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MacDonald, Robert LRogue State? The United States, Unilateralism, and the United Nations
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2006, History
The thesis illustrates the disconnect between the benevolent rhetoric and actual U.S. foreign policy from 1980 to the present through an examination of the U.S. voting record in the United Nations Security Council and General Assembly, detailing that the United States fits its own definition of a rogue state.

Committee:

Diane Britton (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

United States Foreign Policy; United Nations; Security Council Vetoes

Lighty, Shaun ChandlerThe Fall and Rise of Lew Wallace: Gaining Legitimacy Through Popular Culture
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, History
As a lawyer, soldier, and politician, Lew Wallace epitomized the nineteenth-century ideals of manhood. Yet a series of professional failures prompted Wallace to turn to writing as a way to reconstitute his identity. The century’s best-selling novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, was the result. The questions Wallace explored in Ben-Hur about the historic reality of Christianity also resonated with the popular religiosity of Americans eager to experience faith vicariously. Aided by the late nineteenth-century mass-market machinery that propelled his novel to commercial success, Wallace became a popular authority on secular and religious matters by deriving definition and legitimacy from his audiences. Scholars generally omit Wallace and Ben-Hur from current historiography, yet both reveal important insights into late nineteenth-century American culture regarding manhood, popular religiosity, and celebrity.

Committee:

Mary Cayton (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Lew Wallace; Ben-Hur; manhood; masculinity; popular religion; religious novels; celebrity; authorship; mass media; Harper and Brothers; reader response; reader reception; consumer culture

Prykhodko, YaroslavPerforming the Self in the Discourse of History: The American Revolution and Memoir Writing, 1770s-1840s
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, History
The thesis examines the formal transformation of a marginal genre of historical writing in post-Revolutionary America as an indicator of change and continuity in the assumptions about the relationship between public and private, about historical writing, authorship, and the place of the individual in history. It is argued that the democratization of public discourse in the first decades of the nineteenth century did not result directly in a change in the assumptions about historical writing, but in the development of new, “non-historical” forms of speaking about the past. History as a narrative form was for some time left behind.

Committee:

Andrew Cayton (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Suchma, Philip CFrom the best of times to the worst of times: professional sport and urban decline in a tale of two Clevelands, 1945-1978
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Educational Policy and Leadership

Historical research has provided scholars with a strong foundation for understanding the sport-city nexus in American culture. These studies have focused primarily on two distinct eras. The first links the rise of modern sporting and leisure practices with the birth of the American metropolis from the early nineteenth century to the early-to-mid twentieth century. The works of Melvin Adelman, Stephen Hardy, Steven Riess, and Gerald Gems have enriched this area with studies on sports growth in some of the key American metropolises at the turn of the past century: New York, Boston, and Chicago. The second area of study reflects the evolution of American professional sport as a business following World War II. These studies documented cases of league expansion, franchise relocation, and stadium construction in a specific city. Socio-cultural research addressing sport and the city has tended to look more at community-based issues for the aforementioned themes.

Missing from these scholarly treatments is an examination of the plight of the postwar American city undergoing urban decline and the place of professional sport within that context. Looking at Cleveland, this study revisits the questions used in the existing body of sport-city scholarship to see if and how they can be translated to the modern city in decline. The intersection of sport and city addresses issues of civic policy, local economics, and racial relations as found in scholarly works, city records, newspapers, and archived manuscript collections. This study also examines the creation of civic image through the presence of professional sports and the meanings extracted from that image, as seen in Cleveland’s shift from “The City of Champions” to the “Mistake on the Lake.” Furthermore, the Wirth-Hardy categories of the city—physical structure, social organization, and shared beliefs—and Isenberg’s argument that human actors were at the core of downtown’s decline frame visions of the city. These underlying notions balance the examination of tangible and intangible evidence to create a more complete understanding of professional sport’s relationship to Cleveland.

Committee:

Melvin Adelman (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Sport; Cleveland, Ohio; Urban Decline; Baseball; Football; Hockey

Knight, Peter G.“MacArthur’s Eyes”: reassessing military intelligence operations in the forgotten war, June 1950 - April 1951
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, History

As American military historians ponder the impacts of military intelligence operations on the conduct and outcome of the nation’s wars, a key question comes to mind: how can we most objectively assess America’s performance of military intelligence operations? In answering this question we must understand the complexity of military intelligence work, for it traverses that gray area where military strategy and foreign policy intertwine. Oftentimes, when policymakers and military leaders fail to synchronize American foreign policy objectives and military strategy, the intelligence community, which forms a bridge between the political and military realms, makes a convenient scapegoat for such policy failures. Conversely, intelligence successes most often remain highly classified to protect the collection capabilities that facilitated a corresponding operational success. Much better known for its failures than its successes, military intelligence is widely regarded as the quintessential oxymoron.

Yet, worse contradictions in terms have affected the American conduct of war. For example, in the Korean War the American principle of “do more with less.” proved true for all parts of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East, including their military intelligence organizations. In the midst of a post World War II force reduction, military intelligence, performed the best that it could within prescribed geopolitical and military constraints. Moreover, the war catalyzed the chaotic reorganization of the U.S. national security structure, which had tremendous impact on military intelligence operations in Korea.

It is in this context that we must reassess American military intelligence operations in the Korean War. For over a half-century, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur and his Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (G-2), Major General Charles A. Willoughby, have borne the brunt of blame for the “intelligence failures” of June 25th and November 25th, 1950. All too often historians oversimplify these failures by ignoring important distinctions between discerning enemy capabilities and order of battle and the infinitely harder task of discerning enemy intentions. In reassessing military intelligence operations in the Korean War, one finds that “intelligence failures” were actually military command and political policy failures that became mutually reinforcing while intelligence successes reflected the converse. Therefore, MacArthur and Willoughby should not bear their historical burden alone, and they should receive due credit for many of the intelligence successes of the war. Take a look back at military intelligence operations in the Korean War through “MacArthur’s eyes” and judge for yourself.

Committee:

Allan Millett (Advisor); John Guilmartin, Jr. (Other); Philip Brown (Other)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Korean War; military intellgience; communications intelligence; human intelligence; photogrpahic intellgience

Oberlin, Jennifer MichelleLost and Found: The Process of Historic Preservation in Lucas County, Ohio
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2004, History
This thesis discusses the historic preservation movement in Lucas County, Ohio, showing how certain preservation issues paralleled with those of the national movement in certain eras. Issues pertaining to sucessful preservation, such as grassroots organizations, federal programs, tax incentives, the impact of preservation law, and planning are explained, as are the issues surrounding poor preservation, such as urban renewal, disinterest, migrations out of the city, and social unrest. Public perceptions of historic sites and of the preservation movement are overviewed, showing that certain intrest groups held influence over what was to be saved. Also, significant sites in Lucas County (1820-1910)are described as examples of successful and poor preservation.

Committee:

Diane Britton (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Dunlap, RobertOrdinary Heroes: Depictions of Masculinity in World War II Film
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences - History
This essay investigates movie images of American soldiers in World War II to analyze changing perceptions of masculinity. An examination of ten films chronologically shows a distinct change from the post-war period to the present in the depiction of American soldiers. These changes coincide with monumental shifts in American culture, such as losing the Vietnam War. The U.S. had to deal with a loss of masculinity that came with their defeat in Vietnam and this is reflected in movies. The soldiers become more skeptical of their leadership while simultaneously appearing more emotional. In more recent years, there is a return to the heroism of the World War II generation, with an added emotionality and dimensionality. Films reveal contemporary views of masculinity and warfare and these depictions affected the way men perceived themselves and acted in their real-life roles.

Committee:

Allan Winkler (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

World War II; Film; Masculinity

Plating, John DKeeping China in the war: the Trans-Himalayan "Hump" Airlift and Sino-US Strategy in World War II
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, History
The trans-Himalayan airlift of World War II, better known as the “Hump,” is recognized among specialists as the first sustained and most ambitious combat airlift operation in modern history. Cobbled together with only a handful of airplanes and aircrews in early 1942, the operation grew to become the ultimate expression of the US government’s commitment to China, in the end delivering nearly 740,000 tons of cargo. This was no small feat, either, as the US Army Air Forces’ aircraft flew in what is arguably the world’s worst weather system and over its most rugged terrain, all the while under the threat of enemy attack. The thesis of this dissertation is that the Hump airlift was initially started to serve as a display of American support for its Chinese ally who had been at war with Japan since 1937. However, by the start of 1944, with the airlift’s capability gaining momentum, American strategists set aside concerns for the ephemeral concept of Chinese national will and used the airlift as the primary means of supplying American forces in China in preparation for the US’s final assault on Japan. Strictly from the standpoint of war materiel, it comes as no surprise that the airlift was the precondition that had to be met to make possible all other allied military action, as it was an enabling force in the theater. It dictated the level of effort the Americans could bring to bear against the Japanese, being the sole route to China until the end of 1944, when the Ledo (or Stilwell) Road opened. Other routes were discussed and attempted, but in the end the only way for supplies to get into China was over the Himalayas. The airlift was also a driver of CBI strategy, as it was an expression of the broader airpower orientation of the theater. Difficult terrain, extreme weather, and primitive roads all combined to make the CBI a theater best traversed by air. It was in the CBI, and only in the CBI, that allied troops were most commonly inserted, supplied, and extracted by air.

Committee:

John Guilmartin (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Terry, Clinton W.The Most Commercial of People: Cincinnati, the Civil War, and the Rise of Industrial Capitalism, 1861-1865
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Arts and Sciences : History
This dissertation examines the impact of the Civil War on the rise of industrial capitalism in Cincinnati, Ohio. In an era of laissez faire capitalism, merchants developed economic institutions fitting their circumstances, the most important of which was its Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' Exchange. By 1850, the Chamber controlled much of the city's trade, substantially reducing the risk of conducting business. Although manufacturing had been important throughout the city's short history and grew increasingly more important as time passed, merchants dominated the local economy. The Civil War changed the basis for local prosperity. War ended the Southern trade, throwing the city into a severe financial panic, which convinced many citizens that the Democratic principles of free trade, private capital, small government, and peace remained valid. Within months, however, it became clear to the mercantile elite that wartime prosperity would come only from aligning local self-interest with those of the federal government. The Chamber quickly wed itself to the Lincoln administration and its economic program of protected trade, organized capital, free labor, and a preserved Union. Other elements within the local economy were not so quick to support such a radical transformation. Over the next year and a half Cincinnatians experienced serious social conflict in the form of worker protest, a violent race riot, and a brief threat of Confederate invasion known as the siege of Cincinnati. In the wake of this conflict, renewed prosperity convinced a majority of citizens that they could prosper under the Republican system, thanks to government supply contracts, military success, a national banking system, and the creation of a mythology that touted the city's service to the Union. By 1865, industry had superceded commerce as the city's most important economic activity, and most citizens supported a Republican economic program consistent with that transformation. No longer the center of the West, the city now prospered as a regional center of manufacturing in a national economy.

Committee:

Dr. Wayne K. Durrill (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Civil War; Cincinnati, Ohio; business; economy; market revolution

Laux, KatieSONGS IN THE KEY OF PROTEST: HOW MUSIC REFLECTS THE SOCIAL TURBULENCE IN AMERICA FROM THE LATE 1950S TO THE EARLY 1970S
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2007, History
The Vietnam War polarized the American public. From the late 1950s to the early 1970s, the American public debated nuclear policy, foreign policy, and the war at home. As a result, two social movements emerged, one dedicated to end the war in Vietnam, and the other committed to anti-communism and halting the counterculture. As these two groups battled on American campuses, American musicians on both sides of the debate wrote and performed songs that tried and succeeded in persuading the American public. Their music provides another perspective of the chaos in America caused by the Vietnam War.

Committee:

Allan Winkler (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States; Music

Keywords:

Music; Vietnam War

Kopper, Kevin KatrickArthur St. Clair and the Struggle For Power in the Old Northwest, 1763-1803
PHD, Kent State University, 2005, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
Situating Governor Arthur St. Clair as the central figure of and focusing on his administration of the Northwest Territory present an accurate and cogent account of America’s first experiment in colonialism. The frontier was not static, but amorphous; it changed over time and brought new challenges to the territorial government. St. Clair is the instrument through which to understand this change. His military and civil careers are the story of the frontier. Throughout his life, St. Clair wanted to be the “father of a country.” But in the end, he was rejected by his “subjects” and as a result later historians overlooked his contributions to western expansion. Examining St. Clair’s governorship shows the process by which the region that became the state of Ohio in 1803 was transformed from a colony populated by natives to a state inhabited predominately by white agriculturalists who were connected to the world markets via the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. St. Clair, working under the direction of the federal government, was the architect of this change. He implemented the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which served as the blueprint for expansion in the approximately 250,000 square mile region that became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. While in office he presided over the settlement of the region, negotiated Indian treaties, campaigned against the Ohio Indians, opened diplomatic relations with colonial representatives from Great Britain and Spain, determined the locations of county boundaries and county seats, implemented a government based upon the provisions of the Northwest Ordinance, created a judiciary, and put laws into operation through the territorial legislature. The governor managed the territory during the formative years of U.S. expansion and set precedents for future generations. St. Clair’s ultimate downfall occurred when he opposed the movement to create the state of Ohio and instead sought to redefine the territory’s boundaries to prevent the eastern section from meeting the criteria necessary to call a constitutional convention. In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson removed the governor from office because of his actions at the Ohio constitutional convention, when he had called the Enabling Act a nullity and questioned Congress’s authority to legislate for the territory without consulting the territorial government. The comments were thought by many to border on treason. His departure symbolized the success of the Revolution of 1800—the ascendancy of a new generation of political figures who dominated the nation’s affairs and determined the fate of the West. Defending the provisions of the Northwest Ordinance, St. Clair was the embodiment of the Federalist vision of expansion, a conservative political philosophy that was out of favor with many of the residents and politicians in Washington.

Committee:

Wakelyn Jon (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Arthur St. Clair; Indians; Northwest Territory;

Cunningham, Connie K.ECHOES FROM HENDERSON HALL: THE HISTORY OF ONE PIONEER FAMILY SETTLING IN THE OHIO VALLEY
Masters in Education, Marietta College, 2006, Education
Every family has a history. It may be filled with heroism, patriotism, and fame, or it may be filled with treachery, violence, and shame. Regardless of the content, it is the legacy and heritage of the family’s descendents. This researcher has attempted to convey the story of one family whose pioneer ancestry began in old Virginia and extended into the beautiful river bottoms of the Ohio Valley. Entwined in the legacy of the Henderson family is their friendship with George Washington, disclosure of the treasonous plans of Aaron Burr and Harman Blennerhassett, and a court case over a runaway slave. From the House of Burgesses to the modern renovation of the train depot of Williamstown, West Virginia in 1998, this pioneer family’s legacy covers over 250 years of written and oral history that deserves to be heard, for it is a heritage that exceeds the boundaries of family. It is the heritage of a people, a region, a country, and a nation.

Committee:

William Bauer (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

HENDERSON FAMILY HISTORY; Anna; HENDERSON HALL; Rosalie

Dennison, AmandaStruggle to Define the Power of the Court: President Thomas Jefferson v. Chief Justice John Marshall
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2005, History
This thesis will examine four events that shaped the court and the executive's power between 1801 to 1807. The first three, the Marbury v. Madison decision, the repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801, and the Impeachment of Federalist judges, occurred within the first few years and show how the power struggle evolved into the final showdown of the Aaron Burr treason trial. The Burr trial was an arena where the president and the chief justice faced off in a highly publicized trial that dealt with the most serious of crimes allegedly performed by the former vice president.

Committee:

Diane Britton (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Jefferson; Marshall; Supreme Court

Hamilton, Curtis F.The Haymarket Story and Judge Joseph E. Gary
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 2000, Department of History
On May 4, 1886 a group of anarchists organized a meeting at Haymarket Square in Chicago, Illinois to protest police shooting of strikers the day before. As Samuel Fielden was concluding his speech, Chicago Police Offiers arrived and ordered the anarchists to end the meeting. As Fielden stepped down from the speakers stand a bomb was hurled into the ranks of officers and a riot ensued in which several police officers and civilians were killed. Although the bombthrower was never identified, eight anarchists were put on trial and found guilty of the murder of Chicago Police Officer Mathias J. Degan. Given their political views it would have been difficult for them to receive a fair trial anywhere in the United States. The media convicted them in print long before the trial began and inflamed the passions and prejudices of the public. Even the American court system was conservative and reflected the views of the press and public. Yet, Judge Joseph E. Gary was especially prejudicial throughout the trial. This study has investigated the objectivity in the trial of the eight anarchists with and emphasis on the role of trial of the eight anarchists with and emphasis on the role of trial Judge Joseph E. Gary. The question, "What rulings did Judge Joseph E. Gary make during the trial that contributed to the guilty verdicts and harsh sentences passed upon the eight anarchists?", has been answered.

Committee:

Martha Pallante (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Haymarket Square Riot; Judge Joseph E. Gary; anarchists

Leonard Bayes, Kathleen E.Making Middle-Class Marriage Modern in Kentucky, 1830-1900
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : History
This study examines changes that Kentucky’s white middle class made to marital ideals in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. It demonstrates that this developing class refined an earlier ideal of companionate marriage to better suit its economic, social, and cultural circumstances in an urban environment. This reevaluation of companionate marriage corresponded with Kentucky’s escalating entry into a national market economy and the state’s most rapid period of urbanization. As it became increasingly unlikely that young men born to Kentucky’s white landed settler families would inherit either land or enslaved labor, they began to rely on advanced education in order to earn a livelihood in towns and cities. Because lack of land and labor caused a delay in their ability to marry, the members of Kentucky’s middle class focused attention on romantic passion rather a balance of reasoned affection and wealth in land when they formulated their urban marital ideal. They encountered several obstacles in the process of redefining marriage. Kentucky’s middle class was a small urban ship on a vast rural sea. A majority of Kentucky’s population, both white and black, continued to define marriage in a way that suited life in a family farm economy. In addition, white middle-class men faced challenges to their ownership of enslaved people, property and wealth because educated white women in urban centers began to demand more control of family finances and people in Kentucky, bolstered by an increased agitation for abolition, challenged the institution of slavery. In response, the members of Kentucky’s middle class attempted to establish cultural hegemony over the marital ideals and practices of Kentucky’s large rural population. They also began to culturally buttress marriage as an institution in which white men acted as legal, social and economic heads of households. Although this dissertation is a study of the contesting marriage beliefs and practices between urban and rural people of Kentucky, it raises questions for further research about heightened romantic ideals of marriage that historians have found among an urbanizing, northern white middle class in the middle decades of the nineteenth century.

Committee:

Dr. Wayne Durrill (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

middle-class marriage; Kentucky 1830 to 1900; refashioning visions of companionate marriage; contesting rural marital values; establishing cultural hegemony; maintaining white, patriarchal control of; the insitution of marriage

Klimas, JoshuaBalancing consensus, consent, and competence: Richard Russell, the senate armed services committee & oversight of America’s defense, 1955-1968
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, History
This study examines Congress’s role in defense policy-making between 1955 and 1968, with particular focus on the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC), its most prominent and influential members, and the evolving defense authorization process. The consensus view holds that, between World War II and the drawdown of the Vietnam War, the defense oversight committees showed acute deference to Defense Department legislative and budget requests. At the same time, they enforced closed oversight procedures that effectively blocked less "pro-defense" members from influencing the policy-making process. Although true at an aggregate level, this understanding is incomplete. It ignores the significant evolution to Armed Services Committee oversight practices that began in the latter half of 1950s, and it fails to adequately explore the motivations of the few members who decisively shaped the process. SASC chairman Richard Russell (D-GA) dominated Senate deliberations on defense policy. Relying only on input from a few key colleagues - particularly his protege and eventual successor, John Stennis (D-MS) - Russell for the better part of two decades decided almost in isolation how the Senate would act to oversee the nation’s defense. Russell’s oversight concept weighed multiple competing considerations: the reality that modern presidential power was an outgrowth of the Congress’s acknowledged inability to manage the expanded scope of government; the requirement that the Executive Branch demonstrate wisdom and managerial competence; the duty to conduct thorough oversight as a prerequisite for congressional consent to presidential proposals; and the Cold War imperative to buttress presidential leadership with at least the appearance of a broad governing consensus. While initially hesitant to craft a substantive policy role, perceived shortcomings in presidential wisdom and managerial competence steadily prompted Russell to insert himself and his committee more directly into the policy-making process. The principle vehicle became incremental expansion of the annual defense authorization bill, although in practice this impacted only at the margins of the defense program. In any case, Russell never fundamentally rejected the necessity for presidential leadership, nor the desirability of relatively closed congressional oversight procedures - both of which proved increasingly out of step with the emerging Senate majority of the late 1960s.

Committee:

David Stebenne (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Richard Russell; John Stennis; Senate Armed Services Committee; Oversight; Defense Policy

Zombek, Angela MarieCAMP CHASE AND LIBBY PRISONS: AN EXAMINATION OF POWER AND RESISTANCE ON THE NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN HOME FRONTS 1863-1864
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2006, History
This thesis examines Civil War prisons as integral parts of the Northern and Southern home fronts.

Committee:

Lesley Gordon (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Confederate; PRISONS; prisoner; LIBBY; inmates; CAMP CHASE; LIBBY PRISONS

Seiken, JeffreyAmerican naval policy in an age of Atlantic warfare: a consensus broken and reforged, 1783-1816
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, History
In the 1780s, there was broad agreement among American revolutionaries like Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton about the need for a strong national navy. This consensus, however, collapsed as a result of the partisan strife of the 1790s. The Federalist Party embraced the strategic rationale laid out by naval boosters in the previous decade, namely that only a powerful, seagoing battle fleet offered a viable means of defending the nation's vulnerable ports and harbors. Federalists also believed a navy was necessary to protect America's burgeoning trade with overseas markets. Republicans did not dispute the desirability of the Federalist goals, but they disagreed sharply with their political opponents about the wisdom of depending on a navy to achieve these ends. In place of a navy, the Republicans with Jefferson and Madison at the lead championed an altogether different prescription for national security and commercial growth: economic coercion. The Federalists won most of the legislative confrontations of the 1790s. But their very success contributed to the party's decisive defeat in the election of 1800 and the abandonment of their plans to create a strong blue water navy. Republican control of the government enabled Jefferson to implement what he called his “system”: commercial sanctions for deterrence; gunboats, fortifications, and the militia for coastal defense; and the commissioning of privateers and the raising of volunteer armies for offensive warfare. The Jeffersonian system received its trial run from 1807 to 1812 and was ultimately judged a failure. Far from averting war, the use of commercial retaliation escalated the confrontation with Great Britain while also depleting the treasury and leaving the nation poorly prepared for the looming conflict. On the very eve of the war, an influential clique of young Republican politicians argued for the abandonment of Jefferson’s system and the building of a strong fleet. Their endorsement of naval expansion both before and during the War of 1812 proved instrumental in rebuilding a national consensus on the navy that transcended political divisions.

Committee:

John Guilmartin (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

United States Navy; Thomas Jefferson; Quasi-War; Tripolitan War; War of 1812

Abnet, Dustin ARADICAL UNION: GENDER, PERSONALITY, AND POLITICS IN THE MARRIAGE OF META AND VICTOR BERGER
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2006, History
For over thirty years, Victor and Meta Berger lived, fought, and campaigned together as two of the most prominent American socialists. During their marriage, Victor co-founded the American Socialist Party, served on its Executive Committee, successfully ran for Congress, published the leading Socialist daily newspaper, and led Milwaukee’s powerful socialist machine. During the same period, Meta served five terms on the Milwaukee school board and led numerous women’s and socialist organizations while serving as Victor’s wife. Though they were important political figures, Meta and Victor were also important because of how they experienced, as a couple, two of the most transformative developments of the early twentieth century: a crisis of masculinity and the rise of feminism. Using their personal letters, papers, and Meta’s autobiography, this thesis reconstructs their relationship, showing how Victor’s responses to a crisis of masculinity related to Meta formation of a feminist consciousness.

Committee:

Mary Frederickson (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Socialism; feminism

Ives, Christopher K.Knowledge and strategy: operational innovation and institutional failure, U.S. Army Special Forces in Vietnam 1961-1964
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, History

U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers in Vietnam quickly adapted to battlefield conditions based in the hamlets and villages. Fighting featured short, sharp contests with insurgents often hardened by more than a decade of conflict with the French. Guerrilla foot-mobility and stealth had matched firepower and maneuver. Adaptations accumulated from experimentation by Special Forces soldiers into genuine innovation based on who they were, what they knew, and what they could make work. This critical analysis of Special Forces operations in Vietnam concludes that these soldiers demonstrated cognitive dominance during the period between the First and Second Indochina Wars. Achieving this dominance is a challenge common in history to soldiers and leaders.

Special Forces adaptations collectively constituted a counterinsurgency program sought by the U.S. in response to the challenges to the small, hot conflicts of the Cold War. There was innovation sought but not understood or successfully applied on a larger scale in this transition between the two, “big” Indochina Wars.

This examination of the Civilian Irregular Defense Group program reveals an interrelationship between strategy – relating means to ends – and knowledge – data and purpose-formed information that enables action. Special Forces soldiers developed and executed what needed to be done to mobilize indigenous minorities, having assessed what needed to be known. The synthesis that emerged required a balance among cultural, political, military and other elements.

The search for competitive advantage – often based on knowledge – is at the heart of the rapid learning and adaptation that must take place when business organizations in the marketplace or military organizations on the battlefield face their opposition. Despite continuities with irregular warfare and alliances between westerners and indigenous highlanders, American institutional failure emerged from a tangle of ill-fitted military advice, poorly understood social and political contexts, and inappropriate explicit doctrines.

U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers fashioned counterinsurgency solutions based on the unique capabilities and culture of Special Forces, experimentation, as well as their unconventional warfare and resistance doctrines. Innovations developed in the Central Highlands, however, went misunderstood for what they could and could not offer in the way of meeting the challenge of revolutionary guerrilla warfare in South Vietnam.

Committee:

Allan Millett (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Special Forces; Vietnam War; innovation; military innovation; knowledge; knowledge management

Gleich-Anthony, Jeanne M.Democratizing Women: American Women and the U.S Occupation of Japan, 1945-1951
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, History (Arts and Sciences)
Examining the activities of American women involved in the U.S. Occupation of post-WWII Japan, this dissertation focuses on the programs and policies designed, implemented, and supported by key female Occupation personnel within SCAP’s administrative bureaucracy. These women, as members of Government Section’s “Constitutional Assembly,” Civil Information and Education Section’s Women’s Information Branch, Economic and Scientific Section’s Wages and Working Conditions Branch, Public Health and Welfare Section’s Nursing Affairs Division, and the regional and prefectural Military Government Teams, worked to provide Japanese women with the same rights enjoyed by women in the United States as well as assisting them in obtaining rights American women had yet to achieve. In addition, this study further explores the incongruities between the idealized picture of life in the United States offered to Japanese women by many of these female Occupation officers and the existing reality of the various institutional and social obstacles impeding American women from achieving equality at home.

Committee:

Katherine Jellison (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

American women; Japanese women; U.S. Occupation of Japan

Weitzman, KimThe Relevance of Crises: The Tonkin Gulf Incidents
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 1999, Department of History
The United States went to war in Vietnam on 7 August 1964. Although involved in Vietnam much earlier, it was not until the Tonkin Gulf Resolution passed both the Congress and Senate that the United States could legally wage war in Southeast Asia. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution resulted from the Tonkin Gulf incidents, in which American ships were attacked by North Vietnam. While these attacks are the basis for the Resolution, they have never been fully and clearly explained. Many questions remain as to what actually transpired in the Tonkin Gulf on 2 and 4 August 1964. Due to the nagging questions surrounding these incidents, a thorough chronology is necessary. The followinh history of the Tonkin Gulf incidents incorporates new information that will better detail the questionable incidents. Furthermore, this study exposes some of the more blatant misrepresentations made by government officials as they tried to pursuade Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.

Committee:

Hugh Earnhart (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

Ma, QiushaThe Rockefeller Foundation and modern medical education in China, 1915-1951
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1995, History
This study examines the Rockefeller Foundation’s medical program in China in the following contexts: (1) missionary education in China since the second half of the 19th century; (2) medical education reform and the professionalization movement in philanthropy in early 20th-century America; (3) the Chinese new intellectuals' modern reform efforts; and (4) the Chinese government᾵s political agenda. Through its medical programs, the Foundation sought to export scientific knowledge and methods in a scientific institution – the American research-based medical school. The Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) serves as a prism to study the diverse spectrum of ideas and approaches, American and Chinese, involved in the development of educational and social reform in modern China; these ideas and approaches are interpreted in their respective historical contexts, with hopes of increasing the understanding of cultural exchange programs in general. There was no single voice in the Rockefeller Foundation᾵s program in China; missionaries and American professionals were the most influential. While the missionaries inspired the Foundation᾵s interest in China, their opinion of medical science often clashed with the Foundation᾵s scientific philanthropy. On the other hand, in the early 20th century, professionals, particularly medical professionals, profoundly influenced the foundations᾵ policy-making. An international version of the Foundation᾵s domestic scientific philanthropy, the PUMC was based on the notion that science along with institutional development was a powerful dynamic for social progress and reform. The Rockefeller Foundation᾵s effort to change China intertwined with reforms promoted by key Chinese leaders. This study analyzes an important aspect of China᾵s modern reform: the development of scientific direction. The Foundation᾵s scientific approach converged with the Chinese new intellectuals᾵ campaign for science and their criticism of the old culture and traditional medicine. The PUMC was the Foundation᾵s response to certain Chinese intellectuals, most with Western educational backgrounds, who favored gradual reform and Western ideas. Through medical programs and other work, the Foundation established a mutually trusting and mutually influential relationship with this elite group. Their support of the PUMC laid a foundation for this intercultural program; however, limited knowledge of China᾵s reality and bias against Chinese rural problems circumscribed the Rockefeller Foundation᾵s perspective of China᾵s reality

Committee:

David Hammack (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

Rockefeller Foundation; China, medical education

Murphy, Tracee M.The New England Emigrant Aid Company: Its Impact on Territorial Kansas, 1854-1857
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 1999, Department of History
The New England Emigrant Aid Company, formed in 1854 under the direction of Eli Thayer, was established to send settlers into the Kansas territory. The New England Emigrant Aid Company's goal was to secure Kansas as a free-state. This position was in direct opposition to the proslavery Missourian's desire to make Kansas a slave state. The New England Emigrant Aid Company supplied emigrants and leadership to the free-state movement in Kansas. This caused conflict between the free-state party and the proslavery faction. The company's impact upon Kansas and the border Missourians needed to be examined thoroughly to understand its place in Kansas history. The consequences of its presence in the territory as an antagonistic force to the proslavery Missourians has never been fully examined. It is the focus of this study to determine the effects of the company's presence and its propaganda in Kansas.

Committee:

Frederick Blue (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

New England Emigrant Aid Company

Bayless, Brittany N.“The Show Windows of a State”: A Comparative Study on Classification of Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio State Parks
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2006, History
State parks constitute a valuable portion of the United States’ national, regional, state, local, and private lands devoted to the conservation and preservation of nature and American culture. State parks also represent state values through their display of special natural, cultural, and historic characteristics. Thus, it is important to consider how citizens and policy makers value their natural areas at the state level. This study maintains that there are fifty different state park systems in the United States. Each system and park represents different ideals and attitudes toward the use of natural resources and unique wilderness areas. These sentiments convey state and public values of recreational areas. This thesis examines how the creation and organization of Maumee Bay State Park in Ohio, Indiana Dunes State Park, and William C. Sterling State Park in Michigan reflect different state and public sentiments toward the use of natural resources and wilderness areas. This study argues that each state government’s priorities, as transmitted through their representative Departments of Natural Resources (DNRs), shaped the histories of specific state parks. State DNRs hold notions of what a state park should be, how it should be administered, and what its obligations are to the public. These beliefs differ from state to state and are apparent in levels of park development such as landscape alteration, facility construction, and a range of recreational opportunities. To measure differences prevalent in these state parks, this study uses a developmental continuum to classify each of the three parks. This scale not only gauges state views of nature, but land use priorities conveyed by different DNR mission statements and goals. Ultimately, state parks can be classified under one of three levels of development established by this study’s state park development continuum. This classification presents the field of environmental history, which has been dominated by literature on national parks, with new, original work on state parks.

Committee:

Edmund Danziger (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

state parks; environment; united states history; michigan; indiana; ohio; parks; environmental history; department of natural resources

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