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Loman, Abdullah AlEnzyme Based Processing of Soybean Meal: Production of Enriched Protein Product and Utilization of Carbohydrate as Fermentation Feedstock for Arabitol Production
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Chemical Engineering
Soy protein is one of the major components of the diet of food producing animals and is increasingly important in the human diet as well. However, soy protein cannot be used as an ideal protein supplement in foods, because of the presence of high amount of indigestible carbohydrates in the soybean meal. Adverse nutritional and digestion effects have been reported in many animals and fish following the consumption of soybean meal and soybean meal derived products. To enhance the nutritional value of soybean meal in human food and animal feed, it is necessary to improve the protein content and remove the indigestible carbohydrates from the soybean meal during the processing of soy protein diets. This project aims to develop economically feasible technologies and processes for separating, enriching and upgrading soy proteins and carbohydrates from soybean meal. The objective is to separate proteins from carbohydrates (and other minor components) in soybean meal, facilitated by enzymatic hydrolysis of poly- and oligo-meric carbohydrates and other non-protein materials. The enriched proteins obtained are valuable for high-quality feed, food and industrial uses. The hydrolyzed carbohydrates could also be converted via fermentation into bio-fuel related products and other value added chemicals.

Committee:

Lu-Kwang Ju, Dr. (Advisor); George Chase, Dr. (Committee Member); Nic Leipzig, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Duirk, Dr. (Committee Member); Thomas Leeper, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering

Keywords:

Enzyme hydrolysis, soy carbohydrate, arabitol, fermentation feedstock

Imbulgoda Liyangahawatte, Gihan Janith MendisHardware Implementation and Applications of Deep Belief Networks
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2016, Electrical Engineering
Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that contributes widely to the contemporary success of artificial intelligence. The essential idea of deep learning is to process complex data by abstracting hierarchical features via deep neural network structure. As one type of deep learning technique, deep belief network (DBN) has been widely used in various application fields. This thesis proposes an approximation based hardware realization of DBNs that requires low hardware complexity. This thesis also explores a set of novel applications of the DBN-based classifier that will benefit from a fast implementation of DBN. In my work, I have explored the application of DBN in the fields of automatic modulation classification method for cognitive radio, Doppler radar sensor for detection and classification of micro unmanned aerial systems, cyber security applications to detect false data injection (FDI) attacks and localize flooding attacks, and applications in social networking for prediction of link properties. The work in this thesis paves the way for further investigation and realization of deep learning techniques to address critical issues in various novel application fields.

Committee:

Jin Wei (Advisor); Arjuna Madanayaka (Committee Co-Chair); Subramaniya Hariharan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Experiments; Information Technology

Keywords:

deep belief networks; multiplierless digital architecture; Xilinx FPGA implementations; low-complexity; applications of deep belief networks; spectral correlation function; modulation classification; drone detection; doppler radar; cyber security

Chu, YangRATIONAL CONTROLLED SELF-ASSEMBLY BEHAVIOR OF INORGANIC-ORGANIC HYBRIDS IN SOLUTION
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Polymer Science
In the past several decades, self-assembly of amphiphiles in solutions has attracted great interest of researchers due to their unique properties and applications. Besides the well-explored small-molecule surfactants and block-copolymers, giant surfactants also known as inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids have been regarded as a new attractive topic because they contain functional (e.g., catalytic, magnetic, oxidation-reduction redox or biologically active) inorganic nanoparticles/molecular clusters which simultaneously act as surfactant polar head groups. The self-assembly/disassembly can be triggered by different kinds of external stimuli like light, heat, magnetic field or solution polarity. Besides, the morphology and size of the assemblies are also tunable by the experimental conditions and molecular structures. In this dissertation, three representative kinds of hybrids, which include multi-headed giant surfactants based on polystyrene (PS)-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) conjugates with different number and topology of POSS heads, triangular shaped PS-POSS hybrids with different length of PS linkers and spiropyran (SP)-polyoxometalate (POM)-alkyl hybrids, are prepared to study the effect of hydrophilic head groups, hydrophobic linkers and change of hydrophobicity on the self-assembly behavior. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS) are used during the whole process of self-assembly to suggest the size and morphology of the assemblies and electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirm the results obtained by light scattering techniques. We found the rational control of the self-assembly behavior of inorganic-organic hybrids in solution can be successfully achieved due to their multiple-responsive property on light, solvent polarity, molecular structures and solution concentration.

Committee:

Tianbo Liu (Advisor); Stephen Cheng (Committee Chair); Toshikazu Miyoshi (Committee Member); Mesfin Tsige (Committee Member); Jie Zheng (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Polymer Chemistry; Polymers

Keywords:

Inorganic-organic hybrid; Self-assembly behavior; polyoxometalates;

Howard, Christopher AllenBlack Insurgency: The Black Convention Movement in the Antebellum United States, 1830-1865
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, History
During the antebellum era, black activists organized themselves into insurgent networks, with the goal of achieving political and racial equality for all black inhabitants of the United States. The Negro Convention Movement, herein referred to as the Black Convention Movement, functioned on state and national levels, as the chief black insurgent network. As radical black rights groups continue to rise in the contemporary era, it is necessary to mine the historical origins that influence these bodies, and provide contexts for understanding their social critiques. This dissertation centers on the agency of the participants, and reveals a black insurgent network seeking its own narrative of liberation through tactics and rhetorical weapons. This study follows in the footing of Dr. Howard Holman Bell, who produced bodies of work detailing the antebellum Negro conventions published in the 1950s and 1960s. Additionally, this work inserts itself into the historiography of black radicals, protest movements, and racial debates of antebellum America, arguing for a successful interpretation of black insurgent action. Class, race, gender, religion, and politics, all combine within this study as potent framing devices. Together, the elements within this effort, illustrates the Black Convention Movement as the era’s premier activist organization that inadvertently pushed the American nation toward civil war, and the destruction of institutionalized slavery.

Committee:

Walter Hixson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Elizabeth Mancke, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Zachery Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Kern, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Daniel Coffey, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; Black History; Black Studies; Gender; History; Journalism; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Religion

Keywords:

African American History; African Diaspora; Black History; Black Studies; Insurgency; Antebellum United States; Civil War; Resistance Studies; Gender; Newspapers; Ohio Compromise; Protest Movements; Black Church, Christianity; Canada; United States

Bhattarai, SmrityDigital Architecture for real-time face detection for deep video packet inspection systems
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2017, Electrical Engineering
Face detection and optional recognition is a highly researched area in digital image processing. Face detection allows gathering of statistical data from video sequences, with applications in a variety of areas such as bio-metrics, information security, and video surveillance. The growing abundance of video sensors that are connected to the internet require high-throughput real-time processing of a multitude of digital video feeds, where each feed provides independent real-time statistics of the number of persons shown in the feed. Typical applications include pedestrian counting, public transit monitoring, crowd control, and sporting events. Video surveillance and security applications in particular can benefit from real-time algorithms that can process large amounts of data. Thousands of video sources must be monitored for extracting situational awareness information for homeland security and public safety applications, and the manual monitoring of such a vast amount of data is nearly impossible. Algorithms for both face detection [1–4] and recognition [3, 5–7] take two main approaches involving the local detection of facial features based on a geometric model of the human face [8] and a holistic based feature recognition, where the image data is treated as an entity without isolating different regions of the face. The main challenge in feature based facial detection is identification and location of human faces regardless of their pose, facial expression, orientation, imaging condition or presence of structural components [9]. Some advanced image-based pattern recognition techniques have been developed to handle difficult scenarios like multiple faces, faces of different sizes, and even detection in heavily cluttered backgrounds. [8] In this thesis, we explore how hardware computing architecture for detection of an image, as a face or non-face, is designed. The computing architecture is first designed, modeled, and tested in MATLAB simulink using Xilinx blockset. Images were later tested using a Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 Evaluation Kit. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a user or a designer after manufacturing. The system uses the features of a face and non-face, which were previously extracted by training the set of face and non-face patterns. The system is fully feature based and does not require any assumptions for processing. In this approach, all the images are treated in the same way. They are not separated into different categories before processing them. The system is basically a combination of different modules like convolution, sub-sampling, bias add, scaling, neuron and decision combined in a specific format to classify the images as a face or non-face on the basis of the output. The algorithm is simple without any need for preprocessing of the image. The performance trade-off exists between the computational precision, chip area, clock speed, and power consumption.

Committee:

Dr. Arjuna Madanayake (Advisor); Dr. Ryan C Toonen (Committee Member); Dr. Kye-Shin Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Face detection, Convolutional Neural Network, Image processing

Engerer, Pamela J.Teacher Actions Secondary Science Students Reckon as Teacher-to-Student Classroom Respect
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Secondary Education
Conducted over 5 weeks, this multiple case study involved seven secondary science students in an urban, STEM-focused high school. Observations, documents, and interviews were used to obtain feedback on teacher-to-student respect from the student point-of-view in answer to the question: What actions by teachers do students reckon as representations of teacher-to-student respect in the classroom? The purposes were: to understand a complex phenomenon, to add to the educational knowledge base, and to inform constituencies (Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003). Two themes, person-to-person respect and learner-to-learner respect, emerged along with seven categories of teacher actions of respect: Gives, Lets, Treats, Listens, Understands, Helps, and Answers. Students reckon as respect any teacher action that affectively or cognitively meets or exceeds students’ respect desires or respect expectations by encouraging or supporting students as persons or as learners. Two respect-reckoning questions and two meaning-making questions were representative of the types of questions students ask themselves; despite use of similar mechanisms, students reckon respect and make meaning variably. Interpreted via Goodman’s (2009) framework, person-to-person (interpersonal) respect serves as a gateway to learner-to-learner respect. Of the three categories of interpersonal respect (Gives, Lets, and Treats), Gives serves as a precursor to Lets and Treats. By respecting a student, a teacher earns that student’s respect. Though investigated via science, results are presented via art in a play: Between the Bells.

Committee:

Francis Broadway, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Science Education; Secondary Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Aesthetic; Art; Chemistry; Conflict resolution; Critical incident; Democratic; Expectation; Experience; Interaction; Multiple case study; Public STEM high school; Respect; Science; Secondary education; Teacher-to-student respect; Transactional analysis

Dreisbach, Melissa DThe Effects of a Classroom Based Yoga Intervention on Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Attention in Third Grade Students
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2017, Physical Education-Sports Science/Coaching
ABSTRACT With increased pressure on school districts to increase state test scores, time allocated for physical activity has been drastically decreased in order to provide more learning time for core subjects (Ardoy et al., 2014; Coe et al., 2006; Donnelly & Lambourne, 2011; Ma et al., 2014; Sallis et al., 1999). Thus, extreme pressure is placed on young students. This stress can lead to a high level of anxiety, an inability to focus, stay on task. Consequently, when students do not have a proper outlet to expend excess energy, there is great potential for classroom management problems for teachers (“Test + stress = problems for students,” 2000). Therefore, students and teachers need a mechanism to deal with lessen these pressures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a classroom based yoga intervention on student’s test anxiety, academic performance, and attention level within a traditional mathematics class. Forty-four third grade students in two different classrooms participated in the study. The study had a pre- and post-test phase. A pre-Measurements of Academic Progress (MAP), Children Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS and Children’s Stroop test was given prior to the yoga intervention. The yoga intervention was given 4 days a week for 6 weeks to the intervention group only. The control group had no modifications added to their daily lessons. A post-intervention assessment was given using the same aforementioned instruments. The classroom iv teacher was asked to report any observations she made about her students during the intervention. The participants were also asked to write about their opinions and experiences they had during the intervention. The intervention group was compared to the control group to assess the level of anxiety, academic performance, and attention level. It was found that the intervention group improved more academically on a state math test than the control group.. The academic performance was statically significant. Anxiety levels decreased in the intervention group, while the anxiety levels increased for the control group. Overall for anxiety, the girls revealed a larger benefit from the yoga intervention with the intervention group. The attention results showed no difference between the intervention and control., but the boys did see a greater ability to focus after the intervention. The intervention grouped lowered their time on the test. The findings indicated that a yoga intervention can increase academic performance and lower anxiety. Further research is need to investigate the gender differences and the effect of a yoga intervention on attention level.

Committee:

Seungbum Lee, PhD. (Advisor); Matthew Juravich, PhD. (Committee Member); Alan Kornspan, PhD. (Committee Member); Sean Cai, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Physical Education

Keywords:

Yoga Intervention, Test Anxiety, Academic Performance, Attention, Third Grade Students

Layman, AmandaThe Problem with Pussy Power: A Feminist Analysis of Spike Lee's Chi-Raq
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2017, Communication
Applying feminist media theory to the 2015 Spike Lee film Chi-Raq, this thesis explores portrayals of black-female power and sexuality. In three layers this thesis examines: the language used by and toward women of color, the gender roles and power constructs within the film, and finally the either/or dichotomous thinking associated with the four controlling images of Black womanhood, particularly the role of the Jezebel as a promiscuous and socially dangerous character. This thesis seeks to understand how sexualized portrayals of Black women, despite the power associated with their sexuality, are limiting and problematic.

Committee:

Mary E. Triece, Dr. (Advisor); Kathleen D. Clark, Dr. (Committee Member); Kathleen Endres, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

feminism; communication; rhetorical criticism; rhetoric; Black feminist thought; feminist media theory; feminist standpoint theory; power; sexuality; film

Chippa, Mukesh KGoal-seeking Decision Support System to Empower Personal Wellness Management
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Computer Engineering
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than one billion adults overweight with at least three hundred million of them clinically obese; this is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability. This can also be associated with the rising health care costs; in the USA more than 75\% of health care costs relate to chronic conditions such as Diabetes and Hypertension. While there are various technological advancements in fitness tracking devices such as Fitbit, and many employers offer wellness programs, such programs and devices have not been able to create societal scale transformations in the life style of the users. The challenge in keeping healthy people healthy and helping them to be intrinsically motivated to manage their own health is at the focus for this investigation on Personal Wellness Management. In this dissertation, this problem is presented as a decision making under uncertainty where the participant takes an action at discrete time steps and the outcome of the action is uncertain. The main focus is to formulate the decision making problem in the Goal-seeking framework. To evaluate this formulation, the problem was also formulated in two classical sequential decision-making frameworks --- Markov Decision Process and Partially Observable Markov Decision Process. The sequential decision-making frameworks allow us to compute optimal policies to guide the participants' choice of actions. One of the major challenges in formulating the wellness management problem in these frameworks is the need for clinically validated data. While it is unrealistic to find such experimentally validated data, it is also not clear that the models in fact capture all the inconstraints that are necessary to make the optimal solutions effective for the participant. The Goal-seeking framework offers an alternative approach that does not require explicit modeling of the participant or the environment. This dissertation presents a software system that is designed in the Goal-seeking framework. The architecture of the system is extensible. A modular subsystem that is useful to visualize exercise performance data that are gathered from a Kinect camera is described.

Committee:

Shivakumar Sastry, Dr (Advisor); Nghi Tran, Dr (Committee Member); Igor Tsukerman, Dr (Committee Member); William Schneider IV, Dr (Committee Member); Victor Pinheiro, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

decision support system, personalized wellness management, Goal seeking paradigm, markov decision process, partially observable markov decision process

LaValey, ColletteSYMPTOMS, POWER, AND SELF-CARE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC VENOUS LEG ULCERS
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Nursing
Chronic Venous Leg Ulcers (CVLU) have been overlooked as a chronic condition in the U.S. CVLU is characterized by cycles of healing and ulcer recurrence and debilitating symptoms. Ulcer management is typically directed by health care providers and organizational guidelines with the person often a passive recipient of care. Encouraging self-care in this population may alleviate the burden. Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory was used to guide an examination of the relationship between symptoms, power, and CVLU self-care in a population of individuals with CVLU. Measurement tools include the symptom subscale of the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study-Quality of Life and Symptom Severity (VEINES-QOL/Sym) providing information about types and frequency of symptoms, the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R) to measure power, and the CVLU Self-Care survey to measure the level of self-care performed. Data for a final sample of 83 adults was used in the the analysis. Findings indicated that symptoms were not associated with power or self-care. Power was not a mediator between symptoms and CVLU self-care with analysis with and without the inclusion of the covariates income, education, number of comorbidities, and chronicity of the leg ulcer. There was a significant moderate to strong positive correlation between the total power score and total CVLU self-care score. A high frequency of symptoms was found in this population but there was no relationship between symptoms and individual’s assessment of capability for self-care or performance of self-care. Self-care activities related to reducing leg edema were low. Identifying individuals with low levels of power or low levels of self-care will facilitate programs and nursing interventions to improve self-care in this population.

Committee:

Marlene Huff, Dr. (Advisor); Mary Anthony, Dr. (Committee Member); Sheau-Huey Chiu, Dr. (Committee Member); Linda Shanks, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Hudak, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nursing

Keywords:

self-care; chronic venous leg ulcer

Zhao, WeilongMolecular Simulation Investigation on the Structure-Activity Relationships at Inorganic-Biomolecule Interfaces
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Polymer Science
In the formation of bone, the insoluble collagen matrix and soluble non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) interact with various calcium phosphate (CaP) phases to control the nucleation and growth of nanosized crystals of non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP), producing a hierarchical, composite material bearing unique mechanical properties. The mineralization of bone illustrates an exquisite example of how the interactions between biomolecules and inorganic phases well define the nucleation, growth, and structure of composite biomaterials. Despite its critical mechanistic contributions to bone pathology, as well as its general relevance to protein-regulated biomineral formation, bone biomineralization remains poorly understood at the microscopic to atomic levels. This dissertation focuses on molecular simulation methods to understand the microscopic structure-activity relationships at the biomolecule-inorganic interface particularly relevant to bone biomineralization. The primary objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop reliable force field parameters for accurate outcomes from the molecular simulations; (2) to apply advanced sampling techniques to overcome the limitations of classical molecular dynamics simulation, which are widely applied in the biomineralization field, for reliably representing the specific issue of the nucleation of ionic solids (such as HAP) and capturing the conformations of biomolecules, water, and inorganic species at the interfaces; (3) to establish the structure-activity relationships of synthetic HAP-binding peptides; (4) to understand the molecular-level mechanisms in various stages of bone mineralization from the form of soluble ion complexes to amorphous and crystalline CaP phases as modulated by osteocalcin (OCN), a model NCP, and (5) to extrapolate the principles learned to general inorganic-biomolecule interfaces. The validity of force field parameters for molecular dynamics simulation of HAP-water/biomolecule interfaces is shown by benchmarking to experimental observations by calculating the structures of interfacial water, the surface energies of HAP crystal faces, and the adsorption free energies of amino acid side chains. The binding conformations and affinities of a series of synthetic peptides at the HAP (100) face are accurately obtained by employing advanced conformational sampling approaches and bioinformatics techniques. The effect of non-collagenous proteins on HAP formation is studied at the molecular and energetic levels, by performing free energy calculations using OCN as an example of NCPs. The present studies targeting the benchmarking of force fields and the applications of advanced sampling methods exemplify the appropriate implementation of simulation techniques toward molecular-level elucidation of biomolecule-inorganic interfaces. The structure-activity relationships revealed from the simulation studies using model biomolecule-CaP interfaces have profound implications toward understanding the physical mechanisms of bone mineralization and can be extended to other inorganic-organic interactions in general. These principles may also contribute to rationalizing the design of peptide-based biomaterials for applications in bone repair and regeneration.

Committee:

Nita Sahai (Advisor); Mesfin Tsige (Committee Chair); William Landis (Committee Member); Matthew Becker (Committee Member); Jie Zheng (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biogeochemistry; Biology; Chemistry; Polymers

Keywords:

Biomineralization, Inorganic-Biomolecule Interface, Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Duah, ErnestCysteinyl Leukotrienes and Their Receptors: Potential Roles in Endothelial Function and Cancer
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Chemistry
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are potent inflammatory lipid mediators that act through two distinct G-protein-coupled receptors, CysLT1R and CysLT2R. Cys-LTs and their receptors have been implicated in a number of diseases including atherosclerosis and cancer. However, the molecular mechanism by which cys-LTs modulate their effects is not fully understood. In the first part of this dissertation, we demonstrate that cys-LTs (LTC4 and LTD4) induce robust calcium influx in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through CysLT2R, but not CysLT1R. Further, cys-LT treatment induced endothelial cell (EC) contraction, leading to monolayer disruption via CysLT2R/ROCK-dependent pathway. Additionally, stimulation with cys-LTs potentiated TNFa-induced VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte recruitment to ECs through CysLT2R. Taken together, these results suggest that cys-LTs induce endothelial dysfunction via CysLT2R/ROCK dependent pathways. Endothelial dysfunction can significantly contribute to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aberrant angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones is required for invasive tumor growth and metastasis and constitutes an important point in the control of cancer progression. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLTR) have been shown to be upregulated in a number of cancers. However, the specific role played by CysLTR during tumor growth and progression is not known. Therefore, in the second part of this dissertation, using Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) syngeneic tumor model, we demonstrate for the first time that cys-LTs can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Further, employing CysLTR knock out (KO) mice (Cysltr1-/-, Cysltr2-/-), we established that CysLT2R promotes subcutaneous tumor growth, angiogenesis and lung metastasis. Pharmacological blockage of CysLT2R with BaycysLT2 (Bay) resulted in less tumor angiogenesis, increased vascular normalization and attenuated metastasis to lung, similar to the results obtained using KO animals. Our results demonstrate that blocking CysLT2R via Bay has a potential to normalize vessels. Combination treatment with Bay and Cisplatin resulted in a better anti-tumor effect compared to Bay or cisplatin alone. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that, CysLT2R plays a significant role in tumor angiogenesis and vascular integrity leading to tumor growth and metastasis. Targeting CysLT2R could produce beneficial effects in treating cancer and many other angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

Committee:

Sailaja Paruchuri (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Cellular Biology

Keywords:

Cysteinyl leukotrienes, tumor angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction, cancer

Stiel, Jason AFundamental Chemistry of Chlorophosphazenes and Polysilanes
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Chemistry
Polyphosphazenes and polysilanes make up two of the three largest classes of inorganic backbone polymers. Polyphosphazenes were first synthesized by Stokes over 100 years ago, and now they make up a library of over 700 different polymers. The major advantage polyphosphazenes have over organic polymers is that almost all polyphosphazenes are derived from the same parent polymer [PCl2N]n. However, polyphosphazenes have yet to be used commercially due to the irreproducibilities and high cost in the synthesis of [PCl2N]n. Polysilanes have interesting bonding characteristic due to a s*- delocalization along the silicon backbone, but this delocalization is still not fully understood. The main commercial use for polysilanes is as a fibrous silicon carbide precursor. This application does not take advantage of this unique delocalization of the polymer. More fundamental research is needed to advance the bonding characteristic of the silicon backbone. Throughout the literature, this delocalization has often been compared to conjugated carbon p system, and if this is true it should for Si to interact with electron rich metals. Fundamental chemistry associated with the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of [PCl2N]3 is the main focuses of this dissertation, where the initial step of ROP and the superacidity of perchlorinated group 13 & 15 Lewis acids are explored. This dissertation is divided into five chapters: introduction, examining the mechanism of the ROP, determining the relative strength and stability of group 13 & 15 Lewis acids, an introduction and exploration into the bonding characteristic of the s*- delocalization of polysilane, and a conclusion. Chapter I will provide an overview of the chemistry of polyphosphazenes. Chapter II is an investigation into the possible species and steps in the ROP of [PCl2N]3 and into the effects of initiators on the process by 31P NMR. In chapter III, the relative superacidities of perchlorinated group 13 & 15 Lewis acids is discussed with emphases on PCl5. Chapter IV is an overview of polysilanes and an examination of the s*-delocalization of polysilane through entrapment of transition metals in cyclosilanes. Chapter V is the conclusions of this dissertation.

Committee:

Claire Tessier (Advisor); Wiley Youngs (Committee Member); Chris Ziegler (Committee Member); Yi Pang (Committee Member); Chrys Wesdemiotis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry

Keywords:

Phosphazenes; superacid; polysilane; NMR monitoring polymerization

Sam, MahmodicheratiDirect Power Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Power Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Electrical Engineering
The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), due to its improved dynamic behavior, reduction of mechanical stress on wind turbine (WT) and the increase of power capture, is the most popular for large scale wind energy generation systems. Since DFIG is a wound rotor induction machine, most well-known schemes for induction motor drives such as field oriented control (FOC), and direct torque control (DTC) are applicable for controlling the generator in a DFIG-based wind energy system. This dissertation presents the analysis, modeling, simulation and implementation of a direct power control (DPC) for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy system. Both theoretical and practical aspects of non-linearity behavior of the hysteresis-based controller (HBC) in DPC during grid-connected (GC) modes are investigated. Viability of DPC approach with hysteresis-based controller for stand-alone (SA) mode and transition from SA to GC of DFIG-based wind energy system is also analyzed. Two major drawbacks of HBC on DPC drive, namely high active and reactive power ripples and variable switching frequency of the rotor side converter were studied. In order to address these problems, this dissertation proposed a pair of active and reactive power controllers to replace the hysteresis-based controllers. The active power controller proposed in this thesis consists of a proportional-integrator (PI) controller, two triangular carrier generators and a pair of comparators that produce a three-level output, namely –1, 0, and 1. The proposed reactive power controller is similar to the active power controller and consists of a proportional controller, a single triangular carrier generator and a two-level comparator whose output is switched between 1 and 0. The HBC and proposed controllers are applied to the DPC drive in grid-connected and stand-alone modes are analyzed, simulated and implemented. The results of the simulation and experiment are discussed and compared. The transition between stand-alone and grid connected modes included synchronization are analyzed and discussed. The proposed algorithm for transition between SA and GC provided a smooth active and reactive power flow to the islanded-loads. The design and implementation of the laboratory set-up consisted of 7.5 HP wound rotor induction generator as wind generator and a 10 HP induction motor as wind turbine emulator. A fixed-point TI microprocessor (TMS320F2812) is used for controlling the rotor side converter and to convert the analog voltages and currents to digital data. The experimental results are presented, discussed and compared with those of the simulation. The future work proposed in this dissertation consists of a DPC for an unbalanced grid voltage and non-linear islanded loads. Since the experimental set-up is presented future wind research, can be implemented by changing the control algorithm.

Committee:

Malik Elbuluk, Professor (Advisor); Yilmaz Sozer, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Seungdeog Choi, Assistant Professor (Committee Member); Dane Quinn, Professor (Committee Member); Kevin Kreider, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Wind Energy, Doubly Fed Induction Generator, Direct Power Control

Cook, Ryan MParent-Adolescent Communication and Adolescent Depression After a Partial Hospitalization Program
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Counselor Education and Supervision-Marriage and Family Therapy
The purpose of this present study was to examine the relationship between parents’ and adolescent’s’ perceptions of family communication and adolescents’ reports of depression symptoms. Data for this study came from an existing data set. Participants included 167 adolescents and 118 mothers. The Family Communication Scale (mother and adolescent), and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale Major Depression Subscale (adolescent only) were completed pre and post treatment. A correlational research design was used for this study. The results of the study found no correlation between mothers’ and the adolescent’s perception of family communication and adolescent depression prior to treatment. After treatment a correlation between adolescent’s perception of family communication and adolescent’s report of depression was found. It was also found that adolescent’s perception of family communication accounted for more variance than the mothers’ perception of communication in relation to adolescent report of depression.

Committee:

Karin Jordan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Rececca Boyle, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Cynthia Reynolds, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ingrid Weigold, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Evonn Welton, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

Parent and Adolescent Communication; Adolescent Depression; Partial Hospitalization Program; Family Communication

Nazari, AshkanHEAT GENERATION IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES
Master of Science, University of Akron, Mechanical Engineering
In this work, the heat generation in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with different cathode materials in various change and discharge rates is investigated through mathematical modeling and computer simulation. The model employed to investigate the performance of LIBs for the battery with LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode was validated with experimental results obtained in the Advance Energy& Sensor Lab at The University of Akron. For batteries with LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiCoO2 (LCO) cathode materials the model was validated with experimental results available in open literature. The importance of various heat generation sources in LIBs including reversible heat generation and irreversible heat generation due to activation, concentration and ohmic polarizations for LIBs with LFP, LMO and LCO cathode materials at various battery energy capacities and charge/discharge rates are compared. Moreover, the role of LIB’s different components such as cathode, anode, separator and current collectors in each source of heat generation in LIBs is obtained and the contribution of each component in the total heat generation is discoursed.

Committee:

Siamak Farhad (Advisor); Gaurav Mittal (Committee Member); Reza Madad (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Habtemariam, Filmon AHIGH-FREQUENCY IMPEDANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND HEALTH CONDITION MONITORING OF OVERHEAD POWER LINES
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2016, Electrical Engineering
In an age where functioning businesses are almost inconceivable in the absence of electric power, power interruption that can even last for a short period of time can cause tremendous losses of productivity, material, and revenue. Hence, electric power systems should be highly reliable. For reliable operation of power systems, continuous power line health monitoring should be conducted. By continuously monitoring the power lines, critical damages can be detected in their early stage of development. This allows appropriate measures to be applied on time; thereby improving the reliability of the power system while significantly reducing its maintenance costs. Overhead transmission lines are an intricate part of the power system, and their health condition is very important for reliable operation of the overall system. In this thesis, an approach to health monitoring of electric power lines using high frequency impedance characteristics is presented. This technique can detect faults in the power lines, and monitor their health condition. In order to identify damaged and faulty power lines, high-frequency impedance analysis is performed by observing the effects of damages and faults on the line impedance. A threshold value is set to determine if the power line needs replacement due to excessive damage. The proposed technique is verified through MatlabTM simulations and experimental tests. Here, three 28-foot long conductors are considered.

Committee:

J. Alexis De Abreu Garcia, Dr. (Advisor); Sozer Yilmaz, Dr. (Committee Member); Ida Nathan, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Chowdhury, Md Asif MahmoodSYNTHESIZING DIVERSE WAVEFORMS THROUGH A HIGH POWER WIDE BANDWIDTH SIC-BASED INVERTER
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2016, Electrical Engineering
The development of unconventional high-frequency power supplies is one of the leading topics of interest in the field of power electronics research. Higher operating frequency reduces the size of the electronic components and ensures a faster transient response. The development of high-speed power electronic switches paved the way to the development of wide bandwidth inverters, which, however, is challenging due to the challenges associated with thermal designs and also the necessity for faster control schemes and electromagnetic interference mitigation techniques. The wide bandwidth inverters that are currently available on the market have a limited range in terms of power rating. With an increasing demand for applications that exploit high-frequency waveforms at high power rating, it is necessary to choose highspeed power electronic switches like SiC switches to generate these desired waveforms. SiC switches provide high power density, low on-resistance, and fast switching by taking advantage of high breakdown field and high carrier concentrations of SiC material. Although high switching frequency can be achieved through SiC switches, it is still difficult to extract undistorted high-frequency signals from an inverter output. To counter this issue, an optimized output filter needs to be designed, as it will synthesize different inverter output waveforms at different frequencies while eliminating the unwanted noise and harmonics from the signal. In this research, a new design for an inverter output filter has been proposed and developed. This filter is capable of eliminating switching frequency component and other unwanted harmonics that are present at the output of the inverter. The proposed inverter output filter effectively generates robust differently shaped high frequency waveforms. A high power (10 kW) wide bandwidth (60 Hz to 10 kHz) SiC-based inverter, capable of generating different voltage waveforms with 100-120 A current rating, has been constructed during this research. A new inverter output filter and feedback control technique has been integrated into the inverter system to ensure robust and undistorted output voltage waveforms. The effectiveness of this proposed inverter output filter with a feedback control technique in this high power wide bandwidth SiC based-inverter has been validated through both simulation and experimental tests.

Committee:

Yilmaz Sozer, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Inverter, Output Filter, High Power, High Frequency, SiC

Gao, ZhichengCorrosion Damage of Reinforcement Embedded in Reinforced Concrete Slab
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Civil Engineering
Corrosion of reinforcements embedded in concrete is a worldwide problem that affects numerous reinforced concrete (RC) structures. While corrosion has always been problematic since the beginning of mining and refinery of metals, corrosion in RC structures only gained research attention during the 1960s and 1970s, following widespread use of de-icing salts on highways in United States. Since then, research has been undertaken worldwide to address corrosion issues. In this dissertation, an experimental study was conducted to characterize the structural behavior of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to accelerated corrosion in the lab. In order to make the experimental condition similar to the real service environment, the test specimens were introduced with pre-existing cracks and sustained loading was applied during the corrosion process. Accelerated corrosion of tensile steel reinforcements in RC slabs was facilitated by an accelerated corrosion process. Three different test conditions were induced in the corrosion test program: specimens without pre-existing cracks and sustained loading, specimens with pre-existing cracks but no sustained loading, and specimens with pre-existing cracks and sustained loading. In addition, different wetting and drying cycles were incorporated in the corrosion process. Expansion of longitudinal cracks along the tensile reinforcements and transverse cracks crossing the tensile reinforcements were recorded during the corrosion testing. Multiple desired corrosion levels-from low level (1%) to high level (20%)- were applied to different specimens. The gravimetric metal loss along the longitudinal direction of reinforcements was measured after the bending test. An empirical relationship was developed based on the representative specimens corroded with pre-existing cracks and sustained loading conditions for all desired corrosion levels. The epoxy-coated reinforcements and polypropylene (PP) fibers were used during casting experimental specimens to assess their corrosion resistance properties. By using the constant electric current, 10 and 20% desired corrosion levels were applied to most specimens, and 40% desired corrosion level was also applied to several test specimens with PP fibers additives to simulate the severe corrosion condition. The surface defects of epoxy-coated reinforcements and two different quantity ratios of PP fibers - 4.5 kg/m^3 and 6 kg/m^3 were considered in this study. The ultimate capacity of corroded specimens was tested after corrosion process. The average metal loss, the reduced yield strength of corroded reinforced bars and the effective cross section of the specimens can accurately predict the theoretical ultimate capacity loss compared with testing results. The critical inner expansive pressure from XFEM was applied to the developed numerical model to predict the cracking time of the cover concrete, which is defined as the severability limitation of the corroded RC structures. The proposed prediction model had been validated by comparing with the existing experiment data of uniform corrosion condition and the results show that the accuracy of developed model was acceptable to predict the serviceability of reinforced structures with corrosion damage. The effect of non-uniform corrosion condition on cracking pressure from XFEM and cracking time using developed prediction model was discussed.

Committee:

Robert Liang (Advisor); Anil Patnaik (Advisor); Zhe Luo (Committee Member); Yalin Dong (Committee Member); En Chen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

corrosion; reinforced concrete; cracks; metal loss

Montanye, BoChanges in biological production and lake chemistry in Lake Tanganyika over the past 400 years
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2016, Geology-Environmental Geology
Changes in lake level have had a noticeable impact on the chemistry and productivity of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Downcore analyses of biogenic silica (BSi), organic carbon, δ15N and δ13C isotopes suggest that productivity began to decline at approximately 1750 CE with a temporary peak during a lake level increase in the late 1800s. The lake level increase of the late 1800s is marked by variations in the sedimentary record by increases in carbonate (>70%), organic carbon (>10%), and BSi (~5 wt. %). Bulk sediment δ15N, organic matter δ13C, and carbonate δ18O data generally show an inverse relationship to the BSi, organic carbon, and carbonate data in the shallow water cores during the lake level increase. One possible interpretation of this inverse relationship is that there is a shift in ecological composition of the primary producers of Lake Tanganyika to nitrogen fixers during the period of increased carbonate and lake level. As productivity began to decline again after the late 1800s lake high stand, diatoms were surpassed by nitrogen fixing phytoplankton, leading to lowered δ15N and δ13C values. Since the early 1900s, productivity of the lake has remained low at values similar to the period before the lake level increase (<3 wt. %). These observations are similar to prior work; however, my results suggest that the decline in primary production may have occurred earlier at these sites than previously inferred.

Committee:

James McManus (Advisor); John Peck (Committee Member); John Senko (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geochemistry

Keywords:

Lake Tanganyika; geochemistry; biogenic silica; productivity; lake level change; isotopes

Lu, YanfengA Study on Liquid Bridge Based Microstereolithography (LBMSL) System
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Mechanical Engineering
Although additive manufacturing emerged about 30 years ago, a large number of researchers have been still working on its processes, materials, and applications due to the unique advantages of low cost, high degree of customization, high complexity, fast lead time, less waste material, and integrated assembly. Additive manufacturing has been widely used in a lot of fields, including aerospace, bioengineering, tissue engineering, optics, medical, and electronics. A vat-based projection microstereolithography (MSL) has been studied for multi-material fabrication with various applications including drug loaded microneedle array and tissue engineering scaffolds. These studies indicate that MSL is an attracting microfabrication process that can create intricate and complex small structures with a high resolution. However, fabrication limitations exist due to the inherent system configuration and fabrication process. These limitations include the difficulty in using highly viscous materials, considerable material consumption, low fabrication speed, and high oxygen inhibition. This thesis sought a method to improve the fabrication capabilities of the existing MSL process by introducing a liquid bridge (a liquid drop formed between two parallel disks) to replace the vat which is a key element in conventional MSL to hold the liquid polymer. In this thesis, a novel liquid bridge based microstereolithography (LBMSL) was proposed and developed. The liquid bridge was first introduced into the MSL process by replacing the vat, allowing the entire fabrication process to occur within the liquid bridge. The liquid bridge was studied theoretically and experimentally in order to obtain the stable equilibrium shape and the relationship between the height and the volume of the liquid bridge. The adhesion force between the fabricated part and the top disk as well as the oxygen inhibition during the fabrication process were investigated. Using the LBMSL process, the fabrication layer thickness of 0.5 µm was reached. This could not be achieved in the vat-based MSL due to the oxygen inhibition to the photopolymer. A highly viscous material with the viscosity of more than 3000 cp, which is hard to be used in the conventional MSL, was tested and promising results were obtained. Compared with the vat-based MSL, the material consumption in LBMSL was reduced at least 2 times and the fabrication speed was improved greatly, especially when using a higher viscous material. In addition, the LBMSL showed a potential for multi-material fabrication and continuous fabrication due to this unique fabrication process. In summary, improvements of fabrication capabilities with the suggested LBMSL process was proved with various experimental results. The suggested process presented many advantages in terms of the layer thickness, the fabrication speed, oxygen inhibition, and highly viscous material fabrication, which can open a route to develop a new additive manufacturing process.

Committee:

Jae-Won Choi, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Additive manufacturing; 3D printing; microstereolithography; liquid bridge; microneedle arrays

Sirivolu, DushyanthMarine Composite Panels under Blast Loading
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Mechanical Engineering
Composite and composite sandwich panels are being used and considered as an alternative to metal panels in ship structures due to their high stiffness- and strength- to weight ratio, improved corrosion resistance and low radar and magnetic signatures. In such applications they may be subjected to both in-air and under-water blast loading and it is important to understand the response of composite panels to blast loading. Analytical solutions were developed to elucidate the deformation and damage initiation of composite and composite sandwich panels under blast. Three different problems were considered in this study: composite shells subjected to external pressure pulse, composite sandwich shells subjected to blast loading and composite sandwich plates subjected to air and blast loading. The response of a double-curvature, composite shell under external blast was examined using Novozhilov non-linear shell theory and Lagrange’s equations of motion. The predicted stable response of the shell was shown to compare well with FEA results from ABAQUS Explicit. The Budiansky-Roth criterion was used to examine the instability of the shell. It was shown that the dynamic pulse buckling strength of the shell could be increased by reducing the radius of curvature of the shell for a fixed span, or by increasing angular extent for fixed radius of curvature. Both these parameters triggered instability at higher buckling modes and were responsible for higher buckling strength. A multi-layered, analytical model was developed to study the blast response of double-curvature, composite sandwich panels with crushable, elastic-plastic PVC foam core. Plastic core crushing and energy absorption are important core properties for blast mitigation. The PVC foam core was modeled with isotropic and transversely isotropic properties. Predicted solutions using isotropic foam core was shown to be in good agreement with FEA results from ABAQUS Explicit. For sandwich shells with higher curvature and in-plane membrane resistance, lower blast resistance was found with transversely-isotropic foam core than with an isotropic foam core. The study suggested that modeling the sandwich core as an isotropic material, as is commonly done in practice, leads to non-conservative estimates in the structure’s ability to resist blast loads. A fluid-solid interaction model was developed to examine the dynamic response of a composite sandwich plate subjected to air blast/air back, water blast/water back, and water blast/water back conditions. Reflected and radiated surface traction vectors were introduced to account for the plate motions at the interface of fluid and solid. The fluid damping terms resulted in substantially reducing and slowing down the deformation of the sandwich plate. This caused higher pressure loads to induce damage in the water blast/air back and water blast/water back panels when compared to air blast/air back panel. For the thick composite sandwich plates, the panels with the high density foam was more blast resistant in air blast/air back condition, while sandwich panels with lower density foam were more blast resistant in the water blast/air back and water blast/water back conditions. For thin composite sandwich plates, sandwich panels with lower density foam were most blast resistant in all blast loading conditions. It was also shown that the core plasticity in the air blast/air back panel was primarily due to transverse shear. However, in the water blast/air back, it was due to combined transverse compression and shear, and in the water blast/water back case, plasticity in the core was due to hydrostatic pressure and transverse shear.

Committee:

Michelle Hoo Fatt, Dr. (Advisor); Graham Kelly, Dr. (Committee Member); Kwek-Tze Tan, Dr. (Committee Member); Atef Saleeb, Dr. (Committee Member); Dmitry Golovaty, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Composite sandwich; dynamic pulse buckling; blast response; core crushing; fluid-solid interaction

Lam, Andrew FInfluencing interviewer perceptions in an employment interview: An examination of the impact of interviewer-applicant regulatory focus congruence
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2015, Psychology-Industrial/Organizational
Applying the definitions of objective and subjective fit originally proposed by French, Caplan, and Harrison (Caplan, 1983; 1987; French & Kahn, 1962; French et al., 1974, 1982; Harrison, 1978, 1985), this study examined how a match in regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997; 1998) between an interviewer and applicant influenced interviewers’ evaluation of an applicant. In the proposed model, objective regulatory fit was identified as an antecedent of subjective regulatory fit and a distal predictor of evaluations of the applicant. Subjective regulatory fit was hypothesized to predict evaluations of the applicant through mediators. Participants in a computer-based interview simulation played the role of the interviewer, where an applicant’s responses were prerecorded. Pre- and post-interview measures and evaluations were collected. No support was found for the effect of objective regulatory fit on evaluations of the applicant. However, support was found for subjective regulatory fit being positively related to evaluations of the applicant. Furthermore, the positive relationship between subjective regulatory fit and evaluations of the applicant was partially mediated by liking and value from fit. In summary, it was found that the greater the perceived regulatory fit, the higher the evaluations of the applicant were, and this was due to greater liking and perceived value of the applicant.

Committee:

Dennis Doverspike (Advisor); Robert Lord (Committee Member); Rosalie Hall (Committee Member); Harvey Sterns (Committee Member); Craig Menzemer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Wehmann, AndrewSad White Man Stories: and other banana fantasies
Master of Fine Arts, University of Akron, 2016, Creative Writing
A collection of unconnected short stories.

Committee:

David Giffels (Advisor); Caryl Pagel (Committee Member); Imad Rahman (Committee Member); Robert Pope (Committee Member); Eric Wasserman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

fiction; creative writing;

Groman, Jennifer LynnFrom Calling to Crisis: The Growth Process of Teachers Through Crisis-Like Incidents
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2015, Elementary Education
The phenomena of crisis in the formation and development of teacher identity is not unknown in the field of educational research, yet the study of these phenomena tends to focus on preservice and novice teachers. The purpose of this research is to discover through veteran teacher narratives, descriptions of crisis-like incidents, as well as any growth and transformation they may have experienced in the context of the profession. By studying teacher stories I hope to contribute to the understanding of how teachers navigate their teaching lives and shifting identities, especially in the face of difficulty, and gain insight into the value of collectively sharing and talking about the stories together. This Organic and Narrative based inquiry engaged three veteran teachers in conversations about the difficulties and challenges (crisis-like situations) of their teaching lives. The stories of crisis-like incidents (Veteran Stories) varied greatly, but themes emerged, such as: passion for the profession; varying needs for reflection; conflict of personal beliefs and institutional beliefs; conflict of belonging and not belonging; harmed and healed relationships; and the presence of a strongly held core belief. The process of sharing crisis stories in a safe and caring environment was quite transformative for participants. Their reflections indicated increased understanding of self and others, desire to be of service, a sense of wellbeing and personal implications, as well. They concluded that teachers often cause crisis-like incidents for other teachers, and that reflecting on incidents, while emotionally difficult, proved valuable to them. The researcher gained increased awareness of the vulnerabilities and risk in teaching, and now views herself as moving into teacher Elderhood. Early readers responded to the stories of crisis with stories of their own, demonstrating the truly widespread nature of crisis-like incidents in the lives of public school teachers. Recommendations for the profession include increased time and space for teachers to talk to one another about their philosophical beliefs and values and the value of a healthy, trusting school culture. Further research is needed to unearth aspects of critical incidents among teachers with varying philosophical viewpoints, as well as the phenomena of teachers causing critical incidents to other teachers.

Committee:

Gary Holliday, Dr. (Advisor); Renee Mudrey-Camino, Dr. (Committee Member); Alfred Daviso, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca McElfresh, Dr. (Committee Member); Diane Montgomery, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Psychology; Elementary Education; Middle School Education; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Philosophy; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Crisis, critical incidents, teaching, teacher training, organic inquiry, narrative inquiry, transpersonal psychology, stories, narratives, teacher stories, teacher identity, identity

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