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Grugan, Cecilia SpencerDisability Resource Specialists’ Capacity to Adopt Principles and Implement Practices that Qualify as Universal Design at a 4-Year Public Institution
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Due to the continuous growth of diverse student bodies on college campuses, creating accessibility for each unique student needs to be considered. Students who have a disability or disabilities are a substantial part of this growing diverse student body. Since disability resource specialists play a significant role in creating accessibility for such students, they can consider implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore where disability resource specialists fall on Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change and Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise in regards to implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. Six participants were included in this study out of eight who were invited to participate. Out of those six participants, the study showed that all participants demonstrated a strong presence in the Unfreezing stage of Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change. Also, the study showed that all participants showed a level of knowledge as the second tier to Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise. Limitations as well as recommendations for future research included recruiting a larger sample of participants to provide greater analysis of the study.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Suzanne Franco, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Stephanie Krah, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Engineering; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Instructional Design; Intellectual Property; Labor Relations; Management; Mass Communications; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Personal Relationships; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Public Policy; Reading Instruction; Recreation; Rehabilitation; Robotics; Robots; School Administration; Secondary Education; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Systems Design; Teacher Education; Transportation

Keywords:

Universal Design; Accommodations; Accessibility; Organizational Change; Proactive Practices; Disability; Disability Resource Specialists; Disability Services; Higher Education; Student Affairs

Holloway, Jimeka JBRINGING SOCIAL INNOVATION TO SCALE: LEVERAGING RELATIONAL CAPITAL AND RISK-TAKING BEHAVIORS OF ACTORS IN COMPLEX ECOSYSTEMS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Management
Social entrepreneurs are change agents that seek to maximize their use of limited financial resources to create long-term, lasting solutions to complex issues such as youth unemployment, recidivism, lack of home ownership, and a high rate of health disparities. Philanthropists, impact investors, and intermediaries play an imperative role in creating systems and influencing the strategies, choices, and intentions of these social entrepreneurs. The impact investing industry experiences inadequacies that limit its impact. These inadequacies include the lack of efficient intermediation, which indicates high search and transaction expenses, fragmented demand and supply, multifaceted deals, and underdeveloped networks (Kickul & Lyons, 2012). There is a need to study the interpersonal relationships among all of the key stakeholders in the ecosystem. This dissertation implements an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach in a 3-strand study to reveal the perspectives of a wide range of stakeholders in the social innovation ecosystem, such as social and commercial entrepreneurs, social enterprise staff and management, beneficiary groups, philanthropic and investment intermediaries, and funding bodies. The behaviors and practices of actors within the social impact investment ecosystem range from simple, informal responses for use in “everyday interactions” to more complex, formal structures. In the first qualitative study, I focus on the individual and organizational processes used to spark social enterprise in communities of economic distress. In the second quantitative study, I analyze the role of social enterprise financing and their social mission, geographic proximity, and risk absorption. Based on findings from the initial qualitative study and the quantitative study, I articulate a research model to study the tensions, issues, and challenges of philanthropic dyads in the social innovation ecosystem. The final strand of the three-part study examines the impact of investor relationships with intermediaries and investees. This research uses a qualitative, multi-case comparative research design. Examining stakeholder relationships in multiple social impact investments enables the identification of patterned behaviors that have endured across investments, across different settings, and diffused beyond the initial occurrence, indicating the emergence of new logics, structures, and processes. I develop a theoretical model that offers testable propositions for further exploration. Key findings include the following leverage points for practitioners and academics alike: social entrepreneurs engaging in continuous, experiential learning to point out barriers in the system; philanthropic intermediaries and impact investors explicitly addressing the challenge of mission drift when expanding the resource pool; and social entrepreneurs using co-creative strategies based on localized knowledge to scale best practices. Specifically, our findings highlight the journey of impact investors to be more strategic in using impact investments in scaling social innovation and making a better social impact. This dissertation posits a deep consideration of the relational context in which key actors in the social sector operate to influence both unexpected and expected consequences that will shape the vitality of the U.S.

Committee:

Richard Boland , Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Paul Salipante, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Hammack , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Roman Sheremeta, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship; Social Research; Systems Design

Keywords:

social innovation ecosystem; impact investment; social enterprise financing; program related investments; collective impact; complex adaptive systems; social capital; coopetition

Carbone, Marc AHIERARCHICAL DECENTRALIZED CONTROL TECHNIQUES OF A MODEL DC MICROGRID
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EECS - System and Control Engineering
As the practicality of decentralized generation progresses, the control and mitigation techniques of the large centralized energy grid become unsuitable solutions for power distribution. The creation of autonomous control on a dc microgrid is necessary to manage the system objectives of the future power grid. In order to begin this study, control algorithms must be tested in both software and hardware experiments. This research will explore the control efficacy of supporting the system objectives on a lab-scale dc microgrid, using a hierarchical control algorithm. The algorithm will determine the network topology of the system, as well as distribute power to the loads in order of priority.

Committee:

Kenneth Loparo, PhD (Advisor); Mingguo Hong, PhD (Committee Member); Marc Buchner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

DC Microgrid; Decentralized Control; Paxos; Renewable Generation

Naviroj, NatachaiA Warehouse Managed Inventory System for Multiple Retailers and Multiple Product
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EECS - System and Control Engineering
An inventory model for a large system consisting of multiple suppliers, one warehouse, multiple retailers, and multiple products was developed. The model and assumptions are based on the Mall Group’s supermarket division in Thailand and their warehouse project. Additional constraints on the system include vehicle capacity and vehicle fill rates. The objective is to determine the lowest cost shipping schedule that is easily implementable and serves as an operational guideline for warehouse managers. A twostep procedure which works in series was used to solve the warehouse-retailer and the supplier-warehouse level of the model. The result was tested on The Mall’s demand data and is shown to give improvement over the current system.

Committee:

Vira Chankong (Committee Chair); Kamlesh Mathur (Committee Member); Hong Mingguo (Committee Member); Prica Marija (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Operations Research; Systems Design

Zhao, PeiE-CRADLE v1.1 - An improved distributed system for Photovoltaic Informatics
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EECS - Computer and Information Sciences
Solar energy is becoming a more important energy source. With the photovoltaic industry experiencing its unprecedented growth in the past decade, the study of PV modules and their durability and lifetime performance is playing an important role in making solar energy a better, more reliable product. To facilitate PV analytics, a distributed system, called E-CRADLE was developed in 2013. Based on that, a number of improvements have been made forming the E-CRADLE v1.1. The improvements include: a monitoring system, a new database schema for PV data, and an easy way to process PV data. The monitoring system ensures the system is working properly. The new database schema is designed for PV data in a NoSQL database. And its universal design ensures it works with our old data as well as data in the future. The new way to process PV data makes distributed computing power accessible even to non-programmers.

Committee:

Guo Qiang Zhang (Committee Chair); Roger French (Committee Co-Chair); Mingguo Hong (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Materials Science; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

distributed system, informatics, photovoltaic, hadoop, hbase,

Simatrang, SornFault Detection for Rolling Element Bearings Using Model-Based Technique
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2015, EECS - System and Control Engineering
In this research, we focus on fault detection of rolling element bearings by using a model-based technique. Vibration data are obtained from the mathematical model developed by Michael Louis Adams in [1]. The model is a time-varying nonlinear model with 29 degrees of freedom (DOF), derived by determining the energy terms of the Lagrange equations. Fault frequencies and fault types include outer race (OR), Ball and Inner race (IR). In order to determine the model for performing fault detection, we use the Hammerstein – Wiener model for observer design. The results of system identification for each of the fault types are provided. The Hammerstein – Wiener models were used for observer design and implementation, and we exploited the cross-correlation between observer residuals and temporal features of OR and IR faults for detection and diagnosis.

Committee:

Kenneth Loparo, Ph.D. (Advisor); Vira Chankong, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Richard Kolacinski, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Applied Mathematics; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Systems Design; Systems Science

Keywords:

Fault Detection;Rolling Element Bearing;Hammerstein-Wiener model;Observer Design;Model Based Method;Cross-Correlation;Analytical Redundancy;System Identification

Buccapatnam Tirumala, SwapnaControl of Large Scale Networked Systems Under Uncertainty
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Electrical and Computer Engineering
The rapid growth and popularity of smart mobile devices, wireless networks, and online social networks has transformed the nature of social interactions as well as created a new platform for decision-makers (sellers, policymakers, etc.) to interact with users. New services developed on these platforms require not only faster data rates but also lower communication delays. These new services can also be improved by personalizing them to the users' preferences and learning from their social interactions. This dissertation investigates control policies for large social and wireless networks. It aims to overcome challenges due to scale and uncertainty that plague these systems. In the case of social networks, we develop control policies that can be used by decision-makers to provide better personalized services to users while leveraging the externalities that arise due to the users' social interactions. Specifically, this dissertation addresses the issue of unknown user preferences as well as the users' lack of global network knowledge. For users with limited network information, we develop dynamic pricing policies for the seller that guarantee both significantly better revenue for the seller as well as improved utility for the buyers over existing static policies. We also develop policies that the seller can use to better target consumers when the user preferences are unknown to the seller. These policies leverage the user interactions to accelerate the inference of these unknown preferences. Motivated by these policies, we explore more general reward maximization problems under uncertainty where additional information can be gleaned from the network structure. For example, this additional information is due to user interactions in social networks while in sensor networks, it is due to aggregation of data from nearby sensors. For wireless networks, we investigate how to lower delay and maximize throughput in the presence of time-varying uncertainty of wireless communication channels. We investigate these performance metrics for two important communication techniques, namely, retransmissions and network coding. One of the most common ways to ensure reliable communication is to retransmit data packets that have not been acknowledged by the receiver. For the fundamental setting of a single source-destination pair connected by a time-varying channel, we reveal the surprising result that even when the maximum packet size is small, the variability in packet sizes can be amplified by retransmission-based protocols, leading to poor delay and throughput performance. This result implies that coding mechanisms such as random network coding should be used to prevent or minimize retransmissions. In fact, recently, network coding schemes have been proposed to support significantly higher data rates than traditional methods. In this dissertation, we identify a critical scaling of batch sizes used in random linear network coding to ensure improved delay performance as well, even in the presence of time-varying channels. This scaling ensures optimal throughput and delay performance simultaneously for large scale network broadcasts with time-varying wireless links.

Committee:

Ness Shroff (Advisor); Atilla Eryilmaz (Advisor); Can Emre Koksal (Committee Member); Mikhail Belkin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Systems Design

Jangid, AnuradhaVerifying IP-Cores by Mapping Gate to RTL-Level Designs
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Computer Engineering
Since 1965, with the invention of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices, the number of transistors on ICs has doubled every two years, as predicted by Moore. Today, the scaling of digital ICs has reached a point where it contains billions of interconnected transistors. As anticipated by International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), mass production of silicon will contain over 6.08 billion transistors per chip by 2014, based on 14nm design technology standards. This humongous density of transistors places immense pressure on verification of IC designs at each stage of silicon development. Hardware Verification is the process of validating the correctness of a design implemented from the design specs. It accounts to nearly 70% - 80% of the total efforts in an IC development process. To validate the implementation, a typical silicon development cycle includes functional, logic and layout verifications processes. Therefore, it is desirable to incorporate a standard verification methodology which can certify point to point symmetry between the designs at different abstraction levels. Moreover, if such a methodology is applied, it would facilitate early detection of hardware defects which might arise from design synthesis, thereby, reducing the verification efforts in silicon development. In our work, we introduce a novel technique to verify the implementation of an IC at different design phases. Our technique is based on mapping of design models, by using Distinguishing Experiment, Distinguishing Sequence Generation, Simulation and Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG). ATPG produces input sequences; such that when these sequences are applied on a pair of gates from a circuit, they generate different logic values at their corresponding outputs. Both designs are simulated with these input sequences and based on the simulation results, a distinguishing tree is constructed. Our technique utilizes a recursive simulation approach where feedback to distinguishing sequence generation module is provided by the tree after each simulation. Intelligence drawn from distinguishing tree states correspondence or mismatch between designs. A System on Chip (SoC) is an IC design, containing wide range of Intellectual Property (IP) cores. Verifying the equivalency of these IP cores at different abstraction levels, such as - Register Transfer Level (RTL) and gate-level, is extremely important. Our approach requires examination of gate-level design and its equivalent RTL-level design to identify the correspondence between gates and wires/variables. For the implementation, we are proposing an algorithm which accepts the gate and an RTL level circuits, matches the wires/variables in RTL-level design to the gates in gate level-design and identifies the location(s) where the two descriptions differ (if any) from each other. Similarly, a mapping of gates from Gate-level and transistors (pMOS, nMOS) from layout-level design can be established. Our methodology is applicable to both combinational and sequential designs. We designed an algorithm based on the Time Frame Expansion concept in sequential ATPG. This algorithm generates distinguishing input sequence for both classes of circuits. We have used several heuristics to improvise our ATPG algorithm in terms of speed, efficiency, for example; loop avoidance, controllability to select objective and guide backtrack, unreachable state, etc. For asserting our approach, we have performed various experiments on standard designs, which include ALU, USB 2.0 and Open RISC 1200, wherein we have successfully established a correspondence between the designs. Also, we have introduced several variances in both the designs and carried out experiments to identify those differences and to evaluate the precision and efficiency of our approach.

Committee:

Daniel G Saab (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Design; Systems Design

Keywords:

Distinguishing Sequence, Distinguishing Experiments, Distinguishing Tree Generation

Tan, Kok KengCognitive Systems Engineering as an Ontology for Design
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Research has found many instances of surprises when technological systems are introduced into fields of practice (Woods & Dekker, 2000). These surprises appear in the form of new paths to failures and other side effects of change which are unanticipated by system designers. This thesis suggests that technologists as designers are limited by the ontologies they apply to make sense of the activities in a field of practice, causing the design claims embodied in their designed artifacts to be underspecified and ungrounded, producing the aforementioned surprises. Furthermore, technologists often respond to these surprises by inadvertently steering design down the path of creeping featurism and complexity. This point is illustrated using a design case involving intelligent vehicle automation. The thesis integrates results from the field of cognitive systems engineering to present an ontology which better supports design's human-centered intentions. Finally, a tool is proposed using cognitive systems engineering as ontology to support the design process.

Committee:

David Woods (Advisor); Philip Smith (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Systems Design

Keywords:

cognitive systems engineering; human-centered design; ontology for design; scenarios; patterns about people, work and technology

Dreser, MelanieDesign, Fun and Sustainability: Utilizing Design Research Methods to Develop an Application to Inform and Motivate Students to Make Sustainable Consumer Choices
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

Nowadays, when we talk about sustainability or environmentally friendly practices, we try to convince groups or individuals to be good citizens or good people. Especially young people do not care deeply about pursuing an environmentally conscious lifestyle if it requires an effort on their part.

What if one uses fun to influence (i.e., motivate and inform) students about sustainability in their daily life? Would this approach be more successful in changing their behavior? Can sustainability even be considered to be fun? As we already know, behavior change requires motivation and fun could be used as a motivational factor. Proposing that we need to develop programs and concepts that make a sustainable lifestyle fun instead of perceiving it as a negative influence on our quality of life provides new opportunities for projects and interventions.

When we make sustainable practices fun, the likelihood to adapt such a new behavior increases.

Behavioral change results from a combination of three factors, namely, awareness, information and motivation, which is the most important starting point for fun.

This thesis addresses the difficulties in informing and motivating students to choose a sustainable lifestyle by focusing on their consumer behavior. With a fun and playful application, the user should be able to learn and inform herself or himself about a sustainable lifestyle and be motivated to integrate it into her or his own daily life.

By offering multiple choices of action as well as the opportunity to be and act as a part of a whole group (i.e., collective action), competition and therefore motivation should be raised. This results from the idea that fun can be experienced both individually or as a group. Design Research is the main tool to develop this informational and motivational application. Research on the target group, in combination with existing case studies in design and the psychological aspects of human decision making, will lead to a design application. The resulting methodology could be used for any target group.

Committee:

Paul Nini, J (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Sanders, B.-N. (Committee Member); Carolina Gill (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Demographics; Design; Fine Arts; Sustainability; Systems Design

Keywords:

design; fun; sustainability; design research; participatory design; game; game mechanics; behavior change; Generation Y; sustainable lifestyle; human-centered; social networks; social media; co-design; motivation; information; awareness;

Thungtong, AnurakSynchronization, Variability, and Nonlinearity Analysis: Applications to Physiological Time Series
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - System and Control Engineering
In this thesis, we study synchronization, variability, nonlinearity analysis and their applications in physiological time series. For synchronization analysis, we explore both intensity and directionality of interaction. We propose a computational method to specify frequency ratio n : m, detect the moment when the frequency ratio changes, and also propose a novel method to measure the intensity of synchronization in n : m coupled system. Our method involves circular Poincare analysis of stroboscope and circular change point detection techniques. It is used to quantify interaction between respiration and ventilator recorded from lung injured rats. For directionality of coupling, we study Fourier series estimation approach and information-theoretic approach. We learn that Fourier series estimation approach is not practical because it is unknown how to automatically select an appropriate data segment for the estimation process. On the other hand, we show that the information theory approach simplifies the process of selecting a data segment to compute directionality of coupling. Therefore, it is appropriate for the physiological time series. The last topic in synchronization analysis is the study of neurodevelopment in neonates by evaluating synchronization in the EEG recorded from different regions of the brain. The result suggests that synchronization can be used to distinguish infants with different gestational ages. Specifically, based on intensity of synchronization in EEG, the late preterm group is more similar to the fullterm group than the mid preterm group. For the variability analysis, we propose a novel method to quantify heart rate variability (HRV) in ventilated rats after lung injury. We discover that periodicity of R-R interval is a key to distinguish difference of HRV in two ventilation groups. For nonlinearity analysis, we attempt to distinguish a nonlinear dynamical system from nonlinear transformation of a linear system. We investigate a nonlinear detection technique based on IAAFT surrogate and realize that its performance depends on both degree of nonlinearity of the transformation functions and nonlinear measures. Finally, we propose a novel technique to be used together with Barahona prediction method to fully distinguish various nonlinear schemes. Our method is based on residual analysis of a Volterra-Wiener-Korenberg model.

Committee:

Kenneth Loparo (Advisor); Vira Chankong (Committee Member); Thomas Dick (Committee Member); Frank Jacono (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Statistics; Systems Design

Keywords:

Synchronization; Coupling direction; Variability; HRV; Nonlinearity; Physiological time series;

Dommaraju, Sunny RajDesign and Implementation of a 16-Bit Flexible ROM-less Direct Digital Synthesizer in FPGA and CMOS 90nm Technology
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2013, Electrical Engineering
A ROM-less direct digital synthesizer architecture is presented in this thesis. This architecture eliminates the ROM-based phase to sine wave amplitude converter, which is a bottleneck for pushing clock frequencies into the gigahertz range. The design consists of a 16-bit phase accumulator, a set of 18 band pass finite impulse response filters, a 12-bit digital to analog converter and a low pass filter to produce a sine wave with output frequencies ranging from 36 MHz to 72 MHz with a resolution of 3.05 kHz and a 55 dB spur free dynamic range. The same hardware can be used to achieve output frequency ranging from hertz to gigahertz and a 191 Hz resolution by changing the clock frequency. A resolution of 0.05 Hz can be achieved by using a 32-bit phase accumulator. The average phase noise obtained was -87 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset, -118 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and -151 dBc/Hz at 5 MHz offset. This design was implemented on Virtex-6 FPGA. The analysis results of FPGA data show that the proposed design is an effective alternative. An ASIC design was also implemented in CMOS 90nm technology to reach higher frequency ranges.

Committee:

Saiyu Ren, Ph.D (Advisor); Raymond E. Siferd, Ph.D (Committee Member); Chein-In Henry Chen, Ph.D (Committee Member); R.William Ayres, Ph.D (Other)

Subjects:

Design; Education; Electrical Engineering; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

Direct Digital Synthesizer, ROM-less, 16-Bit Accumulator, Multiplier-less FIR Filter, Virtex 6 FPGA, CMOS 90nm Technology, Hardware Reuse, Pipe-lined Design, ASIC

saha, dhrubajyotiPLAYBACK BUFFERING AND CONTROL FOR LINEAR MULTIPLE INPUT MULTIPLE OUTPUT NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEMS
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Computer and Information Sciences
In this dissertation, we derive a generalized switched system model for a control strategy aimed at stabilizing linear stable Network Control Systems (NCS). In some special cases, plant states can be brought to a desired set-point by applying a single control. For such systems, we mathematically prove that the control strategy guarantees asymptotic stability under arbitrary switching. We also show that a small modification of the original strategy can be used to stabilize any stable linear NCS. Our work is based on a special case of the control strategy outlined in Liberatore [26]. The previous work only considered losses on the path from the plant sensors to the controller. If there are losses on the path between the controller and the plant, there might be discrepancies between the controller’s estimates and the actual plant states. Our mathematical model considers losses on both paths. Unlike the previous work, which considered only single input single output (SISO) systems, our model is generalized for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. We simulate our control scheme on owd and rtt data collected by three different methods. We define our own performance index and theoretically derive the upper bound on performance for different system parameters. We experimentally evaluate the noise rejection property of our strategy under stochastic disturbances using our performance index.

Committee:

Vincenzo Liberatore (Advisor); Michael Rabinovich (Committee Member); Michael Branicky (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Engineering; Systems Design; Systems Science

Keywords:

network control system; asymptotic stability arbitrary switching

Uppenkamp, Daniel AlanTwo Fundamental Building Blocks to Provide Quick Reaction Capabilities for the Department of Defense
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2013, Computer Science
The Department of Defense (DoD) has a need for long-term development efforts in conjunction with short-term development efforts. Ideally, Quick Reaction Capabilities (QRC) would be able to make use of the same processes that are used for Acquisition Programs (AP) with a few modifications to accommodate the accelerated schedule. Unfortunately, APs have a more fundamental problem with both the development process and the development framework. In August of 2007, the agile development process and modular, open source framework discussed in this thesis were two key factors that enabled the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to successfully deploy AngelFire in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). AngelFire was a QRC and the first Wide Field of View (WFOV) sensor to collect Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) that was not only saved onboard for forensic analysis, but was also disseminated to the users on the ground in near real time. Until APs can adapt and respond more quickly to the demands of irregular warfare, the two fundamental building blocks discussed in this thesis are what will enable QRCs to continue providing the 75% solutions that are needed today.

Committee:

Mateen Rizki, PhD (Advisor); Arthur Goshtasby, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Raymer, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin Priddy, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Remote Sensing; Systems Design

Keywords:

agile; AngelFire; Department of Defense; DoD; modular; open source; Pursuer; Quick Reaction Capabilities; QRC; Scrum; software development; SPADE; Wide Area Motion Imagery; WAMI;

Pschorr, Joshua KennethSemSOS : an Architecture for Query, Insertion, and Discovery for Semantic Sensor Networks
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2013, Computer Science
With sensors, storage, and bandwidth becoming ever cheaper, there has been a drive recently to make sensor data accessible on the Web. However, because of the vast number of sensors collecting data about our environment, finding relevant sensors on the Web and then interpreting their observations is a non-trivial challenge. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) defines a web service specification known as the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) that is designed to standardize the way sensors and sensor data are discovered and accessed on the Web. Though this standard goes a long way in providing interoperability between sensor data producers and consumers, it is predicated on the idea that the consuming application is equipped to handle raw sensor data. Sensor data consuming end-points are generally interested in not just the raw data itself, but rather actionable information regarding their environment. The approaches for dealing with this are either to make each individual consuming application smarter or to make the data served to them smarter. This thesis presents an application of the latter approach, which is accomplished by providing a more meaningful representation of sensor data by leveraging semantic web technologies. Specifically, this thesis describes an approach to sensor data modeling, reasoning, discovery, and query over richer semantic data derived from raw sensor descriptions and observations. The artifacts resulting from this research include: - an implementation of an SOS service which hews to both Sensor Web and Semantic Web standards in order to bridge the gap between syntactic and semantic sensor data consumers and that has been proven by use in a number of research applications storing large amounts of data, which serves as - an example of an approach for designing applications which integrate syntactic services over semantic models and allow for interactions with external reasoning systems. As more sensors and observations move online and as the Internet of Things becomes a reality, issues of integration of sensor data into our everyday lives will become important for all of us. The research represented by this thesis explores this problem space and presents an approach to dealing with many of these issues. Going forward, this research may prove a useful elucidation of the design considerations and affordances which can allow low-level sensor and observation data to become the basis for machine processable knowledge of our environment.

Committee:

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Amit Sheth, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bin Wang, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Geographic Information Science; Information Systems; Remote Sensing; Systems Design; Web Studies

Keywords:

Semantic Web; Sensor Web; Linked Data; Semantic Sensor Web; Sensor Data; Sensor Web Enablement; Sensor Observation Service;

Zhang, HanInformation Driven Control Design: A Case for PMSM Control
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
The key problem in control system design was the selection and processing of information. The first part was to collect some system dynamics offline or online in a cost-effective manner and use them in the controller design effectively. Next was to minimize the phase lag in the feedback loop to ensure best performance and stability. A systematic information-driven design strategy was discussed. A few key problems in permanent magnet synchronous motor control were taken in a case study: the current loop and decoupling, velocity loop with position feedback and position estimation at low speed. An active disturbance rejection based integrated current loop control solution was presented. Some implementation problems were also discussed: restructuring of active disturbance rejection control for implementation, scaling of extended state observer in fixed-point implementation and observer-based parameter estimation. The proposed methods were tested in simulation and hardware experiments.

Committee:

Zhiqiang Gao, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ana Stankovic, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lili Dong, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Hanz Richter, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sally Shao, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Hui Tan, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

PMSM; ADRC

Murphy, Taylor BWithin Reach: The Contribution of Dynamic Viewpoint to the Perception of Remote Environments
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Remote sensor platforms, operating as part of a human sensor system, allow practitioners to extend their reach into remote environments normally inaccessible to humans and to substantially change the scale at which they work. Despite the utility these sensor platforms provide to domain practitioners, their operation remains difficult, slow, and error prone. Previous work has claimed these problems stem from the fact that currently available sensor platforms are not designed to work with the human operator as part of a larger perceptual system. As a result, operators struggle to understand the physical layout of the remote environment, and the opportunities for action in that environment. These clams are well founded from perceptual psychology, but have not yet received empirical verification. Additionally, research performed on human sensor system perception has not yet addressed the effects of viewpoint motion on perceptual performance. Both gaps in the human sensor system perception literature have been addressed in the current work. The three experiments performed to address these gaps extended previous research examining operators’ ability to judge the reachability of target objects in a remote environment. The first two experiments found that the human sensor system was well modeled using approaches from perceptual psychology. These results support the claims made in previous work, that sensor platforms operate as part of a larger perceptual system. The third experiment in the current work found that viewpoint motions that ii provides new perspectives onto a scene of interest significantly improved participants’ perceptual performance. These results provide the first empirical verification of Roesler (2005) and Morison (2010)’s Perspective Control model. Taken together the results from the current work have implications for the design and testing of future sensor platforms in order to overcome the challenges facing current generation platforms and improve their performance.

Committee:

Michael Rayo (Advisor); David Woods, D. (Committee Member); Alexander Morison (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Robots; Systems Design

Keywords:

sensor; perception; control; human-machine interaction; supervisory control; human-robot interaction; ecological perception; affordances; mediated perception;

Maduri, VaishnaviMODELING, SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASOUND BIRD STRIKE PREVENTION SYSTEM
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2015, Electrical Engineering
This work describes the modeling, simulation and experiment for development of infra-sound bird strike prevention system by generating interference based active infra-sound zones using several sound generating. There are two strategies (static and dynamic), where the static approach creates active zones on the runway by using multiple sound generators. In this approach, the aim is to model different sound speaker arrangements using a developed infra-sound model. The model can be scaled to any wavelength ¿ and as infra-sound waves have very large wavelength’s, this enables one to work with shorter wavelength sound waves for the experiment, to model infrasound interference. While comparing different sound speaker arrangements, good and fair metrics namely average normalized intensity and coverage area are used to select the optimum speaker arrangement that gives the maximum sound wave amplitude profile in the runway as maximum sound wave profile is effective in preventing birds from the runway region. In order to verify the optimum arrangement of speakers obtained from static approach, using the developed model, experiments were carried out using 1 kHz sound speakers. For the dynamic approach, phased array sound generation i.e. beam steering is used to change the position of the active zone on the runway. MPLAB X IDE for dynamic approach and Matlab tool for static approach are used in simulations and experiments.

Committee:

Kye Shin Lee, Dr (Advisor); Ajay Mahajan, Dr (Advisor); Nathan Ida, Dr (Committee Member); Yilmaz Sozer, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Experiments; Logic; Systems Design

Keywords:

Bird Strike Prevention System Using Infra-sound modelling

Syed, Tamseel MahmoodPrecoder Design Based on Mutual Information for Non-orthogonal Amplify and Forward Wireless Relay Networks
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2014, Electrical Engineering
Cooperative relaying is a promising technique to enhance the reliability and data-rate of wireless networks. Among different cooperative relaying schemes, the half-duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is popular due to its low implementation complexity and performance advantages. This thesis investigates precoder design for a cooperative half-duplex single-relay NAF system from an information theoretic point of view using a novel mutual information-based design criterion. The first part of the thesis considers the design of a 2x2 precoder for the NAF half duplex single relay network in the presence of the direct link using mutual information (MI) as the main performance metric. Different from precoder design methods using pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, which are valid only at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the proposed precoder design can apply to any SNR region, which is of more interest from both information-theoretic and practical points of view. A MI-based criterion is developed for a cooperative frame length of 2, which corresponds to the case of using a 2x2 precoder. The design criterion is established in a closed-form, which can be helpful in finding an optimal precoder. Then it is analytically shown that a good precoder should have all entries that are equal in magnitude, which is different from the optimal precoders obtained thus far using the conventional PEP criterion. Simulation results indicate that the proposed class of precoders outperform the existing precoders in terms of the mutual information performance. The second part of the thesis extends the precoder design to an arbitrary block length of 2T. In general, for this case, a precoder of size 2Tx2T needs to be considered to optimize the MI performance. Similar to the 2 × 2 precoder design, a MI-based design criterion is first established. While the criterion can be expressed in closed form, the design of optimal precoders in this case is not possible, due to the complexity of the optimization problem. As an alternative, a novel grouping technique, which is referred to as symbol grouping, in which a group of only P = 2 information symbols are pre-coded to improve the MI, is proposed. It is then demonstrated that the grouping technique yields a much simpler design criterion and an optimal 2x2 precoder can be developed. Numerical results show that the proposed precoding technique outperforms existing precoder designs while keeping the receiver complexity at a minimum.

Committee:

Nghi H Tran, Dr. (Advisor); Alexis De Abreu Garcia, Dr. (Committee Member); Arjuna Madanayake, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Design; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Literature; Systems Design; Systems Science; Theoretical Mathematics

Keywords:

Cooperative Communication; wireless; network; reliability; data-rate; NAF; space-time code; non-orthogonal amplify and forward; information theory; mutual information; PEP; precoder; SNR; closed form; symbol grouping; receiver complexity; Tamseel Syed

Pettit, Erica SWindLCOE A MATLAB TOOL FOR OPTIMIZING THE LEVELIZED COST OF ENERGY FOR WIND TURBINE DESIGNS
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, EECS - System and Control Engineering
WindLCOE is a novel new tool developed through this project for wind turbine designers to promote return on investment by calculating the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for wind energy systems. The purpose of this MATLAB tool is to allow designers to calculate and find the optimal parameters for wind turbine design under multiple scenarios. These scenarios can vary in both the design of the wind energy system and the wind distribution it would be operating within. The WindLCOE tool is valuable to the wind energy field by providing an adaptable way to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy that can be easily updated to reflect changes and advancements in wind energy design.

Committee:

Mario Garcia-Sanz (Advisor); Francis Merat (Committee Member); Christos Papachristou (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Systems Design

Keywords:

Wind; Levelized Cost of Energy; MATLAB; Wind Turbine

McFall, Bruce DanielAn Adaptive Method of Joining Composite Structural Members
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Mechanical Engineering
In an era where there are growing concerns about the continued use of fossil fuels with approximately 71% of the petroleum used in the United States for transportation (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012), improving vehicle fuel economy is critically important. Vehicle weight reduction is a well-known strategy for reducing fossil fuel use in passenger vehicles and for every 10% reduction in weight, the result will be an approximately 7% reduction in fuel consumption. There are three different paths that can be followed in order to achieve substantial vehicle weight reductions – material substitution, vehicle downsizing, and vehicle redesign. Material substitution is the current focus of most of the automotive world because its minimal effect on time and costs. Vehicle redesign requires vast amounts of time and money; therefore it is only undertaken when necessary. It consists of redesign of the structural elements, completely new body styling, and powertrain redesign, among a myriad of other tasks. The focus of this thesis is on research of a new adaptive system of joining composite structural members which combines the best features of mechanical joints and adhesive joints without the substantial disadvantages of either one. The key element to the system is a compressive force element based on a wedge profile. The addition of compressive force minimizes the possibility of peel back of the adhesive and increases its shear strength by approximately three times. Along with the ability for disassembly, the combination mechanical/adhesive joint results in a multi-mode system of failure. With further work on more complex loading modes, the new joining system should allow for design of new vehicle structures similar to the space frame designs used by Audi (aluminum) and NASCAR (steel), except with carbon fiber.

Committee:

Rebecca Dupaix (Advisor); Jose Castro (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering; Mechanics; Systems Design; Transportation

Keywords:

Carbon-Fiber; Composite; Joint; Hybrid; Adhesive; Mechanical; Structural

Kim, Hyun SooBat Intelligent Hunting Optimization with Application to Multiprocessor Scheduling
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, EECS - System and Control Engineering
In this dissertation, we introduce a novel heuristic, Bat Intelligent Hunting, for the first time. Similar to many existing heuristics, the Bat Intelligent Hunting provides a framework for solving various optimization problems. As the name suggests, Bat Intelligent Hunting models the prey hunting behaviors of bats. Bats locate and capture preys without using their eyesight by utilizing echolocation and Constant Absolute Target Approach (CATD) techniques. Bat Intelligent Hunting implements these concepts to converge towards the optimal solution. To illustrate the performance of Bat Intelligent Hunting, we employ Bat Intelligent Hunting to solve the Multiprocessor Scheduling Problem (MSP). The MSP deals with assigning a given set of tasks to a set of processors as to optimize specified objective(s). We solve two different types of MSPs: a) MSP without voltage scaling and b) MSP with voltage scaling. In the first problem, energy is not considered as one of the objectives, but in the second problem, energy is included as one of the objectives. In both problems, we performed multiple objective optimization using the Normalized Weighted Additive Utility Function where we use a set of importance of objective values (weights) to identify a set of efficient solutions. In the first problem, we solve for two objectives of minimizing makespan and tardiness. We initially solved each objective separately, and then perform bi-objective optimization. In the single objective MSP, on average, the Bat Intelligent Hunting outperformed the list algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm by 11.12% and by 23.97% when solving for makespan and tardiness, respectively. In bi-objective MSP, the Bat Intelligent Hunting identified a set of efficient solutions. In the second problem, we first solve two cases of the bi-objective MSPs with objectives to: a) minimize makespand and energy; and b) minimize tardiness and energy. We then solve the tri-objective MSP with the objectives to: minimize makepsan, tardiness, and energy. In all of our simulations, Bat Intelligent Hunting identified a set of solutions that correspond to the assigned weights and showed the multi-objective behaviors of the multiple objective MSP.

Committee:

Behnam Malakooti (Committee Chair); Frank Merat (Committee Member); Swarup Bhunia (Committee Member); Vira Chankong (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Systems Design

Keywords:

heuristic; multiprocessor scheduling, multiple objective optimization

Miller, Adam J.Methodology for Cost Estimation of Systems at a Preliminary Stage of Design
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)

Reliable cost estimation of systems in the early design stages can be very beneficial. Some methods that do focus on system estimation are based on high level parametric models, which are not always detailed enough to provide a reliable or useful prediction model.

This thesis provides a repeatable method for creating Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) for the estimation of a system of parts using attributes available at a preliminary design stage. The methodology provides guidelines for collecting data, classifying data, and creating CERs. Also, Attribute Estimating Relationships (AERs) are discussed for estimating the CER inputs that may not be available in preliminary design with attributes that are available in preliminary design.

The methodology was tested on a system of parts from a jet engine and the resulting CERs were compared to other higher level models. The results indicated the proposed method was slightly less accurate than some alternative models. However, the proposed method provided a more detailed and logical CER than the alternate models.

Committee:

Dale Masel, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Business Costs; Design; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

Cost Estimation of Systems; Systems CERs; Cost Estimating Relationships; Cost Estimation; System Level Cost Estimation

Matta, Vikram A.Predicting the Adoption of Radio Frequency Identification Systems in the Supply Chain
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Integrated Engineering (Engineering and Technology)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is like wireless barcodes, in that it allows scanning of serial numbers without line of sight. This ability brings great benefits in supply chain organizations, where RFID tagged goods and pallets are must be scanned frequently – whether in manufacturing processes, transit or inventory. Opposing these drivers of adoption, are challenges to implementation which impede its adoption, error control, installation issues, standardization of the format of the technology and management related issues.

As a result of reviewing literature on technology adoption antecedents in organizations, a success ratio (the number of times many times an antecedent significantly predicted adoption, to the number of times it had been studied), identified four likely antecedents to RFID. These antecedents are: top management support, external pressure, cost-benefit analysis, and organizational size. The purpose of this research is to validate these antecedents in context of RFID in supply chain organizations. A survey instrument based on accepted methods for measuring these four antecedents was sent to management personnel in supply chain organizations. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data collected from the survey. Advanced model entry methods, like stepwise, were used to provide insight into the significance of antecedents in the presence and absence of others. Of the four antecedents, it was found that only top management support and external pressure were significant in predicting this RFID adoption. Cost-benefit, which is significant in predicting adoption of other technologies, had a very little impact and was only was significant when used by itself. Organizational size was not a significant predictor of adoption. Several reasons for this result are posited. Contributions of external pressure and cost-benefit towards top management support is further explored and found significant, and therefore recommended for further study.

Committee:

David A. Koonce, PhD (Committee Chair); Raymond D. Frost, PhD (Committee Member); George A. Johanson, PhD (Committee Member); Ralph E. Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Community; Communication; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems; Management; Marketing; Statistics; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

Radio Frequency Identification Systems; RFID; Supply Chain; Logistics; Technology Adoption; Diffusion of Innovations; Logistic Regression

Morison, Alexander M.Perspective Control: Technology to Solve the Multiple Feeds Problem in Sensor Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Industrial and Systems Engineering
The recent explosion of sensing capability has influenced many domains such as medical care, public safety, and national defense. Along with the new capabilities have come new opportunities for providing tele-medicine at a distance, providing surveillance of a large physical area, and to perform reconnaissance in hostile environments. In many, if not all, of these systems performance has not kept up with the perceived opportunities these capabilities embody. Instead, generic challenges have emerged that appear fundamental to human-sensor systems. One such challenge, the multiple feeds problem, refers to the difficulty or inability of human-sensor system users and decision makers to integrate the diversity of sensor feeds that have been instantiated through these sensor systems. This challenge emerges from the lack of adequate system design for the coordination of the multiple perspectives these sensor systems represent. The Perspective Control approach addresses the multiple feeds problem through Perspective Control; a method of controlling point-of-view. In the Perspective Control approach, sensors are considered generic points-of-observation that conform to a spherical coordinate system. A user is able to control a sensor by expressing a desired view direction through a novel input device called a Perspective Controller, which also embodies a spherical coordinate system. This device not only provides a method for controlling a single sensor, but also a method for navigating between sensors. In navigating between sensors the layout of the sensor network is perceived directly (i.e., a form of extending perception). The ability of Perspective Control to solve the multiple feeds problem is established through an operational engineering demonstration that utilizes user controlled viewpoint to control a network of video cameras. This demonstration is embedded in a video surveillance context utilizing a network of pan and tilt capable video cameras. At the heart of the Perspective Control engineering demonstration is the Perspective Control apparatus which is a working prototype designed and built based on constraints of a generic point-of-observation. In addition to the Perspective Controller the engineering demonstration leverages an indoor, video camera surveillance network and a 3-dimensional virtual environment. Perspective Control is one potential approach for solving the multiple feeds problem.

Committee:

David Woods, PhD (Advisor); Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Member); James Todd, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Coleman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Robots; Systems Design

Keywords:

sensors; layered sensing; perception; control; human-machine interaction; supervisory control; human-robot interaction

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