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Whalen, Kevin ChristopherA map system to disseminate national science on forests for the creation of regional tree planting prioritization plans
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
In the United States, urban forestry efforts are sustained through efforts from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, and government agencies across local, state, and national levels. The i-Tree Tools suite of software promotes the use of, peer-reviewed science to explain the benefits that trees provide in a method intended for the general public. This thesis shares the computer-specific knowledge collected during the design, implementation, and continued expansion of i-Tree Landscape. The i-Tree Landscape application is a web-browser based, online, geographic information system, referred to as a web-GIS app. The "pages" of the web-app are part of a system of software libraries and services, along with dedicated hardware, which were specifically researched, compared, selected, and optimally configured for their roles in supporting the system as a whole. This work will also briefly touch upon the open source libraries and services running in the Landscape system, as well as, some of the decisions they influenced with acquiring hardware to support its deployment. Delivering the data and formulas associated with the benefits of trees for the entire geographic area of the United States becomes difficult over the internet, especially when it must be achieved via a non-expert interface. To manage this, the flow of the application is separated into five, non-sequential steps, prefixed with a landing page, and postfixed with a publishable report. This partitioning helps with code responsibility separation, as well. In addition to producing a tailorable report for describing the benefits of trees, the primary purpose of the application is to help prioritize tree planting efforts. This is well needed by foresters to help allocate for popular practice of mass tree plantings. The planning is done via a customizable model utilizing nearly all of the possible attributes as weighting options. The regional aggregations for this are available to users through nine boundary layers, most notably including counties, block groups, and watersheds. The research supporting the data on trees is from working directly with the authors of peer-reviewed research from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service laboring at the Northern Research Station at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. i-Tree Landscape has succeeded in becoming a science dissemination facility, by the use of information visualization, with the purpose of making decisions that promote urban forestry stewardship through modern web-GIS, and data processing techniques.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu, PhD (Advisor); Austin Melton, PhD (Committee Member); Gokarna Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

budget national map processing; geographic information system; GIS; national land cover; forestry; tree planting prioritization; GDAL; GEOS; GeoServer; PostGIS; JTS; Open Geospatial Consortium; OGC; Open Source Geospatial Foundation; OSGeo;

Bigger, Michele MGreening the Highways: Out-plant survival and growth of deciduous trees in stressful environments.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Horticulture and Crop Science
Greening the highways is a series of mass out-plantings, studying long-term survival and growth of transplanted deciduous trees in urban highway right-of-way (ROW) environments in relation to species, site and production techniques. This alternative landscape often appears underutilized and stressful; however, may contain valuable space for building the urban forest and desired green infrastructure, which is often limited within built urban contexts. The research conducted is the first of its kind in North America, and is located in Ontario, Canada, and Ohio, United States. Studies conducted in Ohio looked at survival rates of Acer rubrum (Acer), Betula jacquemontii (Betula), Celtis occidentalis (Celtis), and Syringa reticulata (Syringa) and caliper and height growth of Celtis and Syringa. Ohio studies focused on understanding selected biological, chemical and physical soil property differences occurring between two sites and survival and growth in relation to two production techniques and physical soil properties. Production techniques included the addition of a hydrophilic polymer, Geohumus® at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% by container volume, and three growing environments; outside on a gravel pad, and in a flat and a peak retractable roof greenhouse (RRG). In Ontario at four ROW sites (Sites 1, 2, 5, and 6) species and site differences were evaluated for survival of nine species; Acer xfreemanii `Autumn Blaze’ (AFA), Acer pseudoplatanus (AP), Betula lenta (BL), Betula papyrifera (BP), Celtis occidentalis (CO), Gingko biloba (GB), Gleditsia triacanthos (GT), Quercus coccinea (QC), and Quercus robur (QRO), and caliper and height growth for four species; CO, GT, QC, and QRO. In Ohio, site 2 had 32.9% greater mean predicted probability of survival (PPS) than site 1, and Celtis and Syringa having higher PPS compared with Acer and Betula. Production environment did affect height growth prior to installation into the ROW; however, not after. Syringa caliper was positively effected by 0.5% Geohumus® following installation; however, not before installation. At site 1 a significant decrease in PPS occurred after installation with a combination of 1% Geohumus® and production in a Peak RRG, and no other significant Geohumus® effect occurred. Soil properties at the sites in Ohio varied by site and depth. Greater correlations were found between physical soil properties and Celtis and Syringa survival rates compared with Acer and Betula. Survival at site 1 increased with increased bulk densities, whereas no correlations for survival were seen at site 2 and is thought to be related to soil texture and water holding capacity. All species had significant survival correlations with sand silt and clay, likewise caliper and height growth of Celtis and Syringa caliper were effected by soil particle size and gravel content. In Ontario sites 5 and 6 had greater survival compared to sites 1 and 2; however, sites 2 and 5 had better growth than 1 and 6. GT, CO, and QRO had greater than 50%, and BL had less than 50% PPS in all four sites other species varied by site. Above and below ground micro-site conditions and installation size may offer reasoning for differences between species and sites.

Committee:

David Gardner, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Roger Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Rattan Lal, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kristin Mercer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Horticulture; Urban Forestry

Keywords:

Tree transplanting; Nursery tree production; Highway right-of-way landscape

Lightle, Nicole EEffects of Air vs. Air+Soil Heating During a Simulated Heat Wave on White Oak (Quercus alba) and Black Oak (Quercus velutina)
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2013, Biology (Ecology)
Extreme weather events are a growing focus of global climate change research. Extreme events, which occur abruptly and unpredictably, are often more detrimental to terrestrial vegetation than gradual shifts in climate. One type of event, the summer heat wave, may already be increasing in some areas of the world. Large-scale reductions in Net Primary Productivity and mortality have been reported during heat waves in forested ecosystems. Unfortunately, our understanding of how abrupt heat-stress affects woody species during heat waves lags behind our knowledge of herbaceous species that have been more widely studied in experimental manipulations. A few studies of herbaceous species also suggest that the coupling of soil heating to air heating can change the overall plant response to heat waves. To investigate air vs. air+soil heating in woody species, we manipulated the temperature of both shoots and roots separately for both white and black oak seedlings by insulating the soil during heat-stress to the shoot (35 vs. 40°C for 4 days, white oak; 35°C for 8 days, black oak). Interestingly, at moderate heat-stress temperature (35°C), net photosynthesis declined and internal CO2 concentration of leaves increased more when the roots were insulated in both species. Hence, concurrent soil warming prevented metabolic damage to leaves during moderate heat-stress, suggesting that direct heat to the roots increased shoot thermotolerance. In both experiments, differences in air vs. air+soil heating effects on root respiration were directly related to differences in soil temperatures, such that root respiration was higher with air+soil heating. In neither experiment were soil temperature effects related to plant water status. These results suggest that both direct and indirect effects of soil warming may occur in woody species during a heat wave, but that the response may depend on the severity and duration of the heat-stress. Future research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism for differences between air vs. air+soil heating during a heat wave.

Committee:

Scott Heckathorn (Committee Chair); Daryl Moorhead (Committee Member); Wayne Shepperd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Science; Forestry; Physiology; Plant Biology; Plant Sciences; Urban Forestry

Keywords:

acute heat; heat stress; heat wave; extreame weather; soil heating; superoptimal temperature; root zone temperature; global climate change; white oak; black oak; Quercus; forest mortality; thermotolerance; photosynthesis; root respiration; ABA

Laverne, Robert James Loss of Urban Forest Canopy and the Related Effects on Soundscape and Human Directed Attention
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2016, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
The specific questions addressed in this research are: Will the loss of trees in residential neighborhoods result in a change to the local soundscape? The investigation of this question leads to a related inquiry: Do the sounds of the environment in which a person is present affect their directed attention? An invasive insect pest, the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), is killing millions of ash trees (genus Fraxinus) throughout North America. As the loss of tree canopy occurs, urban ecosystems change (including higher summer temperatures, more stormwater runoff, and poorer air quality) causing associated changes to human physical and mental health. Previous studies suggest that conditions in urban environments can result in chronic stress in humans and fatigue to directed attention, which is the ability to focus on tasks and to pay attention. Access to nature in cities can help refresh directed attention. The sights and sounds associated with parks, open spaces, and trees can serve as beneficial counterbalances to the irritating conditions associated with cities. This research examines changes to the quantity and quality of sounds in Arlington Heights, Illinois. A series of before-and-after sound recordings were gathered as trees died and were removed between 2013 and 2015. Comparison of recordings using the Raven sound analysis program revealed significant differences in some, but not all measures of sound attributes as tree canopy decreased. In general, more human-produced mechanical sounds (anthrophony) and fewer sounds associated with weather (geophony) were detected. Changes in sounds associated with animals (biophony) varied seasonally. Monitoring changes in the proportions of anthrophony, biophony and geophony can provide insight into changes in biodiversity, environmental health, and quality of life for humans. Before-tree-removal and after-tree-removal sound recordings served as the independent variable for randomly-assigned human volunteers as they performed the Stroop Test and the Necker Cube Pattern Control test to measure directed attention. The sound treatments were not found to have significant effects on the directed attention test scores. Future research is needed to investigate the characteristics of urban soundscapes that are detrimental or potentially conducive to human cognitive functioning.

Committee:

Wendy Kellogg, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sanda Kaufman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Liggett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Sullivan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Acoustics; Behavioral Psychology; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Forestry; Natural Resource Management; Psychology; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Urban forestry; Urban planning; Emerald Ash Borer; Soundscape Ecology; Directed Attention;

Sundermeier, Mark AlanTOURISM IN EXURBAN POSTINDUSTRIAL FORESTS IN APPALACHIA
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Geography
The urban-rural fringe often has been an area where the battle over the values of the biophysical and social worlds has played out. When this area involves forestland, the economic worth of the land is often seen only through timber production. The use value of a forest as a forest is actually greater than its exchange value for timber, because of the various possibilities that forests provide economically. Though economic theory often posits that forest valuation for aesthetics occurs only among high-income populations, there is evidence that forests are not simply a luxury good, and that people can incorporate forests into their livelihood strategies. In this thesis, I analyzed the effects of tourism on exurban forest cover in Appalachia. I explored how human desire for outdoor recreation provides economic gain out of a forested setting in natural areas in proximity to a population center. In economically depressed areas with abundant natural surroundings, such as Appalachia, I examined if forested areas can provide a means of living to communities through tourism. I expected that people are found to enjoy forests for their value as an amenity benefit, and are willing to assign economic value in those regards. This led to tourism, by bringing people in to experience the natural surroundings. Appalachian exurban forest cover was found to most associated with the level of tourism in a county. Using data for percentage of forest cover versus economic indicators related to tourism, I explored the association of forestland to the tourism economy in Appalachia.

Committee:

Darla Munroe (Advisor); Edward Malecki (Committee Member); Alan Murray (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Economics; Forestry; Geography; Land Use Planning; Regional Studies; Urban Forestry

Keywords:

Appalachia; exurbia; value of forests; land-use; tourism

Averill, CatherineMy Magnum Opus
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2011, English
This thesis is a novel exploring the question of fate versus free will as well as how coping with the trauma and grief that accompany an unexpected death can lead a survivor to begin exploring the world around him in a new way. The protagonist, Sam Mastin, attempts to find answers that may not be available to him or anyone until he is given the freedom to create a new life, inspired by episodic dreams of a woman writing his life story. Mastin discovers that finding out the truth is a tricky feat and one that comes with its own pain.

Committee:

Eric Goodman (Committee Chair); Joseph Bates (Committee Member); Susan Morgan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Fish Production; Plate Tectonics; Remote Sensing; Robots; Textile Research; Urban Forestry

Keywords:

grief; death; tiny giraffes

Rodier, Meghan L.Urban Community Forestry in Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD: The Role of Nonprofit Organizations
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Since the 1980s environmental service delivery funding at both the state and city government level has been in decline, limiting urban community forestry programs. This research used governance theory to explore how Casey Trees in Washington, DC and the Parks and People Foundation in Baltimore, Maryland work with municipal resource agencies to promote urban community forestry. This in-depth analysis advances our understanding of governance theory at the citywide and neighborhood scale by examining how these local nonprofits have entered the playing field of environmental service delivery. Two neighborhoods, Petworth in Washington, DC and Franklin Square in Baltimore, were selected to address how nonprofits operate on the ground to promote change at a local scale through neighborhood revitalization. Exploring the role of nonprofits sheds light on the complexity of urban community forestry partnerships.

Committee:

Geoffrey Buckley, PhD (Advisor); Harold Perkins, PhD (Committee Member); Risa Whitson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Natural Resource Management; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Governance; neighborhood revitalization; urban community forestry

Chiriboga, Christian AlejandroTREE HEALTH, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF URBAN FORESTS
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Entomology
Global climate change concerns have increased the need for multiple mitigation scenarios to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Strategic management of urban forests at different times and levels (e.g. nursery and landscape) can contribute to CO2 sequestration over time. Sustainable urban forests can therefore indirectly slow down the effects of climate change, emphasizing the need for increased research on different aspects of urban forest management. The goal of this multidisciplinary research was to investigate the patterns of carbon sequestration in urban forests in response to management practices at different levels over time. I investigated patterns of carbon storage and sequestration of urban street trees in the City of Wooster, Ohio, in response to tree planting and removal practices. Municipally owned street trees in Wooster acted as net sinks of atmospheric CO2 in 2010, as they increased rates of carbon storage and sequestration by 3% over 2009 in a city wide basis. The assessment of the economic value of environmental benefits provided by Wooster’s street trees, including carbon storage and sequestration, energy conservation, stormwater remediation, air pollution removal, and aesthetic/other benefits exceeded $270,000 USD in 2010. I also investigated the effects of nursery production practices on resource allocation, carbon sequestration, physiological tree and insect responses of common urban shade trees, both in the nursery and after they were planted in the urban forest. Specifically, the effects of imidacloprid and fertilization regimes on growth, biomass allocation, and gas exchange responses of hybrid elm (Ulmus × `Homestead’) and river birch (Betula nigra) were quantified while growing in the nursery. Overall, a positive trend towards greater growth and biomass allocation was observed for hybrid elm and river birch when treated with imidacloprid, but the effects were not significant, nor were thus gas exchange parameters. Fertilization impacted above- and below-ground growth of both tree species; as fertility rate increased, so did tree growth but percent root mass declined. However, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were less affected. Finally, the effects of nursery production practices on subsequent establishment, growth, carbon sequestration, insect resistance, and herbivory were determined on hybrid elm and river birch after transplanting to right-of-ways of urban streets in the City of Wooster. Tree establishment was affected by nursery production practices in the nursery. Three consecutive imidacloprid applications (one at the nursery and one in the urban environments per year) increased growth and carbon sequestered of hybrid elms by 30%. The growth-enhancing effects of imidacloprid were species specific. Insect herbivory levels during the establishment period were low and did not explain the increased growth of treated hybrid elms in urban environments. The effects of fertilization in the nursery influenced tree growth and herbivory only one year post transplant in the urban environment. Lastly, implications on management practices are discussed.

Committee:

Daniel Herms (Advisor); Luis CaƱas (Committee Member); Mary Gardiner (Committee Member); Parwinder Grewal (Committee Member); Davis Sydnor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entomology; Urban Forestry

Keywords:

carbon sequestration; fertilization; gas exchange; growth; herbivory; imidacloprid; nursery production practices; physiology; resource allocation; street tree; urban forest; Wooster