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Kleinas, Nicole LVariation in female mate preference for a male trait that provides information about growth rate in the swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus
Bachelor of Science (BS), Ohio University, 2015, Biological Sciences
Sexual selection is comprised of intersexual mate choice and intrasexual competition. In order for female choice to be adaptive, the benefits of being choosey need to outweigh the costs. Females could benefit from preferences for male traits that relay information about male quality and/or that increase offspring fitness. Female preferences are affected by genotype, environment, or a combination of the two. In the study species, Xiphophorus multilineatus, males belong to one of four genetic size classes, and one of two genetic reproductive tactics. Between these alternative reproductive tactics, growth rate may be under disruptive selection. Since growth rate relates to fitness, it is possible that females assess a potential mate’s growth rate by evaluating variation in male vertical body bars. I identified two aspects of the vertical body bars that are correlated with male juvenile growth rate. In addition, I demonstrated that females from a population of exclusively sneaker males show a preference for the barring pattern that represents a slower growth rate, which supports the proposed tactical disruptive selection on growth rate. Females from the sneaker line were also choosier in their preferences, which could potentially indicate that the fitness advantage to growing slower as a sneaker male may be greater than the fitness advantage to growing faster as a courter male.

Committee:

Molly R. Morris (Advisor)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Aquatic Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Biology; Evolution and Development

Keywords:

sexual selection; female preference; growth rate; disruptive selection; vertical body bars; xiphophorus multilineatus; swordtail

Oh, Young SamPredictors of Online Health Information Seeking Behavior and Health Information Seeking Experience of Elderly Cancer Survivors Using the Internet
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Social Welfare
The first aim of this dissertation was to describe online health information seeking behavior (OHISB) and health information seeking experience (HISE) in elderly cancer survivors using the Internet. The second purpose was to investigate predictors of OHISB and HISE in elderly cancer survivors using the Internet. In this dissertation, OHISB is defined as the behaviors engaged in by individuals to acquire health information via the Internet, while HISE refers to individuals’ perceptions and appraisals of not only the quality of information sources and contents, but also experiences and feelings during information seeking. As a theoretical framework, this dissertation adopts the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). The CMIS posits that individuals’ health information seeking is affected by various demographic characteristics, health-related experiences, beliefs, salience, and perceptions of information sources. To address these purposes, a sample of 235 elderly cancer survivors was drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS); data were collected from January 2008 through May 2008 (a cross-sectional cohort survey). For this dissertation, inclusion criteria were individuals who reported they had been diagnosed with cancer at some time in their lives (self-report, not medical records), who used the Internet, and who were aged 60 years or older. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized structural relationships between predictors and OHISB, and between predictors and HISE. In advance of conducting the structural model, confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm that each of two multiple-item scales (i.e., unmet health information needs and HISE) adequately fit a single factor model. In this dissertation, the structural model fit the data well. Being male and having higher trust in Internet health information significantly predicted higher OHISB, while higher education, more years since cancer diagnosis, lower unmet health information needs, and higher trust in Internet health information significantly predicted better HISE. The findings of this dissertation can help social workers in practice develop strategies to provide online health-related information to elderly survivors, to educate older survivors on how to use the Internet or how to use it better for getting health information, and to help older survivors improve their quality of life. Moreover, it is hoped that the findings from this research will inform OHISB and HISE intervention studies to reduce the stress of survivors as well as increase their self-care, improve their disease management, and support their medical decision making.

Committee:

Aloen Townsend, L. (Advisor); Kathleen Farkas (Committee Member); Elizabeth Tracy (Committee Member); Eva Kahana (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Health Care; Oncology; Social Work

Keywords:

online health information seeking behavior, health information seeking experience, elderly cancer survivors, comprehensive model of information seeking

Uhrig, Lana KFeasibility of a long-term food-based prevention trial with black raspberries in a post-surgical oral cancer population: Adherence and modulation of biomarkers of DNA damage
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Public Health
Consumption of phytochemical-rich fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of oral cancer and protection against oxidative stress-mediated damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is proposed that antioxidant components in black raspberries (BRB) can “scavenge” ROS and diminish oxidative burden in the oral cavity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a long-term, low-dose dietary administration of BRB to a population of disease-free oral cancer survivors is both (i) achievable and (ii) will result in the attenuation of oxidative DNA damage. Participants were assigned to consume 0, 4, or 8 grams of BRB daily for 6 months and provided self-report logbooks of adherence. Mass spectrometry of participant urine was used to identify biomarkers of adherence: dimethyl ellagic acid (DMEA) and urolithins. ELISA analysis of urine was used to measure 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Nanostring technology was employed to interrogate gene expression pathways associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage. Furthermore, a logistic regression model was developed to determine factors associated with willingness to participate and continue with study once enrolled. 112 participants were enrolled to a BRB or control regimen. Mean self-reported adherence to the study regimen for those returning logbooks was 88% at 10 & 20 weeks (CI: 83.87-92.65 & 85.81-91.89, respectively). MS/MS measurements of DMEA was 10-fold higher in BRB treated participants (p<0.0001 and 0.0015) at 10 and 20 weeks and urolithins were significantly higher in BRB participant urine at 10 weeks (p-0.0245). ELISA measurements of 8-OHdG in urine at 10 and 20 weeks was significantly decreased (p=0.0183 and p=0.0102) in BRB participants. Gene analysis of mucosal samples demonstrated significant down-regulation of NFKB2 (p=0.0282), NRF2 (0.0507), NQO1 (p=0.0011), GCLC (p=0.0468), and up-regulation of KEAP1 (p=0.0194) in BRB participants at 10 weeks. Predictive modeling revealed barriers associated with participation in the study which included: current smoker vs. never/past (OR: 7.85/4.86, p<0.0001/p=0.0003), physician engagement (OR: 5.71, p=0.0005), increasing age (p<0.0014), and adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiation vs. none) (OR: 5.91 and 3.46, p<0.0001 and p=0.001). Once enrolled on study, those having the least travel distance (p<0.003), and government (OR: 3.96 & 7.04; p<0.02) or private insurance (OR: 5.1; p<0.01) vs. no insurance were more likely to complete. Additionally, past (OR: 3.85; p<0.02) and current smokers/tobacco users (OR: 3.82; p<0.03) continuing on after week 10 were more likely to complete than never smokers. This research demonstrates that a food-based prevention strategy, utilizing BRB in oral cancer survivors, is safe and feasible. Participants completing the study maintained an outstanding level of adherence with humoral biomarkers (DMEA, urolithins) serving as objective means of validation. Issues influencing the initial decision of patients to enroll and continue on once enrolled were identified. Long-term, low-dose administration of BRB effectively decreased urinary levels of 8-OHdG, an established biomarker of DNA damage, and significantly regulated genes/pathways associated with inflammation, carcinogen metabolism, and oxidative stress, all of which are associated with development of oral cancer. Results from this study provide evidence that administration of BRB may offer loco-regional and systemic benefits with very low potential for adverse effects.

Committee:

Christopher Weghorst, PhD (Advisor); Steven Clinton, MD, PhD (Committee Member); Dennis Pearl, PhD (Committee Member); Sun Qingua, MD, PhD (Committee Member); Randi Love, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Environmental Science; Food Science; Oncology; Public Health

Keywords:

black raspberries; oxidative stress; DNA damage; adherence; dimethyl ellagic acid; urolithins; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; food-based; predictive modeling; study participation;

Riley-Behringer, Maureen ElizabethEffects Of Prenatal Risk and Early Life Care on Behavioral Problems, Self-Regulation, and Modulation of Physiological Stress Response in 6 to 7 Year-Old Children of Intercountry Adoption (ICA)
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Social Welfare
Guided by teratology, attachment, and stress theories, this cross-sectional secondary dataset analysis examined relationships between prenatal exposure to risk and pre-adoptive placement on behavior problems, self-regulation, and stress response modulation in 6-7 year old children of ICA. Early care comparisons were made between three groups matched on age at assessment (m = 6.9 years; SD = 0.6) and gender (girls n/group = 30) in children reared in institutional care (IC) (n = 40; m adoption age = 19 months; SD= 6.7 months), foster care (FC) (n = 40; m adoption age = 8.0 months; SD = 5.3), or birth family care (BC) (n = 40). Prenatal risk comparisons were made between the IC and FC groups; children were exposed to low (0 or 1) or high (2-3) prenatal risks (global measure of alcohol, malnutrition, and/or prematurity). Adoptive parents provided child/family demographics, historical adoption and known prenatal risk information, completed behavior and temperament scales, and collected home baseline salivary cortisol samples. In the lab, children were tested on inhibitory control, attention regulation, and salivary cortisol sampling. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-tests, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) tested the individual effects of prenatal risk and early care on outcomes. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to investigate whether early care moderated prenatal risk on children’s outcomes when controlling for adoption age. For type of early care, results indicated significant differences between groups on behavior problems (IC > BC), self-regulation (IC < BC) and lab cortisol baseline (IC < FC), but only without controlling for adoption age. When comparing high and low prenatal risk on child outcomes, high prenatal risk denoted greater behavior problems and elevated home cortisol baseline results, even when controlling for adoption age and early care type. Early care type did not moderate the prenatal risk effects on the study’s developmental outcomes, indicating that, at least in this sample, the effects of prenatal risk were strong. Further implications include the need for further investigation of effects of prenatal risk and institutional care risk on ICA children’s developmental outcomes as well as collaborative research between social work, neuroscience, and stress researchers.

Committee:

Victor Groza, Ph. D. (Committee Chair); Meeyoung Min, Ph. D. (Committee Member); David Crampton, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Andrew Garner, MD, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Biology; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Physiology; Psychobiology; Social Work

Keywords:

Intercountry adoption; institutionalization; foster care; prenatal risk; prenatal alcohol exposure; malnutrition; prematurity; behavior problems; self regulation; physiological stress response; cortisol

Baker, Frank W.Mental Toughness: Effect on Factors Associated with Injury and Illness in Adolescent Athletes
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Athletic Training (Health Sciences and Professions)
Background: High school sports participation has increased in the past decade, notably in multiple sport participation and sport specialization by adolescent athletes. Stressful circumstances during training and competition can predispose athletes to overtraining syndrome and athlete burnout. Others have used a mental toughness training program to determine how athletes handle stressors during training and competition, and whether the training positively affects factors associated with illness and injury. Objective: This study is an extension of previous research on mental toughness.1 This study measured the effect of a mental toughness intervention on mental toughness, somatic manifestation, athlete burnout, stress recognition, stress response, coping aptitude, and athletic performance. Participants: Six Caucasian male varsity track athletes from a rural public high school participated in this study. Methods: The participants completed instruments assessing mental toughness, athlete burnout, somatic manifestations, stress recognition, and stress response prior to, during, and at the conclusion of a 4-wk mental toughness intervention. The Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough) was used for assessing mental toughness. Spearman rho correlation coefficients (r) assessed the relationships between mental toughness, athlete burnout, somatic manifestations, stress response, stress recognition, and coping aptitude. A related sample Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine if the MeBTough, Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ), Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms (CHIPS), Stress Response Scale for Adolescents (SRSA), Brief Cope Inventory (BriefCOPE) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores after the intervention were significantly different than baseline scores. Results: At baseline, mental toughness displayed a negative relationship with athlete burnout (r = -0.07), somatic manifestations (r = -0.46), and stress recognition (r = -0.17). There was a decrease in somatic manifestations (P = 0.04) and athlete burnout (P = 0.04) following the intervention. Active coping (P = 0.04), use of emotional support (P = 0.04), and planning (P = 0.04) subscale scores of the BriefCOPE increased from pre- to postintervention. No significant change in mental toughness (P = 0.17), stress recognition (P = 0.34), or stress response (P = 0.71) from pre- to postintervention was observed. Increases in mental toughness resulted in enhanced performance, most noticeably by a decrease in the team’s 4 x 800 m event time by 1 min. Conclusion: Though mental toughness was inversely related to athlete burnout and somatic manifestations in these 6 rural high school track athletes, a 4-wk mental toughness intervention did not improve their mental toughness. Future studies, including a longer intervention in a larger sample of a variety of athletes, are needed to assess the true impact of the online intervention on mental toughness scores and the factors associated with overtraining injury and illness.

Committee:

Cheryl Howe, PhD (Advisor); Sheri Huckelberry, PhD (Committee Member); Chad Starkey, PhD, AT (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Health Sciences; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

mental toughness; athlete burnout; overtraining syndrome; adolescent athlete

Crabill, Thomas VTeaching Methods of a Successful College Soccer Coach
Master of Science in Education, University of Akron, 2014, Physical Education-Sports Science/Coaching
With the intention of extending coaching behavior science which examined the instructional behavior of expert coaches, a successful NCAA Division III collegiate soccer coach was systematically observed using the Arizona State University Observational Instrument (Lacy & Darst, 1984). Specifically, during the 2011-12 soccer season, a trained observer attended five practices in which Dr. Jay Martin instructed his athletes. During the practices Dr. Martin wore a wireless microphone and was filmed to allow for event recording. Subsequent to the completion of the data collection, the results of the study were categorized into 6 tables; one to display the total amount of behaviors across all five practices, and 5 separate tables, one for each practice. A total of 2,609 coaching behaviors were recorded. The behavior Dr. Martin demonstrated most frequently was instruction (35.1%, n = 916). Furthermore, it was found that 20.9% (n = 545) of Dr. Martin&#x2019;s coaching behaviors included praise. Additionally, Dr. Martin&#x2019;s behaviors were described and analyzed to determine if he utilized a unique pattern of behaviors during practice. Data were divided into 6 tables; Characterized by the use of a player&#x2019;s name, it was discovered that 36.9% (n = 964) of Dr. Martin&#x2019;s coaching behaviors were directed toward individuals and therefore 62.1% (n=1,645) were directed toward the team or groups of players. Similar to the study conducted which observed coach John Wooden (Tharp & Gallimore, 1976), participating coach, Dr. Jay Martin of Ohio Wesleyan University, won the NCAA Division III National Championship. Future researchers should break down each category through the use of a dual coding system provided by utilization of name. Another element of coaching behaviors that researchers should investigate is how often expert college soccer coaches engage in tactical instruction or technical instruction. Understanding the amount of technical and tactical instruction expert coaches use would provide insight into the differences or similarities between how basketball coaches and soccer coaches instruct their sport.

Committee:

Alan Kornspan, Dr. (Advisor); Mike Duve, Dr. (Advisor); Sean Cai, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Educational Leadership; Pedagogy; Physical Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

coaching science; systematic observation; coaching behavior; Arizona State University Observation Instrument; coaching; teaching; ASUOI

Sobon, MichelleA Preliminary Perspective for Identifying Resilience and Promoting Growth Among Survivors of Sex Trafficking
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2015, School of Professional Psychology
This work offers an analysis of the existing literature on trauma, resilience, posttraumatic growth, and sex trafficking. It argues that the field tends to gravitate toward trauma and overlook resilience and the potential for posttraumatic growth amongst survivors of sex trafficking. This work recommends that the field should attend to both abuses endured as well as the courage and strength gained by survivors. Specifically, it argues that it is the task of the mental health professional to step into trauma trajectories with a strengths-based perspective to promote positive, resilient, and growth-oriented outcomes. Resilience and posttraumatic growth theories have been substantiated by empirical support across all gradients of risk and trauma exposure. Survivors of sexual assault, child abuse, trafficking in childhood for genocide soldiers, holocaust survivors, and family crises are among this evidence base; all of which parallel aspects of sex trafficking. However, the field has yet to explore this particular subset of trauma survivors. Research has also demonstrated that when clinicians look for strengths, beginning with the initial interview, they find internal assets and external resources that mark resilience processes in their clients. This type of initial interview then incites a trajectory toward growth-oriented treatment. To apply these concepts, this dissertation proposes resilience and posttraumatic growth guidelines for working with survivors in treatment and research capacities. This work also provides a brief review of how aftercare programs within the United States utilize these guidelines and where they can improve. Finally, phases of treatment and a preliminary model for program components is suggested, which is based on the proposed resilience and growth recommendations.

Committee:

J. Scott Fraser, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Nancy Sidun, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Julie Williams, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Counseling Psychology; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Care; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Work; Therapy

Keywords:

trauma; strength based intervention; sex trafficking; human trafficking; psychology; resilience; posttraumatic growth; sexual violence; therapy; treatment; posttraumatic stress disorder; complex PTSD

Kalinoski, Zachary T.Error Management Training: Further Tests Of Mediation And Moderation
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2009, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
This study investigated an alternative training approach that would improve transfer performance scores above traditional training approaches. Specifically, error-management training was proposed to help trainees learn complex tasks, as opposed to error-avoidant training approaches, which sought to give trainees step-by-step protocols for learning that would minimize the occurrence of errors during training. This study was designed to examine the effects of training type on transfer performance and transfer errors, as well as the effects of meta-cognition, emotion control and cognitive appraisals as mediators of the training type-performance relationship. A third issue of this study investigated the personality-training type interactions from a situation strength perspective. Participants (N = 181) from a Midwestern university completed four training trials and two transfer trials of a computerized version of a class scheduling task and completed surveys of relevant constructs. Results revealed that training type did not have an effect on transfer performance or errors, training type did not predict meta-cognition, emotion control and challenge appraisals, but did predict threat appraisals. Finally, personality did not have a main effect on performance, nor did it interact with training type. The relative contributions of this study was the effects of training type on cognitive appraisals (threat in particular) and its relevance for future theoretical frameworks of error management training research, the effects of training type on error attitudes and error attitude effects on performance. Previous operationializations of error management training also may not be as clear-cut as once thought.

Committee:

Debra Steele-Johnson, PhD (Committee Chair); Nathan Bowling, PhD (Committee Member); Dragana Claflin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Experiments; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

error-management training; training; performance; cognitive appraisals; meta-cognition; emotion control; perfectionism; optimism; errors

Messay, BerhaneThe Relationship between Quest Religious Orientation, Forgiveness, and Mental Health
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2010, Psychology, Clinical
Many religious traditions encourage forgiveness but little is known about how religious orientation, specifically Quest, characterized less by dogmatic doctrinal beliefs and more by belief in spiritual development as a journey that involves questioning and doubting, relates to forgiveness. In addition, research on the relationship between Quest and psychological distress has yielded conflicting findings. A possible reason for the inconsistent findings is that previous studies have conceptualized Quest as a unidimensional construct. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Quest and its recently recognized dimensions related to forgiveness and psychological distress. Participants (N=242) were recruited from introductory and upper-level classes at a medium-sized, Midwestern Catholic university. They completed measures of Quest (the Multidimensional Quest Orientation Scale and the Quest Scale), forgiveness (the Forgiveness Scale with additional questions regarding perceived tolerance of offender, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale) and psychological distress (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale). Results suggested that certain dimensions of Quest were better predictors of forgiveness (e.g., Tentativeness, Exploration and Moralistic Interpretation) and distress (e.g., Change, Religious Angst, and Existential Motives). More importantly, results revealed that same dimensions that were positively related to distress were negatively related to forgiveness. Further, the relationship between Quest and forgiveness appears to be moderated by the perceived tolerance/open-mindedness level of the offender.

Committee:

Lee Dixon (Committee Chair); Susan Davis (Committee Member); Melissa Layman-Guadalupe (Committee Member); Jack Ling (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Religion

Keywords:

Quest religious orientation; multidimensional aspect of Quest; forgiveness; psychological distress; perceived tolerance and open-mindedness level of the offender

Taggart, Molly B.“What’s Love Got to Do with It?” The Effect of Love Styles on the Motives for and Perceptions of Online Romantic Relationships
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
From a uses and gratifications perspective, this research project investigated the effects of love styles on motives for using the Internet to create new romantic relationships as well as on perceptions of online romantic relationships. Information about participants’ demographics, Internet use, and background experiences with romantic relationships was also collected in an effort to further characterize members of the sample. Results indicated that participants believed that adult romantic relationships created via the Internet are better able and equipped to fulfill individual, personal motives based on sex rather than motives based on love. While this study offered a first attempt at answering questions about the interconnectedness of love styles, motives, and perceptions, these findings unearthed a more complex mystery that needs further investigation. Future research in this line of inquiry has the power to make a positive impact on understanding of specific Internet usage, online dating services/functions, and most importantly, on the real people who use or may consider using the Internet in the search for romantic relationships.

Committee:

Janet Meyer, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Communication; Demographics; Gender; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Multimedia Communications; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Web Studies

Keywords:

online communication; mediated communication; uses and gratifications theory; motives; gratifications sought; the Internet; love; sex; romantic relationships; online dating; perceptions; attitudes; stereotypes; survey methods; facebook; college students

Beauchemin, Antoine T.How Parents Experience Their Child's Excess Weight: Implications for Weight Management Programs and Mental Health Practitioners
MA, Kent State University, 2009, College of Education, Health, and Human Services / Department of Adult, Counseling, Health and Vocational Education

Pediatric weight management programs have been criticized for not addressing the individual needs and barriers that families face during weight management. Given that the success of such programs depends largely on the parents’ capacity to support their child’s weight management, perhaps treatment effectiveness could be improved by learning how parents experience their child’s excess weight and by listening to what they believe could help them support their child’s weight management. Additionally, the lack of focus on the emotional aspects of pediatric weight management suggests that families may benefit from the addition of mental health services to weight management programs.

The purpose of this study was thus to learn how parents of overweight and obese children conceptualize and experience their child’s excess weight, and to explore whether these parents think mental health professionals could contribute to pediatric weight management programs. This was accomplished by conducting open-ended interviews with ten parents of families enrolled in a nutrition and exercise education program for overweight children in Kent, Ohio, USA. Interview responses were analyzed from a phenomenological research approach.

Overall, the results suggested that parents feel they need help to overcome the many challenges they face during their child’s weight management. The results also demonstrated that parents agree with the inclusion of mental health assistance in weight management programs to help families cope with excess weight and address an aspect of weight management that is evidently given less attention than it deserves. Perhaps, taking the parents’ experience into consideration would help pediatric weight management programs engage families in treatment, improve treatment effectiveness, and lower drop-out rates by addressing parents’ weight management concerns appropriately and increasing confidence in their weight-related parenting skills.

Committee:

Jason McGlothlin, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Martin Jencius, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Donna Bernert, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Families and Family Life; Health; Health Care; Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

Childhood; obesity; overweight; weight management; parenting; mental health

Neal, Stacy RaeThe Evolution of Phenotypic Variation in Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Shape Differences in Morphology and Patterns of Morphological Integration in Mormon crickets
MS, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) are flightless North American shield-backed katydids that exist with a broad range of phenotypic variation including coloration, body size, movement behavior, and male calling behavior. Population types of Mormon crickets are classified as band-forming, non-band-forming, or intermediate based on estimated population density and movement behavior. Despite marked differences in morphology and behavior, these population types are still considered the same species although there is some evidence suggesting that they are genetically distinct (Bailey et al 2005). Mormon cricket morphology has been systematically described in terms of allometric, or size-correlated differences in shape between populations of Mormon crickets. The patterns of relationships between morphological characters have also been examined using morphological integration to see how they have changed over evolutionary time. Twenty-three morphological features of Mormon crickets collected from five populations in 2008 were measured and compared to the geometric mean for each individual. Shape differences by sex and by population type were tested for significance using two-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis of the covariance matrices was employed for data reduction and to explore the interactions between characters among BF and NBF Mormon crickets in terms of variance explained by size and shape versus shape alone. Correlation analysis was employed to test the relationships between morphological characters and movement patterns. Seven hypotheses of differences in covariation structure, or integration, were tested by constructing correlation matrices of the morphological variables and subjecting them to matrix correlations and Mantel tests. Integration patterns were discussed in terms of shape differences in morphology, local ecological conditions, and selection pressures by population.

Committee:

Patrick Lorch, PhD (Advisor); Christopher Vinyard, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Kershner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behaviorial Sciences; Biology; Biostatistics; Ecology; Entomology

Keywords:

Orthoptera; Tettigoniidae; Mormon crickets; Allometry; Geometric mean; Shape ratios; Morphological integration

Herrman, Erin RaeEstrous Cyclicity Modulates Circadian Rhythms In Female Syrian Hamsters
MS, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / School of Biomedical Sciences
The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN) contains a circadian pacemaker that drives daily physiological and behavioral rhythms including reproductive cycles. The exact mechanisms by which gonadal hormones regulate the SCN are not completely understood, though there are several hypotheses about possible pathways linking circadian rhythms and the estrous cycle. This thesis examines these links by asking whether estrous cycles alter the response of the circadian clock to photic input, whether there are estrogen receptors expressed in the hamster SCN and if there are sex differences in expression, and whether acute administration of estradiol into the SCN region can alter circadian phase. CONCLUSIONS: The results generated for this thesis indicate that locomotor activity rhythms vary across the estrous in Syrian hamsters and that the response of the circadian clock to light varies by sex and by estrous cycle phase. Estrogen receptor (ER)-β messenger RNA was detected in the SCN using laser capture microdissection and real-time PCR, and this is the first time this combination of techniques was successfully applied in hamsters. In addition, despite the sex differences in behavior there were no differences in the expression of ER-β between males and females. Finally, estradiol did not shift rhythms in intact, mature male Syrian hamsters. These data demonstrate the importance of investigating circadian rhythmicity in both sexes for a complete understanding of clock mechanisms.

Committee:

Eric Mintz, PhD (Advisor); John Glass, PhD (Committee Member); Sean Veney, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Gender; Molecular Biology; Neurology; Technology

Keywords:

Estradiol; Syrian hamster; Circadian rhythm; Estrous Cycle; Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN); Laser Capture; Estrogen Receptor

Sacco, Donald F.Facial Attractiveness and Helping Behavior Attributions: Attractive and Unattractive Persons Are Perceived of as Unhelpful
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, Psychology
Three studies explored the relationship between facial attractiveness and attributions of prosocial behavior. On a between-subjects (Study 1) and within-subjects (Study 2) basis, participants were shown images of targets possessing low, average and high facial attractiveness and were asked to indicate their impressions of how helpful these targets should be as well as how helpful these targets actually are. In both studies, attractive and unattractive targets were seen as actually engaging is less helping behavior than targets of average attractiveness; participants also perceived a consistent gap in unattractive and attractive targets’ actual helping behavior compared to how much they should help. Study 3 extended these findings by indicating that attractive and average targets are seen as more capable of helping than unattractive targets whereas both attractive and unattractive targets are seen as less willing to help than targets of neutral attractiveness. Perceptions of both attractive and unattractive targets’ willingness to help mediated perceptions of how much these targets actually help. Perceptions of unattractive targets willingness to help also mediated perceptions of how much these targets should help. Finally, perceptions of unattractive targets’ capability of helping mediated perceptions of how much they actually help and should help.

Committee:

Kurt Hugenberg, PhD (Committee Chair); Heather Claypool, PhD (Committee Member); Amanda Diekman, PhD (Committee Member); Timothy Heath, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Stasser, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Experiments; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

physical attractiveness; face perception; prosocial behavior; stereotyping; attribution theory

Vernau, Daniel P.Gender, Athletic Identity, and Playing Through Pain and Injury in Recreational Basketball Players
Master of Science in Sport Studies, Miami University, 2009, Physical Education, Health, and Sport Studies
The psychology of injury literature has not addressed whether recreational male and female athletes have positive attitudes toward playing through injury or play through injury. The purpose of this investigation was to determine recreational basketball players’ injury attitudes  and self-perceived behaviors, as a function of gender and athletic identity. Participants were 68 male and 62 female collegiate intramural basketball players, who completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Risk, Pain, & Injury Questionnaire-Rec, and a Self-Perceived Behavioral Questionnaire. Results of a factor analysis on the RPIQ-Rec indicated two factors of injury attitudes for recreational athletes. Results of a gender x athletic identity MANOVA indicated differences between high and low athletic identity in injury attitudes, and perceived playing through injury behaviors. However, no gender differences were found. Regression analyses showed athletic identity significantly predicted injury attitudes and behaviors. Results are discussed in regard to socio-psychological injury literature, and the gender similarities hypothesis.

Committee:

Dr. Robert Weinberg (Committee Chair); Dr. Thelma Horn (Committee Member); Dr. Rose Marie Ward (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Gender; Recreation; Social Psychology; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

psychology of injury; athletic identity; sex differences; playing with pain; playing with injury; pain; injury; gender; injury attitudes; recreational; intramural; athletes

Lee, JinhwaUnderstanding College Students' Purchase Behavior of Fashion Counterfeits: Fashion Consciousness, Public Self-Consciousness, Ethical Obligation, Ethical Judgment, and the Theory of Planned Behavior
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Apparel, Textiles, and Merchandising (Education)
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of college students' attitudes toward fashion counterfeits on their purchase intentions. Additionally, this study explored how college students' attitudes toward fashion counterfeits are affected by past purchase experience and personality traits, such as fashion consciousness, public self-consciousness, ethical obligation, and ethical judgment using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical framework. A total of 341 completed surveys were collected from students at a Midwestern University in the U.S. One-way ANOVA, independent t-test, regression, and correlation analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Statistical results suggest that college students' purchase intentions of fashion counterfeits are dependent on their attitudes toward fashion counterfeits, which in turn are influenced by their past purchase experiences, their beliefs about the benefits and risks of buying fashion counterfeits, and their ethical judgment. Ethical obligation, however, does not have a significant influence on attitude.

Committee:

Yingjiao Xu (Committee Chair); V. Ann Paulins (Committee Member); Elizabeth Blair (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences

Keywords:

Consumer Behavior; Fashion Counterfeits; Fashion Consciousness; Public Self-Consciousness; Ethical Obligation; Ethical Judgment; Theory of Planned Behavior;

Seng, Elizabeth K.Dynamics of Expectancy Changes in Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment of Migraine
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

This study examines changes in migraine-related self-efficacy (confidence to effectively engage in migraine management behaviors) and locus of control (expectations regarding who determines the outcome of one's migraines) over the course of behavioral and pharmacological treatment of migraine. 232 severe migraine sufferers were randomized into a 2 (preventative medication, placebo) X 2 (behavioral migraine management, no behavioral migraine management) treatment design. Mixed models analyses revealed that self-efficacy and internal locus of control increased more in the behavioral migraine management than drug therapy only groups. Chance locus of control decreased more in both behavioral migraine management groups, and the preventative medication group than in the placebo group. Health care professional locus of control increased in both groups that did not receive behavioral migraine management. Although higher pretreatment chance locus of control expectancies were associated with lower self-efficacy at pretreatment, they were also associated with greater self-efficacy change with behavioral treatment. Thus, individuals with high pretreatment chance locus of control were not handicapped in achieving high levels of self-efficacy with behavioral treatment as might be predicted.

This study also examines the relationships between migraine related expectancies before and after behavioral and pharmacological treatment. Generally, higher self-efficacy was related to less disability, but the relationship leveled off as self-efficacy increased. Higher internal locus of control was associated with higher levels of emotional distress before treatment, but was no longer associated with emotional distress after behavioral migraine management. Higher health care professional locus of control was associated with greater disability before treatment, but not after.

Committee:

Kenneth Holroyd, PhD (Committee Chair); Christopher France, PhD (Committee Member); Bernadette Heckman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

Migraine; Self Efficacy; Locus of Control; Expectancies; Behavioral Treatment; Pharmacological Treatment

Parker, Edward DonzellTact Repertoires and Measures of Efficiency: Comparing the Effects of Two Behavioral Intervention Models with Students with Developmental Disabilities
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, ED Physical Activities and Educational Services
This dissertation reviewed experimental studies centering on the Lovaas Method (LovM), reviewed experimental studies centering on Verbal Behavior Approach (VBA) and/or studies that focused on the primary verbal operants, and compared the effects of LovM and VBA on the development of tact repertoires of three 11 to 12-year-old students with moderate to severe mental retardation. We administered the ABLLS-short form, determined current levels of performance, and implemented the protocols in an alternative school for students with developmental disabilities. Specifically, 10 targets from two categories were taught receptively to mastery criterion and then expressively to mastery criterion using the LovM, and ten different targets from the same categories were trained using VBA, which included transfer trials across operants. A within-subject alternating treatments with baseline design was used to evaluate skill acquisition and identify an optimal practice in regards to frequency of target operants mastered to criterion, measures of efficiency, maintenance, and generalization. The results of this investigation suggest that both protocols are effective in teaching receptive and tact target operants; however, across all participants, VBA resulted in fewer errors and was more efficient in teaching tact operants. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Helen Cannella-Malone, PhD (Advisor); Ralph Gardner, PhD (Committee Member); Moira Konrad, PhD (Committee Member); Sheila Alber-Morgan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Communication; Education; Educational Psychology; Language; Psychology; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Lovaas Method; Verbal Behavior Approach; Verbal Behavior; Tacts; Efficiency; Developmental Disabilities

Meilleur, Louise R.Manipulating Attention to Improve Preventive Health Behaviors
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Psychology

Selective attention is a key construct in decision-making, but studies have rarely manipulated attention in the area of preventive health. We propose that attention manipulations can be used as a complement to other theory-based interventions in order to tackle important health challenges.

In five studies, we experimentally manipulated attention to information and options and explore its causal effects on choice and valuation. Using disparate decision paradigms in health domains, incidental attention manipulations produced a measurable impact on preventive health behaviors, though the effect was limited (or nullified) outside of the lab.

A new kind of preference reversal emerged, with covert attention manipulations (caused by the presentation of normatively-irrelevant integers) and overt manipulations (order effects and font size) presumably altering the information processed and the subsequent stream of information processing. In Study 1, directing initial attention towards a healthier snack option increased the likelihood of selecting it. Study 2 tested whether the subtle manipulation in Study 1was effective outside of the lab using similar manipulations between multiple snack options in a hospital cafeteria, but the effect failed to replicate. In Study 3, changing the order in which healthier breakfast items (fruit) were encountered when entering a hospital cafeteria caused a small increase in the proportion of fruit sales compared to less healthy options (pastries). Stronger, less subtle manipulations may be required in order for the effect to be broadly generalizable.

In order to further test the generalizability of the effect of attention on preventive health choices, Studies 4 and 5 used an attention manipulation (font size) that could be manipulated more broadly (e.g., in public health campaigns). The results highlighted the active nature of processing highly salient information. In particular, directing attention to negative information (e.g., about vaccine risks) generally decreased choice and monetary valuation whereas directing attention towards positive information increased choice and monetary valuations.

Findings highlight the importance of attention in preventive health decisions ranging from healthy food behaviors to vaccine decisions. Covert and overt attention manipulations can have a positive influence on preventive health behaviors and could be applied in public health campaigns to improve their efficacy.

Committee:

Ellen Peters (Advisor); Michael DeKay (Committee Member); Phyllis Pirie (Committee Member); Mary Ellen Wewers (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences

Keywords:

attention; medical decision-making; judgment and decision making; health behaviors

Beam, Michael A.Personalized News: How Filters Shape Online News Reading Behavior
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Communication

The evolution and diffusion of communication technology has consistently changed interactions between members of the public sphere in forming public opinion. Some democratic scholars have worried recent developments in personalization technologies will degrade public opinion formation. They worry that personalized news allows citizens to only pay attention to news coming from their preferred political perspective and may isolate them from challenging perspectives. Empirical research has shown people with access to more highly selective information technology demonstrate increases in both selectivity and incidental exposure to diverse perspectives.

This dissertation focuses on these behavioral and attitudinal outcomes of using personalized news technologies. Dual-processing theories of information provide the foundation for analyzing opinion formation within the bounded rationality model of public opinion. Personalized news technologies are hypothesized to increase the amount of news exposure and elaboration through increased personal relevance.

Two studies test these broad hypotheses. First, results from a national random sample of adults show users of personalized web portals are more likely to engage in increased news viewing both online and offline. No differences in preference for perspective sharing or challenging sources of news is found between personalized portal users and non-users. Next, results from an online experiment of Ohio adult Internet users show an increase in time spent reading news articles in personalized news portals compared with a generic portal. An interaction between using customized news portals with source recommendations based off of explicit user preferences and increased time spent reading per news article is found on news elaboration. No differences in news elaboration are found in other personalized news designs including implicitly recommended news sources based on user profile information and only showing users recommended stories. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the public opinion debate about new communication technologies, selective exposure research, information processing research, and personalized information system design.

Committee:

Gerald M. Kosicki, PhD (Advisor); David R. Ewoldsen, PhD (Committee Member); R. Kelly Garrett, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew F. Hayes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Communication; Experiments; Information Systems; Information Technology; Journalism; Mass Communications; Political Science

Keywords:

Internet; personalized; personalization; news; public opinion; politics; election; selective exposure; information processing; portal; web; communication; elaboration

Ivy, JonathanManipulating Motivating Operations Within and Across Classes of Reinforcers: Are There Differential Effects?
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the evocative- and abative-effects of a functionally defined motivating operation (MO) on the frequency of a target behavior maintained by primary, conditioned, and token reinforcers. Furthermore, this investigation sought to determine if the classes of reinforcers were differentially influenced by MOs. A comprehensive literature review and an empirical study were conducted to address the aforementioned research questions.

An electronic search of the literature on MOs yielded 25 articles that met all of the inclusionary criteria. Articles were evaluated using an 11-item matrix. The effects of MOs were examined within and across the reinforcer classes. Serious procedural limitations were found in a majority of the articles. About one-third of the MO manipulations for primary and conditioned reinforcers produced positive results. The total number of MO manipulations for token reinforcers were too few to meaningfully compare the relative effectiveness. The results of the literature review were inconclusive with respect to documenting differential effects of an MO. The implications of these findings as well as guidelines for future research are discussed.

The interaction effects between MO and reinforcer class were evaluated using a superordinate multielement design with an initial baseline. Two teens with developmental disabilities and one typically developing young child participated in this study. Reinforcers were delivered according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. The results suggest that the effectiveness of each reinforcer class was influenced by changes in motivation. Furthermore, differential effects were evident for two of the three participants. These results are discussed as they relate to the advancement of MO theory, implications for practice, and directions for future research.

Committee:

Nancy Neef, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ralph Gardner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Malone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Kaspar, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Education; Special Education

Keywords:

Reinforcer Class; Motivating Operations; Reinforcer Effectiveness

Schaefer, Tori L.The role of serotonin in brain development and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced cognitive deficits
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Medicine : Molecular and Developmental Biology
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is thought to be important during brain development and is one of the first neurotransmitters to appear. It appears to act as a neurotrophic factor supporting the growth and maturation of both serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells during the pre and early postnatal periods prior to its role as a neurotransmitter. Disruption of 5-HT functioning during human development is thought to be associated with autism and schizophrenia. Early developmental exposure to stress or drugs of abuse disrupt 5-HT development and produces altered cognitive ability. To better understand the relationship between the developing serotonergic system and long-term cognitive function we employed the use of a genetic model in which 5-HT levels are depleted ~80% throughout life and the use of a model of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure in which administration from postnatal day (P)11-20 is used; a period analogous to the second half of human gestation. Pet-1 is a transcription factor that is restricted in the brain to 5-HT neurons and has been shown to be important for their development and function. A loss of Pet-1 results in an 80% reduction of the number of 5-HT neurons as well as 5-HT tissue content. Pet-1 knockouts were tested as adults in both the Cincinnati and Morris water mazes that assess path integration and spatial learning, respectively. A reduction in cognitive ability was not observed in Pet-1 knockout mice, although they displayed decreased locomotor activity, increased marble burying, and increased startle reactivity. To better assess the role 5-HT plays during development for circuits involved in memory formation, we used a model of MDMA exposure that has previously been reported to produce protracted path integration and spatial learning deficits that last late into adulthood. In adults, MDMA produces an initial release of 5-HT followed by dramatic depletions, and these depletions can last for weeks. It was previously shown that neonatal MDMA administration on P11, the first day of the exposure period known to result in memory impairment (P11-20), also produced significant depletions in 5-HT. We further characterized the degree of 5-HT depletion that was experienced by rats exposed to P11 MDMA exposure and compared this to 5-HT reductions induced by other substituted amphetamines as well as determining the length and degree of depletion following P11-20 MDMA exposure. Substantial 5-HT depletions existed during all ten days of MDMA exposure, however, these depletions were not observed on P30. Citalopram (CIT), a highly selective SSRI, was used in combination with P11-20 MDMA exposure to attenuate the 5-HT depletions. Thereafter, cognitive ability was assessed in MDMA-treated animals with attenuated 5-HT depletions. The combination of CIT and MDMA did not improve learning ability; however CIT treatment alone produced deficits in path integration learning. These data suggest that 5-HT alterations during vulnerable critical periods can affect later cognitive ability, and they suggest that depletions in 5-HT alone may not account for cognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats treated with MDMA. Examination of specific 5-HT receptors is likely the next step to understand the mechanism involved in 5-HT disruption during development and later cognitive ability.

Committee:

Michael Williams (Committee Chair); Charles Vorhees (Committee Member); Gary Gudelsky (Committee Member); Kenneth Campbell (Committee Member); Steve Danzer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences

Hagerty, RonnieRole of Foundations in the Changing World of Philanthropy: A Houston Perspective
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
From the earliest days of the American nation, philanthropy has had a defining role in leading change. Philanthropy has provided vision and voice for nascent social movements ranging from civil rights and the women’s movement to AIDS research and environmentalism. As the 21st century has moved into its second decade, philanthropy finds itself facing significant pressures that threaten to compromise its ability to innovate and advocate for issues and individuals whose voices cannot be heard over the public rhetoric of the day. Once perceived as the purview of the rich and well connected, modern philanthropy cuts across social, economic, and ethnic classifications. Historically, private foundations have played a defining role in philanthropic investment. These tax-exempt charitable organizations, typically funded by a single source (individual, family, or corporation), were created to serve the common good, primarily through grantmaking. As philanthropy continues to evolve through new models and methodologies that enrich, extend, and question traditional giving parameters, foundations are exploring new paradigms for redefining and reinforcing their leadership capabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of economic and social forces defining the environment in which private foundations operate in the 21st century, and to learn how Houston foundations are adapting to this new reality. Further, the research captured their individual and collective vision for the future of foundation philanthropy. The dissertation provides a brief overview history of philanthropy to position it in a 21st century context. Within this construct, the study has assessed the nature and impact of current philanthropic challenges, and sought an understanding of future learning and leadership strategies as defined of by members of the Houston foundation community. This qualitative, multicase research study is comprised of in-depth interviews with Houston foundation leaders. Rather than setting out to illustrate a particular theory, the study has been designed to capture the perceptions of foundation leaders as they assess and adapt to a rapidly changing philanthropic environment. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy, PhD (Committee Chair); Lize Booysen, PhD (Committee Member); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Sandie Taylor, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Organizational Behavior; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Philanthropy; Foundations; Nonprofit Sector; Charities; Charitable Organizations; Fundraising; Grantmaking; Philanthropic Foundations; Private Foundations; Houston; Change; Giving Motivation; Community; Leadership

Szostak, ChristineIndividual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Influence Spoken Word Recognition
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Psychology
Prior work has shown that when speech is unclear, listeners show a greater dependence upon semantic than on acoustic information to aid word identification when distracting stimuli (e.g., other talkers) are present. The current project extended this work to explore whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) would influence the likelihood that listeners will depend on the biasing information when distracted. In five experiments, participants heard sentences that contained an early target word with or without noise at its onset and a subsequent word that was semantically biased in favor of the target word or one of its lexical competitors (e.g., The wing had an exquisite set of feathers or The wing had an exquisite set of diamonds where diamonds would be semantically associated with ring). The sentences were presented in the presence of distracters ranging in their degree of signal-similarity to that of the sentence (e.g., another speaker vs. an everyday nonspeech sound). Participants made target word identification and sentence sensibility judgments for each sentence they heard. The findings showed that those with lower WMC were more likely to depend upon biasing than on acoustic signal information, but only when the signal was masked by noise. In contrast, those with higher WMC showed less dependence upon the biasing information than those with lower WMC, even when the signal was masked by noise. Although performance across distracter similarity was not influenced by WMC, the likelihood of being able to anticipate what distraction would be heard was shown to influence performance as a function of WMC. A discussion of the role of WMC in spoken word recognition, especially during distraction, is provided and the potential mechanisms involved in this process are considered.

Committee:

Pitt Mark, Ph.D. (Advisor); Per Sederberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Simon Dennis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Eric Healy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Acoustics; Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Language; Linguistics; Psychology

Keywords:

spoken word recognition; working memory capacity; subsequent context; dichotic listening; individual differences

Knapp Melkowits, Amanda ThereseArt Therapy with an Adoptive Family: A Case Study of Adoptee Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder
Master of Arts, Ursuline College, 2008, Art Therapy and Counseling
The transition into adoption can be exciting and stressful for children. This transition, overlooked by the literature, may predict post-finalization success within adoptive families. Older child adoptees face unique challenges in developing complete selves, managing emotions, and attaching to new families. This can be particularly difficult when children suffer behavioral and emotional issues from attachment disorders and maintain expectations about being disrupted from these families due to personal experience. Art therapy can provide adoptees opportunities for self expression, behavioral management, and rapport/ trust development while demonstrating to the family the adoptees' willingness to participate. This case folows 16 art therapy sessions with a set of four children. Each adoptee was brought over from Russian orphanages by adoptive families. These children were disrupted by at least one adoptive family, were chosen to be adopted by the same family within two years, and were all diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD.)

Committee:

Cecile Brennan, PhD (Advisor); Gail Rule-Hoffman (Committee Member); Heidi Larew (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Therapy; Mental Health; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Sociology

Keywords:

art therapy; reactive attachment disorder; RAD; adoption; older adoptee; disrupted adoption; Russian adoption

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