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DEASON, JEREMY THOMASSEISMIC DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS BETWEEN STEEL OUTRIGGER BEAMS AND REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Engineering : Civil Engineering
Cyclic response of shear connections between steel outrigger beams and reinforced concrete core walls is presented in this paper. The connections investigated in this paper consisted of a shear tab welded onto a plate that was connected to the core walls through multiple headed studs. The experimental data from six specimens point to a capacity that is larger than the design value. The mode of failure was through pullout of the embedded plate, or fracture of the weld between the studs and the plate. Such brittle modes of failure need to be avoided through proper design. A capacity design method based on dissipating the input energy through yielding of the shear tab was developed. This approach requires a good understanding of the expected capacity of headed studs under combined gravity shear and cyclic axial load (tension and compression). A model was developed and verified against test results from six specimens. A seventh specimen whose design was based on the proposed design methodology was then tested. Based on the performance of this specimen, the proposed design method is recommended for the design of outrigger beam-wall connections.

Committee:

Dr. Bahram Shahrooz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

connections; SEISMIC; design concrete core; outrigger beam

TUNC, GOKHANRC/COMPOSITE WALL-STEEL FRAME HYBRID BUILDINGS WITH CONNECTIONS AND SYSTEM BEHAVIOR
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Engineering : Civil Engineering
The main objectives of this dissertation are: to study the actual strength and failure modes of outrigger beam-wall connections under constant shear and cyclic tensile forces; to develop a basic understanding of force transfer mechanisms in such connections; to investigate the influence of floor diaphragms on the performance and stiffness characteristics of such connections; and to develop design criteria for ductile failure modes. To achieve these objectives, a coordinated experimental and analytical study was performed. The research involved a 15-story prototype structure with a central core and steel perimeter frame. The floor diaphragm was assumed to be rigid in the design model. The experimental study was conducted in two phases: (1) seven specimens were tested, and a design model was developed based on the measured responses of the five specimens that failed due to stud pullout. Because of the wall boundary element around its connection, one of the remaining specimens failed due to weld fracture. A new design methodology was used for the last specimen. This design methodology allowed the input energy in the connection to dissipate through the yielding and eventual fracture of the shear tab, rather than the pullout of headed studs. In phase two, two large-scale wall specimens were tested to verify the design model developed in phase one. Each wall had two outrigger beam-wall connections: one located in the expected plastichinge region, and the other located in the region where moderate cracking was expected. Each wall was tested in two steps. First, the walls and their connections were simultaneously loaded: one wall to the drift ratio of 2.5%, and the other to the drift ratio of 0.5%. Then, each connection was tested separately until failure. In the analytical phase, the flexibility of the floor diaphragm was evaluated in two steps: (1) parametric studies were conducted by an analysis package to examine the number of floors and floor nodes in flexible diaphragms; (2) a mathematical model was developed to verify the results of step one. This mathematical model was a conservative technique to identify the minimum number of floors required for a diaphragm to be rigid.

Committee:

Dr. Bahram Shahrooz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

collector element; floor diaphragm; outrigger beam; shear stud; reinforced concrete walls

PERUGU, HARIKISHAN CHANDDEVELOPMENT OF A HEURISTIC MODEL FOR INTEGRATED URBAN CORRIDOR CONTROL WITH IMPROVED ACCESSIBILITY
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Engineering : Civil Engineering
The growing traffic congestion problem on urban corridors has long been identified by transportation professionals. Integration of urban arterials with parallel local street network through Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) strategies is expected to relieve the congestion problem. This paper presents a model for Integrated Urban Corridor Control with Access Management Control Functionality (IUCC-Access Model), which attempts to integrate different traffic control strategies like traffic responsive signal control and access meters. The following objectives are achieved through the study presented in the paper: 1) Develop a model which is capable of predicting time-dependent demands of an urban corridors and coordinating the operations between traffic signal control, and mid-block access metering control. 2) This research presents also the development of an algorithm to integrate the traffic responsive signal control and other ramp metering algorithm that are desirable to make smooth transition flows and convergent in limited steps. This proposed algorithm is to integrate the traffic responsive signal control (i.e., SCOOT) algorithm and the coordinate metering algorithm (i.e., BOTTLENECK) that are desirable to make smooth transition flows. Finally, a simulation-based test bed is developed within the microscopic software VISSIM. The base model is calibrated and validated. For the purpose of evaluation, two scenarios in a case study are compared to evaluate an arterial with and without IUCC-Access control. A significant improvement by IUCC-Access control has been shown by the simulation results.

Committee:

Dr. Heng Wei (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

GANESH, PRAKASHTRANSVERSE CRACKING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Engineering : Civil Engineering
Cracking is a major problem with newly placed concrete decks. These decks tend to develop full depth, transverse cracks and partial depth longitudinal cracks within a few months of the concrete being placed. A literature review showed that several other states had experienced similar problems. A review of data from Ohio bridge decks showed weak correlations between deck cracking and slump, time of year when the deck was placed, shrinkage, chloride permeability and compressive strength, but there was no clear relationship between cracking and any of these properties. Data also suggested that using a coarse aggregate with an absorption > 1% may help mitigate deck cracking but will not always stop it. As part of this study, three bridge decks were instrumented. One was a standard class “S” concrete deck and the other two were high performance concrete. The class “S” deck showed only hairline cracking after 1 year, but transverse cracking occurred in the HPC decks. Instruments were placed in the decks to monitor strains. From the data, it appears that cracking is caused by several factors. High heat of hydration caused the plastic concrete to expand. When the concrete sets and cools, tensile stresses develop. Additional tensile stresses develop through drying shrinkage. Restraining the deck against normal thermal movement contributes to additional tensile stress. Autogeneous shrinkage, where high heats of hydration cause water evaporation during hydration, and plastic shrinkage may cause more tensile stress. Recommendations for mitigating cracking include using lower cement contents, adding pozzolans and retarders, using slightly higher water/cement ratios, using larger aggregates, taking steps to limit shrinkage and eliminating restraints.

Committee:

Dr. Richard Miller (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Cracking; Restraint; High Performance Concrete; Finite Element Model

Von Handorf, Jeffrey J.Pavement response to environmental factors
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1997, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Pavement response to environmental factors

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Pavement; Portland Cement Concrete; Rigid Pavement Response

Weinrich, UlliVibration control of plates, an experimental study using elastically suspended plate vibration absorbers
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1984, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the behavior of structural plates with elastically suspended vibration absorbing plates attached. Three major factors under study are mass of the vibration absorber, stiffness of the elastic connectors, and flexural rigidity of the vibration absorbing plate.

The single panel simply supported square plate is tested to determine the vibration attenuation effects of three different vibration absorbers. These vibration absorbers are also square plates and are suspended by springs at the four corners.

The tests were conducted with a custom designed and con- structed model and testing frame and standard structural dynamics laboratory equipment. A data acquisition system consisting of a personal computer with an analog-to-digital converter was used. The experimental results were compared to theoretical and numerical analyses and experimental modeshapes were determined.

The results show that heavy vibration absorbers, i.e., weight of the secondary plate greater than one-half the pri- mary plate weight, shift the fundamental and lower order primary plate natural frequencies. Absorber plates about one half the weight of the primary plate tend to have a wide range effect. Lightweight absorbers, i.e., less than one- half the primary plate weight, affect higher order primary plate frequencies. The elastic connectors serve to fine tune the system to a desired effect. Secondary plate flex- ion has little affect on the behavior.

Committee:

Fathy Akl (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

vibration Absorber; Stiffness of the Elastic Connectors; Flexural Rigidity of the Vibration Absorbing Plate

Chang, ManseokDamage criteria for high way bridges subjected to blasting excitations
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1990, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Damage criteria for high way bridges subjected to blasting excitations

Committee:

Glenn Hazen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Damage Criteria; High Way Bridges Subjected; Blasting Excitations

Stenson, Jennifer R.A study of hydrologic drought using streamflow as an indicator
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1989, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

A study of hydrologic drought using streamflow as an indicator

Committee:

Tiao Chang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Hydrologic Drought; Streamflow; Stochastic Analysis

Limprasert, TawanBehaviour of soil, soil-cement and soil-cement-fiber under multiaxial test
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1995, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

An investigation of the behavior of soil, soil-cement, and soil-cememt-fiber at different water contents and fiber contents is to study how the fiber (Polypropylene) effects the strength of soil (clay). Laboratory testings undertaken measured the stress-strain relationship by using a cubical multiaxial testing device. Experiments were set up for two different tests, Hydrostatic Compression (HC) and Conventional Triaxial Compression (CTC). For CTC, a confining pressure was simulated to match the stress that occurred under a county roadway. Soil used in this investigation was brought from Athens County Road 20. Soil moisture during testing was set at optimum water content (19%), 2 percent below, and 2 percent above optimum. Cement content was held constant at 6 percent of the weight of soil. The main objective of this investigation is to improve soils by adding cement and fibers at varying water contents.

Committee:

Joseph Recktenwald (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Fiber Effects; Polypropylene; Soil Strength; Hydrostatic Compression; Conventional Triaxial Compression

McCauley, JasonRoute 33 flexible pavement instrumentation project: Structural performance of a flexible pavement due to various bases
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1995, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Route 33 flexible pavement instrumentation project: Structural performance of a flexible pavement due to various bases

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Asphalt Strain; Vertical Displacement; Base and Subgrade Moisture; Thermocouple

Schweiger, Daniel J.Instrumentation of flexible pavement
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1995, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Instrumentation of flexible pavement

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Linear Variable Differential Transformer; Falling Weight Deflectometer; Multidepth Deflectometer

Sharkins, Anthony AugustInstrumentation for SPS-2
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1996, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Instrumentation for SPS-2

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Falling Weight Deflectometer; Rigid Concrete Pavements; Long Term Pavement Performance

Choamnak, SitdhichaiNondestructive and destructive testing of covered timber bridge members
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1997, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Nondestructive and destructive testing of covered timber bridge members

Committee:

Eric Steinberg (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Nondestructive Testing; Destructive Testing; Ultrasonic Wave

Wysong, Zachary D.Development and comparison of the asphalt binder cracking device to directly measure thermal cracking potential of asphalts
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Development and comparison of the asphalt binder cracking device to directly measure thermal cracking potential of asphalts

Committee:

Sang-Soo Kim (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Asphalt Binder Cracking Device; Thermal Cracking Potential; Asphalts

Seshadri, Srikanth R.Traffic noise analysis at highway underpasses
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1998, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Traffic noise analysis at highway underpasses.

Committee:

Lloyd Herman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Traffic noise; highway underpasses; abatement measure

Gamber, Nathan K.Shallow foundation systems response to blast loading
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Shallow foundation systems response to blast loading.

Committee:

L. Bryson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Shallow Foundation Systems; System Response; Blast Loading

Shimoga, RameshStructural behavior of jointed leachate collection pipes
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1999, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Structural behavior of jointed leachate collection pipes.

Committee:

Gayle Mitchell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

jointed leachate collection pipes; thermoplastic pipe; Iowa formula

Cimino, Vito A.Optimal placement of dredged material for wetland development within the Charles Mill Reservoir
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2001, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Optimal placement of dredged material for wetland development within the Charles Mill Reservoir

Committee:

Tiao Chang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Optimal Placement; Dredged Material; Wetland Development; Charles Mill Reservoir

Shashikumar, Bangalore M.Effect of leachate on the stability of landfill composite liners
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1992, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

A comprehensive study of the effect of leachate on landfill composite liners (recompacted clay liner overlain by geomembrane) is investigated in the present research. In the past several studies were conducted on clay/geomembrane interfaces under the unsaturated condition. However, only a few studies have been published on the clay/geomembrane interfaces saturated with water, and no study has been reported with leachate as the saturating media.

Three types of geomembranes were utilized in this investigation. They were smooth HDPE, textured HDPE, and PVC. Modified direct shear tests were conducted on geomembrane interfaces against clay under unsaturated conditions and saturated conditions with water and leachate as the saturating media, and the results were compared. Aging of geomembranes immersed in leachate was determined adopting the U.S. EPA Method 9090, and changes in physical properties of geomembranes were evaluated. The characteristics of leachate in which geomembranes were immersed for a period of 30 days were evaluated. Frictional characteristics were determined by conducting modified direct shear tests on geomembranes aged at 7 days and 30 days, against clay under unsaturated conditions and leachate saturated conditions. A comparison study was made, also.

Committee:

Gayle Mitchell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

landfill composite liners; U.S. EPA Method 9090; geomembranes

Kastner, Robert Eugene LeeStructural performance of plastic pipe used for landfill leachate collection
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1992, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

With the development of stricter regulations pertaining to the siting and design of sanitary landfills, the current trend has been toward increasing the height of existing landfills to accommodate the disposal of solid waste. The increased height of the landfill translates into a higher load on the leachate collection pipes at the base of the landfill. The purpose of this project was to apply large loads to 6 inch diameter PVC and HDPE plastic pipes. These loads, applied in increments of approximately 15 tons, reached a maximum exceeding 200 tons, simulating a landfill height of approximately 175 assuming a waste density of 60 pcf. These loads were applied by two hydraulic cylinders mounted on a large steel frame. These pipes were tested in typical landfill installation modes. Six inch PVC, Schedule 80 perforated pipes were tested in both the positive and negative projection mode, and a 6 inch HDPE, SDR 11 perforated pipe was tested in the positive projection mode. Strains in the longitudinal and circumferential directions were measured at approximately the midspan of the pipe. The deflection was measured by rotating a LVDT near to the section at which the strain gages were placed. The output voltages from these devices were recorded using a portable data acquisition system. The PVC pipe tested in the negative projection mode and the HDPE pipe tested in the positive projection mode showed maximum deflections of 7.76% and 3.65%, respectively. These measured deflections were compared to deflections predicted using the Modified Iowa Formula. Thrusts and bending moments in the pipe wall were also determined. The thrusts exhibited negative values at most sections of the pipe. The bending moments reached maximum values at the pipe crown of 186 lb*in/in and 81.57 lb*in/in for the PVC and HDPE pipe, respectively.

Committee:

Mayle Mitchell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

negative projection mode; HDPE pipe tested; landfill leachate; perforated pipes

Jayasuriya, Wadu M. L.Dynamic analysis of circular plate on elastic foundation using modified Vlasov model
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1992, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

An analytical method to estimate the elastic properties and modal characteristics of a two layer plate-foundation system is presented. A modified two parameter Vlasov foundation model is developed for the dynamic analysis of a finite circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The load is considered as a triangular impact which simulates the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) blows. The decay rate-a parameter that governs the displacement profile in the soil foundation-is treated as a function of the characteristics of natural vibration of the system. The foundation layer is treated as a semi-infinite elastic continuum and hence the reflected waves in the horizontal directions are assumed as negligible. A rigorous theoretical basis is outlined in the formulation using a variational principle.

The solution to the resulting transcendental equations is found using the Bessel functions for various cases that arise due to the change of material properties and depths of layers. A fast, nondestructive and less costly solution, to the difficulties that stem in the selection of effective material properties due to inhomogeneity and variable thicknesses of soil media may be obtained by the back calculation of soil properties using this model. Therefore this versatile and relatively more accurate method can be very useful in the design of engineering structures such as highways and airport runways.

The application of the developed model in the impact loading analysis is illustrated with the numerical results obtained and the results were compared with the records of the FWD field test results. A parametric study is conducted for different elastic properties of the elastic foundation and thicknesses of the plate. The results are produced for the variation of properties and behavior during the course of impact loading and after the impact is diminished.

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

circular plate; elastic foundation; modified Vlasov model

ZHOU, FENGFENGMODEL-BASED SIMULATION OF STEEL FRAMES WITH ENDPLATE CONNECTIONS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Civil Engineering
A three-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate the behavior of eight-bolt stiffened endplate connections. The model may be set to include only the beam-side or both the beam- and column-side of a connection. The model also provides the option to choose between monotonic or cyclic loading. Incremental plasticity theory is adopted to model material nonlinear behavior. If the effective stress in an element exceeds the ultimate strength then that element is considered to have failed, and the strain energy in it is redistributed to the surrounding elements. Different approaches are used to simulate the bolt-pretension process. Contact algorithm is incorporated in this model to simulate the interaction between the beam-side and its support. A computer program associated with the finite element model is developed to generate the moment-rotation curves of the connections analyzed. A pre-processor is developed to generate the finite element mesh. In total, eleven specimens are analyzed. The results from these analyses are compared with corresponding experimental results and the comparison shows that the computer program can adequately predict the moment-rotation response of the connections. In order to implement connection properties in frame analysis, moment-rotation curves are fitted to three mathematical models to find the values of parameters characterizing these models. Based on the curve-fitting results, the three-parameter power model is chosen to represent the moment-rotation behavior of the connections. Then relations between these parameters and geometric variables of the connections are established through multiple regressions. To assess the validity of these formulae, moment-rotation curves generated by the power model are compared with those obtained from tests and analyses. The comparison shows good agreement between them. Finally, connections represented by the power model are incorporated in a frame analysis program. The results of frame analysis clearly demonstrate that the performance of a frame and the internal force distribution in the frame can be adjusted by modifying only the properties of its connections, and endplate connections can behave as rigid connections only if their properties satisfy certain stiffness requirement. A relationship between this requirement and the column to beam stiffness ratio is proposed to classify endplate connections.

Committee:

Dr. Anant Kukreti (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

8-bolt stiffened endplate connection; finite element; moment-rotation behavior; frame analysis; 3-parameter power model; rigid versus semi-rigid connections

BASU, BIKRAMADITYAACCELERATED CONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION OF BRIDGES
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Civil Engineering
The growing traffic demands and an aging transportation network necessitate highway construction to initiate and intensify efforts to accelerate repair and rehabilitation. Statistics show that vehicle miles have grown by 80 % between 1982 -2000 while the lane miles increased by only 3.8% during the same period. Any effort to close or restrict the highway for repair and rehabilitation work leads to unsafe conditions and major traffic delays. Extensive research has been conducted in various aspects of accelerated construction. Surveys have been conducted to identify factors for the success of different innovative contractual agreements. The contracts that were looked at for this work were design build, incentive/disincentive, A+B, warranty and Lane Rental. Research on accelerated construction has focused on the overall aspect of implementation of such concepts. This thesis however deals exclusively with the execution of the accelerated construction initiative by the Ohio Department of Transportation. Three bridges constructed under the initiative were chosen for study and research. The construction of the bridges, the ones in Guernsey, Clinton and Montgomery counties were observed by visiting the construction site, attending the pre and post construction meeting. These bridges used prefabricated post tensioned bridge decks. Data and information collected at the site and by interaction with different people associated in different capacity through the construction process was put together. The bridges in Clinton and Montgomery counties were compared because of the intrinsic similarity with the projects. Both were constructed using similar techniques and by the same contractor. One was a success and other not. The comparison revealed that small changes in the construction and planning were reflected in a substantial difference in project success. The conclusions and recommendations were based on the experience and understanding of the accelerated construction initiative. It showed that some of the areas that need to be worked on and improved upon for the project success are planning, changing of the existing mindset and other administrative issues and not technical aspects.

Committee:

OSSAMA SALEM (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Bridges; Construction; Accelerated bridge construction; Innovative bridge construction; ODOT's Strategic Innitiative

NEUMANN, ANDREW ROBERTENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONING AND TESTING OF THREE FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER PANELS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Engineering : Civil Engineering
Three types of fiber reinforced polymer bridge deck panels were supplied to the University of Cincinnati. Specimens included were small-size specimens supplied by their respective manufacturers and full-size specimens obtained from the Salem Avenue bridge in Dayton, Ohio. Research performed includes: long-term environmental monitoring, load testing, and finite-element analysis. Long-term environmental monitoring was performed on small-size specimens for all three deck types. Environmental monitoring included collection of temperature and strain data over a period of nine months. Average internal mperature, coefficient of thermal expansion (in both directions), and temperature gradient were calculated for each type of panel. Load testing was performed at the University of Cincinnati Large Scale Test Facility (UCLSTF). Load tests were performed on small-size specimens and full-size specimens obtained from a bridge retrofit project. Effective flexural and shear stiffness were calculated for each panel tested. Failure load and failure type for each test are reported. Finally, a finite-element model of a full-size panel was created for one of the deck types in order to capture the effects of internal damages. Analysis results of the finite-element model are compared against experimental results.

Committee:

Dr. Bahram Shahrooz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

fiber reinforced polymers; bridge decks; load testing; finite element model; thermal expansion

DAVIES, BERESFORD OBAFEMI ARNOLDA MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF SUBGRADE SOIL RESILIENT MODULUS FOR FLEXIBLE-PAVEMENT DESIGN: INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE CONTENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2004, Civil Engineering
Subgrade soil plays a very important role in the construction of roadways. Before the use of asphalt in the construction of roadway, roads were being constructed based on experience. The introduction of paving asphalt in road construction has led to the development of engineering procedures and designs for the methods of construction. The resilient modulus of the underlying material supporting the pavement is now considered as a key material property in the AASHTO mechanistic-empirical design procedure. Attempts have been made by researchers to predict the Subgrade resilient modulus from laboratory/field experimental methods based on the soil properties. This research seeks to develop a model for predicting the subgrade resilient modulus due to environmental conditions by considering the seasonal variation of temperature and moisture content which affects the soil. The limitation of this research model is that it cannot be used universally since environmental conditions vary from place to place, however, it can be modified to suit other local environmental conditions. The detrimental effect of low resilient modulus of subgrade soil is observed in the damaged analysis.

Committee:

Andrew Heydinger (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Resilient modulus; temperature; moisture content; subgrade soil

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