’ hybrid identities and legitimacy by exploring the success/failure of crowdfunding campaigns. Using data gathered from a unique crowdfunding platform specific to social enterprise, the results of this study demonstrate that contrary to what prior research would predict, communicating a hybrid identity improves crowdfunding outcomes for social entrepreneurs. The results show that emphasizing the utilitarian elements of a hybrid identity has a positive effect on the amount of capital raised in a crowdfunding campaign due to the legitimate distinctiveness it bestows on these types of organizations.

Committee:

Jennifer Wiggins (Committee Chair); C├ęsar Zamudio (Committee Member); Greta Polites (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; hybrid organizations; legitimacy; measurement; crowdfunding

Nardy, Margaret TThe Cost of Urban Change on Neighborhood Schools: The Case of Youngstown, Ohio, 1946-1997
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
NARDY, MARGARET T., Ph.D., May 2017 CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION THE COST OF URBAN CHANGE TO NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOLS: THE CASE OF YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO, 1946-1997 (200 pp.) Director of Dissertation: Vilma Seeberg, Ph.D. This study was designed to trace the phenomena that led to the degeneration of the neighborhood school system in a city in decline. Youngstown, Ohio, once a thriving, populous, steel-producing town, has been in a steady state of decline since the late 1970s. This study used socio-historical research methods and relied on selected literature primarily on how deindustrialization, suburbanization, and relevant social and education policies have affected the Youngstown school system’s decline. This study argued that Youngstown’s school system decline is a result of deindustrialization, suburbanization, and educational and social policies, all of which played a significant role in the dismantling of its neighborhoods and neighborhood schools. The study explored the specifics and dynamic interactions of both national and local facets of deindustrialization, suburbanization, and social policies relevant to the school system.

Committee:

Vilma Seeberg, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

deindustrialization, suburbanization, urban renewa, federal policy, and neighborhood schools

Singh, ShwetaYOU ARE WHAT YOU STUDY OR YOU STUDY WHAT YOU ARE? CHOICE OF COLLEGE MAJOR AND IDENTITY AFFIRMATION AMONG EMERGING ADULTS
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
One of the critical developmental challenges of emerging adulthood is identity development and affirmation. This process continues throughout college when many undergraduate students experience increased independence and are thus free to “try on” new identities, or affirm existing identities which have proven meaningful. Opting for a major is a big leap towards shaping a student’s future and defining their desired adult identities. Additionally, it may be an expression of who they are and who they desire to become. This study aims to understand the role of this choice in the process of expressing and affirming one’s identity. This study tests the hypothesis that selection of a major provides an opportunity to affirm a student’s identity because it denotes certain desirable characteristic traits, or identity images. The study was conducted in two parts. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that unique clusters of identity images can be identified for different undergraduate majors (i.e., Hospitality Management, Recreation, Parks & Tourism Management, Journalism, Fashion Design and Biology). The findings suggested that discrete sets of identity images do exist for some of the majors while others shared some identity images. Study 2 investigated the second hypothesis and found that students tended to correspond highly to the identity images symbolized by their chosen major more than the identity images symbolized by other majors. Study 2 also asserted that emerging adults perceive a great degree of freedom in their choice of a college major. Results are discussed along with implications and future research prospects.

Committee:

Andrew Lepp, Dr. (Committee Member); Aviad Israeli, Dr. (Committee Member); Philip Wang, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Recreation

Keywords:

identity image, identity affirmation, college major

Bober, Delia ASingled Out for Success: A Narrative Inquiry of Single Mothers in the Community College
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand single-mother community college students’ perceptions of their ability to succeed. The theoretical framework that guided this research was Bandura’s (1977) social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy, defined as a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed. Given prevalent deficit mindset surrounding the single-mother population, this study sought to flip the negative narrative and investigate these students through a strengths-based lens. In this narrative inquiry study, I collected data through semi-structured interviews of seven single-mother students at a large Midwestern community college. Utilizing a three-dimensional model, participants shared their life histories, current realities, and future visions leading to an understanding of participants’ perceptions of academic success. Data analysis was completed using narrative analysis techniques from both Connelly and Clandinin (1990) and Luttrell (2010). Seven themes emerged in relation to single mothers’ views of academic success: (a) Range in Parental Perceptions in Relation to Success; (b) Educational Upbringings—A Sense of Not Belonging; (c) Overcoming Abusive Environments; (d) The Community College Paradox—Barriers and Supports to Success; (e) Common Motivators to Success—Children and Single Motherhood; (f) A Positive Shift in Self-Efficacy; and (g) Perceptions and Future Aspirations of Success—”Finishing the Degree” and Paying It Forward.

Committee:

Susan Iverson, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Martha Merrill, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

Single Mothers; Single Mother Students; Single Parent Students; Community College; Narrative Inquiry

Remark, Linda NPortraits of Developmental Reading Students: A Case Study Exploration
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of this study was to explore developmental reading students’ abilities and attitudes in reading, as well as the role literacy played in their lives. As higher education is funded based on student performance, it is in all college stakeholders’ interest to help all students, including developmental learners, succeed. Learning from developmental reading students has been proven to be advantageous in understanding their experiences and assisting with their academic success. Using a descriptive multiple case-study design, data were collected from 16 developmental reading students through two questionnaires, two reading assessments, literacy tracking, and two semi-structured interviews. Five participants’ data were further explored through a case and cross-case analysis. The study found developmental reading students were open to improving their reading abilities and viewed the developmental course as a medium through which to do this. They also appreciated and valued reading, though not always in ways academia would require. Finally, developmental readers were not always able to accurately identify their reading needs and did not view literacy as a social or cultural experience. The results of this study have important curricular implications for developmental students, educators, and their institutions. Instructors should provide meaningful opportunities for reflection on reading abilities and attitudes. Additionally, institutions should incorporate placement measures which place and diagnose specific literacy needs. Finally, classroom experiences need to incorporate and expand on the different types of literacy students are using outside of the classroom as well as support literacy use with others.

Committee:

Denise N. Morgan, PHD (Committee Co-Chair); Kristine E. Pytash, PHD (Committee Co-Chair); Tracy Lara Hilton, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Community College Education; Education

Keywords:

Developmental Reading;Developmental Students;Community College;Case Study

Hamad, Ayman I.AELLIPTIC FLOW STUDY OF CHARMED MESONS IN 200 GEV AU+AU COLLISIONS AT THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Physics
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, predicts that at extreme conditions of high temperature and/or density, quarks and gluons are no longer confined within individual hadrons. This new deconfined state of quarks and gluons is called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The Universe was in this QGP state a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on Long Island, NY was built to create and study the properties of QGP. Due to their heavy masses, quarks with heavy flavor (charm and bottom) are mainly created during the early, energetic stages of the collisions. Heavy flavor is considered to be a unique probe for QGP studies, since it propagates through all phases of a collision, and is affected by the hot and dense medium throughout its evolution. Initial studies, via indirect reconstruction of heavy flavor using their decay electrons, indicated a much higher energy loss by these quarks compared to model predictions, with a magnitude comparable to that of light quarks. Mesons such as D0 could provide information about the interaction of heavy quarks with the surrounding medium through measurements such as elliptic flow. Such data help constrain the transport parameters of the QGP medium and reveal its degree of thermalization. Because heavy hadrons have a low production yield and short lifetime (e.g. ct = 120µm for D0), it is very challenging to obtain accurate measurements of open heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, especially since the collisions also produce large quantities of light-flavor particles. Also due to their short lifetime, it is difficult to distinguish heavy-flavor decay vertices from the primary collision vertex; one needs a very high precision vertex detector in order to separate and reconstruct the decay of the heavy flavor particles in the presence of thousands of other particles produced in each collision. The STAR collaboration built a new micro-vertex detector and installed it in the experiment in 2014. This state-of-the-art silicon pixel technology is named the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT). The HFT was designed in order to perform direct topological reconstruction of the weak decay products from hadrons that include a heavy quark. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon, and it improves the track pointing resolution of the STAR experiment from a few mm to around 30 µm for charged pions at a momentum of 1 GeV/c. In this dissertation, I focus on one of the main goals of the HFT detector, which is to study the elliptic flow v2 (a type of azimuthal anisotropy) for D0 mesons in Au+Au collisions at vsNN = 200 GeV. My analysis is based on the 2014 data set (about 1.2 billion collisions covering all impact parameters) that include data from the HFT detector. There are two new and unique analysis elements used in this dissertation. First, I performed the analysis using a Kalman filter algorithm to reconstruct the charmed-meson candidates. The standard reconstruction is via a simple helix-swim method. The advantage of using the Kalman algorithm is in the use of the full error matrix of each track in the vertex estimation and reconstruction of the properties of the heavy-flavor parent particle. Second, I also used the Tool for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA), a ROOT-environment tool, to its full potential for signal significance optimization, instead of the previous approach based on a set of fixed cuts for separating signal from background. This dissertation presents the elliptic component (v2) of azimuthal anisotropy of D0 mesons as a function of transverse momentum, pT . The centrality (impact parameter) dependence of D0 v2(pT) is also studied. Results are compared with similar studies involving light quarks, and with the predictions of several theoretical models.

Committee:

Spyridon Margetis, Prof. (Advisor); Declan Keane, Prof. (Advisor); Veronica Dexheimer (Committee Member); Songping Huang (Committee Member); Mietek Jaroniec (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nuclear Physics; Particle Physics; Physics

Keywords:

Nuclear Physics; Heavy Ion Collisions; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider; Quark Gluon Plasma; Heavy Flavor quarks; Heavy Flavor Tracker Detector; Azimuthal Anisotropy

Wingate, Tiah JAn Examination of Instrumental Support Received by Parents of Children with Special Health Care Needs Throughout the Life Course
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the instrumental support received by parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) throughout the life course. The study sample included 489 parents of CSHCN obtained from the Wave III sample and the Refresher sample of the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. The study provided a description of the sources of unpaid assistance for the parents of CSHCN and yielded significant findings regarding variations in support receipt associated with life course variables. Parents receive significantly more instrumental support from informal sources than from formal sources at each stage of the family life cycle. Additionally, a significant positive relationship exists between the amount of support received from formal sources and the amount of support received from informal sources. The receipt of support from various specific sources also demonstrates a relationship with the receipt of support from other specific sources. Finally, life course variables including religious participation and gender were associated with the receipt of support from formal sources, whereas family life cycle stage was associated with the receipt of support from informal sources. Parents from families with young children reported receiving significantly more unpaid assistance from informal sources than parents from families at all other life cycle stages. These findings help inform service providers as to parents who may potentially need assistance securing instrumental support as well as point to potential areas for future research.

Committee:

Kelly Cichy, PhD (Advisor); Maureen Blankemeyer, PhD (Committee Member); Rhonda Richardson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Families and Family Life; Health Care; Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

children with special health care needs; parents of CSHCN; social support; instrumental support, parents of children with illness or disability; instrumental support for parents of children with special needs

Whalen, Kevin ChristopherA map system to disseminate national science on forests for the creation of regional tree planting prioritization plans
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
In the United States, urban forestry efforts are sustained through efforts from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, and government agencies across local, state, and national levels. The i-Tree Tools suite of software promotes the use of, peer-reviewed science to explain the benefits that trees provide in a method intended for the general public. This thesis shares the computer-specific knowledge collected during the design, implementation, and continued expansion of i-Tree Landscape. The i-Tree Landscape application is a web-browser based, online, geographic information system, referred to as a web-GIS app. The "pages" of the web-app are part of a system of software libraries and services, along with dedicated hardware, which were specifically researched, compared, selected, and optimally configured for their roles in supporting the system as a whole. This work will also briefly touch upon the open source libraries and services running in the Landscape system, as well as, some of the decisions they influenced with acquiring hardware to support its deployment. Delivering the data and formulas associated with the benefits of trees for the entire geographic area of the United States becomes difficult over the internet, especially when it must be achieved via a non-expert interface. To manage this, the flow of the application is separated into five, non-sequential steps, prefixed with a landing page, and postfixed with a publishable report. This partitioning helps with code responsibility separation, as well. In addition to producing a tailorable report for describing the benefits of trees, the primary purpose of the application is to help prioritize tree planting efforts. This is well needed by foresters to help allocate for popular practice of mass tree plantings. The planning is done via a customizable model utilizing nearly all of the possible attributes as weighting options. The regional aggregations for this are available to users through nine boundary layers, most notably including counties, block groups, and watersheds. The research supporting the data on trees is from working directly with the authors of peer-reviewed research from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service laboring at the Northern Research Station at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. i-Tree Landscape has succeeded in becoming a science dissemination facility, by the use of information visualization, with the purpose of making decisions that promote urban forestry stewardship through modern web-GIS, and data processing techniques.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu, PhD (Advisor); Austin Melton, PhD (Committee Member); Gokarna Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

budget national map processing; geographic information system; GIS; national land cover; forestry; tree planting prioritization; GDAL; GEOS; GeoServer; PostGIS; JTS; Open Geospatial Consortium; OGC; Open Source Geospatial Foundation; OSGeo;

Muckridge, Nicole AAdult Learners' Knowledge of Fraction Addition and Subtraction
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of this study was to examine adult developmental mathematics (ADM) students’ knowledge of fraction addition and subtraction as it relates to their demonstrated fraction schemes and ability to disembed in multiplicative contexts with whole numbers. The study was conducted using a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. In the first phase, 72 developmental mathematics students took a written assessment containing disembedding, fraction scheme, and fraction addition/subtraction items. Based upon the results of the assessment, three individuals from the first phase were selected to participate in one-on-one clinical interviews. These interviews were aimed at identifying and describing the cognitive processes underlying the participants’ performance on the written assessment items. Results from the quantitative phase indicated statistically significant moderate correlations between disembedding in multiplicative contexts, demonstrated fraction schemes, and fraction addition/subtraction. Moreover, regression analysis revealed that age, fraction schemes score, disembedding score, and number of repeated mathematics courses were all significant predictors of a participant’s fraction addition/subtraction score. Analysis of the clinical interviews revealed that norming and the equi-partitioning scheme play an important role in ADM learners’ conceptions of fractions. This study quantitatively measured the relationship between disembedding, fraction schemes, and fraction addition/subtraction, which has been hypothesized in prior qualitative research. The results also have important instructional implications. Instructors of ADM courses should use the results of this study as an indication of the importance of determining their students’ existing schemes and providing them with opportunities to engage in actions associated with higher-level schemes.

Committee:

Karl Kosko (Committee Co-Chair); Joanne Caniglia (Committee Co-Chair); Jay Jahangiri (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Higher Education; Mathematics; Mathematics Education

Keywords:

adult learners; fractions; developmental; fraction schemes; disembedding; mathematics

Joudeh, Nidaa MTHE ROLE OF SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHATASES IN SPERM FUNCTION
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
This thesis sheds light on the role of two main Ser/Thr phosphatases in sperm function: PP1¿2, and Calcineurin (PP2B). The results show for the first time that spermatogenesis in the testis can be supported by the somatic PP1 isoform PP1¿1, and that the unique male germ cell phosphatase “PP1¿2” has probably evolved in mammals along with the evolution of the mammalian epididymis for the sole purpose of supporting sperm epididymal maturation. We suggest that calcineurin has high activity in caput sperm due to the high levels of intracellular calcium. And that the effect of high calcium levels along with high phosphatase activity in caput sperm, have an inhibitory effect on sperm motility, opposing the effect of calcium on motility during sperm hyperactivation in the female reproductive tract. We propose that calcium signaling in sperm function has a biphasic role depending on which calcium dependent proteins are selectively activated at each developmental stage of the sperm journey. Calcieurin may also have a role in regulating mitochondrial activity. A shift in energy production pathways and substrate utilization occurs during sperm transition from the caput to the cauda epididymis, and calcineurin is believed to play a role in this process. With PP1¿2 shown to be irreplaceable by PP1¿1 during sperm epididymal maturation, the following step would be comparing the phosphoproteome of PP1¿2 bearing sperm with those of PP1¿1 bearing sperm. A wide phosphoproteome analysis will reveal the specific substrates of PP1¿2 that PP1¿1 are unable to dephosphorylate, highlighting proteins with an essential role in epididymal maturation and sperm motility regulation. There is a possibility that the phenotype of PP1¿1 rescue males is caused by the effect of the transgenes incorporation into a random region 145 of the mouse genome. The only way to test this hypothesis would be the generation of a new transgenic model using a gene knock-in technique, where the endogenous promoters function will be maintained, and there will be no random incorporation of genetic material into the genome. If the results of that new transgenic model support our data, then only we can confirm our conclusion. There is strong evidence that calcineurin has a role in mitochondrial energy production and activity. The following step would be analyzing PPP3R2 KO males for additional mitochondrial function parameters, such as oxygen consumption or measurement of a number of mitochondrial enzyme activities. Scanning electron microscopy can be performed to look for any mitochondrial elongation or fusion.

Committee:

Srinivasan Vijayaraghavan, Dr. (Advisor); Douglas Kline, Dr. (Committee Member); Jennifer Marcinkiewicz, Dr. (Committee Member); Fayez Safadi, Dr. (Committee Member); Soumitra Basu (Other)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Spermatogenesis; Sperm function; Male reproduction

Akram, Hadeel AbdulahTHE PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE ARABIC VERSION OF THE SELF-DIRECTED SEARCH (SDS)-FORM R, 5th EDITION FOR FIRST-YEAR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA)
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The factor structure of Holland’s hexagonal model as shown in the Self-Directed Search (SDS) has received extensive attention across the world. The goal in creating the SDS was to equip guidance counselors and services with information about adults’ personality types, interests, preferences, and career options. More precisely, the SDS items assess personality types and link them to other measures or instructional repositories containing tools for educational and vocational planning. The SDS has been translated into 25 languages, adapted for use in many cultures, and supported in many countries such as Australia, Africa, Europe, and Asia, but not in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This study evaluated the application of the SDS to Saudi students, and examined the newly-translated inventory’s internal structure and consistency in the KSA and Arabic-speaking cultural context. The Arabic version of the SDS-Form R, 5th Edition was administered to first-year students (N = 1,090) at King Abdul Aziz University (KAU), Jeddah, KSA. The main objective was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the Arabic Version of the SDS-Form R, 5th Edition. The secondary objective was to examine the differences on the SDS responses between male (n = 457) and female (n = 633) students and between students in the Scientific track (n = 603) and the Administrative and Humanitarian track (n = 487) and to determine the equivalence of both genders and tracks in fitting the data to the Holland model. Evidence regarding the application of the SDS in the Saudi population was obtained.

Committee:

Aryn C. Karpinski (Advisor); Tricia Niesz (Committee Member); Ning-Kuang Chuang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Tests and Measurements

Sharma, RekhaA Uses and Gratifications Perspective of the Relationships among Consumption of Government-Conspiracy-Theory-Oriented Media Fare, Trust in Government, and Political Participation
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
Contemporary political discourse is rife with accusations of shadowy forces operating in secret to accomplish nefarious goals. Such discourse has been a mainstay in U.S. politics, but little quantitative research has been done on the impact of government-related conspiracy theories in media and how people differ in their use of such fare. This dissertation situates conspiracy theories in a media effects framework, applying uses and gratifications theory to examine whether specific background characteristics (i.e., media skepticism, need for cognition, locus of control, and conservatism or liberalism) work in concert with individuals’ motives for and exposure to government-conspiracy-theory-oriented media fare to impact individuals’ trust in government as an attitudinal outcome and political participation as a behavioral outcome. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify four motives for choosing media fare related to government conspiracy theories: (1) social utility/relaxing recreation, (2) political evaluation, (3) pass time, and (4) general information seeking. Significant correlations were found between several background characteristics and use of government-conspiracy-theory-oriented media fare. Use of such fare also correlated with trust in federal government entities and with political participation. Additionally, hierarchical regression analysis revealed the relative contribution of individual differences, motives for conspiracy-theory-oriented media use, and exposure to such fare in predicting levels of trust in four entities of the federal government. Regression analysis also showed the relative contribution of individual differences, motives for conspiracy-theory-oriented media use, exposure to conspiracy-theory-oriented media fare, and trust in government in predicting four forms of political participation. This study affirmed the value of a comprehensive uses and gratifications model for studying the political impact of government conspiracy theories in media.

Committee:

Paul Haridakis, Ph.D. (Advisor); Danielle Coombs, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Janet Meyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); James Ponder, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism; Literacy; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Political Science

Keywords:

uses and gratifications; motives; conspiracy theory; government conspiracy theory; trust in government; political participation; political communication; political media; media literacy; media selectivity; media effects

Hartung, Erik WalterAging bioretention cells: Do they still function to improve water quality?
MS, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces transports a variety of pollutants to freshwaters via urban drainage pathways. Bioretention cells are a stormwater control measure being widely adopted with the goal of receiving, infiltrating and improving quality of stormwater before it enters surface waters. However, there are uncertainties about the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic metals that accumulate and concerns about changes in hydrologic function of aging bioretention cells. This study sought to address those concerns using a survey of 26 parking lot bioretention cells in the greater Cleveland area, ranging in age from <1 to 7 years of service. Bioretention cells were found to accumulate Cu, Pb and Zn in their media through time, but the distribution of these toxic metal pollutants was homogenous with respect to depth and distance from the stormwater flowpath. The concentration of metals in bioretention cell media were well below EPA soil contamination thresholds. Bioretention cells were found to have reduced hydraulic conductivity as they age, but bioretention cells less than eight years old still met EPA standards for hydrologic function. Therefore, regular maintenance of bioretention cells may be needed to remove sediment and improve hydrologic function, but no remediation would be needed for toxic metals. It is expected that bioretention cells function to capture, infiltrate and remove pollutants from stormwater runoff, leading to water quality improvement downstream. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding active bioretention cells' ability to perform these functions over the long-term. This study aimed to elucidate the function of bioretention cells for removal of toxic metal pollutants (Cu, Pb and Zn) from runoff over 7 years of service time. This study also sought to address the effects road salt may have on bioretention's ability to filter or retain toxic metal pollutants from stormwater. Using leach columns constructed with media from 19 active bioretention cells ranging in age from <1 to seven years old, this study found that age is not a good predictor of bioretention cell functioning for metal removal. Bioretention cells were found to function well for removing low concentrations of metals from stormwater, but had reduced functioning for removal of high concentrations of metals. Bioretention cells' ability to remove metals from stormwater was found to be similar at different locations within the cells. Road salt was found to reduce the functioning of aged bioretention cells (7 years of service) for Pb and Zn removal from stormwater, but had no effect on functioning for Cu removal. Bioretention cells less than eight years in age were found to be able to reduce the concentration of metals in stormwater to concentrations below EPA thresholds for freshwater, but road salt may reduce bioretention's ability to reduce the concentration of Pb and Zn in stormwater.

Committee:

David Costello (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biogeochemistry; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Freshwater Ecology; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Land Use Planning; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Long, Brooke LouiseChildlessness, Singlism, and Non-Religion: An Examination of Multiple Counter-Normative Identities
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
Research on self and identity has always recognized that individuals' selves are made up of multiple identities. Despite this acknowledgment, however, little empirical research has explored individuals' experiences of multiple identities. In addition, research in identity theory has mainly focused on the normative aspects of everyday life (like being married or religious). In American society today, however, the number of individuals who claim identities that do not fit the normative mold have been steadily increasing. This dissertation seeks to explore both gaps in the identity theory literature with a mixed method approach; using both a nationally representative, probability-based online web survey and 20 in depth semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall, the dissertation focuses on how individuals experience multiple counter-normative identities. In particular, three identity sets are examined; married vs. single, religious vs. non-religious, and parents vs. childless. In general, the findings suggest that individuals who claim multiple counter-normative identities may experience higher levels of social anxiety, but that this is likely dependent upon the specific context and interactions that they find themselves in.

Committee:

Richard Serpe, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Clare Stacey, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Kristen Marcussen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Will Kalkhoff, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kelly Cichy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Childlessness, Singlism, Non-Religion, Counter-Normative, Identities, Social Psychology

Gabrish, Danielle LCaffeine Use, Hours of Sleep, and Academic Performance of Undergraduate College Students
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
The primary objective of this study is to assess the difference in hours of sleep and academic performance between caffeine users and non-caffeine users. Participants were chosen based on current enrollment as a student for the spring 2017 semester at Kent State University. Students included both male and female of any age and any more credits per semester at a Kent State. Exclusion criteria included students reporting a history of a sleep disorder and participants not currently enrolled at Kent State University. The study consists of a four section anonymous, Qualtrics online survey with a series of questions regarding caffeine consumption, sleep, and academics. The total amount (mg) of caffeine consumed and total sleep duration was determined for each participant. Lastly, participants manually entered in their cumulative GPA. Data was then collected and analyzed using SPSS statistical software using significance p<0.05. An univariate ANOVA was used to compare both hours of sleep and GPA to the five levels of caffeine consumption (non-caffeine, low, moderate, high and very high). A t-test was used to compare both the hours of sleep and GPA between caffeine consumers and non-consumers. A t-test was also used to compare both sex (males and females) and grade level (freshman, sophomore, junior, and seniors) to the amount (mg) of caffeine consumed. Results found that non-consumers have longer sleep duration (p=0.002) and higher GPA compared to the consumers group (p< 0.001), non-caffeine consumers have longer sleep duration compared to the high level of caffeine consumption (p=0.041), and that males consume a greater amount (mg) of caffeine than females (p=0.024). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the different levels of intake and GPA and in grade levels and amount (mg) of caffeine consumed.

Committee:

Natalie Caine-Bish (Advisor); Tanya Falcone (Committee Member); Eun-Jeong Ha (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nutrition

Keywords:

Caffeine; Sleep; Academic Performance

Singh, AditiAUTOMATED DECLARATIVE GESTURE GENERATION FOR NON-EMOTIONAL HUMAN HUMANOID CONVERSATION
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
Gesture is a visible but inaudible universal language for the communication of intent between two entities for communication. Gesture includes various timed postures and timed coordinated motions (voluntary and involuntary) of different body-parts such as head, neck, eyes, spine, hand, shoulders, torso and their combinations. It expresses both non-emotional moods, conversational modes and dynamic relationship between the speaker and the listener. It is one of three major components of human-human interaction along with facial expressions and speech (including silence). For humanoids to interact with humans in an acceptable meaningful manner, it has to understand conversation and respond in a naturalistic way mimicking human gestures. Human conversations exhibit many types of universally accepted gestures that involve coordinated combination of posture and movement of head, eye and jaw with different speed and frequency. This research describes various conversational gestures and develops a declarative modeling technique to express gestures as coordinated movement of organs that are translated to coordinated and synchronized movements of motors. These libraries of motor control instructions are interpreted using Python language that drives a combination of stepper and servo motors to emulate coordinated organ movements. The project has many advantages in providing company to elderly care and medical patient care, reading stories to children and providing personal secretary to people.

Committee:

Arvind K. Bansal (Advisor); Javed Khan (Committee Member); Cheng Chang Lu (Committee Member); Jong-Hoon Kim (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Robotics

Keywords:

conversation; data-driven; eye-movement; gesture; head-movement; humanoid; non-emotional; social robotics

Horner, Dustin JamesThe Breach
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
A novel examining a marriage in the midst of changing community.

Committee:

Varley O'Connor (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Fine Arts

Wilson, Gina NicolePRE-DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN THE RETINOFUGAL PROJECTION OF DBA/2J GLAUCOMATOUS MICE
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / School of Biomedical Sciences
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by axonal transport deficits and progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, which comprise the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to the complexity of the disease, little is known about the stressors, mechanisms, or progression of pathology in glaucoma. This lack of knowledge hinders our ability to prevent and treat glaucoma. The purpose of the studies in this thesis was to investigate links between two major components of neurodegeneration: axon dysfunction and neuroinflammation. First, I determined the progression of cytoskeletal protein modifications in relation to transport deficits in a common murine model of glaucoma. Second, I identified the timeline of changes in neuroinflammatory protein expression during the onset and progression of functional and structural changes in the retina and its projection. Finally, I explored signaling mechanisms that may link cytokine and cytoskeletal changes within the glaucomatous projection. This work sets the stage for the development of new therapies for this and other degenerative conditions. My work used the DBA/2J inbred mouse, one of the most common animal models of glaucoma. These mice show elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), transport deficits, axonopathy, and altered cytokine expression with age. Anterograde tracing, along with protein quantification techniques including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), bead-based multiplexing, automated western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were employed. Major findings included the first reports of cytoskeletal protein hyperphosphorylation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the retinal projection of the DBA/2J model. Importantly, these often occurred prior to IOP elevation or RGC death. Data also indicated upregulation of likely candidates producing these changes leading to neurodegeneration, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and related signaling molecules in DBA/2J retinofugal projections, which may explain the relationship between neuroinflammation and cytoskeletal changes.

Committee:

Samuel Crish (Committee Member); Brett Schofield (Committee Member); Denise Inman (Committee Member); Christine Dengler-Crish (Committee Member); Jennifer McDonough (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Neurosciences

Keywords:

glaucoma; neurofilament; tau; neuroinflammation; spectrin; axon; degeneration; transport; kinase; MAPK; interleukin

Curry, Rebecca JCellular mechanisms of inhibition in sound localization circuits
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / School of Biomedical Sciences
The ability to localize sound in space is an important task for communication and survival in complex acoustic environments for both humans and animals. For localizing sound in the horizontal plane, differences in sound information received by each ear generates binaural cues, such as the interaural level difference (ILD). Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, this work focuses on the basic properties of synaptic inhibition in the avian ILD circuit, as well as the modulation of inhibition in the mammalian ILD circuit, both of which are critical for understanding the range of cellular sound localization coding solutions. In birds, the posterior portion of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLDp) encodes the ILD, but little is known about the mechanisms of synaptic inhibition underlying the ILD coding. Here, I provide the first evidence confirming a monosynaptic inhibition driven by direct electrical and chemical stimulation of the contralateral LLDp. Additionally, inhibition to LLDp neurons was largely GABAergic, although there is evidence for a glycinergic component, and the low internal chloride concentration suggests a hyperpolarizing action of inhibition in this circuit. In mammals, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) provides synaptic inhibition to many auditory brainstem nuclei including the mammalian ILD encoding nucleus, and thus contributes to ILD coding. However, not much is understood of the synaptic inhibition the MNTB itself receives and it remains entirely unknown how this inhibition is regulated. Here, I investigated group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) modulation of the glycinergic and GABAergic inputs to MNTB neurons in both wildtype (WT) mice and a fragile X syndrome (FXS) mouse model, in which the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 is knocked out (Fmr1 KO). Loss of the FMR protein results in exaggerated activity of mGluR I, allowing for comparisons of mGluR I function under normal and disordered conditions. Activation of group I mGluRs by 3,5-DHPG (200 µM) increased sIPSC frequency and amplitude in both WT and Fmr1 KO neurons in a voltage-gated sodium channel dependent fashion for glycinergic transmission, but did not modulate glycinergic eIPSCs. For GABAergic transmission, 3,5-DHPG did not increase sIPSC frequency or amplitude, but did suppress eIPSCs in WT neurons. These findings suggest differential modulation by mGluR I on specific inhibitory neurotransmitters and specific neurotransmitter release modes. Together, the results provide new insight to the role of synaptic inhibition in the computation of sound localization across animal models, establishing a working cellular model for avian ILD coding and laying the foundation for the role of mGluR I modulation in the mammalian MNTB under normal and disease states.

Committee:

Yong Lu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Wenstrup, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Merri Rosen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Christine Crish, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sean Veney, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Cellular Biology; Neurobiology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

sound localization; auditory neuroscience; interaural level difference; slice physiology; dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus; medial nucleus of the trapezoid body; GABA; glycine; metabotropic glutamate receptor; Fragile X Syndrome

Gayle, Lauren"I don't hookup, I never have, but my friends, they all do": Transgressing the boundaries of college hookup culture
BS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
Hookup culture has grown in prevalence and popularity among college students, marked by its own set of behaviors, values, and characteristics. However, various subpopulations within the larger student body may engage hookup culture differently. Yet extant research about hookup culture on college campuses has privileged a heteronormative lens and heterosexual experiences. In contrast, this study utilizes queer theory to focus on the perspectives of women who identify as queer. Specifically, analysis of in-depth interviews with queer college women about hookup culture reveals three intersecting and overlapping tensions: (a) a tension between the pragmatics of exploiting sexual freedom and dissociating from hookup culture; (b) a tension between unbounded identity tourism and bounded bisexuality identity; and (c) a tension between conforming to and resisting gender stereotypes. Taken together, these tensions surface theoretical divisions in (1) gender role expectations in heteronormative and queer hookups; and (2) transgression between hookups and dating that create a third space. This study offers practical guidance for future research and implications about queer college women’s perceptions of and engagement with hookup culture.

Committee:

Suzy D'Enbeau (Advisor)

Subjects:

Communication

Sharpnack, Lewis LeeMesomorphism of Newly Synthesized Mesogens and Surface Morphology of Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Physics
This dissertation research describes three related projects. The first was an investigation of two de Vries smectic liquid crystal phases that exhibit lower thermal dependence of the smectic layer spacing than the corresponding conventional smectic phases and are well suited for use in electrooptical devices. The second project studied newly synthesized mesogens. This included investigations of several liquid crystalline semiconducting mesogens and a multitude of candidate de Vries smectic mesogens. The third was an investigation of a new non-contact alignment layer of Arsenic Sulfide (As2S3) to anchor the liquid director and use in electrooptical device. In additional to preliminary characterization methodologies such as polarizing optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, two experimental techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), were employed. The X-ray studies were conducted using the in-house spectrometers at Kent State University and the synchrotron X-ray source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. XRR is used to investigate the structure of potential alignment layers. The results provide important insight into the challenges that need to be overcome to develop this alignment material into a viable commercial product. XRD is used to study the structural properties of several members of two new homologous series of liquid crystal compounds. The study of de Vries materials advances our understanding of the role of various molecular moieties on their phase behavior and, most importantly, their relatively temperature independent layer spacing in the Smectic A (SmA) and Smectic C (SmC) phases. This nearly constant layer spacing is critical for developing new fast ferroelectric and electroclinic effect based displays. The Stevenson research group at Queens University synthesized a multitude of new mesogens incorporating a siloxane tail at one end. This moiety is believed to enhance nano-segregation of the molecules and help form de Vries smectic A and C phases. The results indicate that some of the new mesogens exhibit low layer shrinkage that is indicative of the de Vries behavior. The effects of chain lengths and various moieties on the phase behavior is described in detail. These experiments identified several chiral mesogens as viable candidates for use in ferroelectric displays that are currently the subject of further investigations. Many of the non-chiral molecules studied exhibited de Vries or nearly de Vries layer shrinkage, however, these systems would require the addition of a chiral dopant to be used in ferroelectric applications. Three of the chiral siloxane based mesogens displayed ideal de Vries behavior. The smectic layer spacing changed by 1% or less of the total layer thickness for Si3OK11BPO*, Si3OK11BzPO*, and adpc042. These molecules are presently being investigated for device applications and modified with various terminal groups to enhance the miscibility of nano-particle dopants. Structural studies of novel triphenlyene based organic semiconductors mesogens synthesized by the Twieg group were performed. A desirable trait of organic semiconductors is for the ¿-electron orbitals to overlap and requires that carbon rings in adjacent molecules be parallel. Results of X-ray studies of a series of triphenylene molecules showed a hexagonal columnar (ColHex) phase. The diffraction patterns revealed that the lateral intermolecular distance was ~ 3.5 Å, consistent with the stacking of the triphenelene rings. The high-temperature ColHex phase of these materials at nearly 200 °C may also prove useful for high temperature applications. Films of As2S3 have recently been shown to align liquid crystals. This alignment technique, when fully developed, will eliminate the need for traditional mechanically buffed polymer films deposited on substrates, currently used in liquid crystal displays. Their surface roughness was determined in the two planar directions using x-ray reflectivity profiles to facilitate a comparison with other alignment layers that generate liquid crystal alignment primarily because of their anisotropic surface morphology. Our results reveal that As2S3 films develop anisotropic features under irradiation with polarized blue light that are consistent with the changes that occur in other alignment layers when they are “treated” either with mechanical buffing of polymer films or exposure to linearly polarized UV light. These studies also reveal the development of an extensive oxide layer and the ablation of the film under ambient conditions owing to the absorption of oxygen and moisture. This represents a significant barrier to their commercial applications.

Committee:

Satyendra Kumar, PhD (Advisor); Elizabeth Mann, PhD (Committee Member); Hamza Balci, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Fisch, PhD (Committee Member); Scott Bunge, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Materials Science; Physics

Keywords:

Reflectivity, liquid crystal, de Vries, ferroelectric, smectic, electrooptic device, display, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity

Hersh, Samuel JosephManhood and War Making: The Literary Response to the Radicalization of Masculinity for the Purposes of WWI Propaganda
BA, Kent State University, 2018, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
Through a combination of queer and feminist criticism, masculinity has been proven to have an ever-changing definition, one based on historical time and sociocultural influences. Throughout the Victorian era, only a certain form of manhood had social hegemony; this sense of masculinity stressed delicacy and a stately manner of sophistication that exceeded the ability of the lower classes to attain. Unfortunately for the Victorians, their definition of masculinity would soon be linked with effeminacy and the controversy surrounding the Oscar Wilde trials of the 1890s. Therefore, by the turn of the new century, masculinity was in a crisis. What ensued from this uncertainty was a radical redefinition of manhood. As the Victorians’ hold on hegemonic masculinity faltered, the middle class began to cast off what they saw as a restrictive and effeminate manhood. Public institutions to the populace itself all began promoting heartiness of character and virility as proper characteristics of a man. With the outbreak of World War One, this new definition of manhood was only cemented further by its appropriation into war propaganda. Britain, German, and American propaganda all used their countries’ new robust forms of manhood, radicalizing it in order to lure young men into enlisting. But the realities of the war broke this illusion of masculinity, leaving a generation of men destroyed; subsequently, a distinct sect of anti-war literature developed in in all three countries that sought to expose the destruction caused by this hypermasculine war lie. Through the use of historicism, critical theory, and literary analysis, I argue that America’s Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo, Germany’s All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Remarque, and the war poetry of Britain’s Wilfred Own are all literary pieces of social dissent. Each author writes about the war, or war experience, that destabilizes the hegemonic form of masculinity used before and during the war, producing works of counter-propaganda aimed at the state and society as a whole. In doing so, they help dismantle larger systems of oppression and disseminate counter-cultural sentiments.

Committee:

Kevin Floyd, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Suzanne Holt, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kimberly Winebrenner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Charlene Schauffler, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative Literature; Gender Studies; History; Literature; World History

Keywords:

literature; world war one; critical theory; cultural studies; masculinity; johnny got his gun; all quiet on the western front; wilfred owen

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