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Christopher, Yvonne M.Welfare Dependency and Work Ethic: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2017, Applied Behavioral Science: Criminal Justice and Social Problems
This study examined relationships between work ethic and welfare dependency. The 65-item Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) (Miller, Woehr, & Hudspeth, 2002) and the 28-item MWEP (Meriac, Woehr, Gorman, & Thomas, 2013) with attached socioeconomic surveys were administered to n=338 and n=247 adult subjects, respectively. A negative correlation between the two variables was anticipated, so that as levels of agreement with work ethic increase, reported use of welfare benefits decrease. After running correlation matrices to examine Pearson’s r, hierarchical regressions were conducted, culminating in a model which partially predicts the connection between the variables. Bivariate analyses for the 65-item MWEP data indicated that marital status, age, sex, centrality of work, waste time, delayed gratification, self-reliance, morality/ethics, hard work, and leisure were statistically significantly correlated. Bivariate analyses for the 28-item MWEP data indicated that centrality of work and hard work were statistically significantly correlated. These findings could be used in the design of a comprehensive assessment tool to be utilized at the point of entry into the welfare system.

Committee:

Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jacqueline Bergdahl, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Jonathan Varhola, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Demographics; Labor Economics; Public Policy; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Statistics; Welfare

Keywords:

Work ethic; welfare; dependency; labor force; unemployment; disability; SNAP; food stamps; TANF; temporary assistance for needy families; welfare reform

Witchey, Shannah K.Mechanisms Important to the Neural Regulation of Maternal Behavior
PHD, Kent State University, 2018, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Maternal behavior is an evolutionary innate behavior that supports the development and growth of the offspring. Caring for the young is not only critical for the survival of the species, the quality of maternal care directly influences the offspring’s developing brain and social behaviors. In most mammals, maternal behavior is associated with dramatic changes in brain neurochemistry, physiology and behavior to ensure parental responsiveness. Rodent models are useful for studying the neural underpinnings of these behavioral shifts. The onset of maternal care in rodents occurs rapidly at the time of parturition and is mediated by numerous neurotransmitter systems. The synthesis of vasopressin (Avp), endocannabinoids (eCBs), and oxytocin (Oxt) rapidly increases at the time of parturition and all three neurotransmitter systems have been found to be important for regulating maternal behaviors. This dissertation set out to study the role of Avp, eCB and Oxt systems in the neural regulation of the onset of maternal behaviors.

Committee:

Heather Caldwell (Advisor); Eric Mintz (Committee Member); John Johnson (Committee Member); MaryAnn Raghanti (Committee Member); Stephen Fountain (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Neurosciences

Keywords:

vasopressin, oxytocin, endocannabinoid, maternal behavior

Barrett, Shaun MichaelThe Effects of Video Modeling on the Adult Implementation of PECS Phase 1A
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Educational Studies
This study examined the effects of a video modeling training video on early childhood education staff members' implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Phase 1A. Quality of the implementation was determined by participants following a task analysis of 10 steps wherein a confederate acting as the student exchanges a PECS picture of an item to receive access to that item. After baseline data collection, participants were instructed to watch the researcher's training video of PECS Phase 1A being modeled. The video was uploaded to YouTube so participants had access to the training video and was viewable on their own time. After viewing the video, participants were assessed on their performance again using the 10 step task analysis. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Findings indicated the number of steps completed correctly improved as a result of the training intervention.

Committee:

Shelia Morgan (Advisor); Helen Malone (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences

Keywords:

video modeling; PECS; applied behavior analysis

Colwell, Kelly L.Disseminating the Cost of the Empty Chair: Improving Healthcare Access and No-Show Rates Through Age and Disease-Specific Education in the Pediatric Asthma Patient Populations
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
The focus of this investigation was to ascertain if age and disease specific education had an effect in reducing no show rates, for follow up asthma management, in the adolescent pediatric patient population. No show rates have an effect in the quality and management of chronic health conditions, limits access for those waiting to be diagnosed and begin treatment and creates a financial hardship for provider’s practices. Methods: A quasi-experimental, retrospective chart review was utilized for 8-18 y/o participant populations with a specific ICD-9 and ICD-10 asthma diagnosis code, within Mahoning, Trumbull, Stark and Franklin Counties, Ohio. Demographic variables of age, gender, race, type of healthcare coverage and geographic zone were compared to education received or not received. Slot utilization variables of kept, no show, rescheduled and cancelled appointments were also collected. Pertinent data analysis was performed by S.P.S.S statistical analysis software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to address all research questions. Results: Analyzed data revealed the only correlation to the slot utilization variable and education was the kept. Geographic zone revealed that the highest kept appointments were in Trumbull County, highest no show rates were between the border of Trumbull/Mahoning Counties. There was no appreciable correlation between no show rates and demographic variables. Conclusion: Although education had an integral relationship with kept appointments, it was not inversely proportionate to no show rates. Education encounters were clearly related to the kept variable lending to an assumed improvement in health literacy.

Committee:

Karen Larwin, PhD (Committee Chair); Joseph Lyons, ScD (Committee Member); Joseph Mosca, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Spearman, PhD (Committee Member); Louis Harris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Care; Medicine; Social Research

Keywords:

No Show rates, Pediatric asthma, access to healthcare

Smiley-Walters, Sarah AnnInteractions between Pigmy Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) and a Suite of Prey Species: A Study of Prey Behavior and Variable Venom Toxicity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology
Interactions between predators and prey are widespread in nature but the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape these interactions are poorly understood. In my dissertation, I use pigmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) and their prey as a system in which to examine several aspects of this species interaction where different ecological and evolutionary factors may be shaping variation in adaptive traits. In Chapter 1, I review factors affecting predator-prey interactions and explain why the pigmy rattlesnake system is valuable for addressing important research questions. In Chapter 2, I present research on the behavioral component of this interaction, demonstrating that native cotton mice do not change their foraging behavior in the presence of a sit-and-wait rattlesnake predator. In Chapter 3, I explore the toxicity of venom to native prey versus non-native "models" to determine to what extent non-native species are representative of prey in the same broad taxonomic group. I show that native prey have higher resistance to venom than non-natives and encourage the use of native prey in future toxicity work. In Chapter 4, I use native treefrog prey from two different populations in Florida and venom from snakes in the same populations to see if there is a signal of local adaptation present in these populations. I show that detection of a signal of local adaptation depends on the measure of venom function used: evidence for local adaptation was observed in the time to death measure of mortality but not in the 24 hour mortality measure. In Chapter 5, I look at the function of venom at a smaller scale by exploring the amount of functional variation present across and within populations of snakes using a lizard model prey. I found the individual component of venom toxicity to be larger than the population-level differences that have been the focus of previous research. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates that rattlesnake venom function differs at both the individual and population scale and that toxicity is relative, depending on the specific prey species tested.

Committee:

H. Lisle Gibbs, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ian Hamilton, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Hetherington, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Stuart Ludsin, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Evolution and Development; Toxicology; Zoology

Keywords:

predator-prey; venomous snakes; LD50; Peromyscus gossypinus; Hyla squirella; Anolis sagrei; adaptive traits; local adaptation; giving-up density; rodent foraging; individual variation

Ratliff-Rang, Christine AnnetteThe Hypercapnic Ventilatory Response and Behavior in Ca2+-Activated K+ (BK) Channel Knock Out Mice And T-Cell Death-Associated Gene 8 (TDAG8) Receptor Knock Out Mice
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2017, Physiology and Neuroscience
Some acid sensing areas in the brain control the expression of breathing and anxiety/fear including the locus coeruleus (LC) (Redmond & Huang, 1979) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It has been found that knocking out T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a chemosensor, attenuates CO2 induced fear phenotypes in mice. However their hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) has not yet been looked at. Also, BK channels are large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels that are activated by increases in concentration of intracellular calcium ions. It has been found that BK KO rats have an increase in their HCVR (Patrone et al., 2014) however their CO2 induced anxiety/fear has not been looked at yet. In this thesis, we found that the BK channel is involved in the HCVR in mice and that the CO2 induced anxiety/fear pathway and the HCVR pathway are separate pathways in the BK and the TDAG8 mice.

Committee:

Christopher Wyatt, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Adrian Corbett, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Larry Ream, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Biomedical Research; Neurosciences

Keywords:

Neuroscience; BK channel; TDAG8

Gaudier-Diaz, Monica MSex-Specific Social Modulation of the Neuroinflammatory Response to Global Cerebral Ischemia
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Neuroscience Graduate Studies Program
Social isolation is a major risk factor for disease onset and progression, and has been correlated with all-cause mortality. Despite converging evidence from animal and human studies recapitulating the physiological benefits of social interaction, the mechanisms by which social environment influences health remain underspecified. In affiliative species, social isolation is a psychological stressor, capable of activating the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and altering gene expression of immune cells. These physiological changes have the potential to sensitize immune responses. The innate immune cells of the central nervous system, microglia, can become primed and will exert a prolonged and maladaptive response to additional immune stimulation. Thus, we hypothesized that social isolation can sensitize microglia, and that an exaggerated inflammatory response underlies the detrimental consequences of isolation on cerebral ischemia outcome. Increased expression of major histocompatibility II (MHC II) and a retraction of microglial processes are the most common indicators of microglial priming. Following a week of social isolation, male mice displayed increased hippocampal and cortical gene expression of MHC II, but the females did not. An elevation in the gene expression of MHC II among male mice is the first indication of isolation-induced microglial priming. When investigating social modulation of microglial reactivity to global cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest/ cardiopulmonary resuscitation, social attenuation of the inflammatory response was evident at 24-hours post-ischemia in both female and male mice. Among males the ischemia-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was attenuated by social interaction, whereas in the female mice pair housing ameliorated the ischemia-induced elevation of MHC II. These data suggest that social modulation over the neuroinflammatory response to global cerebral ischemia occurs regardless of biological sex, but that the underlying mechanisms are sex-specific. Following 4-days of cardiac arrest/ cardiopulmonary resuscitation, male and female mice exhibited increased locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, inflammation and cell death, relative to their sham counterparts. The ischemic effect on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration was attenuated among the pair housed animals, demonstrating the benefits of social interaction in both females and males. Social attenuation of ischemia-induced microglial activation, characterized by reduced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in males and by lower MHC II expression among females, ameliorated long-term outcome. Our findings indicated that social isolation can alter physiology in a way that sensitizes the immune system, at least in males. Furthermore, sex-specific social modulation of the microglial response to cerebral ischemia provides insight into sexual dimorphisms in the inflammatory response to cardiac arrest/ cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Investigating sex-differences in the inflammatory response to ischemia will aid in the comprehension of the epidemiology of this heterogeneous disease and help develop effective treatment strategies.

Committee:

A. Courtney DeVries (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Immunology; Neurobiology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

Social Isolation, Cerebral Ischemia, Microglial Priming, and Neuroinflammation

Hamilton, Lucas JohnDoes posture impact affective word processing? Examining the role of posture across adulthood in an incidental encoding task
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Research in emotional aging has primarily investigated mechanisms that could explain the age-related increase in positive emotionality despite various age-related losses. Of particular note is the increasing importance of age-related positivity effects and underlying biological influences on affective processes. Despite evidence of weakened mind-body connectivity in older adulthood presented in the maturation dualism framework, research shows age-similarities in subjective and objective reactivity for certain negative emotional states across adulthood. Thus, robust physiological-experiential associations may still exist in later life. Investigations of integrated mind-body connectivity have lead researchers to examine the influence of posture on cognitive outcomes. Prior evidence has observed that specific postural manipulations (i.e., stooped posture) is linked to negative affective biases in memory and emotional experiences. To interrogate potential posture effects on word recognition, an incidental encoding task was utilized. Although no age differences emerged for concrete words, younger adults outperformed older adults on both negative and neutral abstract words, and older adults remembered more positive relative to neutral abstract words. These results provide partial support for age-related positivity, perhaps in line with older adults’ motivated positive affective goals. Although posture effects were absent in both age groups, there remains considerable room for other integrative research assessing mind-body connectivity within emotion-cognition links across adulthood.

Committee:

Eric Allard (Advisor); Katherine Judge (Committee Member); Jennifer Stanley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

posture; emotion; memory; age-related positivity; mind-body

Verina, Kristen NicoleThe Perceptions of Therapeutic Staff Support with Children and its Possible Impact on Future Delinquency
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Youngstown State University, 2018, Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science
This thesis involves exploratory research investigating the perceptions of Therapeutic Staff Support (TSS) workers to examine if they feel effective in the performance of the wraparound services they provide to their clients. Based on the limited literature regarding wraparound services and delinquency prevention, four hypotheses were tested: H1. Valuable resources available to TSS workers, such as token economy, social stories, and sensory items, will lead to probable success in preventing juvenile delinquency. H2. The greater rapport a TSS worker has formed with their client, the more likely such workers will be successful in preventing juvenile delinquency. H3. The more satisfied a TSS worker feels in their job setting, the more likely such workers will be successful in preventing juvenile delinquency. H4. The more experience and education a TSS worker possesses, the greater the perception of juvenile delinquency prevention. A total of fifteen Therapeutic Staff Support workers were surveyed (N= 15), and a total of twelve Therapeutic Staff Support workers responded with both the informed consent form and questionnaire. Two of the four hypotheses were supported in that a TSS worker’s level of education and experience as well as rapport with their clients effected their perception of client success in preventing delinquency. Although the findings shed light on this topic, future research should include a larger sample for ample generalizability.

Committee:

Christopher Bellas, PhD (Advisor); John Hazy, PhD (Committee Member); Monica Merrill, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Therapy

Keywords:

Therapeutic Staff Support; Wraparound Services; Behavioral Health; Juvenile Delinquency

Coologhan, Bridget KathleenCaregivers' Perspectives of their Experiences with their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Healthcare Settings
Bachelor of Science (BS), Ohio University, 2017, Communication Sciences and Disorders
Though there is an extensive body of literature focused on the cognitive, linguistic, and social challenges of children with ASD, relatively less is known about the experiences of children with ASD and their families in real-world environments including healthcare settings. Specifically, little is known about how caregivers prepare and support their children with ASD in these settings and whether differences exist across healthcare settings. There is a gap in the literature describing the preparation and supports that caregivers use to improve their experiences in healthcare settings. The purpose of the current study is to examine caregivers’ perceptions of their children’s behaviors and the strategies they use to prepare and support their children with ASD in two healthcare settings: visits to the doctor’s office and the speech-language therapy clinic. Knowledge of which strategies and supports are most effective will benefit caregivers of children by providing them with different supports to use with their children in healthcare appointments to better their overall experience.

Committee:

Joann P. Benigno, Ph.D., CCC-SLP (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Care; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

Autism Spectrum Disorder; Healthcare; Caregivers; Appointments; Supports

Fennell, Curtis GTHE EFFECTS OF A 16-WEEK EXERCISE PROGRAM AND CELL PHONE USE ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, AND HEALTH-RELATED OUTCOMES
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
American adults participate in low physical activity and high sedentary behavior. Specific Aim #1 assessed the effects of a 16-week worksite exercise program on physical activity, sedentary behavior, fitness-related variables, and health-related psychometric trait changes. Specific Aim #2 examined the relationship between cell phone use, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in adults 30 years of age and older. Employees participated in a 16-week exercise intervention (Intervention group: n = 47, n = 38 females) or served as a control (Control group: n = 15, n = 11 females), completed fitness testing, wore accelerometers, and completed questionnaires assessing their physical and sedentary behavior, psychometric traits, and cell phone use. Results revealed both groups participated in recommended physical activity with no differences between groups (p = 0.2 for all measures). Sedentary behavior significantly decreased (p = 0.003) in the Intervention group. Fitness-related variables and health behavior improved in both groups, but to a greater extent in the Intervention group. Cell phone use was not associated with objective physical activity (r = 0.1, p = 0.3 for both), subjective physical activity, (r = 0.1, p = 0.3 for all), or sedentary behavior (r = - 0.11, p = 0.4). These results suggest participating in a worksite exercise program or participating in regular fitness assessments may foster positive health outcomes, but the worksite exercise program may lead to greater improvements. Adults 30 years and older may prefer other more traditional forms of activity during their sedentary time than the use of a cell phone.

Committee:

Jacob Barkley, PHD (Committee Co-Chair); Ellen Glickman, PHD (Committee Co-Chair); J. Derek Kingsley, PHD (Committee Member); Andrew Lepp, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Sciences; Kinesiology

Keywords:

Cell phone use; Physical activity; Sedentary behavior; Worksite exercise intervention; personality; self-efficacy for physical activity and exercise; self-determination for physical activity and exercise

Cheung, Cheuk HeeThe Influence of Mental Health on Portfolio Choice of Older Households
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Family Resource Management
With an aging population, an increasing number of people including the baby boomers are entering their retirement age. The need for appropriate financial planning for the elderly is an important issue as most of them will need to depend on their retirement savings for expenditures in their retirement. The elderly people’s well-being will hinge on how well they manage their personal finances. Yet there are many challenges facing the older population with respect to personal financial management. One of the most important challenges is that many elderly people have mental health conditions which may affect their ability to manage their household portfolios. This study examines the influences of different kinds of mental health conditions including depression, memory problems, sleep problems and psychiatric problems on household portfolio choice. This study specifically examines two potential significant mechanisms by which mental health conditions might affect household portfolio choice, namely direct influence of mental health on portfolio choice and indirect influence of mental health on portfolio choice through affecting cognitive ability. Based on the theoretical background on the relationship among mental health conditions, cognitive ability and portfolio choice, a model concerning these factors is established. Empirical specifications are built based on health and personal financial management literature. Several research hypotheses are developed to test the direct and indirect influences of mental health conditions on household portfolio choice. Panel regression analyses with fixed effects and mediation models are used to test the hypotheses concerning portfolio decisions in older households in various empirical specifications. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, this study finds that elderly persons suffering from mental health conditions, including memory problems and depression, have significantly lower cognitive ability than those without these conditions. Fixed effects regressions and mediation models show that memory problems and depression are indirectly associated with a decrease in ownership of risky assets mediated by cognitive ability. Sleep problems, however, are indirectly associated with increase in ownership of risky assets mediated by cognitive ability. On the other hand, sleep problems, memory problems, depression and psychiatric problems are not significantly associated with the proportion of risky assets in the investment portfolios of older households. The results of this study have important policy implications in the area of personal financial management of the elderly. This study establishes the possible mechanism by which mental health conditions influence household portfolio choice. Policy makers may wish to suggest laws to protect elderly people suffering from mental health conditions while they make important investment decisions on their portfolios. One example is to make it mandatory for financial institutions to provide the mentally ill with adequate access to certified financial professionals when making investment decisions involving risky assets. Financial management professionals may wish to provide more assistance to the elderly with mental health conditions to enhance the economic well-being of the affected individuals.

Committee:

Tansel Yilmazer (Advisor); Sherman Hanna (Committee Member); Catherine Montalto (Committee Member); Robert Scharff (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Economics; Finance; Health

Keywords:

Portfolio Choice; Mental Health

Amos, Nancy A.What is the Lived Experience of First-Time Adolescent Mothers?
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Social Welfare
In 2014 approximately 249,000 babies were born in the United States to young women between the ages of 15 and 19. There are medical and psychological complications associated with adolescent pregnancy. One problem is the presence of maternal depression which is a serious condition with implications for both the mother and the child. Depression is experienced differently in adolescents than in adults, making it difficult to accurately assess and plan for services. Guided by Relational-Cultural Theory, this qualitative study described the lived experience of adolescent mothers in the early postpartum period. The study also examined adolescent mothers classified as depressed compared to those as nondepressed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Eight adolescent mothers between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview grounded in the theoretical and empirical literature. Questions were asked about risk factors for depression and to elicit the experiences of the participants as mothers. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Atlas.ti software was used to code and merge data. Two coders were used to increase reliability of the themes observed. At the micro level, participants talked about their change of perception of themselves, change in school plans, lack of knowledge about pregnancy and delivery, and feeling the pressure of time and role conflict. At the mezzo level, participants described the loss of friends when they became mothers and about changing connections and disconnections with family members and with the father of their baby. At the macro level, participants talked about negotiating medical, daycare, and educational systems and about their perceptions of being treated differently as a reaction to their status as an adolescent mother. Participants described both connections and disconnections that improved their experience of being an adolescent mother. The participants described ways in which their connections with adults could be improved by listing ideas about what they wanted adults to know about their experience. The findings are discussed in relation to implications for social work practice, policy, and future research.

Committee:

Elizabeth Tracy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Early Childhood Education; Families and Family Life; Health Care; Psychology; Social Work

Keywords:

qualitative research; social work; adolescent mothers; lived experience

Hill, Melinda SPhysical Activity Behavior and Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients: Role of Social Cognitive Variables
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Kinesiology
Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the brain, characterized by motor symptoms–tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, slowness/smallness, and postural instability– as well as non-motor symptoms including anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and cognitive deficits. The average age of onset for PD is 60, with earliest patients diagnosed at age 18. One out of 100 people over age 60 have PD. PD patients’ symptoms increase over time and medication does not slow down the progression of PD. Physical activity (PA) is one lifestyle behavior that may slow the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life of PD patients by maintaining their ability to accomplish functional activities of daily living and preserve their independence. However, knowledge of the motivational factors associated with PA in PD patients remains limited. Methods: The current study aimed to i) explore the relationship of select Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs: self-efficacy (SE), outcome expectations (OE), and self-regulation (SR) with PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); ii) explore the relationship between PA and HRQoL; and iii) determine if SCT constructs mediate the relationship between PA and HRQoL in PD patients. Results: In this online cross sectional survey of 500 idiopathic PD patients, participants self-reported an average of just over 200 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week. SE and SR were the most significant predictors of PA. SE and OE were predictive of physical HRQoL, and the addition of BMI, age, Hoehn and Yahr Score, and total number of comorbidities more than doubled the amount of variance explained. To a smaller extent, SE, OE, and SR were predictive of mental HRQoL. SCT correlates mediated the relationship of PA to HRQoL. Discussion: The study population represented a population of PD patients with a high interest in physical activity. Self-reported average weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was much higher than expected. Future studies should attempt to validate MVPA with some type of exercise monitor that would not be sensitive to tremor or other PD specific considerations. Analysis of self-regulation subscales may provide insight into why SR was predictive of physical HRQoL when modeled alone, but not with the other SCT correlates. A deeper evaluation of outcome expectation subscales might also provide a further explanation of why OE was predictive of MVPA when modeled alone, but not with SE and SR. Physical activity was a significant predictor of both mental and physical HRQoL. The covariates BMI, age, Hoehn and Yahr Score, GDS depression score, and total number of comorbidities significantly added to the explanatory power of the relationship between PA and physical HRQoL. These factors should be considered both potential mediators and moderators in future studies in the PD population.

Committee:

Brian Focht, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Physical Therapy; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

Physical Activity; Health Related Quality of Life; Parkinsons Disease; Social Cognitive Theory Constructs

Musolff, Jennifer A.Variables Considered by Educators when Determining Educational Placement for Children with Autism
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
Since 2000, the prevalence of autism has been on the rise, with the most current data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016) showing 1 out of 68 children being diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. With this growth comes an increase in the number of children served under IDEA in public schools. Educators are required under IDEA to provide children with disabilities a free, appropriate public education in the child’s least restrictive environment. There is a need, now more than ever, for effective and efficient methods of assessing students with autism and ensuring placement in the most appropriate environment to meet their unique and diverse learning needs. This study was designed to contribute to the current literature on assessment variables used to determine educational placement, thus informing educators on proficient means in deciding the most appropriate placement for a child with autism. The first research question investigated the extent children with autism are included in general education classes. The second research question sought out variables used in determining placement. The third question explored the weight each variable has in determining educational placement. The final research question analyzed outside factors and influences that IEP team members take into consideration when they determine educational placement. An online survey consisting of 39 questions was administered to analyze the variables educators in elementary public school buildings use to determine placement for children with autism. The results indicated the most widely used assessments included achievement measures and other measures including social skills assessments and the use of a functional behavior assessment. This study will assist educators with using a variety of assessment procedures when deciding placement for children with autism, helping to ensure the student’s needs are met and learning is maximized.

Committee:

Karen Larwin, PhD (Advisor); Charles Vergon, JD (Committee Member); Kathleen Aspiranti, PhD (Committee Member); Philip Belfiore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Educational Tests and Measurements; Special Education

Keywords:

autism; assessment; least restrictive environment

Williams, Jaclyn HardestyThe Relationship of Trauma Severity, Rumination, and Restructured Core Beliefs to Posttraumatic Growth
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Exposure to trauma is a pervasive problem that can result in a myriad of symptoms and pathologies and affects individuals across all demographics. Following trauma exposure, some individuals reconstructed their world views, sought meaning and experienced the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Undergraduate participants (N=106, Mage= 20.75) were recruited to complete phase 1, which was an online, 15 minute questionnaire. Participants who acknowledged trauma exposure completed phase 2, which consisted of four additional measures. Ninety-three participants (87.7%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. The sample’s multiple correlation coefficient was .78, indicating that approximately 60% of the variance of PTG was accounted for by the linear combination of the predictors of trauma severity, core beliefs, and degree of intrusive and deliberate rumination. Deliberate rumination and core beliefs were both positive correlated with and accounted for significant variance of PTG; trauma severity was not a significant predictor. A follow-up exploratory analysis revealed that deliberate rumination (when entered without trauma severity and core beliefs) accounted for 53% of the variance of PTG. These results coupled with results from an exploratory analysis provided insight that deliberate rumination is a key component in facilitating PTG, and were consistent with other findings (Benetato, 2011; Stockton, Hunt & Joseph, 2011).

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Charles J. Kapp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

posttraumatic growth; trauma; growth; trauma severity; rumination; core beliefs

Estrada, Christina MExamining the Effects of Estradiol Signaling in the Medial Amygdala on Emotionality and Cognition in Female Rats
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Arts and Sciences: Psychology
The initiative for research in women’s health and sex-based biology has become an important focus of interest over the past 25 years. Epidemiological studies indicate that women are disproportionately at greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders than men. In addition, women are also are at risk for developing cognitive impairments (e.g., verbal memory decline, decreased cognitive processing, and Alzheimer’s disease) later in life. Estradiol (E2) is the most abundant and prominent estrogen in premenopausal women and its deficiencies during various stages of the reproductive cycle are linked to mood and changes in cognitive performance. E2 modulates mood and cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors (ER) in key brain regions (e.g. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala). The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) is a sexually dimorphic region that is known to mediate fear and stress responses, arousal, and affiliative behaviors in rodents. While it is clear that the MeA regulates certain aspects of emotionality and cognition (social recognition memory), the role of E2 signaling in the MeA on these behavioral endpoints in nonsocial and social settings has not been fully elucidated in females. The goal of the present study was to do an in-depth behavioral assessment of the impact of estradiol signaling, specifically in the MeA, on emotionality and cognition using both nonsocial and social behavioral assays. We accomplished this goal using adult ovariectomized females with bilateral E2 or cholesterol micropellets aimed at the MeA. Following recovery from surgery, females were exposed to a battery of behavioral tasks designed to gauge different aspects of anxiety-like, depression- like and cognitive behaviors including the open field, novel object recognition, social preference/recognition, social interaction and forced swim tests. We tested the following hypotheses in ovariectomized female rats, (1) E2 signaling in the MeA will attenuate anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in nonsocial and social settings; (2) E2 signaling in the MeA will enhance cognition in social, but not nonsocial settings; (3) E2 signaling in the MeA will decrease cellular activation in mood-related or stress excitatory brain regions. Consistent with our hypothesis, E2 treatment decreased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the open field and forced swim tests, respectively. In addition, E2 treatment decreased cellular activation in some mood regulatory brain regions (i.e., basolateral amygdala, medial amygdala), but not in stress-related areas (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus). E2 signaling in the MeA did not enhance cognitive performance in the social preference recognition or novel objection recognition tests but may have reduced novel object discrimination efficiency. Although, E2 decreased depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors in nonsocial tasks, it increased aggression and decreased sociability towards female conspecifics in social based assays. These findings suggest that E2 modulates emotionality in a context-dependent fashion. Taken together, these data highlight the MeA as an integral brain region for the E2 mediated effects on emotionality and social-sexual behavior in females. Future studies plan to investigate the effects of E2 in the MeA on social-sexual behavior using male conspecifics.

Committee:

Matia Solomon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); James Eliassen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paula Shear, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences

Keywords:

female;medial amygdala;estrogen;anxiety;depression;anxiety

Scroggins, Marissa JoySurvey of Compassion Fatigue Education in APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2015, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
The purpose of this study was to examine the present state of compassion fatigue (CF) education in APA-accredited clinical and counseling doctoral level training programs. It also sought to identify the number of training programs that require CF training or offer it as optional, attempted to discern the type of setting in which it is taught (class, supervision, etc.), as well as identified some of the reasons why it may not have been included (cost, time, interest, etc.) in programs without CF training. A researcher-developed survey was designed and consisted of a mixture of yes/no and multiple choice questions. Program chairs in 287 programs served as representatives of their programs and were invited to participate in this study. Participants included 69 program chairs from APA-accredited clinical and counseling programs that met study criteria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. In response to the first question of “Does your program offer any form of compassion fatigue prevention training,” the majority of participants (75.4%) indicated that they did not have any formal CF prevention training though several indicated that CF training likely occurs in spontaneous class and supervision discussions. In response to the question “if no CF training exists, why not,” the majority of participants sited “other” (58.5%) or “lack of time” (34%). The results and interpretations are explained; contributions to the current literature, implications, and limitations are discussed; and recommendations for future research are provided. The electronic version of this dissertation is at Ohiolink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu.

Committee:

Suzanne Engelberg, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Colin Ward, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kelly Brown, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Continuing Education; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Ethics; Psychology

Keywords:

quantitative; descriptive; exploratory; APA-Accredited; clinical psychology; counseling psychology; doctorate programs; program chairs; compassion fatigue; vicarious trauma; secondary trauma; preventative training

Billeck, Jillian L.Investigation of Empathy-like Behavior in Social Housing
Master of Science in Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Biological Sciences
The sensation of pain in the human body has been very well defined. Emotional loci in the brain have also been researched and uncovered. Literature and observed human behavior strongly suggests a link between the neural mechanisms of pain and emotion. The perception of pain to an individual is unique to a specific set of circumstances, with regards to environmental, genetic, and social factors despite the concise sensory system. This phenomenon combined with the expanding comprehension of mirror neurons leads to the conclusion that emotion plays an important role in the perception of pain. Specifically, empathy, or the ability to relate to the emotional experiences of another, may alter the perception of pain. Because recent literature has shown that rodents are able to demonstrate empathy, and knowledge that rats and humans exhibit high similarity in neural structures pertaining to emotion and nociception, an experimental model assessing the influence of empathy on pain-related behavior was created. Empathy was hypothesized to influence nociception in socially-housed versus isolated rats, through the use of a localized inflammatory model. Animals were randomly housed in isolation or socially, in cages of 4. Depending on treatment group, each animal was injected with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant or sterile saline in the left hindpaw. Three parameters were measured- body weight to quantify overall well-being, paw thickness to measure edema, and paw withdrawal latency, as a quantification of pain-like behavior. Behavior was also qualitatively reported. Data were collected weekly for 8 weeks following injection and a series of inferential analyses were conducted. No significant difference between any isolated or socially housed group was found, although many trends were uncovered to suggest value in the original hypothesis.

Committee:

Jill Tall, Ph.D. (Advisor); Mark Womble, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeffrey Coldren, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

Empathy; Pain

Sawyer, Mary RachelThe Effects of Coaching Novice Special Education Teachers to Engage in Evidence Based Practice as a Problem-Solving Process
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Educational Studies
Evidence-based practice (EBP) in special education may be conceptualized as a problem-solving process. Novice special education teachers infrequently possess the skills necessary to engage in EBP to identify problems and select and adapt empirically-supported treatments to implement in their classrooms. This study used a multiple baseline design across four novice special education teachers to evaluate the effects of coaching on fidelity with an EBP action plan protocol. Results indicate that coaching effectively improved teacher fidelity with the protocol and that teachers were able to implement self-designed plans with high levels of fidelity in the classroom. Additionally, participants indicated overall satisfaction with the goals, procedures, and outcomes of the study, suggesting that coaching on EBP may be a socially valid model of support for novice special educators.

Committee:

Sheila Alber-Morgan (Advisor); Moira Konrad (Committee Member); Matthew Brock (Committee Member); Larry Maheady (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Special Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

evidence-based practice, teacher preparation, professional development, problem-solving

Urso, Amy EThe effects of environmental factors on gamblers' behaviors in Ohio casinos
MS, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
Casinos have long been trying to design the perfect conditions that will maximize their profits by satisfying patrons and influencing the gambling behaviors of patrons. The purpose of this study was to examine how casino environmental variables (ambient conditions, design elements, social factors) influence gambler’s satisfaction and excitement levels, and further to explore how satisfaction and excitement predict approach behaviors (desire to stay, repeat patronage, and positive word of mouth). This study also aimed to identify differences in casino perceptions between genders and age groups. A framework was proposed based on Bitner’s 1992 framework for understanding environment-user relationships in service organizations. An online Qualtrics questionnaire was developed to evaluate Ohio gamblers’ perceptions of the casino environment, how the environment affected their satisfaction and excitement, and the potential resulting behaviors. Open-ended questions regarding confidence from the casino environment were also included for means of exploration. Multiple linear regressions and independent sample t-tests were used to test the five hypotheses and the results revealed several interesting findings. Ambient conditions, design elements, and social factors were all found to be significant predictors of gamblers’ excitement, however excitement did not predict casino approach behaviors. Ambient conditions and design elements were found to be predictive of satisfaction, which ultimately predicted casino approach behaviors. No significant differences in the way genders or age groups perceive the casino environment were found. Results and discussion give implications to casino operators suggesting which casino environmental factors can ultimately increase casino related approach behaviors.

Committee:

Barbara Scheule, PhD (Advisor); Seon Jeong Lee, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Parr, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Social Research

Keywords:

casino; casino environment; casino ambiance; casino design; servicescape; excitement; satisfaction; approach behaviors; Ohio casino

Lipp, Thomas WGeospatial Analysis of How Oil And Gas Energy Development Influences Lesser Prairie-Chicken Spatial Ecology in Kansas
Master of Science in Applied Geospatial Science, Bowling Green State University, 2016, School of Earth, Environment and Society
Anthropogenic changes in land use in the form of agriculture, unmanaged livestock grazing, invasive species, and energy development have reduced the viability of wildlife habitat, resulting in population declines. One group of species that may be particularly prone to stochastic and deterministic population impacts of energy development are grouse. Several grouse species native to N. America are located within the Midwest; a region containing high development densities of both wind and oil and gas (O/G). The Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus; hereafter LPC) is a member of the prairie grouse family that has experienced significant habitat degradation and population decline due to O/G energy development since the early 1900’s. For our research, we considered the possibility that sound, produced from O/G pump jack motors, is a causal mechanism driving habitat degradation and avoidance. We collected sound pressure level (SPL) measurements at O/G pumps jack motors, nesting points, matched random, and random points throughout Gove County, KS during the 2015 LPC reproductive season. In addition, we developed an outdoor sound propagation model capable of modeling low frequency sounds from a large number of sources. We found that oil and gas pump jack motor noise had an additive effect on environmental noise out to +3,800m. We found a difference in SPL readings among nest sites, matched random, and random locations on the landscape at both low and high frequencies (p < 0.1), with nest sites and matched random points having lower SPL than random points. In addition, we found sound does not significantly influence nest success or survival. These data indicate that LPC nesting follows a hierarchical selection process where nesting habitat is constrained by sound on the landscape. Our findings suggest that sound is an important factor influencing LPC nesting ecology and the effects of anthropogenic noise are an important component driving LPC habitat suitability.

Committee:

Andrew Gregory, Ph.D (Advisor); Helen Michaels, Ph.D (Committee Member); Marco Nardone, Ph.D (Committee Member); Yu Zhou, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Grouse; Ecology; Oil and Gas; Sound; Conservation

Heiss, Valerie JaneThe Effect of a Behavioral Intervention on Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Among Overweight and Obesity Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Kinesiology
Given that almost 10% of the population is diagnosed with diabetes, it is critical to understand strategies and techniques to reduce the prevalence of this disease. There is sufficient evidence that regular physical activity (PA) can significantly improve symptoms of type 2 diabetes, however a majority of adults with type 2 diabetes are not regularly active. The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, 4-week, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) -based behavioral intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among a sample of overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. A secondary purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of a behavioral intervention on dimensions of self-regulation. The intervention group met with researchers once per week and received counseling and exercise logs in order to stimulate changes in self-regulation, self-monitoring, goal setting, time management, social support, self-reward, and overcoming barriers. This group’s MVPA was measured using the BodyMedia Armband at pretest and posttest, and individuals were given information regarding their PA habits. The control group was also measured using the BodyMedia at pretest and posttest, were given information regarding their PA habits, but did not receiving counseling or complete exercise logs. The intervention group reported and increased rate of use of self-regulation strategies beyond that of the control group, but there were no significant changes in PA in either group. The results of this study suggest that a behavioral intervention can positively stimulate changes in SCT variables among adults with type 2 diabetes, but more research is needed to determine the ability of said variables to stimulate a change in PA behavior as this study did not have a positive impact on dimensions of MVPA.

Committee:

Rick Petosa (Advisor); Brian Focht (Committee Member); Randi Love (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Education; Health Sciences; Kinesiology

Keywords:

Type 2 Diabetes, Physical Activity, Social Cognitive Theory, Behavior Change, Exercise, Chronic Disease, Health Behavior Theory

Courtice, April M.Chat communication in a command and control environment: How does it help?
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2015, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Military command and control (C2) teams are often faced with difficult, complex, and distributed operations amidst the fog and friction of war. To deal with this uncertainty, teams rely on clear and effective communication to coordinate their actions; two current conduits for communication in distributed military teams include voice and chat. Chat communication is regarded by many in the C2 world as the premier method of communicating with the power to lessen some of the traffic and disturbances of current voice communication, and its usage continues to exponentially increase. Despite this operational view, countless laboratory studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of chat communication relative to voice communication. The current study investigates the gap between laboratory research results and usage in complex environments, and empirically tests the effect that chat communication has on tactical C2 performance through an air battle management synthetic task environment. Results demonstrate that participants performed better on time-critical, emergent events with voice communication and better on preplanned missions when they had access to archival information. Voice communication is a valuable, high bandwidth channel that is essential for coordination in highly complex situations, while chat communication is a nonintrusive form of communication that allows the operator flexibility in prioritizing the information flow through the use of archival information. The challenge in operational settings with overcrowded radio channels, however, is to protect the voice channel to ensure it is available when the situation demands it. With careful implementation, voice and chat communication can be complementary technologies to facilitate complex work.

Committee:

John Flach, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Valerie Shalin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Benjamin Knott, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Todd Nelson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Experimental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Chat Communication; Military Command and Control; Complexity; Uncertainty; Team Communication

McCoy, Dacia M.Video Self-modeling with English Language Learners in the Preschool Setting
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: School Psychology
English language learners (ELL) are at risk of academic failure when classroom expectations are not effectively communicated and they are unable to engage in classroom instruction. A delayed multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to investigate the effects of a video self-modeling intervention on the classroom behavior of ELLs. This study was implemented in the preschool setting with ELLs exhibiting low levels of engagement and/or high levels of off-task behavior. Prior to group time, the child viewed a brief self-modeling video of appropriate behavior (i.e., engagement). A parent of the target child provided voice-over on the videos in the child’s home language, clearly stating the classroom expectations described by the teacher (e.g., during group time we listen to stories). Visual analysis was used to analyze the target behaviors, including child engagement and off-task behaviors. The results indicate an increase in engagement and decrease in off-task behaviors for all 4 children. During the intervention phase, the levels of engagement increased to levels comparable to English-fluent speaking and ELL peer comparisons in the classroom and were maintained during the brief follow-up phase. In addition, teacher and child social validity data were also examined suggesting the intervention was viewed favorably by both the teachers and children involved in the study. Discussion focuses on contributions to the current literature, implications for practice, and suggestions for future areas of research.

Committee:

Renee Oliver Hawkins, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Julie Morrison, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Nabors, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences

Keywords:

English Language Learners;Video Self-Modeling;Behavior;Engagement;Portable Tablet Technology

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