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Beck, Kayla D.The Efficiency of Forced Inhalation in Promoting Venous Return
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Athletic Training (Health Sciences and Professions)
The physiological respiratory pump has the potential of encouraging a morevefficient venous return of the lower extremity. This study examined the effects of a diaphragmatic breathing pattern coupled with three common swelling reduction techniques on venous return of the ankle. A pretest-posttest true experimental design was used in this study to compare ankle swelling reduction rates of selected venous returninterventions. Venous return in the lower limbs is substantially decreased as a result of gravitational forces acting down on the body. This does not eliminate the possibility of allowing for faster return of blood to the heart, however. When a patient has swelling to a body site, there are several interventions that are clinically practiced to promote venous return. These interventions include: elevation, sequential compression, and muscle pumps. The respiratory pump is the most powerful mechanism of venous return, but it has not yet been clinically tested or applied. This study randomly placed participants into three intervention groups and implemented each with or without the respiratory pump using a diaphragmatic breathing pattern. This study determined that there was no statistical or clinical significance between elevation, sequential compression, or muscle contraction with forced inhalation compared to elevation, sequential compression, or muscle contraction without forced inhalation. There was also no statistical or clinical significance between the swelling reduction techniques. Forced inhalation using a diaphragmatic breathing pattern did not significantly promote a faster venous return and reduction of swelling. However, the study was underpowered; a larger number of participants was needed to find both statistical and clinical significance. Further research is needed to investigate the power of the respiratory pump in venous return to the lower extremity.

Committee:

Chad Starkey (Committee Chair); Jeff Russell (Committee Member); Janet Simon (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Medicine; Anatomy and Physiology; Health; Health Care; Medicine; Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Physiology; Sports Medicine; Therapy

Keywords:

respiratory pump; venous return; swelling reduction; forced inhalation; ankle injury; diaphragmatic breathing

Rankin, Wendi MicheleUtilizing Art Therapy to Recognize Cognitive-Communication Disabilities in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
Master of Arts, Ursuline College, 2008, Art Therapy and Counseling
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been named the signature injury of the war in Iraq. Following injury, cognitive-communication disabilities may go unseen in TBI patients because of good verbal communication. Art therapy utilizes non-verbal communication and therefore may be helpful in recognizing these cognitive disabilities. This study uses a mixed method approach to show that verbal functional communication skills in TBI patients may be high even when cognitive-communication skills are low. Thirty TBI patients on a locked brain injury rehabilitation unit of a full service hospital were interviewed and asked to complete an art intervention. Verbal communication and non-verbal cognitive-communication in TBI patients were examined using a functional communicationscale (FCS) and a cognitive-communication art therapy scale (CCATS). The results revealed that TBI patients scored high on the FCS even when they scored low on the CCATS. This study asserts that art therapy can be used to find cognitive-communication disabilities in TBI patients.

Committee:

Gail Rule-Hoffman, M.Ed (Advisor); Cecile Brennan, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Developmental Psychology; Fine Arts; Mental Health; Neurology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Rehabilitation; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

Art Therapy; Mental Health; Rehabilitation; Cognitive Disablilities; Communication; Traumatic Brain Injury; Counseling

Snook, Katherine DorothyTelephone-based Script Training and Generalization for Aphasia
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Speech Language Pathology
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of script training delivered over the telephone for persons with acquired aphasia, as determined by the increased spoken production of scripts, the generalization of the spoken production of scripts to a more natural, novel conversational context, and also, to assess possible positive treatment effects of script training on quality of life and life participation. Two adults (1 male, 1 female: each 74 years old), with contrasting language and speech deficits, participated in script training procedures delivered over the telephone, 3-4 times per week for 10-25 minutes per session. They learned three scripts each, with each script trained successively. Probes administered during baseline, treatment, and maintenance phases in practiced and unpracticed environments tracked the spoken use of script words. Two functional assessments were completed pre- and post-treatment by participants and respective caregivers to consider possible effects of script training on quality of life and life participation. The results of this study showed increased spoken production of script words during script training sessions for participants, retention of scripts 4-weeks post-treatment, and flexibility of scripts in informal exchanges. Probes conducted during training utilizing indirect prompts revealed diverse responses between participants, while data from probes in unpracticed settings revealed poor generalization of scripts to novel contexts with known partners. Results of the functional assessments, combined with subjective reports, indicate mild improvements in explicit communicative skills and increased independence in relation to quality of life and life participation, but demonstrate the continued feelings of dissatisfaction, distress, and activity restrictions related to the communicative difficulties experienced by persons with aphasia following a stroke. The results of this study suggest that script training over the telephone may be a feasible method of delivery for some persons with post-stroke aphasia. However, limited data with only two participants warrants the continued evaluation of this training strategy with more subjects.

Committee:

Michelle Bourgeois, PhD. (Advisor); Stacy Harnish, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Health Sciences; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

Aphasia; Speech Therapy; Language; Tele-therapy; Generalization; Stroke

Doup, Mallory N.THE ROLES OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGISTS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS IN THE TREATMENT OF SELECTIVE MUTISM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Communication Sciences
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare current beliefs and practice trends in selective mutism between the speech-language pathologist and the psychologist. Methods: Questionnaires addressing the areas of knowledge, treatment, collaboration, and demographics were constructed on Survey Monkey. Links to the questionnaire were sent to speech-language pathologists and psychologists via e-mail. Results were collected and analyzed by informal observation of trends and cross-tab analyses for each group. Group results were compared in order to draw conclusions about current beliefs and practice trends. Results: The psychologist had higher self-ratings of knowledge regarding selective mutism than the speech-language pathologist. However, both professionals reported a similar number of children with selective mutism on their caseloads. Additionally, the speech-language pathologist reported treating the disorder as a communication disorder by focusing on expressive language and pragmatic skills, whereas the psychologist focused on anxiety-relief strategies. Finally, collaboration among the professionals was uncommon although both recognized the advantages of collaboration. Conclusions: There is a disconnect between the two professionals, which may be preventing a more comprehensive assessment and treatment approach to selective mutism.

Committee:

Barbara Lewis, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kay McNeal, M.A. (Committee Member); Carin Cunningham, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kyra Rothenberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Psychology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Health; Health Care; Health Education; Mental Health; Psychology; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Teacher Education; Teaching; Therapy

Keywords:

selective mutism; speech-language pathology; psychology; treatment; collaboration; anxiety

DiBlasi, Anita F.Evaluating the Effects of Aging on American Sign Language Users
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Speech Language Pathology
The purpose of this study was to explore the changes in Deaf individuals’ ASL usage as their cognitive status declines. To date, there have been no published systematic studies describing the deterioration of native ASL users’ signing abilities among those with dementia. This study involved 10 participants: 5 with no cognitive impairments (Control group) and 5 with cognitive impairments (Experimental group) as considered by the Mini-Mental State Examination (adapted version of the MMSE; Dean, Feldman, Morere, & Morton, 2009). Each participant was allowed up to 2 minutes to describe the The Cookie Theft picture (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972). Discourse was analyzed for the dependent variables of number of utterances, number of words per utterance, correct use of phonology, morphology, and syntax, an error analysis of phonology, morphology and syntax, and content units. The results of this study revealed there were significant differences between the number of words per utterance of the Control group and the Experimental group. The Experimental group produced phonological errors. There were no phonological, morphological, or syntactic errors among the Control group utterances. The frequency of content units was higher in the Control group than the Experimental group. The correlations revealed there is a strong positive relationship among the Experimental groups’ MMSE scores and number of content units. In conclusion, the data revealed ASL usage does change as cognitive status declines, while morphology and syntax remain relatively preserved.

Committee:

Michelle Bourgeois, PhD (Advisor); Lisa Milman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Families and Family Life; Foreign Language; Gerontology; Health Care; Language; Linguistics; Mental Health; Modern Language; Morphology; Neurology; Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Psychology

Keywords:

ASL and aging; geriatrics and ASL; phonology, morphology and syntax and ASL; ASL changes; MMSE and Deaf culture; MMSE and ASL

Lord, Sarah PeregrineWays of Being in Trauma-Based Society: Discovering the Politics and Moral Culture of the Trauma Industry Through Hermeneutic Interpretation of Evidence-Supported PTSD Treatment Manuals
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
One hundred percent of evidence-supported psychotherapy treatments for trauma related disorders involve the therapist learning from and retaining fidelity to a treatment manual. Through a hermeneutic qualitative textual interpretation of three widely utilized evidence-supported trauma treatment manuals, I identified themes that suggested a particular constitution of the contemporary way of being—a traumatized self—and how this traumatized self comes to light through psychotherapeutic practice as described by the manuals. The manuals included: 1) a trauma focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for children; 2) an eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for adults; and, 3) an early intervention and debriefing therapy series for post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma related problems of military service members. Through the interpretation, I conceptualized trauma as a way of human being in contemporary culture, and in particular, as an unacknowledged way of expressing enactments of dissociated, unformulated, or unarticulated political arrangements and events. I identified and interpreted the following shared themes and exemplars across the three manuals: mind-brain as protector and the political use of cognitivist ideology; the healed trauma survivor as functional worker; trauma as universal and culture-free; and, indoctrination into a social void of scientistic managed care. I discussed how trauma treatment manuals instantiate how to be human in contemporary society through compliance with managed care and the embodiment of scientistic and cognitivist ideology. I then discussed how the way of being that contemporary society creates and idealizes is one in which people easily assume the identity of trauma survivor: an enterprising, functional and fiercely individual member of a warrior cult. In the warrior cult society, to think or talk about social causes and public solutions to daily political suffering is thought of as either non-germane or dangerous; individuals are seen as free from all dependencies and social ties, able to overcome personal and public adversity by arming or forifying their brain and replacing thoughts in their computer-like mind. In conclusion, I raised questions about how evidence-based trauma therapies may contribute to perpetuating a particular constitution of self that has disavowed society’s violent ethics and practices.

Committee:

Philip Cushman, PhD (Committee Chair); Jennifer Tolleson, PhD (Committee Member); Lynne Layton, PhD, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Mental Health; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

trauma culture; cognitivist ideology; warrior cult society; evidence-based therapy; treatment manuals; trauma-focused therapy; political psychology; trauma; PTSD; EMDR; CBT; Battlemind; hermeneutic; qualitative text analysis

Taranto, Stephanie R.Reliability and Validity of the HASTe in Assessing Bilateral Sensory Function in Children with Hemiplegia
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Allied Medical Professions
The primary purposes of this study are: 1) to complete validation of the Haptic Active Sensation Test (HASTe) for use in children; 2) to extend the understanding of sensory and motor dysfunction in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in both hands; and 3) to examine the relationship between haptic sensation and motor function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study used a quasi-experimental cohort design, comparing six children, aged 6-10 years of age with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, to an age matched peer group (n=6) on motor and sensory tests in both hands. Tests were performed in a single day testing session, and included: grip strength, The Jebsen Taylor Test of Motor Function, two-point discrimination, the Nottingham method of stereognosis, and the HASTe. Data for the paretic/ non-dominant hand were combined with 6 additional subjects from a previous master’s thesis to increase statistical power. Results found that the HASTe has good test-retest reliability (ICC=0.772), and excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha= 0.871). A cut-off score of 12/18 was established, with sensitivity of .833 and specificity of .583. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) was developed, with area underneath at 0.788. Using t-tests, the paretic hand was found to have statistically significant differences between groups (at p<0.05) for all scores except two-point discrimination of the thumb. The HASTe correlated at a moderate rate with both stereognosis (r=0.428, p=0.037) and the Jebsen Taylor without writing (r=-.509, p=.011). The HASTe is a valid and reliable tool in assessing haptic sensation in children. It identified a greater number of children as having a deficit on both the paretic and non-paretic hands compared to two point discrimination and stereognosis.

Committee:

Deborah Larsen, Ph.D., P.T. (Advisor); Jane Case-Smith, Ed.D., OTR/L (Committee Member); D. Michelle Basso, Ed.D., P.T. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences; Medicine; Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy

Keywords:

hemiplegic cerebral palsy; sensory function; HASTe; haptic sensation

Regelski, ChyrstenKinesio Tape has a positive effect on facilitation of the tibialis posterior muscle during walking gait
Bachelor of Science, Marietta College, 2013, Athletic Training
CONTEXT: Excessive pronation is a common problem that may be linked to a variety of lower extremity pathologies. Kinesio Tape (KT) facilitation of the tibialis posterior muscle will act to supinate the foot and decrease navicular drop. OBJECTIVE: To determine if KT facilitation of the tibialis posterior muscle on participants with excessive pronation will decrease navicular drop, talar eversion, and calcaneal eversion during walking gait. DESIGN: Repeated measures pre-test/post-test. PARTICIPANTS: 25 participants with pronated feet (age = 20.39 + 1.00 years), 11 male and 14 female. INTERVENTIONS: KT facilitation of the tibialis posterior muscle. Standard treadmill used for consistent walking surface at self-determined normal pace; Canon HD Vixia HF100 camera (Canon Inc.; Tokyo, Japan) recording 30 frames at 60i at a perpendicular angle to walking surface of treadmill in anterior, posterior, and medial views; recordings taken prior to taping (PT), immediately after taping (IP), after three days of wearing tape (3D), and immediately after tape removal (UT). OUTCOME MEASURES: Dartfish software (Dartfish Inc., Fribourg, Switzerland) used to assess dynamic navicular drop, talar movement, and calcaneal eversion; SPSS (Chicago, IL) using repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.025). RESULTS: Dynamic navicular drop angle was significantly decreased (F (2.4, 115.1) = 13.4, p = 0.000); dynamic talar movement angle was significantly decreased (F (2.3, 114.7) = 7.4, p = 0.001); dynamic calcaneal eversion angle was significantly decreased (F (2.1, 102.4) = 4.4, p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: KT had a significant effect on decreasing dynamic pronation within the population from PT to IP, IP to 3D, PT to UT, and 3D to UT.

Committee:

Kemery Sigmund (Advisor); Jennifer Hancock, Dr. (Committee Member); Dave Brown, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Health Care; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Rehabilitation; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

tibialis posterior muscle; pronation; Kinesio tape

Siekemeyer, Leah C.Inspiratory Muscle Strength Training in Upper Airway Obstruction
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2011, Speech Pathology and Audiology
The purpose of this study was to determine how an inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) program affects respiratory measures, speech characteristics, and perceived levels of dyspnea in individuals who have an upper airway obstruction (UAO). This thesis presents pilot data for a larger randomized control trial to examine this treatment technique. Five individuals between the ages of 11 and 26 years completed the 4-week IMST program and an 8-week detraining period. Four participants were assigned to the experimental group, and one was assigned to the control group. An identical protocol consisting of respiratory, speech, and exercise tasks was conducted at pre-training, post-training, and at an 8-weeks post-training session. Visual analysis indicated an improvement of 36.14 -77.21% in the experimental participants with longer and less frequent pausing during speech, fewer ungrammatical pauses, and less perceived dyspnea during reading and exercise tasks after a 4-week IMST program. The control participant remained fairly stable across trials. The paper also presents limitations to the study and direction for future studies.

Committee:

Susan Baker-Brehm, Ph.D. (Advisor); Barbara Weinrich, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wendy LeBorgne, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physiology; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

Inspiratory muscle strength training; IMST; respiration; upper airway obstruction

Ryan, ElizabethThe Therapeutic Alliance in Cognitive Therapy for Depression in Combination with Antidepressant Medication: Relations to Subsequent Symptom Change and Treatment Retention
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Psychology
While Cognitive Therapy (CT) has been established as an efficacious treatment for depression, less is known about the exact mechanisms by which CT achieves its effect. The therapeutic alliance is one of the most widely studied process variables across treatments and results suggest that there is a small, but consistent positive association between alliance and outcome. The results, however, are less clear when the alliance is studied within the context of CT specifically. Methodological differences may partly explain these discrepant findings, highlighting the need to address the most appropriate methodological design when studying the alliance-outcome relationship. Specifically, including only subsequent change in the analyses ensures that the alliance is not confounded with prior symptom improvement. In the current study, alliance was rated by independent observers during the first three sessions of CT within a sample (N = 176) of patients with depression undergoing a course of CT in combination with anti-depressant medication. The overall alliance was predictive (at the level of a non-significant trend) of subsequent early symptom improvement, with the subscale reflecting agreement on treatment tasks emerging as a significant predictor, as well as significantly predicting the rate of improvement over a 16 week period of treatment. The alliance was not found to be a predictor of drop-out rate across the course of treatment. Overall, results suggest while the alliance may be a significant determinant of symptom change, its effects are small.

Committee:

Daniel Strunk (Advisor); Jennifer Cheavens (Committee Member); Steven Beck (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Mental Health; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

alliance; cognitive therapy; depression; process; outcome

Leichtman, RobinMen Making Meaning of Eating Disorders: A Qualitative Study
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
There is a stark contrast between the research and published accounts reflecting women’s experiences in coping with an eating disorder in comparison to men’s narratives. Because of this, many medical and mental health providers do not consider an eating disorder as a possible diagnosis when men present with symptoms associated with an eating disorder. This notion was confirmed by Menstuff® (2012), who reported men are often not diagnosed and/or are embarrassed by being diagnosed with an eating disorder because eating disorders have become more associated with a problem women or gay men experience. Assumptions that eating disorders are a female or gay disease need to be disputed to relay the reality that eating disorders are nondiscriminatory. It is necessary to create a safe path for men to seek treatment. According to Andersen, Cohn, and Holbrook (2000), men account for one in six eating disorder cases. The intention of this dissertation is to give voice and provide insight into the males’ experiences. The main research question of this dissertation is, “how do men make meaning, from etiology to recovery, of their experience in having an eating disorder?” The six men who participated in this dissertation research helped answer that question by telling their stories. While I cannot generalize these findings into the general male population, the stories of these six participants contributes to the literature in understanding how men experience acquiring an eating disorder, the treatment process, and the recovery/maintenance stage. This dissertation study further explored understanding the interdependence between self-concept and eating disorders. A treatment protocol focused on treating symptoms can often threaten the psychotherapeutic relationship and prevent the patient from becoming wholly healthy. Rogers (1951) theorized that the more aware and accepting an individual is about all parts of self, the clearer, integrated, and actualized a person’s self-perception will become. A holistic approach recognizes the multidimensional overlapping of fluid energy between body, mind, and spirit and restores vitality. According to Gestalt theory, “change does not take place by trying coercion, or persuasion, or by insight, interpretation, or any other such means. Rather, change can occur when the [client] abandons, at least for the moment, what he would like to become and attempts to be what he is” (Beisser, 1970, p. 77). In other words, the potential for change occurs when individuals find compassion and acceptance for self. My findings suggest that treatment interventions, like exploring the client’s context and contact style, could assist individuals in developing a healthier self-concept whereby eating disorder symptoms would dissipate and organic self-regulating processes would be restored by way of a dialogic relationship that goes beyond correcting behavior.

Committee:

Sarah Toman, PhD (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, PhD (Committee Member); Kathryn MacCluskie, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Harper, PhD (Committee Member); David Prybock, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Health; Health Care; Individual and Family Studies; Medicine; Mental Health; Personality Psychology; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Health; Social Psychology; Social Work; Sociology; Therapy

Keywords:

Eating Disorders, Men with Eating Disorders, Males with Eating Disorders, Self-Concept, Gestalt Approach, Holistic Approach, Qualitative, Phenomenological

Reinhart, Eric T.Burnout, work engagement, and well-being in the healthcare professions: A proposal for a digital intervention
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2016, School of Professional Psychology
Burnout is a chronic problem for individuals in the helping professions and is particularly pronounced in healthcare settings. Burnout is an extreme stress response characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization of patients, and a decreased sense of personal accomplishment. Factors unique to healthcare settings include high patient to staff ratios, evaluations of effectiveness based on patient outcomes, and the competing demands of policy makers, patients, and clinicians. Work engagement is a product of the positive psychology movement and developed out of the study of burnout. Work engagement is an affective-emotional state of work-related well-being and is characterized as being positive and fulfilling as the individual experiences vigor, dedication, and absorption with their job. Traditional interventions for burnout have focused on individual stress management techniques presented didactically through a workshop experience. The time demands in healthcare settings are not conducive to long workshops or frequent staff in-service trainings. The two aims of this dissertation are to 1) provide literature review on the relevant aspects of burnout and work engagement and 2) present a program description for a digital intervention to reduce burnout and increase work engagement.

Committee:

Julie Williams, Psy.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Larry James, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); William Kennedy, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Health; Health Care; Health Education; Mental Health; Occupational Health; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

Burnout; Work Engagement; Wellness; Well-being; Digital; Intervention; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Brief; Focused; mindfulness; exposure; primary care; healthcare professional; internet-based; ACT

Powell, LoisSpaced Retrieval in the clinical setting: Memory intervention for individuals with TBI
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Speech Language Pathology
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of spaced retrieval (SR) techniques for teaching cognitive goals to individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in inpatient rehabilitation. SR treatment activities were analyzed for five individuals with TBI to document the impact of SR on goal mastery and generalization to everyday settings. Results revealed limited goal mastery, thought to be related to a short amount of time in SR therapy. With consistent implementation of the SR technique, there was evidence of generalization outside of treatment sessions for mastered and not yet mastered goals. Future research is needed to explore the effectiveness of SR therapy in the rehabilitation setting with more patients receiving more frequent therapy sessions and for a larger number of therapy goals in order to generalize to other patients in this setting.

Committee:

Michelle Bourgeois, PhD (Advisor); Lisa Milman, PhD (Committee Member); Esther Chipps, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Rehabilitation; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

TBI; spaced retrieval; inpatient rehabilitation; therapy; memory

Bhatnagar, Kelly Anne ConstantEffectiveness and Feasibility of a Cognitive-Behavioral Group Intervention for Body Image Disturbance in Women with Eating Disorders
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Psychology
The present study investigated the effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for the treatment of body image disturbance in women with eating disorders. The study used a multiple-baseline design and enrolled 38 participants with a range of eating disorders. The intervention targeted attitudinal and behavioral components of body image disturbance using psychoeducation, self-monitoring, systematic desensitization and cognitive restructuring. Primary outcomes included multidimensional body image assessment (effectiveness) and treatment adherence and satisfaction (feasibility). Participants undergoing manualized group treatment reported significantly less body image disturbance than participants randomized to a waitlist control condition. However, differences disappeared after both groups had been through intervention. Participants also reported significantly less depression and eating disorder pathology from baseline to post-treatment. Feasibility outcomes suggest the intervention was well received and highly acceptable to participants. Findings emphasize the importance of adding an evidence-based body image component to standard eating disorder treatment.

Committee:

James Overholser, PhD (Committee Chair); Lucene Wisniewski, PhD (Committee Member); Norah Feeny, PhD (Committee Member); Julie Exline, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

Body Image Disturbance; Eating Disorders; Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Courtney, Michele A.Physical Therapy Faculty Clinical Practice and Faculty Work Characteristics
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Higher Education (Education)
The Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) standards dictate that physical therapy faculty demonstrate they have contemporary expertise in their teaching areas. Clinical experience or practice is one example of evidence for proof of contemporary expertise. Students report they value faculty members who maintain clinical practice because they bring current applicable clinical content to the classroom. There has been much discussion in the literature regarding the high teaching demand placed on faculty while there is a greater emphasis placed on scholarly productivity for promotion and tenure opportunities. With such demands for teaching and scholarship, is there time available for clinical practice? The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapy faculty clinical practice and to investigate if there is a relationship between clinical practice and physical therapy faculty work characteristics. The quantitative research design of this study utilized the CAPTE Annual Accreditation Report as the primary survey instrument to collect data including faculty characteristics, work characteristics, and clinical practice information. There were 22 Likert-type clinical practice ratings added to the instrument by the researcher to collect data specific to clinical practice patterns among faculty members. There were 694 responses in the final data set. Among the respondents, the majority participated in clinical practice during the Fall/Spring 2013/2014 Academic Year (67%). The majority of the respondents indicated they participate in clinical practice in order to maintain, enhance, and/or provide additional clinical skills (65%). Means of the clinical practice ratings were consistently lower (indicating more agreement) among the practicing faculty members than the non-practicing faculty members. MANOVA analyses confirmed that there were significant multivariate effects using Wilk’s statistic for clinical practice groups (Λ= 0.77, F(22, 406) = 5.60, p < .001), workload status groups (Λ= 0.73, F(66, 1213) = 2.05, p < .001), and the interaction between clinical practice status and workload status (Λ= 0.84, F(44, 812) = 1.65, p = .006). The findings indicate that a majority of physical therapy faculty members participate in clinical practice. The findings also indicate there is a relationship between physical therapy faculty participating in clinical practice and faculty workload status.

Committee:

Michael Williford, Dr. (Committee Chair); Gordon Brooks, Dr. (Committee Member); David Horton, Dr. (Committee Member); Beth Vanderveer, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Health Sciences; Higher Education; Physical Therapy; Rehabilitation; Teaching; Therapy

Keywords:

Physical Therapy;Clinical Practice;Faculty Clinical Practice;Faculty Work Characteristics;Faculty Workload

Baker, Katherine LouiseCognitive Evoked Auditory Potentials and Neuropsychological Measures Following Concussion in College Athletes
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2008, Speech Pathology and Audiology
Over 800 athletes suffer from concussion in the United States each day, resulting in over 300,000 concussions each year. Recent data has revealed that the incidence of mild traumatic brain injury is on the rise for many different sports, placing athletes at higher risk. Damage is caused by the shearing of axons, which results in swelling and loss of limited function. Electrophysiologic techniques, specifically event-related potentials are one of the most frequently used cognitive assessments. Event-related potentials are a non-invasive method to gather a baseline of cognitive processes and to evaluate cognitive deficits. The current study investigated the sensitivity of event-related potentials in the identification of cognitive deficits following concussion in college athletes. Neuropsychological and electrophysiological measures were collected from two groups of participants allocated by injury versus non-injury. Results from the study found important differences between non-concussed and concussed athletes using electrophysiological measures and neuropsychological test measures.

Committee:

Kathleen Hutchinson, PhD (Committee Chair); Fofi Constantinidou, PhD (Committee Member); J Brett Massie, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Speech Therapy; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

cognitive evoked auditory potentials; electrophysiology; neuropsychological measures; event-related potentials; ERP; P300 waveform; concussion; college athletes; mild traumatic brain injury; latency; amplitude; cognitive deficits; athletics

Petrarca, Allison J.Impact of Religiosity on Coping with Intrusive Thoughts
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Intrusive thoughts are unwanted, distressing thoughts that are experienced by the majority of individuals, and are one of the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is theorized that maladaptive beliefs about intrusive thoughts, such as thoughtaction fusion (TAF) beliefs, as well as the use of avoidant coping strategies, such as thought suppression, in response to intrusive thoughts may cause them to escalate into obsessions. Religiosity may be another factor that influences the way an individual responds to intrusive thoughts. Previous studies have found that religiosity is related to TAF and the tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts. However, it is unclear whether religiosity impacts the effectiveness of thought suppression. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different coping strategies (thought suppression, acceptance-based approach, and monitor-only control) to manage an intrusive thought on distress and thought frequency, while also taking into consideration levels of religiosity. This study also aimed to test a model in which the relationship between TAF beliefs, thought suppression, and OC symptoms is moderated by religiosity. The results suggest that religiosity does not account for a significant amount of the variance in intrusive thought frequency, anxiety, negative appraisals, or changes in intrusive thought frequency and anxiety over time. Religiosity was also not found to moderate the relationship between TAF beliefs, thought suppression, and OC symptoms. Limitations of the experimental manipulation make interpreting the results from the experimental portion difficult. However, additional exploratory analyses provided evidence showing that thought suppression is related to increased intrusions, higher levels of anxiety, and negative appraisal ratings. The limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Brook Marcks (Committee Chair); Timothy Anderson (Committee Member); Christine Gidycz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Religion; Spirituality; Therapy

Keywords:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Religiosity; Thought-action fusion; Thought suppression

Hall, Tracy D.Internet-based Family Therapy from the Perspective of the Therapist: A Qualitative Inquiry
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counselor Education and Supervision-Marriage and Family Therapy
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to learn more about the process of Internet-based Family Therapy and to discover the advantages and disadvantages of using Internet-based Family Therapy as part of a practice. The overarching question asked, &#x201c;How do therapists experience the phenomenon of Internet-based Family Therapy?&#x201d; The sub-questions were: (1) How is Internet-based Family Therapy defined by therapists claiming to do it? (2) What are the presenting issues for Internet-based Family Therapy going forward? Heuristic Inquiry was used for data collection and analysis. Five participants were interviewed using online text-chat. Each participant had experience doing Internet-based Family Therapy and appropriate credentials. The core themes discovered were as follows: (1) The sites may be deemed not truly therapeutic. (2) The use of video is highly recommended in Internet-based Family Therapy. (3) More severe clients are contraindicated for Internet-based Family Therapy. (4) Face-to-face Family Therapy is better than Internet-based Family Therapy, however Internet-based Family Therapy is better than nothing. (5) The use of theory in Internet-based Family Therapy is much the same as in face-to-face Family Therapy. (6) The main concerns with Internet-based Family Therapy are confidentiality, crossing state lines & harm to self. A final interview dealt with Ethical dilemmas in Internet-based Family Therapy, Internet-based Family Therapy standards, limitations of Internet-based Family Therapy and handling harm to self or others when doing Internet-based Family Therapy. The findings are discussed, as well as considerations for therapists and directions for future research are suggested.

Committee:

Karin Jordan, Dr. (Advisor); Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Reynolds, Dr. (Committee Member); Linda Perosa, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca Boyle, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Technology; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Psychology; Social Research; Technology; Therapy

Keywords:

Internet; Internet-based; online; on-line; family therapy; therapy; counseling; psychology; internet therapy; internet counseling; online therapy; online counseling; online family counseling; internet family counseling; distance therapy; video therapy

Williams, Jaclyn HardestyThe Relationship of Trauma Severity, Rumination, and Restructured Core Beliefs to Posttraumatic Growth
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Exposure to trauma is a pervasive problem that can result in a myriad of symptoms and pathologies and affects individuals across all demographics. Following trauma exposure, some individuals reconstructed their world views, sought meaning and experienced the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Undergraduate participants (N=106, Mage= 20.75) were recruited to complete phase 1, which was an online, 15 minute questionnaire. Participants who acknowledged trauma exposure completed phase 2, which consisted of four additional measures. Ninety-three participants (87.7%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. The sample’s multiple correlation coefficient was .78, indicating that approximately 60% of the variance of PTG was accounted for by the linear combination of the predictors of trauma severity, core beliefs, and degree of intrusive and deliberate rumination. Deliberate rumination and core beliefs were both positive correlated with and accounted for significant variance of PTG; trauma severity was not a significant predictor. A follow-up exploratory analysis revealed that deliberate rumination (when entered without trauma severity and core beliefs) accounted for 53% of the variance of PTG. These results coupled with results from an exploratory analysis provided insight that deliberate rumination is a key component in facilitating PTG, and were consistent with other findings (Benetato, 2011; Stockton, Hunt & Joseph, 2011).

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Charles J. Kapp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

posttraumatic growth; trauma; growth; trauma severity; rumination; core beliefs

Weiss, Jenni AlexanderDifferential Performance across Discourse Types in MCI and Dementia
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Speech Language Pathology

The purpose of this study was two-fold: to explore the effect of discourse type on the efficiency and effectiveness of expressive communication in individuals with MCI and early dementia; and to determine whether any discourse characteristics are predictive of cognitive performance. Seven adults (3 females; 4 males; age range: 59-79) representing several dementia diagnoses as well as MCI were administered six discourse tasks: a personal narrative, an advice question, single-paneled and multiple-paneled picture descriptions, a story retell, and a procedural discourse task. Hypotheses were formulated based on a presumed hierarchy of cognitive difficulty for the six discourse tasks.

Discourse was analyzed for the occurrence of discourse-enhancing and discourse-impairing characteristics. Discourse-enhancing characteristics included mean length of utterance, verbal facility, the occurrence of modifiers, vocabulary diversity, and type-token ratio. Discourse-impairing characteristics included the occurrence of pronouns, repetitions, revisions, and incomplete utterances.

The results of this study revealed significant differences between discourse tasks for all of the discourse-enhancing characteristics and for one discourse-impairing feature, the occurrence of pronouns. Post-hoc analyses revealed expected significant differences between measures for mean length of utterance, verbal facility, and pronouns, indicating decreased verbal facility and increased pronoun usage for measures that were cognitively more taxing. Conversely, unexpected significant differences between measures were revealed for discourse richness, including the occurrence of modifiers and vocabulary diversity, indicated increased discourse richness for the more cognitively demanding tasks. Correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between discourse characteristics and cognitive status. However, differences were not consistent enough across measures to be able to reliably predict cognitive performance.

This study resulted in several significant findings that speak to the sensitivity of discourse to shed light on cognitive factors such as episodic memory, working memory, semantic memory, attention, and higher level cognitive functions. However, significant differences between discourse types for discourse characteristics were not consistent enough to be generalizable. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Michelle Bourgeois, PhD (Advisor); Michael Trudeau, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Language; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

MCI; dementia; discourse; narrative language

Hunt, Meredith M.Perturbation and Harmonics to Noise Ratio as a Function of Gender in the Aged Voice
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Speech Language Pathology
The purpose of this investigation was to explore possible differences as a function of gender in perturbation (jitter and shimmer) and harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) among aged male and female speakers. Thirty normal aged adults (15 males; 15 females; over age 60) prolonged the vowel /a/ at a comfortable loudness level. Measures of jitter (%), shimmer (%), and HNR were used to compare vocal function between aged gender groups. No significant differences were found between genders on any of the measures. Findings are discussed relative to other published studies on similar measures and support data that aged voices exhibit increased variability. Future suggestions for research are discussed.

Committee:

Michael Trudeau, PhD (Advisor); Michelle Bourgeois, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Speech Therapy

Keywords:

"aged voice; jitter; shimmer; harmonics to noise ratio"

Hall, Carolyn SueFamily Experiences of Mealtime Behaviors of Children with ASD
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2009, Allied Medicine
Objective: Resistant eating behaviors in children with ASD are a significant stress factor that affects not only the parents but the entire family. The objective of this study was to enhance our understanding of the experiences these families go through on a daily basis. Method: Seven families with a child of a self-reported diagnosis of ASD, 4-8 years of age, and who met the criteria for resistant eating participated in the study. Each completed the Sensory Profile and a three-day food journal. The researcher interviewed each mother and observed the child eating a meal/snack. The open ended interviews with probes were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A follow-up phone call was used to verify critical issues to determine if the parents agreed with the interpretations. The transcripts were then used to obtain common themes among the families and their children. Results: Four themes emerged from the analysis of the transcripts of the interviews and field notes of the observations. The first theme was ritualistic, rigid behaviors seem to be key to resistant eating behaviors. All the children had at least one rigid routine, if not more than one that when these routines were not followed inappropriate mealtime behaviors would ensue. Another theme was compromises. The parents made compromises or devised strategies to assure that nutrients are consumed. The most common compromise was multiple meal preparations. The third theme that emerged was how these families manage social situations. All these families indicated that the behaviors have impacted the family’s social life. Taking a trip to a restaurant or family gathering required careful planning and may be disrupted at any point due to the child’s mealtime behaviors. The final theme that emerged was the family stress. Many mothers indicated that coping with their children’s eating behaviors was stressful to the entire family. The mothers felt guilty and took the blame for their children’s nutrition and eating behaviors. They also felt guilty about the impact it has on the siblings. Conclusions: Using the mothers’ perspectives, this study provided insight into the family life of ASD children with resistant eating behaviors and identified common themes on how resistant eating and ritualistic behaviors affect family life.

Committee:

Jane Case-Smith, Ph.D (Advisor); Maureen Geraghty, Ph.D (Committee Member); Alison Lane, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Therapy

Keywords:

ASD; picky eaters; resistant eating behaviors

Twilling, LauraImpact of Cognition on Language Skills of Children with Developmental Disabilities and Cochlear Implants
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Allied Health Sciences : Communication Science and Disorders
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cognition and language outcomes for children with cochlear implants and developmental disability and those with developmental disability alone. Language outcomes for the two groups were compared. The subjects consisted of a group of 4 children with cognitive disabilities and cochlear implants and their controls matched on age and cognitive ability. Subjects ranged in age from three to seven years old. Cognitive scores were derived from the non-verbal cognitive subtest from the Revised Gessell Developmental Schedules, and language scores were obtained using the Preschool Language Scale – 4th Edition (PLS-4). Statistical analysis examining the relationship between language and cognitive scores revealed a significant positive correlation between language and cognitive ability for the subject group with developmental disabilities and cochlear implants. There was not a significant relationship for the control group. Children with developmental disabilities and cochlear implants performed significantly below their matched peers with developmental disabilities and normal hearing on language measures. Children with developmental disabilities and normal hearing consistently performed at or above their cognitive level on language measures, while children with developmental disabilities and cochlear implants performed significantly below cognitive level. Although children with cochlear implants did not perform as well as controls with developmental disabilities and normal hearing, qualitative improvements were evident. All children in the cochlear implant subject group demonstrated increased receptive and expressive language skills following implantation, and three out of four of these children also demonstrated improved language quotients when compared to early language testing completed prior to implantation.

Committee:

Nancy Creaghead, PhD (Committee Chair); Sandra Grether, PhD, CCC-SLP (Committee Member); Jareen Meinzen-Derr, PhD, MPH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Speech Therapy

Keywords:

developmental disabilities;cochlear implants;cognition;language

Lohmann, MichelleRedefining Conflict: How Exploring Women's Narratives Complicates Darfur, Rape, and Gendered Positionalities
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Arts and Sciences : Communication
This thesis analyzes the narratives of Darfuri women and their experiences of the Sudanese conflict. A feminist theoretical perspective was utilized to explore the workings of gender within the narratives and to examine how privileging women’s voices might produce new insights regarding the conflict. Analytic work demonstrated complex interactions between agency and victimization and control and resistance throughout the narratives, contributing to a more complicated and complete understanding of the conflict and of Darfuri women.

Committee:

Heather Zoller, PhD (Committee Chair); John Lynch, PhD (Committee Member); Gail Fairhurst, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Speech Therapy

Keywords:

Darfuri women; Women; Redefining Conflict; Narratives; Conflict; Redefining

Campinha-Bacote, Darius DexterPre-Group Preparation in College Counseling Centers: Through the Use of an Audio-Visual Aid
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2012, School of Professional Psychology
The current dissertation articulates the importance of pre-group preparation, specifically in college counseling centers. The dissertation examines relevant research related to the need for pre-group preparation, as well as the various methods in which information can be delivered to clients. The researcher found that although there are several effective ways to prepare clients for group therapy, an underutilized, efficient, and cost effective way to deliver this information is through the use of an audiovisual aid (Acosta, Yamamoto, Evans & Skilbeck, 2006; D'Augelli & Chinsky, 1974; Egan, 1970; Hoehn-Saric, 1964; Martin & Shewmaker, 1962; Orne and Wender, 1968; Sloane, Cristol, Pepernik, & Staples, 1970; Strupp & Bluxom, 1973; Yalom, 1970; Yalom, Houts, Newell, & Rand, 1967). Boldt and Paul (2011) stated,“College students in this millennial generation just won't come to group therapy.” (p. 41). Due to the reluctance of college students joining group, the above authors suggest that an audio visual aid may be helpful in preparing clients to begin group therapy. This dissertation involved the creation of a professionally produced audio-visual aid, geared towards college students, with the intent to prepare clients for a wide range group therapies that may be offered at a given counseling center.

Committee:

Martyn Whittingham, PhD (Committee Chair); Robert Rando, PhD (Committee Member); Jessica Moss, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Audiology; Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Technology; Motion Pictures; Multimedia Communications; Psychology; Psychotherapy; School Counseling; Technology; Therapy

Keywords:

Pre-group Preparation; Video; Counseling Centers; College Counseling Centers; Audio-visual aid

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