Search Results (1 - 25 of 207 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Singh, ShwetaYOU ARE WHAT YOU STUDY OR YOU STUDY WHAT YOU ARE? CHOICE OF COLLEGE MAJOR AND IDENTITY AFFIRMATION AMONG EMERGING ADULTS
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
One of the critical developmental challenges of emerging adulthood is identity development and affirmation. This process continues throughout college when many undergraduate students experience increased independence and are thus free to “try on” new identities, or affirm existing identities which have proven meaningful. Opting for a major is a big leap towards shaping a student’s future and defining their desired adult identities. Additionally, it may be an expression of who they are and who they desire to become. This study aims to understand the role of this choice in the process of expressing and affirming one’s identity. This study tests the hypothesis that selection of a major provides an opportunity to affirm a student’s identity because it denotes certain desirable characteristic traits, or identity images. The study was conducted in two parts. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that unique clusters of identity images can be identified for different undergraduate majors (i.e., Hospitality Management, Recreation, Parks & Tourism Management, Journalism, Fashion Design and Biology). The findings suggested that discrete sets of identity images do exist for some of the majors while others shared some identity images. Study 2 investigated the second hypothesis and found that students tended to correspond highly to the identity images symbolized by their chosen major more than the identity images symbolized by other majors. Study 2 also asserted that emerging adults perceive a great degree of freedom in their choice of a college major. Results are discussed along with implications and future research prospects.

Committee:

Andrew Lepp, Dr. (Committee Member); Aviad Israeli, Dr. (Committee Member); Philip Wang, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Recreation

Keywords:

identity image, identity affirmation, college major

Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Halverstadt, Brittany AnnVariety Effects and Motivated Behavior: the effects of reward flavor variety on instrumental actions in rats
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Experimental
Humans and animals respond to diversity in food items by increasing intake and appetitive behaviors, and this observed variety effect reflects changes in the motivational value of such rewards. Previous work on the effects of food variety has posited two main mechanisms by which these changes in motivation may come about. Variety may slow habituation processes by decreasing exposure to any one food item, or variety effects may be due to incentive contrast, whereby comparisons between items impact their relative value. The current work describes the use of an experimental paradigm with more than one level of variety, which builds on what is known about how reward variety affects motivational processes. We used three flavors of sucrose rewards to investigate rats’ responses to qualitative reward variety in four contexts: no, low, and high variety, as well as a context with no variety but a high chance of satiety. The current study also added predictive cues about impending outcomes, allowing examination of the impact of factors such as predictability, and short-term (`micro’) variety. The results of this study showed only slight variety effects on incentive contrast and relative reward processes, but several confounding factors could have obscured larger variety effects. This study provides a starting point on which other studies of qualitative reward variety could build. The results have implications for deepening our understanding of motivational processes in general, as well as for informing potential clinical approaches to motivation and eating disorders.

Committee:

Howard Cromwell (Advisor); Verner Bingman (Committee Member); Daniel Wiegmann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Neurosciences; Psychology

Keywords:

Variety; reward; incentive contrast; dishabituation; motivation

Williams, Jaclyn HardestyThe Relationship of Trauma Severity, Rumination, and Restructured Core Beliefs to Posttraumatic Growth
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Exposure to trauma is a pervasive problem that can result in a myriad of symptoms and pathologies and affects individuals across all demographics. Following trauma exposure, some individuals reconstructed their world views, sought meaning and experienced the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Undergraduate participants (N=106, Mage= 20.75) were recruited to complete phase 1, which was an online, 15 minute questionnaire. Participants who acknowledged trauma exposure completed phase 2, which consisted of four additional measures. Ninety-three participants (87.7%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. The sample’s multiple correlation coefficient was .78, indicating that approximately 60% of the variance of PTG was accounted for by the linear combination of the predictors of trauma severity, core beliefs, and degree of intrusive and deliberate rumination. Deliberate rumination and core beliefs were both positive correlated with and accounted for significant variance of PTG; trauma severity was not a significant predictor. A follow-up exploratory analysis revealed that deliberate rumination (when entered without trauma severity and core beliefs) accounted for 53% of the variance of PTG. These results coupled with results from an exploratory analysis provided insight that deliberate rumination is a key component in facilitating PTG, and were consistent with other findings (Benetato, 2011; Stockton, Hunt & Joseph, 2011).

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Charles J. Kapp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

posttraumatic growth; trauma; growth; trauma severity; rumination; core beliefs

Knight, Katherine R.Malone University as an Intentional Community: An 1892 Friends Bible Institute Simulation
Undergraduate Honors Program, Malone University, 2015, Honors Thesis
Malone University was founded by J. Walter and Emma Malone in 1892 as an Evangelical Friends Bible training school. At the founding, the school was an intentional community referred to as the Friends Bible Institute. In simulating four days in the life of an 1892 Friends Bible Institute student body, participants had the opportunity to learn experientially about the history of Malone University, intentional communities, evangelism, and the nature of true community. True community involves conflict resolution, commitment, and common goals. Malone University today still carries out the intentions of the founders of the Friends Bible Institute, just in a different format. However, it is possible that Malone University in 2015 does not emphasize the Friends value of evangelism and social reform as much as it did at its founding.

Committee:

Lauren Seifert (Advisor); Welling Jacci (Committee Member); Jay Case (Committee Member); Malcolm Gold (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Behavioral Psychology; Bible; Education History; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; Religious History; Sociology; Spirituality

Keywords:

Malone University; J Walter and Emma Malone; Friends Bible Institute; 1892; intentional community; conflict resolution; community; evangelism; spiritual formation; simulation; Christianity

Pidruzny, Jacquelyn N. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Violent Media
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Psychology
The CDC estimates that 1 out of 175 to 1 out of 45 children in the United States meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is a life-long neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, language abilities, and overall daily functioning. Newly emerging research indicates that one-third of children with ASD demonstrate challenging, aggressive, and even violent behaviors. Five decades of research have found a complex but definite connection between violent media consumption and increased aggressive behavior. To date, few studies have examined how consumption of violent media may affect children with ASD. The present study used a mixed-method design to identify the immediate effects of violent media on the behaviors of 42 children from two Midwestern schools that exclusively serve children with ASD. Baseline behaviors during a period of free play, measured by trained coders using a structured behavior observation scale, were compared with the children's behaviors while they watched a cartoon with violent themes. Challenging behaviors were also documented outside of the two observation conditions. Attention to the cartoon, previous exposure to the cartoon, and self-reported favorite television programs were also examined. Participants diagnosed with autistic disorder were more likely to exhibit one or more aggressive behaviors than participants with Aspergers disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified. This is reasonable given that children who meet criteria for autistic disorder tend to be lower functioning and suggests that the structured observation scale was effective in identifying differences in behaviors. No statistically significant differences were found between aggressive behaviors during free play versus cartoon viewing, but only 11 of 42 children were able and willing to actually attend to the cartoon for any period of time. Qualitative analysis indicated that one fourth of the participants demonstrated a variety of challenging behaviors. In view of the importance of media for children with ASD, a possible causal relationship between exposure to violent media and challenging behaviors in this population remains an important question.

Committee:

Jeanne Brockmyer, Ph.D. (Advisor); Wesley Bullock, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Adrienne Fricker-Elhai, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michele Knox, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yueh-Ting Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology

Keywords:

ASD; Autism; Developmental Delays; Children with ASD; Violent Media; Violent Cartoons; Effects of Media Violence; Aggressive Behaviors; Challenging Behaviors and Autism; Behavior Checklist; ASD-BC

Pack, Jessica SpencerEffect of Localized Temperature Change on Vigilance Performance
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2015, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
This study examined the influence of localized temperature change on vigilance performance. Additionally, the effect of stressor appraisals on the relationship between localized temperature change and vigilance performance was investigated. A total of 36 male and female participants between the ages of 18 and 45 completed a stressor appraisal scale before completing a 40-minute simulated air traffic control vigilance task. Depending on the condition, either a hot, cold, or neutral temperature change was induced using a thermoelectric pad and blanket 20 minutes into the vigilance task. Although localized temperature change did not have a significant effect on vigilance performance 25-30 minutes into the task, those who were randomly assigned to the cold condition did experience a significant reduction in their vigilance decrement over time when compared to the neutral condition. Participants were classified as challenged or threatened, depending on their task appraisals. A marginally significant main effect of stressor appraisals on vigilance performance was observed. Challenged individuals appeared to perform better over time than threatened individuals. Although a moderating effect was not observed, these results suggest that individually both localized temperature change and stressor appraisals tend to influence vigilance performance over time.

Committee:

Tamera Schneider, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lloyd Tripp, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Climate Change; Cognitive Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Personality Psychology; Physiological Psychology; Psychobiology; Psychology

Keywords:

vigilance; temperature; stressor appraisals; challenge; threat

Bookmyer, Eric DanielNeed for Cognition and its Effects on Equity Theory Predictions
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Despite the growing trend in workplace applications of need for cognition (NC) on decision making, a gap still exists in its applications to other areas of I-O psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individual difference of NC on equity theory predictions. This study consisted of a sample of 225 Mechanical Turk participants who completed a 32-item survey measuring their NC level and perceptions of equity and satisfaction based on a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated no significant differences between NC level and the amount of information utilized in the equity comparison process, contrary to predictions. Additionally, there were no significant differences between NC level on perceptions of distributive justice. The present study did, however, further support equity theory predictions by indicating lowered distributive justice in the underpayment and overpayment conditions and higher distributive justice in the equitable payment condition. Supplemental analyses were also conducted into pay satisfaction, which found that those low in NC were more satisfied in an underpayment condition than those high in NC. This research has implications on the workplace suggesting that employers should strive to compensate employees equitably to achieve the highest distributive justice perceptions. Additionally, results suggest that employers may want to consider an employee’s NC level when focusing on pay satisfaction, and this is an area that future research should further examine.

Committee:

Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

equity theory; need for cognition; equity; distributive justice; pay satisfaction; decision making; mechanical turk; MTurk; equity perceptions; workplace; individual differences; organizational behavior

Hill, RenaMedia Violence and its Effects on Young African American Men
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2012, Psychology
This study investigated the effects that the viewing of violence in movie clips has on the aggressive affect and self-efficacy for aggression/violence among African American men when the aggressive/violent model is similar versus different to them in race/ethnicity. A dimension of racial identity (race centrality) was also investigated as a protective factor against aggressive affect and self-efficacy for violence. The sample consisted of 127 African Americans aged 18 to 22, of which only the 76 men were investigated in this study. Aggressive affect significantly increased after viewing a movie clip with an African American, aggressive model but not after viewing a movie clip with a Caucasian, aggressive model. There were no significant results found concerning self-efficacy for aggression. There was no relationship between race centrality and aggressive affect.

Committee:

Anna Ghee, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Lynn Bowers, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Salsman, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Mass Media; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

violence in mass media; African Americans; aggressiveness; blacks - racial identity

Lackovich-Van Gorp, Ashley N.Positive Deviance and Child Marriage by Abduction in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
This dissertation uses Positive Deviance (PD) to understand child marriage by abduction in a community in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia. Marriage by abduction occurs among the poorest 10% of the Sidama population and entails the kidnapping of girls between the ages of 10 and 14 for forced genital circumcision, rape and marriage. PD is a problem solving approach that mobilizes a community to uncover existing yet unrecognized solutions to solve the specific problem. This study, which entailed an examination of the evolution of marriage norms among the Sidama as well as an analysis of the underpinnings of marriage by abduction, discovered that some community members practice behaviors and strategies that can prevent child marriage by abduction. The results support PD application to this specific form of child marriage as well as the practice as a whole, offering an alternative to traditional behavior change methodology. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Alan Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Monique Sternin, MA (Committee Member); Sandra Cheldelin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Studies; Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Gender Studies; Social Psychology

Keywords:

positive deviance; child marriage; Ethiopia; Sidama; action research; mothers; daughters; abduction; harmful traditional practice; adaptive behavior change; adolescents; adolescent development; international development

Salifu, ShaniDetecting Satisficing in Online Surveys
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2012, Curriculum and Instruction Instructional Technology (Education)
The proliferation of computers and high speed internet services are making online activities an integral part of peoples' lives as connect with friends, shop, and exchange data. The increasing ability of the internet to handle sophisticated data exchanges is endearing it to researchers interested in gathering all kinds of data. This method has the advantages of speed; cost effectiveness; and error free data entry among others. Despite these, internet data collection is still being explored by researcher for its potential; the behavior of its patrons; the quality of its data; and ways to motivate respondents to start, and complete surveys. To advance understanding of the research potential of the internet, this dissertation investigates the online behavior of undergraduate students of a Midwestern University for traces of satisficing. The dissertation implements a number of interventions to motivate participants into providing thoughtful responses. The interventions include the use of hyperlinks to assist respondents to optimize their responses by making sense of technical or nebulous statements. Others include clarifying instructions on survey expectations to lessen the burden of comprehension among participants. The findings showed that online research participants satisfice irrespective of age, gender, major, or year of study. Most respondents who failed to consult hyperlinks where they were provided were found to have satisficed their responses to the remaining questions as well. After respondents were given opportunities to self-express their motivation and efforts coming into the survey, response patterns for those who graded themselves higher or lower respectively on those variables were not significantly different.

Committee:

Moore David, PhD (Advisor); Teresa Franklin, PhD (Committee Member); George Johanson, PhD (Committee Member); Gregory Kessler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Educational Technology

Keywords:

online surveys; satisficing; optimizing; hyperlinked questions; repeated questions; data quality

Hwang, JiyoungRewarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Through CSR Communication: Exploring Spillover Effects in Retailer Private Brands and Loyalty Programs
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Human Ecology: Fashion and Retail Studies

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is no longer an entirely voluntary option for retailers. Instead, retailers have been under increasing pressure from various stakeholders and extraneous parties (e.g., the government) to embrace it. The biggest challenge facing retailers today is not whether or not to implement CSR practices, but how.

Acknowledging research gaps and practical significance, this dissertation highlights how retailers can reap the benefits from their commitment to CSR within a spillover effect context. It proposes a conceptual framework based upon the Stimulus-Organism-Response framework (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974) and the Expectancy-Value theory (Fishbein & Ajzen 1975) to systematically demonstrate an underlying mechanism of spillover effects and an asymmetrical negativity bias created by CSR communication messages. Specifically, two essays examine: 1) whether or not (and to what extent) CSR communication messages influence consumers’ perceptions about a retailer, 2) whether or not the perceptions about the retailer are spilled over onto the evaluation of the retailers’ private brands (CSR-PBs, essay one) and loyalty programs (CSR-LPs, essay two) that convey the retailer’s CSR orientation, 3) whether or not the spillover effects differ depending on the valence of CSR communication messages, and finally 4) whether or not a consumer characteristic, ethical consumerism, creates differential effects on cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to the retailers’ CSR-PBs and CSR-LPs.

To test the proposed model within CSR-PB and CSR-LP contexts, two web-based experiments were performed with university employees (essay one) and with general US consumers (essay two). The results supported that positive and negative information about a retailer’s CSR influenced consumers’ beliefs/attitudes toward the retailer, but the strength of the impact was greater among consumers who learned of the negative information. Next, the results showed that beliefs and attitudes at the retailer level were spilled over onto and influenced evaluations of the retailer’s products (CSR-PBs) and services (CSR-LPs). More importantly, an asymmetrical negativity bias was discovered in the patterns of spillover effects. Finally, a consumer trait, ethical consumerism, was found to create differential effects in consumers’ interpretations of CSR communication messages. This dissertation contributes to the existing literature on corporate social responsibility, private brands, loyalty programs, and marketing communication. The proposed conceptual framework incorporates spillover effects and negativity effects and enriches our understanding of consumers’ responses to CSR communication messages. Also, by integrating the role of a consumer trait, this research offers more accurate insights into how individual differences affect consumers’ responses to communication messages and their evaluations of retailers’ CSR-PBs/CSR-LPs, extending the scope of consumer behavior research associated with retailer brand extension. Finally, this dissertation has managerial implications, specifically providing retailers with insight into how to embrace CSR effectively and reap the benefits from a commitment to CSR.

Committee:

Leslie Stoel, PhD (Committee Chair); Jae-Eun Chung, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Jay Kandampully, PhD (Committee Member); Patricia West, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Communication; Marketing; Psychology; Sustainability

Keywords:

corporate social responsibility; spillover effects; private brand; loyalty program; ethical consumerism; negativity effect; CSR communication; organic product; Expectancy-value theory; Stimulus-Organism-Response theory

Ivy, JonathanManipulating Motivating Operations Within and Across Classes of Reinforcers: Are There Differential Effects?
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the evocative- and abative-effects of a functionally defined motivating operation (MO) on the frequency of a target behavior maintained by primary, conditioned, and token reinforcers. Furthermore, this investigation sought to determine if the classes of reinforcers were differentially influenced by MOs. A comprehensive literature review and an empirical study were conducted to address the aforementioned research questions.

An electronic search of the literature on MOs yielded 25 articles that met all of the inclusionary criteria. Articles were evaluated using an 11-item matrix. The effects of MOs were examined within and across the reinforcer classes. Serious procedural limitations were found in a majority of the articles. About one-third of the MO manipulations for primary and conditioned reinforcers produced positive results. The total number of MO manipulations for token reinforcers were too few to meaningfully compare the relative effectiveness. The results of the literature review were inconclusive with respect to documenting differential effects of an MO. The implications of these findings as well as guidelines for future research are discussed.

The interaction effects between MO and reinforcer class were evaluated using a superordinate multielement design with an initial baseline. Two teens with developmental disabilities and one typically developing young child participated in this study. Reinforcers were delivered according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. The results suggest that the effectiveness of each reinforcer class was influenced by changes in motivation. Furthermore, differential effects were evident for two of the three participants. These results are discussed as they relate to the advancement of MO theory, implications for practice, and directions for future research.

Committee:

Nancy Neef, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ralph Gardner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Malone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Kaspar, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Education; Special Education

Keywords:

Reinforcer Class; Motivating Operations; Reinforcer Effectiveness

Kelly, Gerard ThomasWho Volunteers and Why: Demographic and Motivational Analysis of Volunteers in Ohio's Mahoning Valley
Master of Health and Human Services, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Health Professions
Ohio's Mahoning Valley has been experiencing economic and population decline since the 1960's. Local and state governments have reduced services to this region which includes the cities of Youngstown and Warren. Local non-profit organizations are urgently needed to provide for those who lack primary and secondary necessities. Many roles in these agencies are filled by volunteers. There are many theories as to why people volunteer This study specifically investigated the volunteer's perceived level of local government and private sector spending and queried, through a survey instrument, as to whether the volunteer's prime motivators were altruism, egoism or investment. The volunteers were asked to indicate socioeconomic and demographic data as well as volunteering influences. There is no support for the inverse relationship between altruism and investment as motivators when the perceived level of government and private sector spending is determined. Altruism and egoism, as motivators, were found to be constant regardless of the perceived level of government or private sector spending. Demographic results are similar to other studies that show that the majority of volunteers were women (80%), White (93%), college educated (80%), financially secure (82%) and older than 50 years (63%). Asking someone to volunteer is a simple but effective tool. Determining altruistic, egoistic and investment motivations of potential volunteers and comparing these to their demographic cohorts are important steps when considering volunteer candidates Realizing that volunteers do not want to perform the same role for extended periods organizations must vary the role of the volunteer to enhance their success and longevity.

Committee:

Salvatore A. Sanders, PhD (Advisor); Ronald K. Chordas, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph P. Lyons, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Demographics; Psychology; Regional Studies; Social Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

volunteer; motivation; altruism; egoism; investment; Mahoning Valley; non-profit

Schneider, Randi LynnPersisiting Sensitization of Depressive-Like Behavior and Thermogenic Response During Maternal Separation in Pre- and Post Weaning Guinea Pigs
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2011, Anatomy
Early attachment disruption is thought to promote later onset of depressive illness through a process involving sensitization. Maternal separation in guinea pig pups (~21 days of age) produces depressive-like behavior and core body temperature fluctuations that appear to be mediated by proinflammatory activity. These responses are enhanced during repeated separations over several days. Here, enhanced depressive-like behavior and core body temperature responses were observed from the early pre-weaning to the periadolescent period (~10-40 days of age) and persisted for more than a week. The greatest temperature response was observed during the final separation. These results demonstrate persisting sensitization of behavioral and thermogenic responses to maternal separation over the age range in which these responses are known to occur. Further, the findings are consistent with the hypothesis that proinflammatory activity contributes to the sensitization response and suggest that the impact of early attachment disruption on susceptibility to depression involves proinflammatory processes.

Committee:

Michael Hennessy, PhD (Advisor); Timothy Cope, PhD (Other); Patricia Schiml, PhD (Committee Member); John Pearson, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Hsu, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychobiology

Keywords:

depression; core body temperature; thermogenic response; maternal separation; guinea pigs

Quinn, Joann FarrellThe Impact Of Social Competencies And Role Factors On The Relational Construction Of Identity And Participation Of Physician Leaders
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, Management
Physicians as many other professionals are often promoted into leadership roles based upon their clinical or professional performance. Yet, many do not have the skills or the inclination to lead. In a response to increase the effective influence of professional physician leaders in healthcare organizations, several studies have sought to identify factors that predict effective leadership. However, no exploration has been conducted to understand how physician leaders construe or identify with their leadership roles. In this thesis, I develop a theoretical model that offers an understanding of how a physician leader constructs a leadership identity involving a higher level of participation within their leadership role. The dissertation employs a sequential mixed methods approach to explore the nature and antecedents of effective physician leadership. The initial inquiry employs a grounded theory approach to understand how physician leaders come to construe themselves as effective leaders. The results of the initial inquiry offer evidence that differences in physician leaders’ effectiveness is partly explained by the social construction of their secondary professional identity. This happens through a process of individual, relational and organizational endorsement of their leadership role. To garner further insight and clarification of this role identity and endorsement I hypothesize a research model, which posits that professional participation in leadership roles is mediated by aspects of positive psychological climate. A follow up study seeks further clarification for this effect by examining the extent to which a positive psychological climate and role endorsement mediate the relationship between social competencies and physician leaders’ professional participation in leadership. In sum, these three studies offer new insights into how physicians and other professionals understand effective leadership and the factors that lead to commit themselves as an effective leader. These results expand theories of secondary leadership and also have several implications how organizations can support such leadership.

Committee:

Richard Boyatzis (Committee Chair); Melvin Smith (Committee Member); David Aron (Committee Member); Somers Toni (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Business Administration; Health Care Management; Management; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

physician leadership; competencies; identity; psychological climate

Patrick, Timothy B.THE EFFICACY OF HIPPOCAMPAL STIMULATION IN PREVENTING DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2011, College of Sciences and Health Professions
The hippocampus provides negative feedback for the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is responsible for producing a response to stressful stimuli. The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), because of its large number of GC receptors. In times of severe stress, hippocampal function is inhibited and its control over the HPA axis is diminished, leading to hyperactivity of the adrenal glands as well as hypercortisolism, typical of depression. Long-term stress and depression can eventually lead to chronic impairments in cognitive ability, as well as structural damage in the hippocampus. Exercise and environmental enrichment stimulate significant growth and activity in the hippocampus, and have been used successfully as antidepressant treatments in previous studies. However, these previous studies failed to demonstrate whether such treatments are capable of preventing the cognitive symptoms of depression during times of persistent chronic prolonged stress. Previous research has also evaded the possibility of a potential additive effect when both treatments are used in combination. The current study aims to extend previous research in this area by examining both the possibility of a preventative efficacy of hippocampal stimulation during periods of stress, as well the possibility of an additive effect associated with the use of both treatments. Rodents went through a 10-week period of CMS along with concurrent exposure to environmental enrichment, environmental enrichment and exercise, or neither. Sucrose consumption was used as a measure of anhedonia at the 8-week point. At the completion of the 10 week CMS period, spatial memory was measured using the Morris Water Maze and a Novel Object Placement Task. The overall level of spatial memory impairment was determined based on the group means collected during these tests. Overall, results from the current study provide evidence supporting the preventative efficacy of hippocampal stimulation during periods of stress. While environmental enrichment appeared to be insufficient in preventing the cognitive impairments associated with higher levels of stress, an additive effect of both exercise and enrichment was observed. While it remains unclear whether exercise alone is capable of providing the level of protection observed in this study, the results reveal that exercise is a requisite for the maintenance of hippocampal function in the presence of consistent stress.

Committee:

Mike Hammonds, PhD (Committee Chair); Conor McLennan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Ernest Park, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology

Keywords:

hippocampus; depression; exercise; neurogenesis; environmental enrichment,

Hall, Tracy D.Internet-based Family Therapy from the Perspective of the Therapist: A Qualitative Inquiry
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counselor Education and Supervision-Marriage and Family Therapy
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to learn more about the process of Internet-based Family Therapy and to discover the advantages and disadvantages of using Internet-based Family Therapy as part of a practice. The overarching question asked, “How do therapists experience the phenomenon of Internet-based Family Therapy?” The sub-questions were: (1) How is Internet-based Family Therapy defined by therapists claiming to do it? (2) What are the presenting issues for Internet-based Family Therapy going forward? Heuristic Inquiry was used for data collection and analysis. Five participants were interviewed using online text-chat. Each participant had experience doing Internet-based Family Therapy and appropriate credentials. The core themes discovered were as follows: (1) The sites may be deemed not truly therapeutic. (2) The use of video is highly recommended in Internet-based Family Therapy. (3) More severe clients are contraindicated for Internet-based Family Therapy. (4) Face-to-face Family Therapy is better than Internet-based Family Therapy, however Internet-based Family Therapy is better than nothing. (5) The use of theory in Internet-based Family Therapy is much the same as in face-to-face Family Therapy. (6) The main concerns with Internet-based Family Therapy are confidentiality, crossing state lines & harm to self. A final interview dealt with Ethical dilemmas in Internet-based Family Therapy, Internet-based Family Therapy standards, limitations of Internet-based Family Therapy and handling harm to self or others when doing Internet-based Family Therapy. The findings are discussed, as well as considerations for therapists and directions for future research are suggested.

Committee:

Karin Jordan, Dr. (Advisor); Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Reynolds, Dr. (Committee Member); Linda Perosa, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca Boyle, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Technology; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Psychology; Social Research; Technology; Therapy

Keywords:

Internet; Internet-based; online; on-line; family therapy; therapy; counseling; psychology; internet therapy; internet counseling; online therapy; online counseling; online family counseling; internet family counseling; distance therapy; video therapy

Smith, Denise P. A.The Basal Ganglia and Sequential Learning
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
In prior research, MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, disrupted serial pattern learning in rats. The serial pattern was a highly structured sequence of 24 response elements arranged in eight 3-element chunks performed in a circular array. The array was an octagonal chamber equipped with water emitting nose poke receptacles on each side of the octagon, each designated by an unchanging number, 1 through 8, which indicated their location in the chamber. These numbers were the elements of the sequential patterns. Each element of a chunk was identified by its location in the chunk. The first element of the chunk was designated the chunk boundary element. The second and third elements were called within-chunk elements. The final element of the final chunk of a sequence violated the overall pattern structure and was therefore called the violation element. Thirsty rats were required to respond at the correct nose poke receptacle for the sequence pattern to receive water reward. The pattern elements were learned differentially. Analysis of task acquisition was based on error rates at the different chunk elements. MK-801 rats learned within-chunk elements as fast as controls, but showed permanent inability to learn the violation element response and, to a lesser degree, chunk boundary responses. In the present study, 12 rats received medial caudate putamen, Quinolinic acid, excitotoxic lesions later confirmed by histological analysis. Rats were then trained on the same pattern as in previous studies for 56 days. Results demonstrated that medial caudoputamen lesions in rats caused a significant deficit in performance of the sequential learning task. Examination of group mean results for the 56 day experiment revealed a significant difference in error for the within-chunk elements between the lesioned rats and controls. Chunk boundary and violation elements showed no significant deficits. Intrusion analysis for types of errors committed at the different chunk elements demonstrated differential results with proportion of error types demonstrating differences approaching significance at the within-chunk element and significant differences at the chunk-boundary element which demonstrates a possible difference of strategy in performing the sequential learning task between the MCPu rats and controls. MCPu lesioned rats did not demonstrate the same results as MK-801 treated rats in the octagonal chamber sequential learning task. However the MCPu rats did demonstrate a significant deficit in learning the task. Sequential learning appears to involve MCPu in addition to other subcortical structures.

Committee:

Stephen Fountain, PhD (Committee Chair); Nancy Docherty, PhD (Committee Member); David Riccio, PhD (Committee Member); Sean Veney, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Marcinkiewicz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology; Animal Sciences; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Cognitive Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Physiological Psychology; Psychobiology; Psychology

Keywords:

MCPu; Basal Ganglia; Sequential Learning; ACH; Excitotoxic Lesions

Boles, Shawna Elizabeth WalkerA Training Curriculum for Assessing and Treating Sex Offenders with Mental Illnesses
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2011, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
The purpose of this paper was to develop a continuing education program to teach sex offender-specific treatment providers (SOSTP) in the community how to appropriately assess, treat and manage adults with severe mental illness who are also sex offenders (SMISOs) in an outpatient setting. This paper begins with an overview of the most relevant literature associated with the treatment of sex offenders and a presentation of some of the current programs developed to treat sex offenders with severe and persistent mental illnesses. This review also outlines the paucity of resources and the need for SOSTPs to receive expanded training to better serve the specialized and challenging needs of the SMISO population. Next, methods are used to develop a 7-hour continuing education training curriculum for SOSTPs aimed at increasing assessment and treatment skills of those working with adult men with severe and persistent mental illnesses who have also been convicted of sexual offenses. The results section provides a written overview of the final curriculum, the details of which are attached in the appendix. Lastly, a discussion follows to explore the limitations and potential uses of this project and the developed training.

Committee:

Kathi Borden, PhD (Committee Chair); Frank Sacco, PhD (Committee Member); Kathy McMahon, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Clinical Psychology; Curriculum Development; Mental Health

Keywords:

Sex offender; Sex offender-specific treatment providers; Curriculum Development; Severe and Persistent Mental Illness

Carlisle, Sunny AFathers and Breastfeeding: The Role of Paternal Breastfeeding Support Self-Efficacy in Breastfeeding Initiation
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2013, Family and Consumer Sciences-Child and Family Development
The role of fathers in breastfeeding support is an important, yet under-studied, area of research. In this study, the role of fathers’ breastfeeding support self-efficacy is examined. One hundred, seventy-four fathers of infants thirty-six months or younger completed an online questionnaire that assessed their breastfeeding support self-efficacy. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between fathers’ breastfeeding support self-efficacy and mothers’ breastfeeding initiation. The results suggest that there is connection between father support and the decision to breastfeed. More research on the topic needs to be conducted to better understand the dimensions of breastfeeding support.

Committee:

Pamela Schulze, Dr. (Advisor); David Witt, Dr. (Committee Member); Susan Witt, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology

Keywords:

breastfeeding; fathers; support; self-efficacy; infant feeding

Lee, Jung EunThe Effect of Tensile Price Claim and Price Discount Disconfirmation on Online Customers’ Perceptions and Purchase Intentions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Human Ecology: Family and Consumer Sciences Education
Research on price promotions suggests that higher discounts often result in more favorable evaluation. Yet price signals more information than just monetary cost, and dramatic price changes impact consumer perceptions of the product and retailer. In particular, due to uncertainties about products for sale online, online customers may be more skeptical about price discounts that are much higher than their expectations. The primary objective of this dissertation was to develop a model of online price discount, which influences customers’ perceptions. Based on the P-Q-V model and assimilation-contrast theory, this study proposed that price discount relative to customers’ expectations (i.e., price discount disconfirmation) would have an influence on consumer perceptions online. Furthermore, building upon anchoring and adjustment theory, this study proposed that tensile price claim would have an effect on customers’ expectations and perceptions towards the price discount online. The proposed model was tested in two studies simulating an online shopping context. Study 1 investigated the effect of price discount disconfirmation (i.e., PDD) on customers’ perceptions (i.e., perceived quality, perceived savings and perceived sacrifice risk) and the effect of perceptions on perceived value. The results showed that PDD had positive influences on perceived savings linearly and perceived sacrifice risk exponentially, while PDD had a negative effect on perceived quality exponentially. In addition, the findings showed that the relationship between PDD and perceived value was mediated by perceived savings linearly, and by the perceived quality and perceived sacrifice risk exponentially. Study 2 examined the effect of tensile price claim (i.e., TPC) on expected price discount (EPD), PDD, perceived savings and purchase intentions. The results showed that the EPD was higher, and PDD and perceived savings were lower for the TPC stating a higher maximum savings than a TPC stating a lower maximum savings. However, the influence of TPC on the purchase intentions was not statistically significant. This study will contribute to the literature on P-Q-V model, assimilation-contrast theory, and anchoring and adjustment theory by providing empirical evidence of theoretical explanations within the context of online shopping. This study will provide a better understanding of customers’ behavior towards the extremely high price discount and exaggerated price promotion, with implications for marketers or advertisers to increase sales revenues.

Committee:

Leslie Stoel (Advisor); Kathryn Stafford (Committee Member); Jay Kandampully (Committee Member); Robert Scharff (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Marketing

Keywords:

Disconfirmation; Tensile Price Claim; Price Discount; Consumer

xu, kunWeibo Addiction in China: An Examination of the Relationships among Expected Outcomes, Weibo Usage, Deficient Self-regulation, and Weibo Addiction
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
Weibo is a type of social network service in China. This study focuses on Weibo addiction in China and investigates the relationships among expected outcomes of Weibo use, deficient self-regulation, Weibo usage and Weibo addiction. Social cognitive theory was applied as the guiding theoretical framework in the current study. Participants from a public university in China were asked to fill out the measures. Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to answer the research questions. The results suggest that participants have expected self-reactive outcome, expected status outcome, and expected novelty outcome in Weibo use. Expected self-reactive outcome positively predicted deficient self-regulation and all the dimensions of Weibo addiction. Weibo usage also positively predicted deficient self-regulation and all the dimensions of Weibo addiction. Other research findings and future research directions were discussed in this study.

Committee:

Paul Haridakis, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Mei-Chen Lin, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Janet Meyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Communication; Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

social network service; Weibo; addiction; deficient self-regulation; expected outcomes

Janssen, Alisha LPhysical Activity and Working Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: An Investigation of Neuropsychological and NeuroImaging Associations
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system known to impact working memory (WM) processing with functional ramifications for broader cognitive performance. Physical activity (PA) is associated with improved WM in similarly impaired populations, but a link between PA and WM processing is not yet defined in MS. In the current study, we aimed to define the relationship between behavioral and neural indices of WM and PA in MS, with emphasis on modularity as a mediator in the WM - PA relationship. In service of these aims, we recruited 44 individuals with relapsing-remitting MS. WM was assessed inside and outside the scanner using PASAT and visual PASAT analog along with resting-state fMRI. PA was assessed via accelerometer over 7 days. The resulting PASAT - PA relationship was not directly significant, but indirectly mediated by mental manipulation for individuals with lower disease severity. PA was further associated with left hemispheric activation in WM regions indicative of less disease progression. Right middle frontal gyrus activation was associated with poorer WM performance. Modularity was both positively related to PA and negatively related to disease severity, but not a significant mediator in either relationship. In conclusion, correlational results support an indirect relationship between WM and PA. Future directions would examine integration and resilience as potential biomarkers of the WM – PA relationship in addition to examining the causal impact of increased PA on WM and broader cognition for individuals with MS.

Committee:

Ruchika Prakash (Advisor); Charles Emery (Committee Member); Rick Petosa (Committee Member); Michael Cole (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Biomedical Research; Clinical Psychology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

Multiple sclerosis, working memory, physical activity, neuroimaging, graph theory, PASAT, PVSAT, cognitive rehabilitation,

Xu, PingExamining the Description-Experienced Gap in Time Discounting and its Possible Mechanisms
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Experimental Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
In risky choice literature, decisions differ if based on described versus experienced risk information. This phenomenon is called the description-experienced gap (the DE gap). The DE gap is considered to be related to distinctive cognitive processes which are triggered by different presentation formats of the task. The DE gap has not been explored in the inter-temporal choice domain. Typical time discounting studies ask participants to choose between a large, long-delayed reward and a smaller, short-delayed (or immediate) reward presenting all of the relevant information in symbolic, descriptive forms. In these traditional tasks, delays are usually imagined rather than experienced by participants. In the present study, a new experienced paradigm is constructed and together with a description task, is used to explore possible DE gaps in time discounting. Two studies explore DE gaps in inter-temporal choice using a hyperbolic discounting model which separates order effect, time perception, and delay processes. Study 1 focuses on understanding the magnitude effect (i.e., higher discounting with small values) and DE gaps between the tasks due to different processes as reflected by key model parameters. Using the same strategy, Study 2 focuses on the sign-effect (i.e., different discounting for gains and losses). Results showed that people discounted more in the experienced tasks than in the description tasks. Analysis of estimated parameters revealed that people perceived the same length of time as longer in the experienced tasks than in the description tasks. In addition, participants in the experienced task were more easily influenced by the presentation order, that is, people were less likely to wait in later trials compared to earlier trials. Interestingly, both studies found that the parameter k which represented people’s ability of self-control was lower in the experienced tasks than in the description tasks, meaning that participants exerted stronger self-control in the experienced tasks than in the description tasks. Magnitude effect was neither observed in the experienced tasks nor the description tasks. However, participants perceived the same length of time as longer in the larger magnitude conditions than those in the smaller magnitude conditions. Sign effect was observed in both experienced tasks and description tasks. Yet, the causes of sign effect were not clear and seems differ between the two paradigms. In addition, Correlation analysis revealed that parameter k (after factoring out order effect and time perception) was positively correlated with preference reversals, meaning that k was a valid measure of self-control. Other meaningful correlations were also observed from the behavioral tasks. However, self-reported impulsivity was not correlated with any variable derived from the behavioral time discounting tasks. Implications of these results to time discounting literature, time perception literature were discussed.

Committee:

Claudia Gonzalez-Vallejo (Advisor); Jeff Vancouver (Committee Member); Bruce Carlson (Committee Member); Keithe Markman (Committee Member); Glenn Dutcher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

DE gap; Time discounting; Experience time discounting; Magnitude effect; sign effect; Time perception

Next Page