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Whalen, Kevin ChristopherA map system to disseminate national science on forests for the creation of regional tree planting prioritization plans
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
In the United States, urban forestry efforts are sustained through efforts from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, and government agencies across local, state, and national levels. The i-Tree Tools suite of software promotes the use of, peer-reviewed science to explain the benefits that trees provide in a method intended for the general public. This thesis shares the computer-specific knowledge collected during the design, implementation, and continued expansion of i-Tree Landscape. The i-Tree Landscape application is a web-browser based, online, geographic information system, referred to as a web-GIS app. The "pages" of the web-app are part of a system of software libraries and services, along with dedicated hardware, which were specifically researched, compared, selected, and optimally configured for their roles in supporting the system as a whole. This work will also briefly touch upon the open source libraries and services running in the Landscape system, as well as, some of the decisions they influenced with acquiring hardware to support its deployment. Delivering the data and formulas associated with the benefits of trees for the entire geographic area of the United States becomes difficult over the internet, especially when it must be achieved via a non-expert interface. To manage this, the flow of the application is separated into five, non-sequential steps, prefixed with a landing page, and postfixed with a publishable report. This partitioning helps with code responsibility separation, as well. In addition to producing a tailorable report for describing the benefits of trees, the primary purpose of the application is to help prioritize tree planting efforts. This is well needed by foresters to help allocate for popular practice of mass tree plantings. The planning is done via a customizable model utilizing nearly all of the possible attributes as weighting options. The regional aggregations for this are available to users through nine boundary layers, most notably including counties, block groups, and watersheds. The research supporting the data on trees is from working directly with the authors of peer-reviewed research from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service laboring at the Northern Research Station at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. i-Tree Landscape has succeeded in becoming a science dissemination facility, by the use of information visualization, with the purpose of making decisions that promote urban forestry stewardship through modern web-GIS, and data processing techniques.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu, PhD (Advisor); Austin Melton, PhD (Committee Member); Gokarna Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

budget national map processing; geographic information system; GIS; national land cover; forestry; tree planting prioritization; GDAL; GEOS; GeoServer; PostGIS; JTS; Open Geospatial Consortium; OGC; Open Source Geospatial Foundation; OSGeo;

Airgood-Obrycki, WhitneyNeighborhood Change and Reinvestment in Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, City and Regional Planning
Suburban neighborhoods in the United States are diverse and continually evolving. While some suburbs are exhibiting symptoms of decline, others have experienced substantial reinvestment activity. Urban theories suggest there is a relationship between decline and reinvestment, but suburban scholarship has generally considered these processes separately. This dissertation examines the relationship between decline and reinvestment in urban and suburban neighborhoods, assessing the applicability of urban theories and the potentially unique context of suburban space. The research consisted of three studies in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Each study included urban and suburban neighborhoods to allow for comparison between the two types. The first study explored the geography of neighborhood change throughout the county from 1970 to 2010. I used principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis to identify changes in relative neighborhood status in each decade and categorize neighborhood trajectories. The second study examined how patterns of neighborhood change from 1970 to 2000 impacted a subsequent period of reinvestment from 2000 to 2010. For this study, I used permit data from city and older suburban neighborhoods to describe the types and locations of reinvestment activities that occurred during the study period. To test the relationship between neighborhood trajectories and the percentage of a neighborhood that receives reinvestment, I conducted an analysis of variance. The final study considered reinvestment at the parcel scale. I used logistic regression models to identify the housing stock, neighborhood, school district, and jurisdictional attributes that increase the likelihood of reinvestment. The studies yielded several findings. Postwar suburban neighborhoods experienced the greatest frequency of decline during the study period. However, suburban neighborhoods maintained a relative advantage over urban neighborhoods in every decade. Reinvestment across both urban and suburban neighborhood types typically consisted of maintenance activities. Roof repairs, window replacement, and mechanical upgrading were the most common activities. Reinvestment was concentrated in the urban downtown core, in postwar suburban neighborhoods to the south of Cleveland, and in prewar neighborhoods east of the city. In the city, there was not a significantly different amount of reinvestment between neighborhood trajectory types. Declining suburban neighborhoods have received less reinvestment on average than stable or improving suburban neighborhoods. The logistic regression models showed that prewar frame houses had the greatest likelihood of reinvestment. Neighborhood reinvestment activity was also a significant variable in predicting whether a parcel would receive reinvestment. The neighborhood change indicators varied between houses in the city and suburbs, but changes in demographics were significant in both places. The findings have several implications for planning practice and for the building of urban and suburban theory. The geographies of decline and reinvestment suggest that regional planning initiatives are crucial for addressing neighborhood spillovers across jurisdictions. Planners should consider the impact of private, incremental housing reinvestment on neighborhood character, affordability, and inclusion. Planning incentives may be best targeted to declining neighborhoods. The findings suggest a need for theory that connects the urban and suburban, simultaneously recognizing the commonality of processes and differences in attributes of both spaces.

Committee:

Bernadette Hanlon (Advisor); Rachel Kleit (Committee Member); Jason Reece (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Cuyahoga County Ohio; Neighborhood Change; Reinvestment; urban planning

Cummins, Adam RLocal Solid Waste Management Planning in Ohio: A Case Study of Adams-Clermont Solid Waste District
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2017, Environmental Sciences
This report provides historical context on how solid waste management has evolved in the United States, particularly in Ohio, and identifies the key federal and state legislation adopted to address solid waste management challenges experienced in the mid and late 1900s. Furthermore, it describes the regulatory framework for the solid waste management planning process both at the state and local levels in Ohio. Finally, it summarizes my role as an intern, describes the challenges I experienced while preparing the Adams-Clermont Solid Waste Management Plan, identifies opportunities to those challenges through legislative and policy recommendations, and describes several non-legislative solutions I subsequently implemented as a solid waste planner at the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency.

Committee:

Suzanne Zazycki (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Law; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Urban Planning

Keywords:

solid waste, solid waste management, solid waste management planning, Ohio solid waste management, solid waste management district

De Wet, Andres MGToronto: Linking the Lake - Solutions for an Urban Infrastructural Disconnect
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
Limited-access road and rail infrastructure in inner-cities connects the whole at the expense of the affected parts. The 1950’s and 60’s ushered in an era of urban renewal and freeway building that saw cities connected to far-flung suburbs, compromising their neighborhoods, residents and urban livability. Railway construction predated this and, as public-transit, has not attracted the planners’ ire to the same intensity as have freeways; however, it remains a grey ribbon of localized disconnect in inner-cities. Only recently has rail been seen as retrofitable to the local urban need. Toronto has triple wicked urban problems: wide swathes of rail, an elevated urban freeway, and unsightly and choked at-grade arterials. All this, in the heart of a burgeoning city. A city that allows for design dreams, in an environment of perpetual fiscal prudence. A city whose primary urban activity zones straddle this arterial road and rail drosscape. A city seeking spatial unity and a reconnection to its gleaming and burgeoning lakefront.

Committee:

Conrad Kickert, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Leah Hollstein, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Toronto;rail capping;ageing infrastructure;urban design;urban freeway;economic development

LEE, SO YOUNGUnderstanding of Relationship between HOPE VI and Gentrification
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, City and Regional Planning
This dissertation is composed of three essays written with the aim of understanding the relationship between HOPE VI (Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) and gentrification. In the first essay, I develop a standardized method, Spatial Gentrification Index (SGI), to measure the degree of gentrification across the 250 top-populated Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for the periods of 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. In order to improve measurement, I use the factor analysis to address the intercorrelations among the key possible determinants of gentrification. The results show that racial turnover is an aspect of the gentrification process, and affluent groups—particularly the White population—receive the most benefits from gentrification. Also, gentrifiers are characterized by white members of a young professional who has different attitudes and behaviors from ordinary middle-class residents. In particular, “gentrifiers,” who are pioneers in revitalizing abandoned neighborhoods, appear to lead gentrification from 1990-2000. During 2000-2010, the ability of original residents and in-movers to afford housing costs in neighborhoods becomes significant, and more redevelopment of existing, blighted neighborhoods occurs with the influx of private or public capital. In the second essay, I examine the relationship between HOPE VI and gentrification among 97 MSAs. Using multiple regression, this study investigates how the implementation of HOPE VI influences on the degree of gentrification in terms of change in SGI. The results indicate that HOPE VI itself generally has the impact of reducing gentrification, although the impact of previous gentrification is larger than in places without HOPE VI. The implementation of HOPE VI facilitates more poor and minority households to live in neighborhoods than areas with no experience with HOPE VI. These findings suggest that future redevelopment programs should build sustainable communities for all income levels (mixed-income community) through the comprehensive approach to mitigate gentrification and to protect low-income households. Also, the importance of the provision of affordable housing should be addressed in future redevelopment programs. In the third essay, I explore how the effect of HOPE VI on gentrification varies across MSAs. As HOPE VI only provides the seed capital and outlines the requirements necessary to approach the problems of severely distressed public housing sites, various degrees of gentrification are observed depending on the way HOPE VI was implemented by individual PHAs in that MSAs. This result indicates that the impact of HOPE VI varies across MSAs. In the San Francisco MSA, HOPE VI has the impact of increasing gentrification, while HOPE VI in the New Orleans, New York, Pittsburgh, Seattle and Washington D.C. MSAs decreases gentrification. Further, HOPE VI has no impact on gentrification in the Atlanta, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Memphis, and Philadelphia MSAs. Thus, policy makers and city officials should understand which factors make the neighborhoods become socially mixed and mitigate a negative impact of gentrification on the low-income households. Also, further research is necessary to understand the local variations that cause on-the-ground differences.

Committee:

Rachel Kleit (Advisor); Bernadette Hanlon (Committee Member); Kareem Usher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Gentrification, Spatial Gentrification Index, SGI, Factor analysis, HOPE VI, Multiple regression, MSAs

Elmer, Julia RaquelReinventing the Rust Belt: Welcoming Economies, Immigrant Entrepreneurship, and Urban Resilience
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, City and Regional Planning
In the aftermath of the Great Recession, welcoming initiatives aimed specifically at attracting first generation immigrant entrepreneurs for their economic benefits are launching in shrinking cities of the Rust Belt in the Midwestern United States. However, with their narrow focus on economic benefits, these initiatives may be overlooking the spatial or community development impacts of immigrant entrepreneurship which have a strong effect on the reinvention and indeed resilience that cities are seeking to achieve by attracting immigrant entrepreneurs. The main objective of this research is to examine first generation immigrant entrepreneurship within the context of immigrant welcoming policies and plans. The five initiatives under investigation - Agenda 360 (Cincinnati), Welcome Dayton, Global Detroit, Immigrant Welcome Center of Indianapolis, and St. Louis Mosaic Project - are the longest standing consistent members of the Welcoming Economies Global Network and its predecessor organization known as the Global Great Lakes Initiative. These initiatives have the most established programming and longest track records of all member initiatives. This dissertation begins with a review of the academic literature related to the non-spatial and spatial impacts of immigrant entrepreneurship. It then presents Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analyses of each of the initiatives, a social justice framework analysis of the Welcome Dayton Plan, and an examination of eight existing indices of urban resilience. Findings include common strengths and opportunities such as peer-to-peer programs, ethnic chambers of commerce, and existing immigrant communities, as well as common weaknesses and threats such as small staff sizes, limited sources of funding, and a lack of evaluation metrics. The success of welcoming initiatives will be mitigated by external threats such as federal immigration policy, negative sentiment toward immigrants, and competing welcoming initiatives in nearby cities. Furthermore, the three tenets of social justice - equity, inclusion, and empowerment - can impact the degree of immigrant entrepreneurship and influence its spatial impacts on economic and community development. The Resilience Capacity Index (RCI) emerges as the most likely index for incorporating immigrant-related variables. The documented spatial impacts of immigrant entrepreneurship demonstrate a clear role for immigrant entrepreneurs as contributors to economic and community development processes that lead to greater urban resilience at the city and neighborhood levels. Nonetheless, some measures of urban resilience like metropolitan stability, voter participation, health insurance, and home ownership may produce skewed or inaccurate conclusions about cities or neighborhoods with large immigrant populations. This dissertation brings two bodies of research - immigrant integration and economic development - together within the context of urban planning as part of a broader discussion about the role of immigrant entrepreneurship in reinventing America's shrinking cities. The analyses presented herein advance the understanding of immigrant entrepreneurship within the context of the Welcoming Economies movement. Immigrants are important assets for the vitality and resilience of cities and neighborhoods, and this dissertation points toward the development of evaluative models that allow for greater understanding of the outcomes of immigrant welcoming initiatives. Future research also could include an examination of the relationship between welcoming initiatives and secondary migration within the United States.

Committee:

Bernadette Hanlon (Advisor); Jack Nasar (Committee Member); Kareem Usher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

immigration; entrepreneurship; welcoming; welcoming economies; Midwest; Rust Belt; urban planning; plan analysis; Cincinnati; Dayton; Detroit; Indianapolis; St Louis; SWOT; resilience; social justice; economic development; community development

Reece, Jason WilliamIn Pursuit of a Just Region: The Vision, Reality and Implications of the Sustainable Communities Initiative
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, City and Regional Planning
The planning field has a long history of intersecting with, contributing to and addressing issues of social, racial and geographic equity, from the late 19th century work of Jacob Riis and Jane Addams to contemporary movements such as progressive regionalism and environmental justice. Planning has had a conflicted history in engaging issues of equity and racial or social inclusion, with the profession at times being at the forefront of social justice issues, and at others acting as an accomplice in many of the most discriminatory urban policies in 20th century American history. While planning has often served the needs of marginalized groups, racial discrimination has been interwoven with various aspects of planning practice and policy throughout the 20th century. The model of sustainable development, which has become dominant in planning practice in the past two decades, presents a vision for balancing economic development, environmental protection and social equity, known as the three “e’s” of sustainable development. By the late 2000s the principles of sustainability have made their way into the thinking of many federal agencies. The Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Sustainable Communities’ Initiative (SCI), introduced by the Obama Administration, sought to take these principles and translate them to practice at a scale not previously attempted in the United States. HUD invested more than $200 million in seventy- four regions across the U.S. who received three- year regional sustainable development planning grants. The planning initiatives were intended to better coordinate housing and transportation while supporting more sustainable and equitable land use, infrastructure, and zoning decisions. SCI included a strong equity and fair housing mandate, introduced new equity planning and fair housing tools, and provided extensive support for equity planning in the program. My research examines the experience of forty- five regional planning grantees awarded SCI grants in 2010. This research is a formative program evaluation of the SCI. This research seeks to understand if the SCI’s effort to affirmatively further fair housing and support regional equity led to stronger equity outcomes in regional sustainability planning processes and plans. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach integrating plan evaluation and thematic analysis of documents, I find that equity planning efforts in the SCI fostered a stronger equity component to regional sustainability plans. For some regions, SCI was transformational in fostering new understandings and approaches to supporting equity planning, although the depth of the equity component of the planning process and plan recommendations varied substantially between grantees within the 2010 cohort of grantees. The SCI experience speaks to the potential benefits of stronger, more proactive federal support by HUD for equity planning. Despite this progress, serious concerns regarding the implementation of SCI linger. The communicative rational planning model of SCI has substantial shortcomings in implementing complex regional sustainability plans. I propose integration of the collective impact theory to address this shortcoming in existing theory and to foster more productive implementation of SCI plans.

Committee:

Jennifer Evans-Cowley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jill Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Rachel Kleit, PhD (Committee Member); Bernadette Hanlon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; Architecture; Area Planning and Development; Black Studies; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Studies; Ethnic Studies; Geography; Legal Studies; Native American Studies; Public Health; Public Policy; Sustainability; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

equity planning; advocacy planning; sustainable development; just city; fair housing; collective impact; HUD; sustainable communities initiative; regionalism; progressive planning; race; social justice; racial justice; communicative planning; engagement

Fontaine, Keysha AnnComparative Analysis of Ecological and Cultural Protection Schemes within a Transboundary Complex: The Crown of the Continent
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
Protected areas are critical elements in restoring historical wildlife migration routes, as well as, maintaining historical cultural practices and traditions. The designations created for protected areas represent a cultural and/or natural aspect of the land. However, designations for the protection of these resources fail to include measures to take into account the ecological processes needed to sustain them. Ecological processes are vital elements in sustaining cultural resources, because most cultural resources are the derivatives of the interactions with natural resources. In order to sustain natural resources, especially wildlife, the processes of fluctuating habitat change and migration are pivotal in maintaining genetic diversity to maintain healthy populations with the fittest surviving. The survival of the fittest species allow populations to have greater adaptability in the face of climate change. Currently in the Crown of the Continent (COC), several non-profit organizations are collaborating under an umbrella initiative, the Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative, to restore historical migration routes. The collaborators of this initiative performed ecological planning of the entire Yellowstone to Yukon region to identify impediments that may hinder wildlife movements. They also furthered their efforts by participating in public forums held by land management entities and local communities that may permit activities that can restrain movements. Because of the multitude of jurisdictions within the COC, land management practices drastically vary, reflecting polarized views between state/provincial and federal levels.

Committee:

Craig Vogel, M.I.D. (Committee Chair); Danilo Palazzo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

transboundary;ecological;cultural;protection schemes

Nikrahei, BardiaMODELING PLACE ATTACHMENT IN TWO NEIGHBORHOODS OF COLUMBUS, OHIO
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, City and Regional Planning
Researchers in social sciences have studied place attachment. Although, some researchers view place attachment as multidimensional, others view it as one dimensional. The simplest multidimensional models include two dimensions of place dependence and place identity. However, other studies have added other dimensions to this construct. Research has focused more on personal, social and demographic dimensions than on the physical attributes of the environment. Furthermore, studies which include physical attributes tend to examine the perceived features, possibly overlooking the impact of physical environment. Studies also overlook spatial patterns, particularly in urban settings. This dissertation has three objectives. It assesses the factoral construct of place attachment. It builds conceptual place attachment models which center on physical and social attributes. It studies the spatial distribution of place attachment and its underlying factors in the sample area. This dissertation gathers data through mail survey, Google map Street-View, and GIS spatial analysis. The surveys asks residents to rate their place attachment levels towards their respective neighborhood, their social attributes, and then to draw their neighborhood boundaries and special places on the paper maps. I collected 143 valid survey responses from two neighborhoods, Italian Village and University Area, in Columbus, Ohio. I used Google Street-View observations to assess the conditions of fixed physical attributes on the block edges facing the streets (excluding back alleys). I also used ArcGIS, as a complementary means, to measure various physical attributes. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a four-factoral structure of place attachment. The analysis used structural equation models to create the conceptual models of place attachment, and it finds statistically significant direct and indirect effects of physical and social attributes on place attachment. Finally, using spatial autocorrelation analysis, this study finds spatial clustering in place attachment and its underlying factors. Overall, the findings support the role of physical environment on place attachment. Findings can help planners and urban designers in creating desirable places for residents and visitors. Planners can use findings on place attachment to develop design guidelines and evoke higher level of attachment to guide future designs at place or area scale.

Committee:

Nasar Jack (Advisor); Evans-Cowley Jennifer (Committee Member); Cudeck Robert (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Kinahan, Kelly L.Neighborhood Revitalization and Historic Preservation in U.S. Legacy Cities
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2016, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
Legacy cities – also known as shrinking, rust belt, and post-industrial cities – are places facing persistent population decline, disinvestment, and structural economic challenges. Scholars and practitioners argue that historic buildings are among the key assets for neighborhood stabilization and revitalization, yet demolition of existing buildings is a dominant public policy approach in legacy cities. Using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, this three-essay dissertation (1) develops a typology of legacy city neighborhoods across five cities (Baltimore, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Richmond, & St. Louis) and five census decades (1970-2010), (2) identifies patterns of federal historic rehabilitation tax credit (RTC) activity and evaluates the effects of RTC investments on racial, socioeconomic, and housing characteristics across legacy city neighborhood types from 2000 to 2010, and (3) examines how and why RTCs are deployed as a preservation tool in different neighborhood contexts. Hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis are employed in the first essay, identifying eight distinct neighborhood types (Established & Stable Homeowners; Highly Bifurcated; Competitive, Educated, & Struggling; Educated Newcomers; White Immigrants; Declining & Black; Black, Stressed, & Disadvantaged; Collapsed Urban Core) and supporting the coherency of legacy cities as a meaningful analytic grouping. In the second essay, descriptive statistics show the distribution of RTC activity across all legacy city neighborhood types, and a difference-in-differences regression model counters arguments in the existing literature that RTCs contribute to revitalization or gentrification in legacy cities. Using key person interviews and a comparative case study approach of two St. Louis neighborhoods, the final essay uncovers key lessons as to how and why the RTC functions as a preservation and reinvestment tool across different types of neighborhoods in a declining citywide context, including the size/scale of historic urban fabric, importance of stable neighborhoods as testing grounds for RTC investments, role of situational conditions and cultural contexts, and the economic and cultural values rooted in RTC decision-making.

Committee:

Stephanie Ryberg-Webster, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Galster, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Mikelbank, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rosie Tighe, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Policy; Urban Planning

Keywords:

legacy cities, neighborhood revitalization, historic preservation

Bayareddy, Venkata SubbaraoDetermination of Ineffective Flow Areas in Bridge Modeling Using HEC-RAS by Locating Ineffective Flow Stations
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2016, Civil Engineering
The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) uses a simulation model to delineate floodplains, but it may also be used to size bridges and culverts. HEC-RAS has an option for defining ineffective flow stations at bridges and culverts. An ineffective flow area is a portion of a river or stream’s cross section where there is no water flowing downstream due to the presence of a bridge or a similar structure, i.e. no conveyance. Current practice is for modelers and engineers to provide an estimate of the location of ineffective flow stations. The purpose of the research effort detailed in this document is to develop an iterative approach capable of quickly and accurately locating ineffective flow stations at bridges. The ultimate goal of the proposed research effort will be to include the methodology in future releases of the HEC-RAS model.

Committee:

Donald V. Chase, Ph.D., P.E. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Transportation; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Bridge Modeling using HEC-RAS; Ineffective flow area; Ineffective flow station; Sloped bridge abutments;

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Borrup, TomCreativity in Urban Placemaking: Horizontal Networks and Social Equity in Three Cultural Districts
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
Many authors point to expanding disparities related to wealth and social benefits brought by globalization and the creative city movement while culture and creativity emerge as growing forces in urban placemaking and economic development. The phenomenon of cultural district formation in cities around the globe presents challenges and opportunities for leaders, planners, and managers. Emerging theory related to cultural districts suggests culture can serve to build horizontal relationships that bridge people and networks from different sectors and professions as well as across ethnicities, class, and interests. Research for this dissertation examined the formation of three urban cultural districts social and their respective organizational networks in different contexts. I employed a multiple case study approach to ask: How do horizontal networks form in the process of planning, organizing and/or ongoing management of cultural districts, and what kinds of benefits do those networks generate within their communities? Field research focused on districts in Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and Miami. This dissertation is positioned within ongoing discourse around the tension between form and function in the production of space (Lefebvre, 1974/1991) and within the dialectic of centralization and decentralization in urban planning and governance (Friedmann, 1971) characterized by the push for broad social equity and the pull of local control. Research found that strong horizontal networks characterized by dense and active grassroots leadership were present at the same time as relative community stability and higher levels of social and economic equity. Where horizontal networks were weak, social and economic tensions were higher. The research did not examine other potential factors and thus cannot ascertain whether strong networks resulted in greater stability and equity or whether stability and more equitable conditions brought on by other factors fostered the formation of stronger networks. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/etds/ and OhioLink ETD Center, http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark J. Stern, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Emily Talen, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Area Planning and Development; Arts Management; Cultural Resources Management; Urban Planning

Keywords:

urban cultural districts; creative cities; economic development; multiple case study; placemaking; Los Angeles; Minneapolis; Miami; leadership; horizontal networks; arts districts; city planning; community revitalization; redevelopment; regeneration

Mahato, BinitaRecreating Urban Density through Public Transportation- A Case Study of Bordeaux, France
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
Cities have evolved in response to the changing modes of transportation. The need to accommodate different forms of mobility has shaped the physical pattern of cities over centuries. This impact on urban form still varies with different modes of transportation. Public and private transportation systems have impacted the urban landscape in different ways. While public transportation has been more prolific as a controlled and dense form of urban growth, private transportation has provided the freedom to sprawl. Witnessing centuries of urban sprawl brought by the advent of automobile era, cities today seek a sustainable, manageable and dense urban future. Built on the relationship of urban form and transportation, many cities have experimented with ways to use public transportation infrastructure as a tool to reshape urban form and redirect the future growth in a desired path. However, the impacts of transit on urban form have been far beyond just the science of place making or policy decisions. Often times these attempts have resulted in unforeseen consequences of unpredictable growth of the built environment. This necessitates the scope of studying instances of successful use of transit infrastructure as a tool to create or recreate urban density. Bordeaux, France is one of the leading cities in integrating transit with urban place making. Fairly new in this trend, it is an efficient premise on which a transit-density relationship can be analyzed and learned. This research aims to understand the essentials that establish this relationship through a case study approach on the densification and tram project of Bordeaux. The study scrutinizes selected existing literature on the perspectives of urban density to prepare a methodology for the case study on Bordeaux. The impacts of the tramway project on the urban landscape of Bordeaux have been analyzed with three different perspectives on urban density. First, a descriptive case study evaluates the evolution of the city from old tram to the new tram and relates the association of different urban projects with respect to the tramway network. It then measures the impacts of this new tram project with quantifiable measures of urban density. In the end, the study investigates the impacts of transit on the visual aspects of urban form and density. The research assesses the interrelationship between the tramway network and the urban form on the basis of the findings from these three analyses. The descriptive case study, quantitative and qualitative analyses altogether illustrate the effectiveness of public transportation as a tool to recreate urban density in the context of Bordeaux.

Committee:

Carla Chifos, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rebecca Williamson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Bordeaux;Public Transportation;Urban Density;Tram;France

Lee, DongkwanDriver Demographics, Built Environment, and Car Crashes:Implications for Urban Planning
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, City and Regional Planning
This study investigates the effects of the surrounding environment on crashes, with a focus on crash severity and at-fault drivers characterized by gender and age. Crashes where a vehicle is the guilty party are investigated. The study adopts two approaches: aggregate and disaggregate. In the aggregate approach, the numbers of crashes, classified in terms of severity (fatalities, injuries, property damages only), and gender and age of the driver (with several age groups covering the 15-100 age span), represent the variables to be investigated, and have been derived for the Central Ohio Region from the multiple files of the crash database of the Ohio Department of Public Safety, over the period 2006-2011. These data are aggregated at the level of Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ). OLS models are first estimated, but spatial autocorrelation tests point the existence of spatial autocorrelation (SA). Spatial econometrics models are then used to eliminate the SA bias: the Spatial Autoregressive Model (SAR) and the Spatial Error Model (SEM). Subsequent analyses are conducted using the SEM estimates, as the SEM model is successful in completely eliminating spatial autocorrelation. The aggregate approach uses a large set of explanatory variables classified into six groups: Regional and Locational, Socio-Economic, Land-Use, Public Transit and Traffic Flow, Circulation and Network, and Physical Characteristics. The results show that variables in all these groups have significant impacts on crash severity and frequencies. The disaggregate approach accounts for more variables that influence crash severity, but cannot be captured in the aggregate approach, such as weather conditions, light conditions, road conditions, type of intersection, and type of vehicle. All these variables are directly related to an individual crash. The logit model is used to explain the probability of a Bodily Injury (BI) crash at the crash scene, where the alternative is Property Damage Only (PDO) crash. Because the age of the at-fault driver is a continuous independent variable, it is possible to precisely assess the impact of age, for both male and female drivers. The results of the logit model estimation show that there is a significant relationship between the probability of a BI crash and drivers’ behavior, built environment, driving conditions, and driving situation.

Committee:

Jean-Michel Guldmann (Advisor); Burkhard von Rabenau (Advisor); Philip Viton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Land Use Planning; Transportation; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Crash Analysis; Built Environment; Spatial Analysis; Driver Behavior; Driving Condition; Traffic Safety;Urban Planning; Transportation Planning;Surrounding Environment;Driver Demographics; Ohio;

Knee, Andrew JCincinnati Westside Busway
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
The purpose of this thesis was to assess the complexity of a portion of Cincinnati, Ohio that is currently underserved by transit. This study outlines potential mode types that could be used to improve service, and then determines the best mode to be a busway. This study then looked to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as a case study. The Port Authority of Allegheny County built out their three busways at different times, experimenting in different ways to build and use a busway. Pittsburgh’s three busways serve as a guide for determining the necessary factors to use in determining a proper alignment. The thesis then used Pittsburgh’s example as a guide for determining the most suitable corridor for development. Population density, station placement, land acquisition and build-out costs were all used as factors in determining the most suitable alignment. The thesis finds the former Chesapeake & Ohio of Indiana corridor to be the most suitable for development due to its relative cost to build per potential ridership.

Committee:

Danilo Palazzo, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Christopher Auffrey, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rainer vom Hofe, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Busway;Transit;Cincinnati;Pittsburgh;Westside;Mode

Choo, YeunKyungStrategies for Urban Cultural Policy: The Case of the Hub City of Asian Culture Gwangju, South Korea
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Arts Administration, Education and Policy
In the field of urban cultural policy, hardly any non-Western studies have researched the initial stage of policy design and the role of culture, despite its significance in today’s evolving policy design processes. The purpose of this dissertation study is to explore the role of culture under the influence of policy paradigm shift and to gain a comprehensive understanding of contemporary urban cultural policy design. Based on a complementary set of preexisting models and studies that challenge the limitations of the Multiple Streams Model, this study investigates multiple aspects of the Hub City of Asian Culture (HCAC) project in South Korea. Conducting an in-depth case study by incorporating document analysis, personal interviews, and several timelines, the study provides a thick description on the new urban cultural development model of HCAC. The findings indicate that there is a significant paradigm shift in contemporary urban cultural policy design, and culture has been operationalized as an innovative and autonomous tool to manage the complexity of policy design, situations, and networks. The HCAC policy design adopted multiple culture-driven tools from precedent international cases and strategically integrated them to the policy design and initial implementation processes for the sustainable management of the project. Finally, the study makes recommendations for future researchers to advance the policy analysis model for exploring undiscovered cases around the world. The study also recommends cultural policy makers to recognize the need to minimize the government’s intervention in policy making, and learn how to collaborate with and nurture the vitality of policy communities.

Committee:

Margaret Wyszomirski (Advisor); Edward Malecki (Committee Member); Wayne Lawson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Public Administration; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Urban Planning

Keywords:

culture policy, urban cultural policy, culture-led urban regeneration, Gwangju, the Hub City of Asian Culture, new governance, Multiple Streams Model, Alternative Lenses Analysis, operationalized culture, culture and decentralization

McCray, Jacquelyn YvonneCivic Deliberative Dialogue and the Topic of Race: Exploring the Lived Experience of Everyday Citizens and Their Encounters with Tension and Conflict
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
The research explored the interactions and experiences of participants and facilitators in civic deliberative dialogue and how they worked through tension and conflict. The dissertation question asked: What is the lived experience of participants and facilitators of civic deliberative dialogue and how do group members collectively move beyond tensions and disagreements that surface during dialogue processes? The study analyzed the joint influences of tension and disagreement within the context of seven deliberative dialogues convened on the topics of race, race relations and racism. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze qualitative research data collected from participant volunteers and facilitators. A constructivist approach, grounded theory allowed for evaluation of the interactions of participants derived from informal observations of the deliberative dialogue process and from research data gathered through semi-structured interviews, open and axial coding, and constant comparison. Using dimensional analysis, theoretical propositions emerged which convey new understanding about the ways deliberative dialogue participants confronted the difficult topics of race and racism, their shifts in perspective, and new understanding and insights generated during the process. Civic deliberative dialogue puts everyday people at the center of local problem solving. As a form of local engagement, it arms civic groups with an approach and practice for tackling difficult issues through authentic conversations that build relationships and offers a means for peeling back divergent thoughts, opinions, and interests. The civic dialogue literature includes little about confrontation and opposition during deliberative dialogue. The research produced three theoretical propositions ("creating space to move from tension to healing"; "heart stories, hurt stories—hearing and understanding differently"; and "sustaining the conversation, bridging the divide"), adds to the body of scholarly literature on civic engagement and lends understanding about how sustained deliberative dialogue promotes grassroots leadership, and creates an environment of civility and working through (Yankelovich, 1991) for healthier, more productive communities. This dissertation is accompanied by a video file (MP4), author introduction, and a PDF of a PowerPoint file used during the dissertation defense. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/etds/ and OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Patricia Stewart, PhD (Committee Member); Bob Pease, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Political Science; Public Administration; Social Research; Urban Planning

Keywords:

civic dialogue; civic engagement; grounded theory; race; tension; conflict; lived experience; deliberative dialogue; citizen participation; racism; African Americans; Whites; Melungeons; grassroots leadership; urban planning

Low, Kelly JExploring the Quality of Stakeholder Representation in Regional Planning
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2014, Urban Studies and Public Affairs
The purpose of this study was to explore the facet of external stakeholder representation in the regional planning process. Specifically, the intent was to determine best practices ensuring a high quality of the representation of external stakeholders within new regional planning entities – those created for the sole purpose of generating one long-term regional plan. To accomplish this, a qualitative study was performed analyzing the levels of involvement of the Board of Directors (internal stakeholders) of a regional planning consortium. The Northeast Ohio Sustainable Communities Consortium, a product of the HUD Sustainable Communities Grant Program, is used as the case study. Four qualitative components evaluated the internal stakeholders and three of four showed that the quality of representation was low. The final component demonstrated underrepresentation by attendees of the focus groups. Overall, the quality of stakeholder representation was deemed medium to low, using this case study. The qualitative methods used produced baseline criteria for a new model for future regional planning consortia to attain a higher quality of representation of external stakeholders.

Committee:

Raymond Cox III, Dr. (Advisor); Sanda Kaufman, Dr. (Committee Member); Ghazi Falah, Dr. (Committee Member); Ray Gehani, Dr. (Committee Member); Namkyung Oh, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Area Planning and Development; Environmental Management; Land Use Planning; Natural Resource Management; Public Administration; Regional Studies; Urban Planning

Keywords:

stakeholder; stakeholder representation; regional planning; Sustainable Communities; regional plan; board of directors; NEOSCC; Northeast Ohio Sustainable Communities Consortium; representation

Morckel, Victoria ChaneyPredicting the Probability of Housing Abandonment Using Hierarchical and Spatial Models
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, City and Regional Planning

By decreasing property values, discouraging private investment, and inviting criminal activities, abandoned houses contribute to neighborhood decline. Since some neighborhoods have more abandoned houses than others, dealing with this problem is important from an equity standpoint. To improve public policy and planning efforts, this study seeks to better understand why neighborhoods differ in their probability that a house will be abandoned. It examines four related questions using data from Youngstown, Ohio and Columbus, Ohio.

First, the study considers what constructs are most salient to understanding abandonment, and how those constructs relate to the probability that a house will be abandoned. A factor analysis revealed that market conditions, gentrification, physical neglect, and socioeconomic conditions underlie abandonment. A multilevel regression model showed that three of the four constructs (market conditions, gentrification, and physical neglect) predict the probability of abandonment.

Second, it asks whether abandonment exhibits spatial dependence at the neighborhood level, and if so, whether the regression model can be improved by taking this relationship into account. A Moran’s I statistic indicated that abandonment clusters in both cities of interest. Adding a spatially lagged abandonment variable to the multilevel regression model showed that the level of abandonment in surrounding neighborhoods influences the probability of abandonment in a neighborhood of interest.

Third, it examines how other conditions in surrounding neighborhoods influence the probability. Adding a spatially lagged version of each factor to the regression model revealed that physical neglect in surrounding neighborhoods does not influence the probability of abandonment in a neighborhood of interest. However, the levels of market conditions and gentrification in surrounding neighborhoods do influence the probability.

Finally, it considers whether the variable effects generalize between the two cities of interest. Adding interaction terms to the multilevel regression model showed that the effects of neighborhood level abandonment and gentrification were the same for both cities, while the effects of market conditions and physical neglect were stronger for Columbus. All of the lagged variable effects generalize, meaning that the effect of surrounding neighborhood conditions on the probability of abandonment is the same for Youngstown as it is for Columbus.

Conclusion: Instead of thinking about housing abandonment in terms of a large number of variables, policy makers can conceptualize it as consisting of a smaller number of constructs. Factor scores, clusters of abandonment, and predicted probabilities can be mapped to suggest where to invest. The final regression model provides guidance for how to spend scarce recourses as well. It suggests that policy makers should enact strategies that decrease physical neglect in the neighborhood itself, and increase housing demand both in the neighborhood and in surrounding neighborhoods. Prevention of abandonment is likely the best strategy for dealing with the problem; and while more research is necessary to confirm, the suggestions proffered in this paper may serve to prevent abandonment. Furthermore, since most of the variables effects generalize between the two cities, it is possible that the results of this study generalize to other, similar cities as well.

Committee:

Jack Nasar (Advisor); Bernadette Hanlon (Committee Member); Maria Conroy (Committee Member); Ann O'Connell (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Housing Abandonment; Vacancy; Demolition; Housing Demand; Shrinking Cities

Abreu Vilomar, DomingoSustainable Planning Practices in Maha Sarakham University: A Green Campus for a Learning Community
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
The mission of a university is the production of knowledge and distribution of education. This is its main goal and fulfilling it should be the university's commitment with the society that hosts it. Education is a source of critical thinking and a self-evaluation tool as well, by which society should acquire a broad point of view of the world's actual condition, its success or failings in terms of social justice, and encourage the attainment of a greater level of awareness and understanding; a mean for discovering new concepts, and the creation of new instruments of improvement. If the major duty of universities is the creation and sharing of knowledge, and the most urgent need of our times is finding the way of achieving that new way of developing and living, then the universities play a key role in conquering the aforementioned Sustainable Development. Furthermore, these higher studies institutions should be the most active and visible references of sustainability, becoming the flagship in this battle in which the humankind future is on stake. This thesis aims to analyze the efforts of Maha Sarakham University (MSU) regarding the "green" planning practices of their new campus in Kantarawichai District in northeast Thailand, and how thriving are these "greening" practices compared to the efforts and success of other universities in terms of sustainability achievements. In the first part of this research we take a look at the commitment of universities with the sustainability concept, analyzing the actions undertaken by some universities towards sustainable practices, and paying especial attention to the practices related to transportation planning as a way of nurturing a campus life more according to the sustainability requirements of our present times. In further chapters we address the Maha Sarakham University (MSU) case study, analyzing its impact on the local communities, especially on their socioeconomic dynamics and environmental issues. Based on several documents and sustainability promoting institutions, we also develop a set of campus sustainability indicators, which we will use to determine how effective are MSU actions towards accomplishing its sustainability goals. Although it is not part of our main focus, since the concept of Sustainable Development is equally based on Environmental, Economical and Equity aspects, besides the research questions regarding to sustainable transportation practices, we raise some questions regarding the social scope of the ongoing sustainability practices of the previously analyzed case study units. As expected, these questions shape our recommendations. The last part of this thesis is a proposal for the improvement of the MSU greening efforts, specifically towards the enhancing their transportation program.

Committee:

David Edelman, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Menelaos Triantafillou, M.L.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Sustainability;Community;Transportation;University;Planning;MSU;

Gibson, Jocelyn M.The Application of Transit Development Zones in Bangkok: The Laksi Case Study
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning

The debate about sustainable forms of transportation has received more attention in recent years as oil reserves are recognized as finite, and carbon emissions contribute to climate change. In Developing Countries (DCs), the rate of automobile ownership is ever increasing, while road capacities remain static, or increase at a much lesser rate. Given that public transportation is largely road-based, this is leading to peak hour gridlock in major cities in the developing world.

Bangkok is no exception, and is notorious for traffic congestion. The government recognizes this problem, and has so far committed to investing in a 247 kilometer expansion of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system. The construction of the system will not in itself ensure that it will be used, or will have the desired effects on congestion.

Transit Development Zones (TDZ) have proven effective in other large, dense Asian cities. This is a concept that, when applied, coordinates land uses and high density developments around largely MRT nodes or transit stations. This paper will evaluate the TDZ concept, and apply it to a study area, the Laksi Sub-District, in Bangkok where a planned transit stop will be located. The study area chosen is a high profile location where a large Government Center was built in 2007.

The application of the TDZ concept throughout Bangkok will optimally lead to higher user patronage, walkable places near residences where people can shop, find entertainment and gather as communities. The Laksi case study will hopefully be indicative of this.

Committee:

David Edelman, PhD (Committee Chair); John Niehaus, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

Bangkok;Transportation;Transit Development Zone;Urban Planning;Land Use;Thailand

Gumru, Fatma BelginAn Analysis of the National Action Plans: Responses to the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning

This research evaluates the national action plans that were prepared between June 2005 and October 2008 as a response to the United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security (UNSCR 1325). Resolution 1325 was adopted unanimously on October 31, 2000; it mentioned the consequences of conflict on women and girls, and noted the role of women in the peacebuilding and post-conflict processes. It is one of the most important UN resolutions within the field of peace and security policy. In addition to the UN Security Council President’s Statement of 31 October 2002, the UN Secretary General’s Report of 13 October 2004 on women, peace and security invited the states to prepare national action plans in order to take strong steps towards the implementation of UNSCR 1325.

Since the Secretary General’s Report, eleven United Nations member countries – namely Austria, Côte d’Ivoire, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom – have published national action plans. This study examines the similarities and the differences of the national action plans that were prepared as a response to the UNSCR 1325. In addition, national action plans are compared to the statements identified in the UNSCR 1325.

The research points out the importance of national action plans for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. It also outlines the important aspects of a national action plan–such as the involvement of NGOs, time frames, financial allocation, monitoring processes, and the inclusion of awareness-raising activities. The main finding is that the existing action plans provide a set of examples for the countries that are preparing or will prepare national action plans. Therefore, the research should be continued as new national action plans are emerging.

The study is significant, because it contributes to the small amount of research literature that is available on UNSCR 1325 and the national action plans. Hopefully, it also will be a useful guide for the countries that are about to prepare their national action plans. The study should be of interest to policy makers who are working in the field and, in addition, to citizens and activists who are interested in the topic.

Committee:

Jan Fritz, PhD (Committee Chair); David Edelman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Resolution 1325; national action plan; women, peace and security; women and armed conflict

Garimella, Venkata Naga RavikanthExhaust Emissions Analysis for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel and Biodiesel Garbage Trucks
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2010, Civil Engineering
The main objective of this experimental thesis is to study the exhaust emissions of in-use garbage trucks for different idling modes fuelled with alternate fuels. The emission concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, and NOX), and carbon dioxide were examined with respect to engine parameters such as fuel temperature, coolant temperature and percent fuel. A Testo350 XL portable emission monitoring instrument was used to collect second by second data for the pollutants. Performance of engine parameters was also monitored simultaneously using on-board diagnostic (OBD) software. The tail pipe emissions from Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) are compared with emissions from biodiesel blends. Hotter engines produced lower emissions compared to colder engines for all fuel blends and vehicle makes. Significant reductions in emission concentrations were observed due to the inspection and maintenance programs. The performance of biodiesel blends in reducing emission concentrations of pollutants across different vehicle makes was found to be inconsistent. A comprehensive study on various vehicle, fuel and operating parameters that effect the exhaust emission concentrations was conducted to find an alternative to ULSD.

Committee:

Ashok Kumar, PhD (Committee Chair); Brian Randolph, PhD (Committee Member); Dong-Shik Kim, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Automotive Engineering; Civil Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Experiments; Sustainability; Transportation; Urban Planning

Keywords:

biodiesel; ultra low sulfur diesel; diesel; emission; exhaust; garbage truck; portable emission; blends; Idle engine; Alternative fuels; fuel

Jaroscak, Joseph VCMHA Housing Choice Voucher Landlord Outreach Assessment
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
The Housing Choice Voucher program (HCV) in the United States was designed to deconcentrate poverty, but has struggled to do so. One strategy currently utilized by housing authorities is to implement a series of outreach programs to engage a broad group of landlords throughout their jurisdictions. Much of the previous literature on the HCV program focuses on its effectiveness in deconcentrating poverty, with little mention of landlords and their role. This thesis utilizes the work of three classic studies on landlords of low-income housing, with the addition of other sources which mention the importance of landlord programming and additional services for the HCV program to be successful in deconcentrating poverty. Through a qualitative study of landlord outreach programming administered by Cincinnati Metropolitan Housing Authority (CMHA), this thesis seeks to understand the CMHA's methods and gauge their effectiveness. Two methods were used to develop this understanding. The first method was through a series of structured no-participant observations of three types of signature landlord programs administered by CMHA. The second method was through semi-structured interviews with key informants including landlords, CMHA staff, and Housing Opportunities Made Equal Staff (HOME). These interviews were informed by the observation phase and developed an understanding of perceptions on the landlord programming as well as the relationships within and between these groups.

Committee:

David Varady, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Shaun Bond, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

landlords;housing vouchers;poverty deconcentration;rental housing;Cincinnati;landlord outreach;

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