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Peters, SarahBarriers to group psychotherapy for lesbian, gay, and bisexual college students
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2016, School of Professional Psychology
While research has been conducted into the utilization and efficacy of group therapy with college students and with individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB), there is very limited research on their intersection. The purpose of this study was to determine barriers to group psychotherapy with college students who identify as LGB. Twenty-eight LGB undergraduate and graduate students from colleges and universities nationwide were recruited to complete an online survey including: a modified version of the Barriers Scale (Harris, 2013), which examined willingness to participate in group therapy, expectations of group psychotherapy, expectations of group members, expectations of group leaders, and multicultural considerations relating to group psychotherapy; the Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale (Mohr & Fassinger, 2000); and three other measures related to another study (see Williams, 2015). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and Kendall’s Tau correlations. Results of the study indicate that a lack of knowledge of the process and benefits of group psychotherapy is a barrier to participation, but lack of prior participation in individual psychotherapy and an absence of other LGB members in the group are not barriers. The results provide a foundation for future research as to how university counseling centers can provide services that meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student body.

Committee:

Robert Rando, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Daniela Linnebach Burnworth, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jennica Karpinski, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Psychology, Clinical; Psychotherapy

Keywords:

LGB; college students; group; barriers

Kene, PrachiUtility of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Assessing Suicide Risk
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2007, Psychology
Suicide prevention can be accomplished only if clinicians can accurately identify suicidal individuals. In the realm of suicide research and clinical practice there has been an increasing recognition of the factors that elevate suicide risk. Moreover, attempts have been made to use personality assessment instruments to better understand suicide risk. The present study examined the usefulness of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in assessing suicide risk. As an archival study, clinical records of 85 referrals at the University of Toledo Psychology Clinic were utilized for the purposes of this study. As a measure of convergent validity and discriminant validity in suicide risk assessment, the results of all the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales and subscales were correlated with the two suicide risk scores as obtained from applying the two suicide assessment checklists – Suicide Assessment Checklist, Yufit (SAC-Y) and Suicide Assessment Checklist, Rogers (SAC-R) - to the intake interview reports and therapy process notes of the clients. Furthermore, a series of regression analyses were conducted in which the PAI-Depression scale (DEP), Suicide Ideation scale (SUI), and the Suicide Potential Index (SPI) served as the independent variables and the SAC-Y, SAC-R, and the presence or absence of a no-suicide contract served as dependent variables. The SAC-Y and SAC-R showed small to moderate correlations with the PAI scales and subscales. The SAC-Y showed the highest correlation with DEP, whereas the SAC-R showed the highest correlation with the SUI. The SUI and SPI displayed substantial incremental validity over DEP in predicting the SAC-R score; however DEP showed substantial incremental validity over SUI and SPI in predicting the SAC-Y score. Furthermore, SUI showed greater incremental validity than did the SPI. The findings of the present study suggest that DEP, SUI and SPI of the PAI make important contributions in suicide risk assessment and that the SAC-R may be a more sensitive measure of suicide risk than the SAC-Y.

Committee:

Joseph Hovey (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Suicide Risk Assessment; Personality Assessment Inventory

Maras, Melissa AnnAn Evaluation of the Relationship between Peer Rejection and Reciprocated Friendships
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Psychology
The purpose of this study was to compare quantity of reciprocated friendships for rejected aggressive-disruptive and rejected sensitive-isolated children. Results indicated that rejected aggressive-disruptive children had significantly more reciprocated friendships than rejected sensitive-isolated children. However, results suggested a significant number of rejected children were described as both aggressive-disruptive and sensitive-isolated. This group did not differ from rejected aggressive-disruptive or rejected sensitive-isolated children for number of reciprocated friendships. The discussion addresses possible reasons for these findings and proposes potential clinical and research implications.

Committee:

Carl Paternite (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

peer rejection; reciprocated friendships; sociometric techniques

Patrick, Rachel LynnDefense Mechanisms and Social Anxiety as Risk Factors for College Alcohol Abuse and Binge Drinking
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Psychology
Review of the literature will show that the presence of social anxiety is often linked to the presence of alcohol abuse. Additionally, previous work has focused on the link between the use of different defense mechanisms and alcohol abuse. The current study aims to merge these two perspectives and discover if the use of certain defense mechanisms and the presence of social anxiety, in a college-aged population, can be seen as risk factors for alcohol abuse and binge drinking. 286 students were recruited to complete measures on social anxiety, defense mechanisms, and drinking patterns. Results show that individuals low in social anxiety who employ immature defense mechanisms were more likely to have score highly on a measure of alcoholism, and individuals low in social anxiety who use either mature or immature defenses were more likely to binge drink. Additional analyses were also conducted, including a brief look at some demographic variables. Possible explanations of these findings, and limitations are discussed.

Committee:

Karen Schilling (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

College Alcohol Abuse; Binge Drinking; Social Anxiety; Defense Mechanisms

Gray, Michael AndrewGetting Worse Before Getting Better: Using Content Analysis to Examine the Change Process in a Time-Limited Psychodynamic Group Therapy for Social Phobia
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2003, Psychology
Research involving the assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change has suggested that psychodynamic therapies, when successful, often involve a degree of “getting worse before getting better.” That is, there is an increase in client distress across early sessions of therapy followed by improvement as treatment progresses. This study examined this pattern in the context of a content analysis of a group therapy for social phobia. 4-Four clients participated in up to 10 sessions of group therapy. Through intensive contact with transcripts of the sessions, investigators constructed a system of content categories for coding client dialogue and its associated emotional valence, which was then applied by independent raters to the transcripts. The results of this procedure suggested that although the reliability of the coding system was not high, there was some support for the “getting worse before getting better” phenomenon as a component of the therapeutic change process.

Committee:

Mia Biran (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

psychotherapy research; group therapy; psychodynamic therapy; assimilation of problematic experiences; content analysis

Skinta, Matthew DamonTHE EFFECTS OF BULLYING AND INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL SYMPTOM SEVERITY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF GAY MEN
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Bullying can have enduring effects on boys, with a lasting impact of depressive and traumatic symptoms. Gay adolescent males are particularly susceptible to bullying, and may be targeted at a higher frequency than heterosexual boys. This potentially heightens the experience of isolation and self-hatred that many gay adolescents report. It was hypothesized that (a) bullying experiences will increase depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG), (b) internalized homophobia will mediate the relationship between bullying and the symptoms of depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and PTG, (c) the relationship of bullying on internalized homophobia will be moderated by both parental social support and behavior specific self-efficacy, and (d) the model best predicting psychopathological outcomes and PTG will be a moderated-mediation path, with internalized homophobia mediating between bullying and the outcome variables, but moderated by self-efficacy and parental social support. Gay men were recruited from a variety of community settings (N = 90). Bullying had a direct effect on PTSD symptoms and PTG, but not depressive symptoms. Internalized homophobia also had a direct effect on PTSD symptoms separate from the influence of bullying. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were not supported. Results were best predicted by minority stress theory. Post hoc analyses found that PTG may act as a form of negative cognitive coping, and was found to mediate the relationship between the severity of bullying and PTSD symptoms. Cognitive coping contributed significantly to the minority stress model in accounting for the variance of PTSD symptoms in response to bullying. Results suggest that interventions with gay-identified men should target bullying and internalized homophobia as separate stressors that impact psychopathology symptoms.

Committee:

Stevan Hobfoll (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

bullying; posttraumatic growth; gay psychology

Jim, Heather SMeaning in life mediates the relationships between physical and social functioning and distress in cancer survivors
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Psychology
A cancer diagnosis may cause individuals to question previously-held beliefs about meaning in life. Individuals who are able to resolve these questions and find meaning tend to adjust better to cancer diagnosis. However, long-term effects of diagnosis and treatment, such as impairments in physical and social functioning, may impede the process of finding meaning and engender distress. Meaning in life was theorized to mediate the relationship between 1) physical functioning and distress, and 2) social functioning and distress. Mediation models were tested longitudinally in a sample of women with an initial diagnosis of regional breast cancer. Both models were found to be significant and indicated partial mediation. To examine the robustness of the findings, the models were tested cross-sectionally in a heterogeneous sample of cancer survivors. Impaired physical and social functioning following cancer appears to be related to greater distress in part through a decreased sense of meaning in life. Moreover, the mediation models were significant regardless of disease and survivor characteristics (e.g., disease site, time since diagnosis, cancer recurrence, age, years of education, and gender).

Committee:

Barbara Andersen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

cancer; quality of life; meaning in life; distress

Golden, Catherine M.The Positive Illusory Bias: An Examination of Self-Perceptions in Adults with ADHD Symptomatology
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the positive illusory bias is present in young adults demonstrating ADHD symptomatology. Further, if the positive illusory bias was found in this group, this study hoped to determine whether it was a function of ADHD, low achievement (i.e., lack of skill), or both. Ninety-nine college-age students participated in the research protocol. Participants were categorized into three groups: ADHD (N=31), non-ADHD controls (N=39), and Subclinical ADHD (N=29). Results revealed that the ADHD group underestimated their competence significantly more than the control group. This finding is inconsistent with the child literature and suggests that adults with ADHD symptomatology may display a different pattern of self-perceptions as compared to that observed in children with ADHD symptomatology. Implications are discussed.

Committee:

Julie Owens (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

ADHD; positive illusory bias; self-perception

Orchowski, Lindsay M.Risk Reduction Interventions to Prevent Sexual Victimization in College Women: Updating Protocol and Evaluating Efficacy
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Through theoretical modifications to program protocol, a more comprehensive array of program evaluation measures, and the adoption of an updated research design, the current study extends the development and evaluation of The Ohio University Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program. The modified protocol incorporated theory of planned behavior and the transtheoretical model to address the role of cognitive appraisals in participants’ use of self-protective strategies. A theoretically driven health intervention was also implemented among control group participants.

Participants included 278 undergraduate women. Measures of attitudes, behaviors, and incidence of sexual victimization were completed at pretest, 2-month and 4-month follow-up sessions.

Although the risk reduction program was not effective in reducing incidence of sexual victimization, program participants evidenced increases in open sexual communication and self-efficacy in enacting self-protective behaviors compared to control group participants. Program participants also maintained levels of self-protective behaviors whereas levels of self-protective behaviors declined among control group participants.

Committee:

Christine Gidycz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Sexual Victimization; Sexual Assault; Rape; Risk Reduction; Prevention

Holdren, Michael E.Causal Attributions Among Overt and Covert Narcissism Subtypes for Hypothetical, Retrospective, and Prospective Events
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2004, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

It is hypothesized that recent developments in narcissism theory and research which argue for overt and covert narcissism subtypes would inform the discussion of narcissistic attribution styles. A number of theorists and researchers have suggested that DSM criteria for narcissism are too narrowly drawn and miss the more covert, hypersensitive, and vulnerable aspects of narcissistic disturbances. To date, research into characteristically narcissistic attribution styles has been limited by an over-reliance on the DSM-based measure of the overt, grandiose, and exhibitionistic narcissism, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). This study differentiates between the overt and covert subtypes by including both the NPI, as a measure of overt narcissism, and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS), as a measure covert narcissism.

The attribution styles of low, moderate, and high overt and covert narcissism individuals are compared for hypothetical, retrospective, and prospective, positive and negative events. Results indicate that NPI-defined overt narcissism is related to self-enhancing attributions (internal, stable, and global) for positive hypothetical events. Overt narcissism is also related to defensive attributions (external, unstable, and specific) negative events. In addition, HSNS-defined covert narcissism was related to pessimistic attributions (internal, stable, and global) for negative events.

Next, participants who scored in the extremes on both overt and covert narcissism were recruited to see how combinations of overt and covert narcissism would effect attribution styles. These results indicate that the most significant differences in attribution styles are between Grandiose/Exhibitionistic (high overt/low covert) narcissism individuals who made self-enhancing attributions for positive events, and Hypersensitive/Vulnerable (low overt/high covert narcissism) individuals who made self-depreciating attributions for negative events. Individuals who scored high in both subtypes are conspicuously absent from group differences as the characteristically grandiose and vulnerable tendencies appeared to counteract each other.

The results of this study provide further construct validity for the differentiation between the more overt, grandiose and exhibitionistic subtype described in the DSM and the more covert, hypersensitive and vulnerable subtype depicted in psychoanalytic theory and clinical descriptions.

Committee:

John Garske (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Narcissism; Overt Narcissism; Covert Narcissism; Attributions; Narcissistic Attribution Styles; Narcissism Subtypes

Galvinhill, Marcia LeaSELF-ESTEEM AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN THE QUALITY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE BY PEERS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
The present study was conducted to examine whether the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family is predictive of later social acceptance by peers and to evaluate self-esteem as one mechanism by which interpersonal relationships in the family and social acceptance by peers might be related. No previous research has established whether self-esteem functions as a link between interpersonal relationships in the family and social acceptance by peers. Due to potential differences in socialization, race and gender were examined as possible moderators of the connection between interpersonal relationships in the family and children's social acceptance by peers mediated by self-esteem. All participants were non-chronically-ill control participants from a larger study designed to investigate the impact of severe chronic illnesses on the psychosocial functioning of children and their families. Participants were 171 8- to 15-year-old children, their mothers and fathers, and classroom peers. The sample included data from 83 girls and 88 boys. Seventy-two participants were African American and 99 were European American. Data collection relevant to the present study occured in three phases. During the first phase of data collection, Like-Rating Scale (Asher, Singleton, Tinsley, & Hymel, 1979) scores were collected in the classroom. In the second phase, participants were visited at their home where the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1986) was completed by the parents, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC; Harter, 1985)was completed by the child. In the third phase, Like-Rating scores were collected again 1 1/2 to two years later in the classroom of each child participant. The findings suggest that the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family is related to the child's self-esteem and is related to subsequent social acceptance by peers. The child's self-esteem is also related to subsequent social acceptance by peers. However, self-esteem does not appear to be an explanatory link in the relationship between the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family and subsequent social acceptance by peers. That self-esteem does not explain the connection between family and peer relationships appears to be true for boys and girls, for European Americans and African Americans.

Committee:

Robert Noll (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS; SELF-ESTEEM; PEER RELATIONS

Zimmerman, Molly E.NEUROCOGNITIVE CORRELATES OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX SUBREGION VOLUMES IN BIPOLAR DISORDER
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
In bipolar disorder (BPD), cognitive impairment appears to be related to structural abnormalities in the brain. The present study examined whether MRI-derived volumes of prefrontal subregions (anterior cingulate, superior, middle, inferior, and orbital) were associated with performance on cognitive tests of executive functioning in 10 patients with (BPD) and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Patients with BPD did not differ from HV in prefrontal subregion volumes; however, they did perform more poorly on neurocognitive tests of executive functioning. In addition, there were medium to large correlations between the anterior cingulate volume and neurocognitive tests of executive functioning in the patient group. The findings of this preliminary study support the proposal that prefrontal subregion volumes in BPD are associated with performance on tests of executive functioning.

Committee:

Stephen Strakowski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

BIPOLAR DISORDER; MRI; PREFRONTAL CORTEX; NEUROCOGNITIVE CORRELATES

Harrison, Charmane L.The Relationship Between Group Climate, Innovation, and Leader Gender
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
There has been an increase in the use of work teams and managerial training programs in today’s businesses in order to increase innovation. A team climate that is conducive to participation is imperative to creating innovative processes and products. As more women are represented in managerial positions, there is a need to understand the impact of gender in managerial training programs and on team climate. The present study examined 183 middle-management employees (70% male, 29% female) from a Fortune 500 company training program who participated in a small group experience that focused on active listening skills and problem solving. It was hypothesized that female team members who had a female leader would have a greater positive change in their perception of the level of team engagement as measured by the Group Climate Questionnaire (GCQ-S; MacKenzie, 1983), and would rate the group experience as more helpful. No support was found for the hypotheses.

Committee:

Dr. Edward Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Female Leaders; Team Climate; Innovation; Female Advantage

Harper, Jessica C.Early Onset of Obesity and Treatment Outcome in a Behavioral Weight Loss Program
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2005, Psychology/Clinical
The present study examines whether self-efficacy, binge/emotional eating, body image, self-esteem, self-reported difficulties and outcome expectancies mediate the relationship between onset of obesity and percent of body weight lost/change. Forty-four sedentary, obese adults participated in a six-month behavioral weight loss program (BLWP) and six-month maintenance phase. At baseline, early onset of obesity was associated with increased BMI levels. However, early onset was not associated with percent weight lost/change during the treatment or maintenance phases and was not consistently associated with any other psychological or physiological outcome. Findings and methodological limitations are discussed.

Committee:

Robert Carels (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Early Onset; Childhood; Obesity; Weight Loss

Glade, Aaron C.Differentiation, marital satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: an application of Bowen Theory
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Human Development and Family Science
The price of depression to our society is staggering. When attributable morbidity costs (such as workplace related costs) and mortality are accounted for, it is estimated that depression costs our society $83.1 billion annually (Greenberg et al., 2003). While the monetary cost of depression is staggering, the relational costs of depression may be even more devastating to families and society. Marital relationships appear to be related to both the causes and the treatment of depression. The findings of the causal direction in the relationship between marital satisfaction and depression/depressive symptoms are mixed, however. Some (Whisman, 2001) have stated that a third variable may contribute to the observed relationship between depression/depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction. This research uses Bowen Family Systems Theory, specifically the theoretical construct of differentiation of self, to better understand the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction across three sessions of conjoint therapy. Participants in the study were recruited through the on campus Marriage and Family Therapy Clinic at The Ohio State University. Participants completed self-report measures regarding differentiation of self, relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms at intake. At two follow ups, following the second and third therapy sessions, participants completed self-report measures of relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to analyze data. HLM is a multilevel modeling approach which allows researchers to use couple level variables without losing individual differences. This research both confirms and extends past research comparing depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction. First, depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction were significantly correlated over time. Second, aspects of differentiation were found to be associated with couple relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms in both men and women. Specifically, men’s emotional cutoff scores and I position scores and women’s emotional reactivity scores and emotional cutoff scores were found to impact the trajectories of relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms over time. Considering the results of this analysis, systemic therapy, informed by the constructs of Bowen Theory may be an appropriate method of treating depressive symptoms within the context of conjoint marital therapy.

Committee:

Suzanne Bartle-Haring (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Bowen Family Systems Theory; Bowen Theory; Marriage and Family Therapy; Differentiation; Fusion; Emotional Cutoff; Depression; Depressive Symptoms; Marital Satisfaction; Hierarchical Linear Modeling

Adame, Alexandra LRecovered Voices, Recovered Lives: A Narrative Analysis of Psychiatric Survivors’ Experiences of Recovery
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2006, Psychology
The discourse of the medical model of mental illness tends to dominate people’s conceptions of the origins and treatments of psychopathology. This reductionistic discourse defines people’s experiences of psychological distress and recovery in terms of illnesses, chemical imbalances, and broken brains. However, the master narrative does not represent every individual’s lived experience, and alternative narratives of mental health and recovery exist that challenge our traditional understandings of normality and psychopathology. Using the method of interpretive interactionism, I examined how psychiatric survivors position themselves in relation to the medical model’s narrative of recovery. In its inception, the psychiatric survivor movement created a counter-narrative of protest in opposition to the medical model’s description and treatment of psychopathology. Since then, the movement has moved beyond the counter-narrative and has constructed an alternative narrative; one that is not defined in opposition to the master narrative but instead participates in an entirely different discourse.

Committee:

Roger Knudson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Recovery; Psychiatric Survivor Movement; Narrative Psychology; Interpretive Interactionism

Saket, Kristine HiraiRelational aggression: a review and conceptualization
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Psychology
Relational aggression is a pivotal concept associated with the trend toward increasing attention toward aggression in girls. Specifically, acts of relationship manipulation are hypothesized to be especially salient for girls, who are expected to covet social acceptance and inclusion more than boys. Past studies have supported a distinction between relational and physical forms of aggression and identified unique correlates of relational aggression. However, characteristics of relational aggression have been largely examined in isolation, thereby providing only indirect information about the nomological network of relational aggression. The present study adopted a construct validation approach to replicating and expanding upon existing research. Two hundred twenty-four children, aged 11 to 14, completed measures of relational, reactive, and proactive aggression as well as various other behaviors. One parent and one teacher per child completed parallel measures. At the manifest variable level, hierarchical regression analyses, which were conducted separately for child, parent, and teacher reports, varied across informants. Overall, these analyses suggested that relational aggression is both uniquely reactive and uniquely proactive in nature. Consistent with previous research, relational aggression was associated with such harmful correlates as social and internalizing problems. In many cases, such associations were mediated by either reactive or proactive aggression. Moreover, although there were generally no gender differences in mean levels of relational aggression, there was some suggestion that the implications of relational aggression may differ for boys and girls. At the latent variable level, a multitrait-multimethod approach was used to model associations between relevant constructs. Overall, these analyses provided consistent support for the convergent validity of all relevant constructs. However, there was less evidence for the discriminant validity of relational, reactive, and proactive aggression, suggesting that the distinguishing features of these hypothesized aggression subtypes may become obscured when combining multiple informants’ perspectives. Method effects were identified for parent and child reports. Differences between results at the manifest and latent variable levels highlighted potential limitations of combining multiple reports. As direct tests of fundamental assumptions of a multi-informant approach were unavailable, it is suggested that the unique manifest variable results may offer more promising directions for future research.

Committee:

Michael Vasey (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Relational Aggression; construct validation

Darchuk, Andrew J.The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance and Its Relationship to Treatment Outcome and Client Motivation in an Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Setting
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

While motivation and therapeutic alliance have been found to be influential factors in the outcome of substance abuse treatment for adult populations, comparatively little is known about the potential impact of these variables on outcomes in adolescent substance abuse treatment. The present study examined the relationships between motivation and readiness for treatment, therapeutic alliance, treatment compliance, and outcome variables in a sample of adolescents in residential substance abuse treatment. Eighty-one adolescents participated in the study, in which they completed self-report measures of motivation and readiness prior to treatment, therapeutic alliance measures during treatment, and ratings of psychiatric problem severity and depressive symptomatology before and after their treatment episodes.

Results indicated that initial alliance, as rated by clients or counselors on an adapted form of the Working Alliance Inventory (Horvath, 1981), was not associated with measures of treatment outcome, including discharge status, change in psychiatric symptoms, and clinician ratings of progress at discharge. Higher initial client-rated alliances were associated with fewer instances of severely inappropriate behavior over the course of treatment. However, positive counselor-rated alliance ratings obtained after session six of individual therapy significantly predicted greater progress in the treatment program and reductions in psychiatric problem severity as measured by the Ohio Youth Problem, Functioning, and Satisfaction Scale (Ogles, et al., 2000).

Client-reported pre-treatment levels of problem recognition were negatively associated with client-rated alliance after session six of individual therapy, while high levels of treatment readiness predicted client ratings of the alliance at the same time point. In addition, high levels of problem recognition were associated with clients’ poor compliance with program rules over the course of treatment.

Despite mixed findings, these results provide preliminary evidence that high levels of treatment readiness and positively-rated alliances are likely important factors in the successful treatment of adolescent substance abusers. The implications of the present findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Timothy Anderson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Therapeutic Alliance; Motivation for Treatment; Adolescent Treatment; Substance Abuse

Koelsch, Lori E“I DON’T KNOW WHY I DID THAT BECAUSE THAT DOESN’T MAKE COMPLETE SENSE”: HOW UNDERSTANDING IS PREVENTED BY THE PRIVILEGING OF RATIONALITY
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2004, Psychology
Six female college students were interviewed multiple times about their experiences in nonacademic situations with other college students and members of the university community. I focused on situations in which these women could be seen as engaging in behavior that is dangerous to their physical or emotional well-being. Using the Reading Guide (Gilligan et al., 2003) I then read each transcript a number of times looking for different voices. The two voices I focused on were a “sure voice,” in which the women spoke confidently about their thoughts and experiences, and an “unsure voice,” in which the women seemed confused. I used these two voices in conjunction with other information I had gathered about these women throughout the course of our meetings in order to illustrate how each had been harmed by a cultural hegemony of rational discourse and explanation.

Committee:

Roger Knudson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

college women; feminism; sexual assault; rationality

Delaney, EileenThe Effects of Monitoring and Ability to Achieve Cognitive Structure on the Psychological Distress of HIV Testing
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2005, Psychology/Clinical
HIV is a significant health concern and millions of people are tested for it each year. Many persons undergoing testing experience substantial psychological distress. This psychological distress may be influenced by information seeking strategies. Information seeking can vary along two dimensions: Monitoring and blunting. Monitoring refers to a strategy wherein a person seeks out information and blunting refers to a strategy wherein a person avoids information concerning threatening events. The ability to achieve cognitive structure (AACS) may play a moderating role in the relationship between monitoring and psychological distress. The present study examined the association among information seeking style and the ability to achieve cognitive structure on psychological distress associated with HIV testing. Results suggested that for individuals undergoing HIV testing, the AACS may be a better predictor of psychological distress than the level of monitoring. Limitations of the study, clinical implications, and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Committee:

William O'Brien (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

monitoring; ability to achieve cognitive structure; AACS; psychological distress; HIV testing

Janco-Gidley, Julie AnnePersonal and Social Factors Associated with Levels of Eating Disorder Symptoms in the Postpartum Period: An Application of the “Tend and Befriend” Model of Stress Responses for Women
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2006, Counseling Psychology
Ninety postpartum women participated in a study examining protective factors against eating disorder symptomology during the postpartum period. Using Taylor et al’s “tend and befriend” theory of stress responses for women (2000) and considering disordered eating as on a continuum, it was hypothesized that if women engage in more “tending and befriending” responses at this stressful point in their lives (e.g., nurturing one’s infant, breastfeeding, mobilizing social support), they have less eating symptomology than if they engage in fewer of these behaviors. Specific hypotheses examined corrleations between parental stress and eating disorder symptoms and how use of tending and befriending behaviors statistically predicted eating disorder symptoms and percieved parental stress separately, in an additive manner, and as moderators for the relation between stress and eating disorder symptoms. A relationship was found between parental stress and Eating Disorder Inventory –2 (EDI) total scores, however no significant relationships were found between stress and the specific eating disorder behaviors of interest (e.g. Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscale scores). Tending behavior was a significant predictor of parental stress and EDI total scores as expected, but again not of any of the specific eating disorder behavioral variables of interest. Similarly, befriending variables statistically predicted eating disorder symptoms (EDI total scores and Drive for Thinness), and stress, but did not predict Bulimia or Body Dissatisfaction. These results showed that greater amounts of befriending were associated with lower EDI total scores and lower parental stress scores. In addition, an additive effect was found for tending and befriending behaviors for EDI total scores. No interaction effects were found; therefore "Tending and Befriending" do not moderate the relation between stress and eating disorder symptoms. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence that there is a relationship between stress and tending and befriending behaviors and to EDI total scores, but not necessarily to specific eating disorder behaviors. Additional exploratory findings showed that tending and befriending behaviors also combine in an additive manner to predict parental stress. Qualitative data from participants as well as suggestions for future research and implications for practice are also discussed.

Committee:

Linda Subich (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

postpartum women; eating disorders; eating disorder continuum; tend and befriend theory; parental stress; social support

Yamokoski, Cynthia A.ABC's of Suicidology: The Role of Affect in Suicidal Behaviors and Cognitions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2006, Counseling Psychology
The study of affect and cognition has been important in understanding suicide; however, the research and literature historically have placed more emphasis upon cognitive factors. Clearly, cognitive processes play a significant role in suicidal thoughts and behaviors, but it is also important to increase the focus on affect. There is support for the role of affect and the fact that cognition and affect combine with one another to impact suicidal behaviors. These findings may be advanced through the application of a theoretical model of affect in order to gain insight into the manner in which cognition and affect specifically relate to one another to impact suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Other goals of the current study were to examine the relationship between affect and cognition in suicidal individuals, to determine if different patterns of affect exist for different subtypes of suicidal individuals (i.e., no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, suicidal behaviors), and to assess the unique role of affect in relation to cognition. Participants in this study (n = 104) completed a series of questionnaires to measure suicidal thoughts and behaviors, hopelessness and affect. Results supported the hypothesis that positive affect and negative affect were related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and it was found that negative affect plays a more important role. Statistical analyses did not support the hypothesis that there were different patterns of affect for the various forms of suicidal behaviors, but visual analysis of graphs offered preliminary support for some unique patterns. An additional result of this study was that affect accounted for a significant amount of the variance in suicidal ideation, but not suicidal behaviors, above the cognitive variable of hopelessness. This means that it is important to study both cognitive and affect variables in order to gain more understanding about suicidal ideation. Some implications of this study are that therapists may gain more information about suicidal thoughts and behaviors if they assess both positive and negative affect, and it is possible that incorporating affect may enhance treatment outcomes. Follow up research is required to test these implications. In conclusion, affect is important to study in relationship to suicide, and it may provide additional information not gleaned from the more customary focus upon cognition in the suicide literature.

Committee:

Karen Scheel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

suicide; affect; circumplex model

Saveliev, KristynThe Relation of Response-Outcome Expectancies to Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Psychology/Clinical
Researchers have investigated the different social-cognitive processes associated with aggressive and prosocial behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relations among response-outcome expectancies for self-reward, tangible reward, and peer-approval, goals, and aggressive and prosocial behavior, based on models of social-information processing (Crick & Dodge, 1994; Huesmann, 1988). After controlling for demographic variables, little support was found for the hypothesized model in which goal importance moderated the relation between response-outcome expectancies and aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Likewise, little support was found for additional exploratory analysis in which response-outcome expectancies mediated the relation between goals and aggressive and prosocial behavior. The findings point to the importance of using study designs that capture online- processing when predicting aggressive and prosocial behavior.

Committee:

Eric Dubow (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

social-cognitive processes; aggressive and prosocial behaviors

Trevino, Kelly MFORGIVE ME FOR I HAVE SINNED: THE EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS AND SECULAR CONFESSION AND FORGIVENESS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL, EMOTIONAL, AND RELIGIOUS WELL-BEING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Psychology/Clinical
Previous research has largely ignored the effects of confessing transgressions and receiving forgiveness and has not examined the differences between confession and forgiveness in religious versus secular contexts. The purposes of this project are: 1) to examine the implications of confessing transgressions and receiving forgiveness for psychological, emotional, and religious outcomes, 2) to examine whether forgiveness influences the outcomes of confession, and 3) to compare the processes of confession and forgiveness in various contexts. 115 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: religious confession, secular confession, interpersonal confession, disclosure, and control. Confession was achieved through a writing exercise in which participants described something they had done wrong and felt badly for doing. The various types of forgiveness were presented as recorded guided imagery exercises. Data collection occurred over two weeks for each participant. During the first week, participants engaged in the writing exercise on four consecutive days. During the second week, participants engaged in the same writing exercise and listened to the guided imagery exercise on four consecutive days. Questionnaires were administered after the guided imagery exercise each day. An online follow-up questionnaire was administered four weeks following the end of the second week of data collection. Measures of psychological, religious, and emotional well-being were collected each data of data collection. The hypotheses for this study were based on previous research and theories on confession and forgiveness. I hypothesized that participants in the religious confession condition would experience the greatest benefits and the greatest improvement over time. In addition, I hypothesized that participants in the interpersonal confession condition would experience greater benefits and greater improvement over time than participants in the secular confession condition, followed by participants in the disclosure and control conditions. Generally, the analyses failed to support the hypotheses of the study. These results are attributed to various factors. Despite these results, this study provides important information for future research on confession and forgiveness. Specifically, researchers should conduct qualitative and exploratory correlational studies to achieve a greater understanding of confession and forgiveness that can inform future experimental studies of these constructs.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

confession; forgiveness; religion

Abu Raiya, HishamA Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness: Evidence for Relevance, Reliability and Validity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Clinical

The purpose of the current investigation was to further develop the Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness (PMIR) that was constructed based on previous research and to assess its relevance, reliability and validity as a scientific tool for the study of the psychology of Islam. The sample consisted of 340 Muslim participants from all over the world who completed the online survey of the study.

Overall, the results were noteworthy in several respects. First, the PMIR was relevant to Muslim participants and suggested that Muslims adhere to different Islamic beliefs, adopt various Islamic religious attitudes, and observe a diverse array of Islamic religious practices. Second, Islam is multidimensional; factor analysis of the PMIR resulted in 6 factors (Islamic Beliefs, Islamic Ethical Principles & Universality, Islamic Religious Struggle, Islamic Religious Duty, Obligation & Exclusivism, Islamic Positive Religious Coping & Identification, and Punishing Allah Reappraisal) that possessed good to high internal consistency. The Islamic Religious Conversion subscale that was not subjected to factor analysis had a high internal consistency too. Finally, the subscales of the PMIR demonstrated discriminant, convergent, concurrent, and incremental validity.

These findings highlight the fact that Islam plays a central role in the well-being of Muslims and stress the need for paying more attention to the Islamic religion when dealing with Muslim populations. Other implications of these findings for theory, practice, and research, the limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Kenneth Pargament (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

Islam; Religiousness; Measure; Psychology; Mental health

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