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Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Douglass, D'Wanna M.Lost Youth: The Forgotten Ones. A Personal Journey of Awareness & the Need to Advocate
MLS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
This essay recounts the story of one woman’s efforts to overcome adversity through a combination of life experiences and education in the context of and sometimes even in opposition to recent Sociological studies of the underprivileged; It also examines how such individuals can use the knowledge they acquire in this way to pay it forward; and advocate for youth.

Committee:

Manacy Pai (Advisor); John S. Rainey (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art Education; Counseling Education; Education; Educational Sociology; Families and Family Life; School Counseling; Sociology

Keywords:

youth at risk; sociology; education; counseling; advocate; abuse

Stack, Wendy M.The Relationship of Parent Involvement and Student Success in GEAR UP Communities in Chicago
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
Nationally, the education pipeline is not preparing enough students for success and high school dropout rates in the nation’s urban areas are alarming. This mixed methods (QUAN→qual) empirical study examines the influence of parent involvement on the academic success of 1,774 GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) students matched to their parents in 21 high schools in Chicago. The results of the regression analyses were presented to focus groups composed of GEAR UP parents and staff to assist in making meaning of the data and to gain deeper insight and understanding of the results. The study results were viewed through the lens of social capital and implications for leadership were drawn for marginalized stakeholders. Parental involvement was measured by the amount of time parents engaged in GEAR UP program activities and the degree to which this involvement is related to their child’s achievement and aspirations for college was studied. The study focused on students and their parents who have been involved in GEAR UP in 8th grade and 9th grade. Student success was measured by 9th grade GPA and 10th grade PLAN Composite Score and Aspirations for College measured by the postsecondary intent question on the PLAN. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between parent involvement and 9th grade GPA (p <.001) and a significant relationship between parent involvement and the PLAN Composite Score (p < .05). The video clips included in this document require Adobe Reader 9.0 and are directly accessible while reading.

Committee:

Carol Baron, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); George Olson, PhD (Committee Member); Chandra Taylor-Smith, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Higher Education; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Secondary Education; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

parent participation; GEAR UP; student achievement; social capital; mixed methods; quantitative; qualitative; urban; Chicago; transition; elementary; Latino; African-American; college access; GPA; college aspirations; K-12; leadership; family

Das, Dilip A.Four-Year College Choice Considerations Among High-Achieving Lower-Income Community College Students in Michigan
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Higher Education
The college choice considerations and decisions of high school seniors matriculating full-time to four-year colleges is well-documented. However, a growing majority of students do not fit within the high school to four-year college group, leaving gaps in the college choice research literature. This qualitative study addresses the college choice research gap though semi-structured interviews of 17 academically talented – 3.5 or higher grade point average with over 25 college credits completed – Pell Grant-eligible community college students seeking transfer to a four-year college. All participants demonstrated high levels of motivation to complete a baccalaureate. Twelve of participants applied to only one transfer college and five applied to two. Constraints on college choice included a variety of financial considerations, strategic recruiting strategies by four-year colleges, and a lack of detailed guidance and college knowledge. Utilizing a cultural capital framework for analysis, marked differences between the college experiences of traditional four-year students and high-achieving, low-income non-traditional community college students were found including differences based on class, race and cultural traditions.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Larry G. McDougle, PhD (Committee Member); Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Adult Education; African American Studies; Community College Education; Economics; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Middle Eastern Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

Transfer college choice; college choice; lower-income; Pell-eligible; high-achieving; first generation; class reproduction; undermatching; cultural capital; stratification; workforce experience; motivation; choice constraints; race and class constraints

Briney, Carol EMy Journey with Prisoners: Perceptions, Observations and Opinions
MLS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
Carol E. Briney is the founding executive director of Reentry Bridge Network, Inc. and Reentry Solutions, Inc. Briney believes that a systematic approach is required to reduce the likelihood of recidivisim. For nearly a decade, she has written and facilitated holistic pro-social programs inside prisons and in community forums. Her programs support bridging the gap between prison and community by focusing on human value, grief-impairment, daily literacy, reentry and job readiness, trauma-informed care, the healing arts, and understanding poverty. Briney's work is founded on her strong belief - If we can&#x2019;t help people to realize their own universal value, how can we expect them to see the value in their victims or their environment? This is gained through asset building, not punitive action. It takes community to reduce recidivism.

Committee:

Richard Berrong, PhD (Advisor); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member); Manacy Pai, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Aging; Art Criticism; Art Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Black History; Black Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Criminology; Cultural Anthropology; Cultural Resources Management; Curriculum Development; Developmental Psychology; Divinity; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Evolution and Development; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Forensic Anthropology; Gender Studies; Gerontology; Individual and Family Studies; Inservice Training; Instructional Design; Journalism; Kinesiology; Language; Linguistics; Literacy; Logic; Mental Health; Metaphysics; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Modern Literature; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Pastoral Counseling; Peace Studies; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Political Science; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Administration; Public Policy; Religion; Religious Education; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociolinguistics; Sociology; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Theology; Urban Planning; Vocational Education; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

prison; reentry; trauma; poverty; grounded theory; universal value; punitive; recidivism; corrections; Retablo; play therapy; male prisoners; female prisoners; socio-metaphysics; grief-impairment; grief and loss; truth-telling; poverty; hood; prison art

Nuggud, Vishtasp RohintonSuccessful Coping Strategies for Bullied Students: A Cross Sectional Study of Suburban and Urban Students in Grades 6 Through 8
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
Students come to school each day to learn, socialize, and grow as individuals. Unfortunately, these basic reasons for attending school are disrupted when the student is threatened and/or bullied. Edmondson and Dreuth-Zeman (2011) tell us that, “School districts have a responsibility to provide education in a safe and effectual climate that minimally threatens students’ rights (p. 36)”. Schools have started to acknowledge bullying as a growing issue, and have implemented anti-bullying policies. Simply acknowledging the existence of bullying in school and addressing the perpetrator is not enough. Multiple studies have been conducted on the behaviors of those involved in bullying (Cross et. al, 2009; Olweus, 1993; Rigby, 1996; Salmivali, 2001) and the long-term affects the involvement with bullying can have on the individual (Sourander et al. 2010; Vanderbilt & Augustyn, 2010; Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, & Lagerspetz, 2000; and Smokowski and Kopasz, 2005). Based on the review of literature, seldom have their been studies conducted to learn how victims cope with bullying, so that schools can educate and support future generations of students. In order to address the purpose of this study, the researcher developed the Student Utilized and Perceived Strategies (SUPS) scale designed to measure the coping strategies utilized by victimized students, the effectiveness of these strategies by victimized students, and the perceived effectiveness of other coping strategies. The level of data received from the participants in this study will determine which statistical models the researcher will employ to address each of the three research questions. The statistical models that will most likely be considered are the Chi-Square test, the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, and a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The three research questions that drive this study are as follows: • Is there a statistically significant relationship between students from suburban and urban schools and the types of coping strategies they utilize? • How effective are the perceived coping strategies for bullied victims between suburban and urban schools? • Is there a statistically significant relationship in the victimization by bullying between students in grades 6, 7, and 8 from suburban and urban schools? The study focused on the victimized student, and sought to understand and determine how students, who have been traumatized, utilized coping strategies to escape the bully. Information from this study can be used to educate students, schools, parents, and other community members of positive coping strategies for victimized students.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jonathan Messemer, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Gender Studies; Psychology; School Counseling; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Sociology

Keywords:

Bullying; Coping Strategies; Middle School; Urban Schools; Suburban Schools; Bullied Victims; School Transition; SUPS; Olweus; Victimized Students

Glenda, Toneff-Cotner E.Transformation or Tragedy? A Retrospective Phenomenological Study of School Closure
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
School closure has become an accepted method of school reform policy as outlined in federal legislation found in The No Child Left Behind Act. The academic literature regarding school closure is limited and tends to be quantitative in design, focusing on the relationship between student achievement and school closure and/or student transitions. Qualitative studies around this topic have only recently emerged, focusing on the immediate impact of school closure and transition. There is a need for a retrospective study, reflecting on the long-term effects of school closure on individuals and their communities, as told by the students who experienced it. This study seeks to understand the experience of DeVilbiss students who attended the high school in the year its closure was announced, and who transitioned to a neighboring high school for the 1991-1992 school year. Using semi-structured interviews to explore issues related to transitions, the study will examine identity, social capital, relational trust, community connectedness and engagement, school and community pride, tradition, and the sense of belonging. The study will offer insight into the long-term effects of school closure, particularly through the eyes of those who experienced the closing of DeVilbiss High School. The study has implications for current and future policy decisions.

Committee:

Anne Galletta, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Joanne Goodell, Ph.D (Committee Member); Marius Boboc, Ph.D (Committee Member); Brian Harper, Ph.D (Committee Member); Leigh Chiarelott, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Economic Theory; Education; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Psychology; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; School Finance; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology; Sustainability; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Disaster Capitalism; Human Capital; No Child Left Behind Act; Place Attachment; Place Identity; Privatization of Education; Race to the Top; School Choice; School Closure; School Transition; Social Capital; Systems Thinking; Urban Renewal; White Flight

Perkins, Delno TyreeA study of some of the factors involved in the friendship selections of juniors in high school
Master of Arts, Oberlin College, 1957, Sociology

Before we examine the friendship patterns of Lorain High School Junior Class, it is well to discuss briefly the meaning of the relationship, friendship, in the existing society and to refer to certain studies dealing with selective association and friendship patterns among high school students. It is important to examine the peculiarities in the social process of friendship within the culture and also to note its particular functions and characteristics within the subculture of a high school situation as a background for the present study.

Friendship in the culture of the United States is difficult to define because it is not an institutionalized relationship. What the best friend is, what his functions is, and how he is chosen is not formalized as in come cultures such as the Dahomean.

One might say that the relationship of best friends is a dyadic one in which two individuals assume mutual obligations and affections which transcend those obligations and affections ordinarily imposed by the society in which the relationship takes place. Thus, for example, each student in a high school situation chooses one or more best friends and thereby goes beyond the casual relationship supported by the classroom situation. These more intimate primary relationships include long hours of being together, sharing common interests within and outside school. Note that every student-to-student relationship does not and cannot assume this degree of involvement.

Committee:

(Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Sociology; Social Research; Social Structure; Sociology

Keywords:

Lorain High School;junior;friendship;classroom;students;friends;culture;relationships;Lorain;Ohio;

Daberkow, Kevin S.Financing Ohio’s Public Schools through the Ohio Lottery: Quantitative and Qualitative Dimensions of the Lottery’s Tax Incidence
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2012, (Education)
For nearly four decades the Ohio lottery has offered its products with the promise of providing a financial benefit to Ohio’s public schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the tax incidence of the Ohio lottery in addition to qualitative aspects of lottery play. Data were collected from Ohio lottery sales and U.S. Census data both aggregated by zip code. Analysis of tax incidence was conducted through Suits Index analysis with confidence intervals in addition to double-log regression analysis creating elasticity coefficients. Qualitative data were collected through interviews. Five qualitative interviews provided data that were analyzed from an adapted grounded theory perspective. Suits Index analysis suggested that the Ohio lottery has been a regressive form of school finance for all of the years covered in this study (1992-2010). The least regressive games were lottery products that offered larger payouts with lower odds of winning. The most regressive games offered significantly smaller jackpots with higher odds of winning. Double-log regression revealed that lottery sales were supported disproportionately by less affluent consumers. Zip codes with higher median ages were found to drive increased lottery sales for all three types of lottery games. Non-African American minorities in Ohio (zip code analysis) were also shown to drive increased Lotto game sales. Increased percentages of males in a zip code resulted in increased Instant game sales. A higher level of education in a zip code reflected increases in lottery product’s sales. Findings of regressivity were confirmed in lottery scholarship; however, demographic representation of lottery play offered mixed results. Qualitative findings of this study revealed avoidance by lottery players to outside interference in their lottery play. Respondents also suggested a strong ability to control the lottery process when they were able to select numbers or tickets based on socially constructed or situationally applicable rules and values. Finally, respondents shared that they have some sense that lottery profits are directed to schools, despite voicing a strong anti-lottery and anti-large school district sentiment. When viewed in the context of sociological theory of stratification, the findings suggested that the lottery acts as a regressive tax on Ohio’s lottery consumers while education fails to receive a financial benefit due to fungibility described in existing literature. The primary research suggestion was to extend benefit incidence research. Policy recommendations that connect lottery regressivity to Ohio’s schools included a commitment to finance Pre-K and Kindergarten initiatives, class size reduction strategies for Ohio’s poorest schools, and a higher education lottery scholarship funded through lottery profits for graduates from Ohio’s poorest high schools.

Committee:

Frans Doppen, PhD (Committee Chair); Edward Morris, PhD (Committee Member); Gordon Brooks, PhD (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Economics; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; School Finance; Sociology

Keywords:

Ohio lottery; Suits Index; double-log regression; Ohio school finance; tax incidence; lottery scholarship; class-size reduction; Ohio school funding; pre-k funding; full-day kindergarten; lottery tax; sociology of education; stratification

Schafer, Patricia A.Experiences of Prejudice Among Individuals in African American and Caucasian Interracial Marriages: A Q-Methodological Study
PHD, Kent State University, 2008, College of Education, Health, and Human Services / Department of Adult, Counseling, Health and Vocational Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate experiences of prejudice among individuals in African American and Caucasian interracial marriages. This study utilized Q methodology as a means of identifying and understanding the perceptions of experiences of prejudice held by 40 participants (20 couples). A set of 33 statements relating to experiences of prejudice was generated from a thorough literature review relating to African American and Caucasian interracial unions. Each participant was given a set of statements and asked to rank them on a continuum of -4, “most disagree,” to +4, “most agree” according to what they perceived were their experiences since being married. After the Q-sort process, participants responded to a post-sort interview. The specific research question that directed the study was: “What are the experiences of prejudice among individuals in African American and Caucasian interracial marriages?”

The results of the Q-sort were factor analyzed utilizing the PQ Method 2.11 (Schmolck & Atkinson, 2002) software program producing four distinct factors, or groups, relating to experiences of prejudice. The four different groups were identified in the following way: (a) family and public acceptance; (b) public rejection; (c) public acceptance; and (d) rejection and acceptance.

Each of the four factors revealed distinct experiences of prejudice according to participants’ subjective viewpoints. Understanding there were differences, and some similarities, of perceptions among the individuals in the study, and between spouses, offers considerations for future researchers to pursue these perceptions, and to use this information for the development and training of multicultural counselors.

Committee:

Cynthia Osborn, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Jason McGlothlin, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Steven Brown, PhD (Committee Member); Rhonda Richardson, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; African History; Behaviorial Sciences; Black History; Communication; Educational Sociology; Families and Family Life; Mental Health; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

interracial marriage; African American and Caucasian interracial marriage; multicultural marriages; Q Methodology; prejudice; Black and White marriages; miscegenation; anti-miscegenation; perceptions of interracial marriages; Black studies; Black history

Sparks, Tory Adna"This is a Closed Space for Queer Identifying Folx": Queer Spaces on Campus
BA, Oberlin College, 2017, Gender Sexuality and Feminist Studies
Using data from 27 interviews conducted in Fall 2016, I will show how students at Oberlin College construct queer-only spaces as sites for the formation of their queer identities. This is done through three discourses: the rhetoric of safe spaces; the ambiguity of queer as an identity label; and the positioning of a space as open or closed based on self-identification. Thus, in entering a space in which participation is contingent upon self-identification with the category “queer” (as it pertains to non-heterosexual and/or non-cis identity), students at Oberlin College are co-producing their queer identities while simultaneously forming “queer spaces.” This paper looks at 1) the ways in which Oberlin students identify as and define queer, 2) the rhetoric of queer spaces and how they are defined, talked about, advocated for, and advertised, 3) problems Oberlin students encounter with creating and participating in these queer spaces, including those specifically experienced by students of color and gay men, 4) the ways students understand and navigate through the concept of and rhetoric around “safe spaces,” 4a) how all of these factors are dealt with through a contradicting and yet reconcilable engagement with identity politics and queer theory, and 4b) how Oberlin Students are unique queer figures within a Foucauldian genealogy of queerness as always in relation to a norm.

Committee:

Greggor Mattson (Advisor); Patrick O'Connor (Committee Member); Bogdan G. Popa (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Sociology; Gender; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Social Research; Sociology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

queer, campus, queer space, safe space, queer students, oberlin

Sinicki, Justin M.A Social Psychological Perspective on Student Consumerism
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2017, Sociology
With colleges and universities functioning more as businesses, students have been conceptualized as consumers and customers of the “products” and services “sold” by higher education institutions. Anecdotally, a considerable amount of college students have consumer-orientations. This rise in student consumerism has not only transformed student ideologies regarding the purpose of higher education, but its negatively impacting student behavior and learning processes inside the classroom. However, empirical studies have yet to support the suggested prevalence of student consumerism. Additionally, no study has attempted to understand student consumerism at the social psychological level. Using an electronic survey administered to undergraduate students at a public university, this pilot study shows that student-consumer orientations are moderate at best, and many students do not agree with certain beliefs or behaviors that are attributed to consumer-orientations. At the social psychological level, multiple regression results indicated student consumer attitudes are significantly associated with social exchanges or activities involving academic costs. Furthermore, the results suggested that males find academic activities or exchanges more costly than females, and males also find putting off academic work for non-academic social exchanges or activities more rewarding than females. In using a social psychological perspective on student consumerism, this pilot study will contribute to future research that explores students educational decision-making processes.

Committee:

Patricia Case, Dr. (Committee Chair); Karie Peralta, Dr. (Committee Member); Barbara Coventry, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Social Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

Student consumerism; student customer-orientation; student consumer-orientation; Social Exchange Theory; the commodification of higher education; social psychology; decision-making processes; rewards; costs; neoliberalism; gender inequality

Fairchild, Mildred The Negro in Oberlin
Master of Arts, Oberlin College, 1925, Sociology

In every library of any standing there exists today and since the days of abolitionism a vast number of books and pamphlets dealing with the negro in America. Some treat of his virtues, some of his faults; some are sentimental, some harsh; nearly all discuss him as a race With emphasis on racial characteristics and racial possibilities. Only recently has the scientific spirit invaded the field sufficiently to reveal the possibility of honest progress through the specific study of concrete situations. As I write there lies on my table the March issue of the Survey Graphic devoted to "Harlem! Mecca of the New Negro." Slowly we are appreciating that our knowledge of social science like our knowledge of physical science will advance only with the painstaking analysis of each contributing factor.

I have undertaken a study of the Negro in Oberlin, therefore, not with the expectation of contributing anything of particular value to Oberlin or to the colored man who lives here, but with the hope that a collection and an analysis of the vital factors in the life and the development of the negro community here, in so far as it is possible for me to ascertain and interpret these factors, will find a place, however small, in the sincere effort to build a comprehension of social affairs on a foundation of facts.

Oberlin offers a laboratory for such a study which is unique but not abnormal. It is unique in that the history of the relation of both town end college to the negro has been extraordinary in its ideals and purposes. It is typical nevertheless in that the outworking of these ideals has been that of any average town of its size and potentiality. Almost from the outset Oberlin has stood for justice and equality of opportunity for every man regardless of color. With the granting of the opportunity, its responsibilities for the most part have ended. We have no Utopia to observe, therefore, but a very ordinary town with ordinary problems, the usual successes and the usual failures, such as might be repeated in any locality in almost any state in the country.

Committee:

, (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; Sociology; Sociology, Demography

Keywords:

Oberlin;Ohio;negro;community;abolitionism;America;Harlem;

Hoffman, Phil R.“But Are We Really Friends?”: Online Social Networking and Community in Undergraduate Students
Doctor of Education, University of Akron, 2008, Educational Administration
This study investigates the use of online social networking web sites by undergraduate students as it relates to their sense of community on college campuses. Using a case study method, an audit trail was created to study how undergraduates perceived online social networking web sites like Facebook.com as it relates to their sense of shared values and norms of behavior, extended relationships of caring, and sense of obligation to the greater good of that community. Six undergraduate students were interviewed on three separate occasions to develop deep understanding of how the participants viewed themselves, their campus community, and the relationship of Facebook.com to their own sense of community. The case studies were analyzed using a framework drawn from the research literature related to communitarianism, computer-mediated communication, and face-to-face communication.

Committee:

Sharon Kruse (Advisor)

Subjects:

Communication; Education; Educational Sociology; Mass Media; Personal Relationships; School Administration; Social Research; Social Structure; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

social network; Facebook; undergraduate; higher education; community; communication; mediated; interpersonal;

Bishop, MadisonTaking Up Space: Community Formation Among Non-Urban LGBTQ Youth
BA, Oberlin College, 2015, Comparative American Studies
This paper provides an overview of the resources that exist for LGBTQ youth in the Cleveland area and uses the Queers and Allies Club at Oberlin High School (Oberlin, OH) as a case study in community formation among teenagers who identify as LGBTQ or as an ally to the LGBTQ community. Each chapter addresses potential sources of support, including schools, national organizations, and the Internet while presenting opportunities for improvement in each realm, demonstrating that while some LGBTQ youth resources exist, they are designed for youth in urban areas, leaving students in non-urban communities without access to community or information.

Committee:

Wendy Kozol (Advisor); Evangeline Heiliger (Committee Member); Meredith Raimondo (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Education; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Gender; Gender Studies; Sociology; Web Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

queer; LGBTQ; youth studies; LGBTQ youth; GLSEN; anti-bullying; Internet community; tumblr; gay straight alliance; LGBTQ allies; LGBTQ community formation; rural youth; exurban;Cleveland;Oberlin;Ohio;Queers and Allies Club;

Scott, Camille R&#x201c;Outside People&#x201d;: Treatment, Language Acquisition, Identity, and the Foreign Student Experience in Japan
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2014, Anthropology
In recent years, an increasing number of foreign students have been engaging in language and cultural immersion programs in Japan, raising issues of cross-cultural contact and exchange. Japan's enduring cultural nationalism produces an ethnocentric valuation of homogeneity, thereby affecting the ways in which Japanese natives engage with and respond to these students. This paper draws on two months of ethnographic research at two Japanese universities to examine how everyday, culturally embedded nationalism affects the experience, identity, and language instruction of western nonnative learners of Japanese with regards to the institution, the instructors, and the community around them. This discourse on issues surrounding the presence of foreign youth in a nationalistic society has application for discrimination reforms on the international level.

Committee:

Haley Duschinski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Educational Sociology; Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics; Pacific Rim Studies; Social Structure; Sociolinguistics; Sociology

Keywords:

anthropology; linguistic anthropology; ethnography; linguistics; Japan; nationalism; language acquisition; Japanese nationalism; study abroad; SLA; language immersion programs; international education; foreigner students; foreigners; discrimination

Leichtman, RobinMen Making Meaning of Eating Disorders: A Qualitative Study
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
There is a stark contrast between the research and published accounts reflecting women’s experiences in coping with an eating disorder in comparison to men’s narratives. Because of this, many medical and mental health providers do not consider an eating disorder as a possible diagnosis when men present with symptoms associated with an eating disorder. This notion was confirmed by Menstuff® (2012), who reported men are often not diagnosed and/or are embarrassed by being diagnosed with an eating disorder because eating disorders have become more associated with a problem women or gay men experience. Assumptions that eating disorders are a female or gay disease need to be disputed to relay the reality that eating disorders are nondiscriminatory. It is necessary to create a safe path for men to seek treatment. According to Andersen, Cohn, and Holbrook (2000), men account for one in six eating disorder cases. The intention of this dissertation is to give voice and provide insight into the males’ experiences. The main research question of this dissertation is, “how do men make meaning, from etiology to recovery, of their experience in having an eating disorder?” The six men who participated in this dissertation research helped answer that question by telling their stories. While I cannot generalize these findings into the general male population, the stories of these six participants contributes to the literature in understanding how men experience acquiring an eating disorder, the treatment process, and the recovery/maintenance stage. This dissertation study further explored understanding the interdependence between self-concept and eating disorders. A treatment protocol focused on treating symptoms can often threaten the psychotherapeutic relationship and prevent the patient from becoming wholly healthy. Rogers (1951) theorized that the more aware and accepting an individual is about all parts of self, the clearer, integrated, and actualized a person’s self-perception will become. A holistic approach recognizes the multidimensional overlapping of fluid energy between body, mind, and spirit and restores vitality. According to Gestalt theory, “change does not take place by trying coercion, or persuasion, or by insight, interpretation, or any other such means. Rather, change can occur when the [client] abandons, at least for the moment, what he would like to become and attempts to be what he is” (Beisser, 1970, p. 77). In other words, the potential for change occurs when individuals find compassion and acceptance for self. My findings suggest that treatment interventions, like exploring the client’s context and contact style, could assist individuals in developing a healthier self-concept whereby eating disorder symptoms would dissipate and organic self-regulating processes would be restored by way of a dialogic relationship that goes beyond correcting behavior.

Committee:

Sarah Toman, PhD (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, PhD (Committee Member); Kathryn MacCluskie, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Harper, PhD (Committee Member); David Prybock, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Health; Health Care; Individual and Family Studies; Medicine; Mental Health; Personality Psychology; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Health; Social Psychology; Social Work; Sociology; Therapy

Keywords:

Eating Disorders, Men with Eating Disorders, Males with Eating Disorders, Self-Concept, Gestalt Approach, Holistic Approach, Qualitative, Phenomenological

Burstion-Young, Michelle R.“Let’s Stay Together: Racial Separation and Other Coping Strategies Among African American High School Students Attending Predominately White Schools.”
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Sociology

In this study, I explore what I call “coping strategies” – assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization – used by minority students who are in predominately White schools. Rather than being understood individually, I show in this study that these strategies are better understood as a social matrix. Depending upon the context, the majority of the minority student population will use more than one of these strategies at any given time. Further, we might gain a better understanding of micro-level race interactions if we can begin to map context. Are there times when minorities are more likely to engage in “separation” than other times? Why? Is there one strategy that seems to be more appealing overall, or are all tools equally useful?

The main goals of this study are fivefold: 1) to depart from binary models which treat the four coping strategies I have identified – assimilation, integration (or cultural “straddling” to paraphrase Carter 2005) marginalization, and separation as if they are mutually exclusive. I want to uncover how they are all constantly being used and begin mapping the process of when they are used: 2) to engage and challenge the two prevailing theories about acting White. I will challenge Fordham and Ogbu’s (1986) “acting White“ hypothesis which links low achievement to Black students who do not do well in school for fear of being labeled “White.” In addition I will engage Carter’s (2005) hypothesis that “acting White” is linked to social behaviors not academic ones: 3) To engage Tatum’s (1999) supposition that “all the Black Children are sitting together in the cafeteria” and add a sociological perspective to her psychological approach: 4) To begin mapping the process and context in which students become “cultural straddlers” (Carter 2005): 5) To examine potential gendered differences in how the coping strategies are enacted. If we do all these things; a) we can begin to map the contextual nature of collective racial identity, b) we can unlock how students successfully negotiate race, collective identity, and school success, c) we can chart a course that will allow us to better understand how we can create inclusive environments that allow students to be academically (or professionally) successful and stay culturally rooted.

Committee:

Annulla Linders, PhD (Committee Chair); Kelly Moore, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Carlton-Ford, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Sociology; Secondary Education; Sociology

Keywords:

Race; self segregation; acting White; race and education; collective identity.

Paputsakis, Rachel J.Adolescent Gender Differences in Perceived Interpersonal Mattering
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2010, School Psychology
The purpose of this thesis was to determine the relationship between gender and perceived interpersonal mattering for adolescents in relation to their teachers, friends, mother, and father. A sample of 94 adolescent students between the ages of 15 and 17 years of age (34 males and 60 females) were administered the Mattering to Others Questionnaire to determine the extent to which they believe they matter to specific others. The results indicated that there was a significant gender difference in interpersonal mattering when considering the extent to which adolescents matter to their friends. Females perceived that they mattered more to their friends when compared to their male counterparts. Conversely, there were no gender differences when referring to the extent to which adolescents matter to their mother, father, and teachers.

Committee:

Susan Gfroerer, PhD (Committee Chair); Sawyer Hunley, PhD (Committee Member); Kelli Jo Arndt, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Sociology; Gender; Personal Relationships; Social Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

mattering; interpersonal mattering; adolescents; gender differences

Shaffer, Elizabeth AnnEffects of Peer-Monitored Social Skills Training on Measures of Social Acceptance
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2009, School Psychology
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect that intensive social-skills training, peer monitoring and role modeling has on elementary students’ prosocial behavior. Twelve students in grades 3 – 5 served as participants in this intervention. Participants first received social-skills instruction, peer modeled during classroom skits, and peer monitored at recess while dispersing coupons to children demonstrating positive social-skills. Increases in positive social behavior in the classroom were found across all grade level participants.

Committee:

T. Steuart Watson, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Personal Relationships; Personality; Psychology; School Administration; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Sociology; Special Education; Teacher Education; Teachi

Keywords:

social skills training; school behavior intervention; school positive behavior support; antisocial behavior; peer monitoring; role-modeling; prosocial behavior

Noe, Sean R.History of Parenting as Predictor of Delinquency, Moral Reasoning and Substance Abuse in Homeless Adolescents
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2008, Human Development and Family Science
Fifty-five homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 20 years were studied in examination of the unique relationships between years spent living with each biological parent, self-reported delinquency, and moral reasoning among a homeless youth population. Subjects were administered a set of demographic questions, the National Youth Survey questionnaire, the Form-90 substance abuse interview, and the Socio-Moral Reflection Measure-Short Form. Correlations among variables were examined, and a linear regression model was tested. Delinquency was found to be significantly correlated with age and gender, with females displaying more delinquency than males. A regression model showed that delinquency could be predicted using variables age, gender and moral reasoning. Proportion of years spent living with father had different effects for males and females in the study. Moral reasoning scores for the sample were lower than would be expected from a normative sample, but were as expected from a delinquent sample.

Committee:

Michael Glassman, PhD (Advisor); Natasha Slesnick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Ecology; Educational Sociology; Families and Family Life; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology

Keywords:

morality; moral reasoning; delinquency; substance abuse; adolescence; adolescent; homeless; homeless youth; parenting; Youth Self Report; SRM-SF; SRMS; sociomoral; father presence; moral development

Miles, Aaron RobertAre Good Schools Good for Everyone? An Examination of Heterogeneous School Effects
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Sociology
I consider the possibility that school effectiveness is not a fixed characteristic, and that schools can have different impacts for different students. Two theories offer competing explanations for this trend. The Frog-Pond hypothesis argues that a student’s ranking relative to their peers is an important predictor of academic self-concept, so schools’ effectiveness for each student depends on their position relative to peers. School Specialization theory argues that schools adopt different practices in order to be most effective for the students that they serve. Using non-additive regression techniques, I find that the association between school quality and individual learning rate does indeed differ for students of different SES backgrounds, depending on whether the school serves predominantly high or low SES students. The observed patterns are most consistent with the specialization hypothesis. I discuss the implications for both scholars and education reformers.

Committee:

Downey Doug (Committee Chair); Buchmann Claudia (Committee Member); Roscigno Vincent (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Sociology; Sociology

Keywords:

School Quality; Heterogeneous Effects; School Assessment

Meyer, Andrea R.History of Jews at Oberlin College: a mirror of change
BA, Oberlin College, 1988, History

In searching for the first Jewish student at Oberlin College, I discovered and subsequently researched the life of, 1920 graduate Marion Benjamin Roth who started the Oberlin branch of the Menorah Society, a Jewish literary and cultural group. Mrs. Roth, whom I interviewed, started the group because she was concerned about the environment for Jewish students. In letters to Rabbi Wolsey in Cleveland she discussed her perceptions of life for Jewish students at Oberlin soon after her arrival.

Marion Benjamin later reflected that Jewish students needed to have "some place that they could get together if they wanted; to discuss problems, if they had any, and to be together for a holiday. Eventually Rabbi Wolsey spoke at Oberlin. More importantly, Marion Benjamin proposed starting an Oberlin branch of the Menorah Society. In April 1918 the college faculty voted its approval for the formation of the "Menorah Association." Unfortunately, the Oberlin branch didn't last much beyond 1920 when Marion Benjamin graduated.

Throughout my research on Mrs. Roth, the question of the history of Jewish students at Oberlin kept surfacing. The concerns she raised about the situation for Jewish students at Oberlin piqued my interest and I submitted a proposal to do an independent research project on the topic. My proposal was approved and in the beginning of 1988 I began researching the history of Jews at Oberlin.

The paper is divided into eleven section. To put the experiences of Jewish students at Oberlin in some perspective I will first highlight American Jewish history since the turn of the century, focusing particularly on Jews and education. The rest of the paper will focus on Oberlin. In section two I will examine Oberlin's religious foundation, particularly the general aims of the college since its inception, and in section three I will look at the institutional material on application and admission trends. This material is fascinating as it shows the transformation of a small liberal arts school at the turn of the century, where nearly all applicants were admitted, to a competitive school io the 1930s, grappliog with increasing number of applicants. In the fourth and fifth sections, I will look at how admissions related to and affected Jewish students and address the issue of a quota. Because one of the major factors affecting Jewish experiences in higher education in this country during most of the twentieth century was the issue of admission quotas, I will discuss the respondents' perceptions to the specific question of whether or not they thought Oberlin had a Jewish quota. In sections six through ten I will discuss the general trends which the respondents reported and then examine their experiences in five chronological time periods, divided into Group A through D.

Committee:

Carol Lasser (Advisor); Geoff Blodgett (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Sociology; History; Judaic Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

Jew;Jewish;Roth;Marion Benjamin Roth;Rabbi Wolsey;Oberlin College;Menorah Association;Religion;history;higher education;

Norris, TinaADOLESCENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, BULLYING BEHAVIOR, AND THE FREQUENCY OF INTERNET USE
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology

Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I investigated the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use, and academic achievement for Black, Hispanic, and White boys and girls. I assessed three measures of academic achievement, including scores on mathematics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. The four goals of this research project were 1) to investigate the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use (e.g., chatting, e-mailing, surfing) and academic achievement, 2) to explore whether bullying behaviors and internet use affects academic achievement over time, 3) to test if internet use moderates the relationship between bullying behaviors and academic achievement, and 4) to test if race and gender gaps in achievement persist once accounting for the relationships among bullying behavior, internet use, and social capital.

Findings indicate bullying by itself does not have a significant association with achievement outcomes, while the influence of internet use varies in significance and direction of effect based on type of use. Chatting was the only measure of internet use that consistently had a significant negative relationship across all achievement outcomes. The association between bullying behaviors and academic achievement was moderated by some forms of internet use such that at low levels of bullying, children with low levels of internet use had significantly higher test scores. As levels of bullying increased, low/high internet users test scores converged to the point that at high levels of bullying behaviors, differences in test scores between low/high internet users were statistically insignificant. Email use and surfing the web were found to moderate the association between bullying behaviors and reading comprehension. Surfing moderated bullying and math scores. Chatting moderated the relationship between bullying and each of the three outcomes. Lastly, there were no significant race or gender differences in vocabulary or math scores, after controlling for SES, internet use, parent/child relationships and time 1 measures. However, African American (compared to Whites) did less well on reading comprehension scores.

Committee:

Andre Christie-Mizell, PhD (Committee Chair); Amoaba Gooden, PhD (Committee Member); Nicole Rousseau, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Peralta, PhD (Committee Member); Richard Serpe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Sociology; Gender; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Sociology

Keywords:

bullying; internet use; academic achievement; racial achievement gap; gender achievement gap

Stallworth, Stefeni A.A Theoretical Framework and Application of Derrick Bell’s Interest-Convergence Principle: An Urban Public Community School
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Education : Educational Studies

Charter schools are the fastest growing reform effort in American educational history. In 1997, during the 122nd General Assembly, Ohio charter school legislation was passed. In Ohio public charter schools are known as community schools and in 2008 there are 315 of these schools with 76, 967 students enrolled. In Cincinnati there are currently 27 community schools. This dissertation is a socio-historical case study of an urban public community school in Cincinnati. It describes and details parent, superintendent, and sponsor representative perspectives in order to determine their interests.

Interview responses were used to extract the educational goals, methodologies, and desired outcomes of the three aforementioned parties concerning youth attending Urban Public Community School. They were then critically analyzed using Derrick Bell’s Interest-Convergence Principle as both a lens from which to view African-American educational history in Cincinnati (1950 to present) and as an application. This involved comparing and contrasting the points of view of interviewees to determine where their interests converged and where they diverged.

Analysis revealed that the primary point of interests-convergence was that parents, the superintendent, and sponsor agreed that alternative options to traditional public education were necessary. Parents and the superintendent stated that the incorporation of culture and history in students…#8482; learning processes as necessary, where as the sponsor representative does not mention them. However, the superintendent and sponsor emphasized the importance of standardized test scores whereas, several parents felt that there was an overemphasis on passing standardized tests.

Committee:

Leo Krzywkowski (Committee Chair); Roger Collins, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Gooden, PhD (Committee Chair); Patricia O'Reilly, PhD (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education History; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Sociology; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Interest-Convergence; Critical Race Theory; Urban Education Reform; Community School; Urban Public Community School Parents

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