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Christopher, Yvonne M.Welfare Dependency and Work Ethic: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2017, Applied Behavioral Science: Criminal Justice and Social Problems
This study examined relationships between work ethic and welfare dependency. The 65-item Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) (Miller, Woehr, & Hudspeth, 2002) and the 28-item MWEP (Meriac, Woehr, Gorman, & Thomas, 2013) with attached socioeconomic surveys were administered to n=338 and n=247 adult subjects, respectively. A negative correlation between the two variables was anticipated, so that as levels of agreement with work ethic increase, reported use of welfare benefits decrease. After running correlation matrices to examine Pearson’s r, hierarchical regressions were conducted, culminating in a model which partially predicts the connection between the variables. Bivariate analyses for the 65-item MWEP data indicated that marital status, age, sex, centrality of work, waste time, delayed gratification, self-reliance, morality/ethics, hard work, and leisure were statistically significantly correlated. Bivariate analyses for the 28-item MWEP data indicated that centrality of work and hard work were statistically significantly correlated. These findings could be used in the design of a comprehensive assessment tool to be utilized at the point of entry into the welfare system.

Committee:

Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jacqueline Bergdahl, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Jonathan Varhola, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Demographics; Labor Economics; Public Policy; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Statistics; Welfare

Keywords:

Work ethic; welfare; dependency; labor force; unemployment; disability; SNAP; food stamps; TANF; temporary assistance for needy families; welfare reform

Pollock, Asher WPhase Shift
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Ohio University, 2017, Studio Art
Phase Shift is the thesis of Asher Pollock, submitted for graduation from the Honors Tutorial College of Ohio University. It contains writing and paintings that collectively question concepts, genres, and methods of story-telling known well to many audiences.

Committee:

Laura Larson (Committee Chair); Jennie Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art Criticism; Art Education; Art History; Arts Management; Performing Arts; Personal Relationships; Personality; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Religious History; Rhetoric; Social Research; Spirituality; World History

Keywords:

queer, poseidon, neptune, phase, shift, water, story, stories, painting, paintings, art, artist, man, they, them, gay, men, myth, mythology, mythic, myths, gods, god, family, love, loneliness, despair, ice, independence, conceptual, contemporary, modern

Walker, Ruth VirginiaExpanding Our Conceptualization of Ageism: Moving Toward an Intersectional Lifespan Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Psychology-Adult Development and Aging
Ageism is a form of age-based discrimination most frequently studied in terms of unequal treatment toward older adults (Butler, 1969; 2005). Ageism is unique from other forms of discrimination as anyone can experience it if they live long enough (Palmore, 2001); this presents concerns for aging women, by the virtue of their longer lifespan, and the potential intersection of experiences with ageism with experiences with sexism, racism, and other forms of inequality (Kochanek et al., 2011). A focus on attitudes and prejudice toward older adults in the literature has resulted in limited empirical understandings of experiences with ageism, with research on ageism lagging behind research on racism and sexism. Utilizing both lifespan development theory (Baltes, 1987) and intersectionality theory (McCall, 2005), the purpose of this study is to utilize phenomenological methods to describe experiences with ageism across adulthood and to answer the following research questions: (1) How, if at all, is ageism gendered?, (2) How, if at all, does the experience of ageism differ across the lifespan?, and (3) In what ways does understanding how experiences with ageism are shaped by gender and age add to our conceptualization of ageism? A total of 70 participants, 22-87 years old, participated in story circles and in-depth interviews exploring how they have been treated due to their age and gender. Using phenomenological methodology, participants' responses were analyzed and clustered into three broad thematic categories: (a) context matters, (b) short-term reactions to discrimination, and (c) long-term reactions to discrimination. The results suggest implications for theory and policy development as well as clinical interventions.

Committee:

Toni Bisconti (Advisor)

Subjects:

Gerontology; Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

Ageism; phenomenology; lifespan development; qualitative methodology; interviews; story circles; sexism; intersectionality; gender; aging; reverse ageism; ageing

Holloway, Jimeka JBRINGING SOCIAL INNOVATION TO SCALE: LEVERAGING RELATIONAL CAPITAL AND RISK-TAKING BEHAVIORS OF ACTORS IN COMPLEX ECOSYSTEMS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Management
Social entrepreneurs are change agents that seek to maximize their use of limited financial resources to create long-term, lasting solutions to complex issues such as youth unemployment, recidivism, lack of home ownership, and a high rate of health disparities. Philanthropists, impact investors, and intermediaries play an imperative role in creating systems and influencing the strategies, choices, and intentions of these social entrepreneurs. The impact investing industry experiences inadequacies that limit its impact. These inadequacies include the lack of efficient intermediation, which indicates high search and transaction expenses, fragmented demand and supply, multifaceted deals, and underdeveloped networks (Kickul & Lyons, 2012). There is a need to study the interpersonal relationships among all of the key stakeholders in the ecosystem. This dissertation implements an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach in a 3-strand study to reveal the perspectives of a wide range of stakeholders in the social innovation ecosystem, such as social and commercial entrepreneurs, social enterprise staff and management, beneficiary groups, philanthropic and investment intermediaries, and funding bodies. The behaviors and practices of actors within the social impact investment ecosystem range from simple, informal responses for use in “everyday interactions” to more complex, formal structures. In the first qualitative study, I focus on the individual and organizational processes used to spark social enterprise in communities of economic distress. In the second quantitative study, I analyze the role of social enterprise financing and their social mission, geographic proximity, and risk absorption. Based on findings from the initial qualitative study and the quantitative study, I articulate a research model to study the tensions, issues, and challenges of philanthropic dyads in the social innovation ecosystem. The final strand of the three-part study examines the impact of investor relationships with intermediaries and investees. This research uses a qualitative, multi-case comparative research design. Examining stakeholder relationships in multiple social impact investments enables the identification of patterned behaviors that have endured across investments, across different settings, and diffused beyond the initial occurrence, indicating the emergence of new logics, structures, and processes. I develop a theoretical model that offers testable propositions for further exploration. Key findings include the following leverage points for practitioners and academics alike: social entrepreneurs engaging in continuous, experiential learning to point out barriers in the system; philanthropic intermediaries and impact investors explicitly addressing the challenge of mission drift when expanding the resource pool; and social entrepreneurs using co-creative strategies based on localized knowledge to scale best practices. Specifically, our findings highlight the journey of impact investors to be more strategic in using impact investments in scaling social innovation and making a better social impact. This dissertation posits a deep consideration of the relational context in which key actors in the social sector operate to influence both unexpected and expected consequences that will shape the vitality of the U.S.

Committee:

Richard Boland , Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Paul Salipante, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Hammack , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Roman Sheremeta, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship; Social Research; Systems Design

Keywords:

social innovation ecosystem; impact investment; social enterprise financing; program related investments; collective impact; complex adaptive systems; social capital; coopetition

Colwell, Kelly L.Disseminating the Cost of the Empty Chair: Improving Healthcare Access and No-Show Rates Through Age and Disease-Specific Education in the Pediatric Asthma Patient Populations
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Educational Foundations, Research, Technology and Leadership
The focus of this investigation was to ascertain if age and disease specific education had an effect in reducing no show rates, for follow up asthma management, in the adolescent pediatric patient population. No show rates have an effect in the quality and management of chronic health conditions, limits access for those waiting to be diagnosed and begin treatment and creates a financial hardship for provider’s practices. Methods: A quasi-experimental, retrospective chart review was utilized for 8-18 y/o participant populations with a specific ICD-9 and ICD-10 asthma diagnosis code, within Mahoning, Trumbull, Stark and Franklin Counties, Ohio. Demographic variables of age, gender, race, type of healthcare coverage and geographic zone were compared to education received or not received. Slot utilization variables of kept, no show, rescheduled and cancelled appointments were also collected. Pertinent data analysis was performed by S.P.S.S statistical analysis software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to address all research questions. Results: Analyzed data revealed the only correlation to the slot utilization variable and education was the kept. Geographic zone revealed that the highest kept appointments were in Trumbull County, highest no show rates were between the border of Trumbull/Mahoning Counties. There was no appreciable correlation between no show rates and demographic variables. Conclusion: Although education had an integral relationship with kept appointments, it was not inversely proportionate to no show rates. Education encounters were clearly related to the kept variable lending to an assumed improvement in health literacy.

Committee:

Karen Larwin, PhD (Committee Chair); Joseph Lyons, ScD (Committee Member); Joseph Mosca, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Spearman, PhD (Committee Member); Louis Harris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Health Care; Medicine; Social Research

Keywords:

No Show rates, Pediatric asthma, access to healthcare

Dhar, SamirAddressing Challenges with Big Data for Maritime Navigation: AIS Data within the Great Lakes System
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Spatially Integrated Social Science
The study presented here deals with commercial vessel tracking in the Great Lakes using the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Specific objectives within this study include development of methods for data acquisition, data reduction, storage and management, and reporting of vessel activity within the Great Lakes using AIS. These data show considerable promise in tracking commodity flows through the system as well as documenting traffic volumes at key locations requiring infrastructure investment (particularly dredging). Other applications include detecting vessel calls at specific terminals, locks and other navigation points of interest. This study will document the techniques developed to acquire, reduce, aggregate and store AIS data at The University of Toledo. Specific topics of the paper include: data reducing techniques to reduce data volumes, vessel path tracking, estimate speed on waterway network, detection of vessel calls made at a dock, and a data analysis and mining for errors within AIS data. The study also revealed the importance of AIS technology in maritime safety, but the data is coupled with errors and inaccuracy. These errors within the AIS data will have to be addressed and rectified in future to make the data accurate and useful. The data reduction algorithm shows a 98% reduction in AIS data making it more manageable. In future similar data reduction techniques can possibly be used with traffic GPS data collected for highways and railways.

Committee:

Peter Lindquist (Committee Chair); Kevin Czajkowski (Committee Member); Neil Reid (Committee Member); Mark Vonderembse (Committee Member); Richard Stewart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geographic Information Science; Geography; Information Technology; Remote Sensing; Social Research; Transportation

Keywords:

Automatic Identification System , AIS, Big Data, Data Reduction Technique, Vessel Path, Vessel Call, Great Lakes, Maritime, VTS

Wingate, Tiah JAn Examination of Instrumental Support Received by Parents of Children with Special Health Care Needs Throughout the Life Course
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the instrumental support received by parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) throughout the life course. The study sample included 489 parents of CSHCN obtained from the Wave III sample and the Refresher sample of the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. The study provided a description of the sources of unpaid assistance for the parents of CSHCN and yielded significant findings regarding variations in support receipt associated with life course variables. Parents receive significantly more instrumental support from informal sources than from formal sources at each stage of the family life cycle. Additionally, a significant positive relationship exists between the amount of support received from formal sources and the amount of support received from informal sources. The receipt of support from various specific sources also demonstrates a relationship with the receipt of support from other specific sources. Finally, life course variables including religious participation and gender were associated with the receipt of support from formal sources, whereas family life cycle stage was associated with the receipt of support from informal sources. Parents from families with young children reported receiving significantly more unpaid assistance from informal sources than parents from families at all other life cycle stages. These findings help inform service providers as to parents who may potentially need assistance securing instrumental support as well as point to potential areas for future research.

Committee:

Kelly Cichy, PhD (Advisor); Maureen Blankemeyer, PhD (Committee Member); Rhonda Richardson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Families and Family Life; Health Care; Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

children with special health care needs; parents of CSHCN; social support; instrumental support, parents of children with illness or disability; instrumental support for parents of children with special needs

Mazzola, Bridget TThe Neurosociologial Approach to Gender Bias in STEM Careers
BA, Kent State University, 2018, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
The lack of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers is a commonly discussed issue in the 21st century. This inequality has lessened in life science professions over the years, but little progress has been made in math-intensive fields. Much research has been conducted focusing on the societal beliefs about gender and mathematical ability that contribute to the disparity. This thesis uses a combination of sociology and neuroscience, or “neurosociology,” to obtain a fresh perspective on gender bias in STEM careers. Electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) analysis provide insight into the subconscious, neurological activity that signals bias. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a specific ERP component that encodes unfavorable, unexpected events, including social expectancy violations. Results from a small pilot study reveal that the FRN was larger when male, undergraduate math majors viewed images of women performing tasks in STEM-related settings compared to when they viewed images of women performing domestic tasks. A larger study is needed to confirm a neurological foundation for a `glass ceiling’ that prevents women from entering STEM careers, particularly those that are math intensive.

Committee:

Will Kalkhoff (Advisor); Kristen Marcussen (Committee Member); Candace Bowen (Committee Member); Suzanne Holt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

STEM; Gender Bias; Neurosociology; Event-related potential; FRN

Yang, LiuEffect of product review interactivity, social inequality, and culture on trust in online retailers: A comparison between China and the U.S.
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Media and Communication
This study is the first study that compared the predicting strength of the effect of the micro factor (interactivity of product review use experiences) and macro factors (social inequality and culture) on consumers’ trust in online retailers. It examines the predictor of online trust by information asymmetry theory, reciprocity, in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, and social presence. Consumers of the two largest e-commerce sites in the United States and China, Amazon and Tmall, are compared. The results show the interactivity of product use experience is the strongest predictor of consumers’ trust in online retailers compared to social inequality and culture. The interactivity is positively related to consumers’ trust in famous brands, third-party retailers, and fulfilled third-party retailers of both Amazon and Tmall. In contrast, social inequality is negatively related to consumers’ trust in famous brands, third-party retailers, and fulfilled third-party retailers of both Amazon and Tmall. Individualism is positively related to trust in third-party retailers while collectivism is positively related to trust in third-party retailers fulfilled by Amazon or Tmall. Power distance exerts a positive impact on trust in famous brands only. Collectivism plays a more critical role in predicting trust in fulfilled online retailers in Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. The relationship of trust in online retailers and consumers’ actual online purchases is different across countries. Trust in online retailers is an important direct predictor of online purchase diversity and indirect predictor of the amount of money spent online in both the U.S. and China. And it is a direct predictor of online purchase frequency in the U.S., but an indirect predictor of purchase frequency in China. Trust in online retailers is positively related to the amount of money spent on Amazon/Tmall indirectly by affecting shopping frequency on Amazon/Tmall.

Committee:

Louisa Ha, Professor (Advisor); Gi Woong Yun, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Lisa Hanasono, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Philip Titus, Associate Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Information Technology; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Social Research

Keywords:

interactivity; online trust; product reviews;e-commerce;social inequality;culture;comparative study;China;US

Hartsough, Leanna L.Male and Female Athletes’ Perceptions of their Coaches’ Communication
Master of Arts in Professional Communication, Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Communicaton
This study explores social exchange theory in relationships between college coaches and athletes. There are positive and negative aspects of athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ recruitment styles, communication competence, ability to motivate, support, and leadership styles. Past studies have looked into student-athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ communication and relationship with their student-athletes. This study builds on this research by exploring student-athlete alumni perceptions of their coaches. As a previous student-athlete alumna on the track and field team at Youngstown State University, I encountered a variety of experiences with multiple coaches. I interviewed seven men and seven women alumni who were members of the Youngstown State University Track and Field team. I used three demographic questions, 26 nonverbal immediacy scale-observer questions (Richmond, McCroskey, & Johnson, 2003), and five open ended questions to apply the social exchange theory to athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ communication competence, motivation, support, and leadership styles. Results also indicate a difference between men’s and women’s perception of their coaches. Women’s primary factors included support combined with trust from coaches. Men mainly looked at their individual performance, injuries, and financial aid to figure out whether they wanted to be on the team or not. This study indicates that athletes are satisfied when their coaches treat athletes like friends and treat each individual athlete with care.

Committee:

Rebecca Curnalia, PhD (Advisor); Christina Saenger, PhD (Committee Member); Jay Gordon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Gender Studies; Social Research; Sports Management

Keywords:

relationship between coaches and athletes;athletes perceptions of their coaches communication;difference between mail and female athletes view of their coaches;reasons for athletes to stay on their team or quit

Paulose, HannaChoosing What is Right, Knowing What You Choose, and the Gap in Between: Decoding Food Sustainability
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Consumer Sciences
This dissertation examines consumer’s perceptions of `sustainability’ or `greenness’ and its various dimensions in the service context. Even though environmental sustainability has received significant attention in the industry, a comprehensive measurement model to assess consumer’s understanding or perceptions of sustainability in the service sector is yet to be developed. As a result, it is difficult to assess the level of consensus between consumers and producers regarding what is sustainable services. This study aims to identify various dimensions of `Perceived Service Greenness (PSG)’ in the restaurant sector and develop a scale to accurately measure consumer perceptions of restaurant sustainability. In addition, the study also aims to examine how different dimensions of PSG influence consumers’ evaluation of and behavioral intentions regarding restaurants. The research context for this dissertation is the restaurant sector-one of the dominant service sectors worldwide. The data for the research come mainly from three different studies. The first study adopts a mixed method approach to develop the scale for PSG. The second study validates the PSG scale using an online survey. In the third study, a scenario based experiment, developed based on the three dimensions of PSG identified in study 2, to examine how PSG affects consumers’ evaluation of the restaurant as well as their behavioral intentions. The three dimensions of PSG emerging from the studies – Product Greenness, Process Greenness and Servicescape greenness – suggest that consumer perceptions of sustainability need to be examined as a multi-dimensional construct to correctly understand its effect on consumer behavior, and a better understanding of this relationship is crucial, for no business can be sustainable in the long run if it does not sell.

Committee:

Milos Bujisic, Dr. (Advisor); Robert Scharff, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Kandampully Jay, Dr. (Committee Member); Chandrasekaran Aravind, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Social Research

Keywords:

Greenness, Sustainability

Hottenstein, Kristi NA Qualitative Case Study on Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation at One Council on Undergraduate Research Institution.
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Higher Education
Regulations for research involving human subjects in higher education have long been a critical issue. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an IRB. Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the literature on the benefits of undergraduate research to students, faculty, and institutions, how human subject research public policy is being implemented at the undergraduate level was a significant gap in the literature. This qualitative single case study examined the human subject research policies and practices of a selective, Mid-western, Council on Undergraduate Research institution. The purpose of the study was to determine how this institution implemented human subject research public policy to benefit its students. This institution used a hybrid approach of public policy implementation that met federal requirements while capitalizing on the role local actors can play in the implementation process. This model resulted in a student friendly implementation emphasizing various learning outcomes and student mentoring. Although there is considerable research and public discussion on the negative aspects of IRBs, if approached in a manner that embraces student learning, the IRB experience can be an extremely beneficial aspect of the institution’s learning environment.

Committee:

David Meabon (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education Administration; Operations Research; Organization Theory; Social Research

Keywords:

IRB; institutional review board; CUR; council on undergraduate research; undergraduate research; UR; public policy; implementation; human subject research; implementation theory; hybrid theories; student mentoring; benefits of undergraduate research

Koehler, William JCHARACTERISTICS OF THE BYSTANDER IN LGBTQ BULLYING AT A PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Social Welfare
This study conducts a secondary data analysis of a data set collected from an LGBT Campus Climate Survey distributed on the campus of Edinboro University of Pennsylvania during the fall semester of 2012. The study was developed to advance the understanding of the role of a bystander in LGBT-specific bullying. While the majority of bullying events have at least one bystander, most bystanders do not intervene. However, when bystanders are motivated to intervene, research suggests that the bullying is likely to stop. Darley and Latane (1968) developed a model for explaining a 5-step process a bystander to an emergency situation goes through before intervening. This model has been successfully applied in development of interventions with sexual violence programs on college campuses. Using a 16-item LGBT Peer Experiences Questionnaire (LGBT-PEQ), the study assesses the relationship of bystander demographic characteristics of age, gender, LGBT status, and ethnic identity and respondents attitudes (as measured by an 11-item LGBT Attitudes Scale) with their observances of behaviors directed toward LGBT people (N=417). Results indicate a statistically significant but small practical portion of variance in LGBT-PEQ scores are accounted for by bystander LGBT Attitudes scores while controlling for age or gender, but not for age and gender combined. Discussion is offered regarding need for further research about the relationship between LGBT Attitudes, age, and gender as well as implications for developing interventions for facilitating bystander intervention in anti-LGBT bullying events in specific “unsafe” zones on university campuses.

Committee:

Mark Singer, Dr. (Committee Chair); Lynn Singer, Dr. (Committee Member); Daniel Flannery, Dr. (Committee Member); David Hussey, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Glbt Studies; School Counseling; Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

LGBT; Bullying; Campus Climate Survey; attitudes towards LGBT people; Bystander; LGBT-specific bullying

Urso, Amy EThe effects of environmental factors on gamblers' behaviors in Ohio casinos
MS, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
Casinos have long been trying to design the perfect conditions that will maximize their profits by satisfying patrons and influencing the gambling behaviors of patrons. The purpose of this study was to examine how casino environmental variables (ambient conditions, design elements, social factors) influence gambler’s satisfaction and excitement levels, and further to explore how satisfaction and excitement predict approach behaviors (desire to stay, repeat patronage, and positive word of mouth). This study also aimed to identify differences in casino perceptions between genders and age groups. A framework was proposed based on Bitner’s 1992 framework for understanding environment-user relationships in service organizations. An online Qualtrics questionnaire was developed to evaluate Ohio gamblers’ perceptions of the casino environment, how the environment affected their satisfaction and excitement, and the potential resulting behaviors. Open-ended questions regarding confidence from the casino environment were also included for means of exploration. Multiple linear regressions and independent sample t-tests were used to test the five hypotheses and the results revealed several interesting findings. Ambient conditions, design elements, and social factors were all found to be significant predictors of gamblers’ excitement, however excitement did not predict casino approach behaviors. Ambient conditions and design elements were found to be predictive of satisfaction, which ultimately predicted casino approach behaviors. No significant differences in the way genders or age groups perceive the casino environment were found. Results and discussion give implications to casino operators suggesting which casino environmental factors can ultimately increase casino related approach behaviors.

Committee:

Barbara Scheule, PhD (Advisor); Seon Jeong Lee, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Parr, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Social Research

Keywords:

casino; casino environment; casino ambiance; casino design; servicescape; excitement; satisfaction; approach behaviors; Ohio casino

Adams, Laural L.Theorizing Mental Models in Disciplinary Writing Ecologies through Scholarship, Talk-Aloud Protocols, and Semi-Structured Interviews
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This project explores how disciplinary habits of mind are circulated through forms of representation to instantiate English Studies disciplines, institutions which then shape scholars' practices for producing knowledge. Using a critical discourse analysis on scholarship, semi-structured interviews, and a talk-aloud protocol, I find that scholars' thinking and writing rely heavily on mental models. Scholars employ small-scale working representations of dynamic systems to help them reason through disciplinary problem spaces, including research questions and composing issues. Unlike the sciences, English Studies fields have not fully exploited mental models in research and teaching; nor have they been considered fully in writing studies' research on cognition and writing. In order to understand the role of mental models in writing and disciplinarity, I employ ecology theory to link the representational nature of mind to external media. I find that as scholars write, they produce complex mental models of disciplinary content that are comprised of objects of study, relationality between these objects, and discipline-specific forms of dynamism applied to "run" the models. Mental models are multimodal compositions that employ representational modalities afforded by "mind," such as force, image, and affect; their design reveals scholars' tacit values and assumptions. My research suggests that reflecting on mental models can enable scholars to extend their reasoning and critically evaluate their assumptions. During writing and revision, scholars model a generic reader's mind "unfolding" as it encounters the writing in order to anticipate eventual readers' "situation models." Scholars also model hypothetical exchanges with familiars with whom they have previously written in order to predict critiques and feedback. Mental models have a significant role in enculturating new members and constructing and maintaining disciplinarity. I propose that a facility with mental models is a significant component of reasoning-based "literacies" and suggest ways that scholars and teachers can make deliberate use of mental models in scholarship and in teaching writing. I describe the significance of mental models in knowing and composing in new media contexts with multimodal affordances that compare and contrast to those of the mind. I also suggest additional methods for analyzing and collecting data on mental models and writing.

Committee:

Lee Nickoson, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kristine L. Blair, Dr. (Committee Member); Jorge Chavez, Dr. (Committee Member); Sue Carter Wood, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Composition; Ecology; Educational Theory; Epistemology; Higher Education; Language; Literacy; Multimedia Communications; Organizational Behavior; Rhetoric; Social Research; Teacher Education; Technology

Keywords:

Mental Models; Writing Studies; Ecology and Complexity Theory; Disciplinarity; Disciplinary Writing Ecologies; Cognition and Writing; Social Cognition; Scholarship; Multimodal Composing; English Studies; Critical Discourse Analysis; Talk-aloud Protocol

Kaufman, Angela M.Familial Background and Relationship-Specific Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Across the Lifecourse
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Sociology
Past research has examined the phenomenon of intimate partner violence (IPV), with recent increased focus on IPV among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, prior work examining IPV among young adults often looks at familial factors such as child maltreatment, and current relationship dynamics such as jealousy and control, but does not consider these two domains simultaneously. This is potentially problematic, as individuals’ relationships in multiple domains are affected by their socialization experiences within the family. Relatedly, research examining family effects on IPV often focus solely on childhood maltreatment and interparental aggression, failing to include other meaningful aspects of family life, such as the parent-child relationship. Finally, while trajectory analyses have been conducted in the past, most are confined to IPV occurring among older adults. Given the highly fluid and complex nature of adolescence and young adulthood, the examination of IPV across time may be especially insightful during these stages of the life course. Using five waves of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the current project relies on social learning and life course theories to investigate the antecedents and trajectories of adolescent and young adult experiences with IPV perpetration and victimization. Results from fixed-effects, random-effects and growth-curve analyses indicate both parental violence (i.e. child maltreatment) and parentchild relationship quality (PCRQ) are significant and independent predictors of IPV reports. Interestingly, though, both parental violence and PCRQ are more predictive of males’ experiences with IPV than females’. Findings also demonstrate that as jealousy and control, cheating, verbal aggression, arguments, and partner mistrust increase in frequency or severity, so too does the likelihood of both IPV perpetration and victimization. However, contributing to previous research, this dissertation shows the effects of these relationship dynamics on IPV are contingent on individuals’ familial background. In particular, the effects of verbal aggression and cheating on IPV are greater among those individuals who also experience parental violence. Finally, results demonstrate the trajectories of both IPV perpetration and victimization are nonlinear over time, mimicking the general age-crime curve. The shape of these trajectories, however, is further affected by poor PCRQ, which leads to a pronounced increase in the risk of IPV over time. Consequently, analyses show parental violence, parent-child relationship quality, current relationship dynamics, and the stage of the life course under examination all need to be considered in the prediction of IPV. It is thus suggested an integrated theoretical approach, as opposed to a singular theory, may provide the best framework to understand romantic relationship violence. Policy implications for both perpetrators and victims of violence, child welfare agencies, and educational practitioners are discussed.

Committee:

Alfred DeMaris (Committee Chair); Peggy Giordano (Committee Member); Wendy Manning (Committee Member); Monica Longmore (Committee Member); Sherri Horner (Other)

Subjects:

Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

intimate partner violence, teen dating violence, child maltreatment, parental violence, parent-child relationship quality, cycle of violence, intergenerational transmission of violence, adolescence, young adulthood, intimate relationship dynamics

Ezechukwu, Rebecca NneomaUsing youth perspectives to examine antisocial behavior: A qualitative investigation of the juvenile offender in context.
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Psychology
The purpose of this project was to describe the juvenile offender in context to highlight areas for intervention with this vulnerable population. Youth offenders are a population that face challenges above and beyond the typical challenges of adolescence because many of the factors related to youth offending are intertwined with typical developmental processes shaped by the values and expectations that make up the youth’s cultural context. Because the issue of recidivism is key to designing and delivering effective interventions, it is important to understand the contextual factors that influence amenability to intervention, as well as the sustainability of interventions that are received. In this study, I interviewed five male offenders remanded to a juvenile corrections rehabilitation program for youth with felony offenses. Using youth perspectives, I sought to provide answers to the following questions: What are some of the life experiences among male juvenile offenders that contribute to antisocial behavior? How do developmental and contextual influences affect how youth perceive the events throughout their lives? How might these experiences account for youth responses to intervention and other system expectations while in a juvenile corrections rehabilitation facility? Each participant provided detailed accounts of his experiences. Those experiences often were described as a function of the interactions between each youth and those in his social context—his family, peer, school, and juvenile justice environments. Depending on the unique factors present in his background, each youth interpreted even similar experiences differently. Those differences in perspective strongly influenced each individual’s ability to comment on his self-image, relationships, criminal behavior, and intervention efforts. I present several implications and recommendations for intervention with the adolescent offender based on these youth perspectives. I contend that the nature of social interactions within youth contexts shape experience a great deal and thus, using contextualized understandings of behavior can improve intervention efforts with adolescents. Additionally, using youth perspectives to raise research questions and drive intervention recommendations may help transmit egalitarian values to youth and supplement traditional methods of correctional system evaluation and intervention.

Committee:

Larry Leitner, PhD (Committee Chair); Amy Garbrecht, PsyD (Committee Member); Glenn Muschert, PhD (Committee Member); Vaishali Raval, PhD (Committee Member); Virgina Wickline, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Developmental Psychology; Rehabilitation; Social Research

Keywords:

Adolescents; juvenile delinquency; incarcerated populations; social context; intervention; youth rehabilitation; qualitative research

Crano, Ricky D'AndreaPosthuman Capital: Neoliberalism, Telematics, and the Project of Self-Control
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Comparative Studies
The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate some of the ways in which neoliberal social and economic discourse, in particular the work of Friedrich Hayek and Gary Becker, has influenced the cultural evolution of the late-twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. Chapter One introduces the scope and methods of the project and situates market-oriented social epistemology alongside the development of complexity theory in the physical and information sciences. Chapter Two situates Hayek’s philosophies of social science and communication within the broader science cultures of the postwar decades, arguing that his conceptualization of prices and markets is deeply rooted in coterminous projects of cybernetics and general systems theory. Consequently, Hayek’s ideas about autonomy, information, and cultural transmission are seen to dovetail with the dominant scientific paradigms and media technologies of the late twentieth century. Chapter Three argues that contemporary financial markets and telematic screen cultures have become operationally analogous in their actualization of neoliberal rationality and social thought. Expanding my reading of neoliberalism beyond Hayek’s macrological approach to examine the emerging and all-consuming micrological approach of “human capital” theorists like Becker, this chapter details the ways in which new media platforms, algorithmic cultural practices, and what cultural critics have named the “financialization of daily life” have become primary agents of governmentality today. Chapter Four offers an original interpretation of Michel Foucault’s 1979 lectures on neoliberalism, one that reads the abrupt change of course in his research—which, directly following his interrogations of Hayek, Becker, and others, jumped from contemporary political economy to ancient cultures of self-care—as an attempt to locate a genealogical precedent for the subjectivist governmental rationality he had revealed as a dominant theme of neoliberal discourse.

Committee:

Brian Rotman (Committee Co-Chair); Philip Armstrong (Committee Co-Chair); Eugene Holland (Committee Member); Kris Paulsen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Comparative; Economic Theory; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Social Research; Social Structure; Technology; Web Studies

Keywords:

neoliberalism; cybernetics; autopoiesis; posthumanism; social control; Hayek; Becker; Foucault; digital culture; subjectivity; epistemology; human capital theory; human sciences; governmentality; networks; new media; intellectual history

Johnson, Terry L.Eyewitness Testimony, False Confession, and Human Performance Technology: An Examination of Wrongful Convictions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Curriculum and Instruction: Educational Media
Wrongful criminal convictions have come to the attention of the public and the criminal justice community in recent decades as a result of DNA evidence that has proven innocence after conviction. Research has suggested that as many as 3% to 5% of people currently imprisoned did not, in fact, commit the crimes for which they were convicted. A review of the scholarly literature indicates that two primary causes of errors lead to wrongful convictions: (a) faulty eyewitness identification and (b) false confessions that occur during the criminal investigative phase. There are three purposes of this study. The first purpose of the study was to qualitatively analyze the current Ohio Peace Officer Training Commission (OPOTC) curriculum to determine whether the content being taught in Ohio police academies is in alignment with empirical research on the subjects of wrongful convictions, faulty identification, and false confessions. The second purpose of the study was to quantitatively investigate the perceptions that experienced investigators have regarding what they were taught in the police academy compared with what they now understand from experience pertaining to eyewitness and confession evidence. The third purpose of the study was to suggest human performance technology (HTP) interventions as a means to improve performance of police investigators and reduce the rates of wrongful convictions in the state of Ohio. Results indicated that the OPOTC curriculum does not coincide with empirical research pertaining to wrongful convictions, specifically with regard to eyewitness identification and false confessions. Results further indicated that perceptions among investigators pertaining to eyewitness and confession evidence have changed as investigators gained experience in the field.

Committee:

Berhane Teclehaimanot, PhD (Committee Chair); Kristin Sorensen, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Sullivan, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Knueve, Phd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Criminology; Cultural Anthropology; Education; Social Research

Keywords:

wrongful conviction; faulty eyewitness identification; false confession; human performance technology

McCray, Jacquelyn YvonneCivic Deliberative Dialogue and the Topic of Race: Exploring the Lived Experience of Everyday Citizens and Their Encounters with Tension and Conflict
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
The research explored the interactions and experiences of participants and facilitators in civic deliberative dialogue and how they worked through tension and conflict. The dissertation question asked: What is the lived experience of participants and facilitators of civic deliberative dialogue and how do group members collectively move beyond tensions and disagreements that surface during dialogue processes? The study analyzed the joint influences of tension and disagreement within the context of seven deliberative dialogues convened on the topics of race, race relations and racism. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze qualitative research data collected from participant volunteers and facilitators. A constructivist approach, grounded theory allowed for evaluation of the interactions of participants derived from informal observations of the deliberative dialogue process and from research data gathered through semi-structured interviews, open and axial coding, and constant comparison. Using dimensional analysis, theoretical propositions emerged which convey new understanding about the ways deliberative dialogue participants confronted the difficult topics of race and racism, their shifts in perspective, and new understanding and insights generated during the process. Civic deliberative dialogue puts everyday people at the center of local problem solving. As a form of local engagement, it arms civic groups with an approach and practice for tackling difficult issues through authentic conversations that build relationships and offers a means for peeling back divergent thoughts, opinions, and interests. The civic dialogue literature includes little about confrontation and opposition during deliberative dialogue. The research produced three theoretical propositions ("creating space to move from tension to healing"; "heart stories, hurt stories—hearing and understanding differently"; and "sustaining the conversation, bridging the divide"), adds to the body of scholarly literature on civic engagement and lends understanding about how sustained deliberative dialogue promotes grassroots leadership, and creates an environment of civility and working through (Yankelovich, 1991) for healthier, more productive communities. This dissertation is accompanied by a video file (MP4), author introduction, and a PDF of a PowerPoint file used during the dissertation defense. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/etds/ and OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Patricia Stewart, PhD (Committee Member); Bob Pease, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Political Science; Public Administration; Social Research; Urban Planning

Keywords:

civic dialogue; civic engagement; grounded theory; race; tension; conflict; lived experience; deliberative dialogue; citizen participation; racism; African Americans; Whites; Melungeons; grassroots leadership; urban planning

Kaburu, GilbertTeaching for Social Justice in Northern Uganda: The Case of Mission Girl's School.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Over a decade since the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) and the initiation of Education for All (EFA), access to quality education continues to be a social justice concern for educationists and other stakeholders in Uganda. And while the Uganda government considers social justice a key objective of basic education, there is little research that examines what this means in classroom practices. Further, research on educational development in Uganda is often presented using large-scale quantitative comparative data, leaving a void of in-depth qualitative research about how teachers perceive and negotiate social justice in their classrooms. This two year critical ethnographic study fills that void by focusing on the perceptions and practices of twelve primary school educators at a girls’ school in northern Uganda, with education stakeholders in the community as a secondary source. The study employed a critical theoretical framework and relied on narrative interviews, classroom observations and documents to highlight the voices of the teachers and examine how they apply social justice. The findings indicate that rather than approach social justice through an inductive idealistic lens, participants’ perceptions of social justice were grounded in the deductive realm and they understood social justice through a realist lens using concrete experiences of social injustices social injustices at the societal, professional and classroom level. Further, their application of social justice beliefs in their pedagogical practices was more subtle and complex, and mediated by the social and economic conditions in which they lived and worked. Conclusively, any initiatives on quality education and social justice need to address the complex nature of educational policy implementation, include teachers’ voices and consider the social and material conditions that are contextually grounded and perpetuate injustice.

Committee:

Cynthia Tyson (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Studies; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Elementary Education; Social Research

Keywords:

universal primary education; teaching and learning; social justice; Sub Saharan Africa

Son, JiyeonFactors Related to Choosing between the Internet and a Financial Planner
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Human Ecology: Family Resource Management
In this dissertation, I aim to clarify the factors affecting a consumers’ choice between the Internet and a financial planner for making saving and investment decisions, based on household production theory. Moreover, I explore the likelihood of an individual being an Internet user (vs. a non-user), a financial planner user (vs. a non-user), a mixed user (vs. a non-user), an Internet user (vs. a mixed user) or a financial planner user (vs. a mixed user). First, using the data from the combined set of 2001, 2004, and 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), I investigated the proportion of U.S. households using the Internet, a financial planner, both, or neither. I found that Internet usage for making saving and investment decisions grew from 12% in 2001 to 20% in 2007. In contrast, financial planner usage statistics for the same purpose slightly decreased during the same period, from 18% to 15%. More interestingly, the proportion of mixed users, who use the Internet in addition to a financial planner, increased from 4% to 7%. Extending these results to multivariate analyses, I tested whether or not time constraints, monetary constraints, and human resource constraints affect a consumer’s choice between using the Internet and a financial planner. I found that monetary constraints and human resource constraints affected consumer decisions in choosing between the Internet and a financial planner, which supports household production theory. Unlike my hypothesis, however, time constraints (e.g., working hours per week, presence of a young child under the age of 5) did not bear any significant relationship in making a choice between the Internet and a financial planner. Moreover, the effects of time constraints were not found to be significant on the likelihood of being an Internet user, a financial planner user, and a mixed user. Overall, these results suggest that younger consumers with a Bachelor’s degree and less financial assets are more likely to use the Internet, instead of a financial planner or in addition to the financial planner.

Committee:

Jiyeon Son (Advisor); Sherman Hanna, PhD (Advisor); Kathryn Stafford, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Cosslett, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Finance; Marketing; Social Research

Keywords:

The Internet; a financial planner; household production theory; Survey of Consumer Finances; Information search; saving and investment decision-making

Taggart, Molly B.“What’s Love Got to Do with It?” The Effect of Love Styles on the Motives for and Perceptions of Online Romantic Relationships
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
From a uses and gratifications perspective, this research project investigated the effects of love styles on motives for using the Internet to create new romantic relationships as well as on perceptions of online romantic relationships. Information about participants’ demographics, Internet use, and background experiences with romantic relationships was also collected in an effort to further characterize members of the sample. Results indicated that participants believed that adult romantic relationships created via the Internet are better able and equipped to fulfill individual, personal motives based on sex rather than motives based on love. While this study offered a first attempt at answering questions about the interconnectedness of love styles, motives, and perceptions, these findings unearthed a more complex mystery that needs further investigation. Future research in this line of inquiry has the power to make a positive impact on understanding of specific Internet usage, online dating services/functions, and most importantly, on the real people who use or may consider using the Internet in the search for romantic relationships.

Committee:

Janet Meyer, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Communication; Demographics; Gender; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Multimedia Communications; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Web Studies

Keywords:

online communication; mediated communication; uses and gratifications theory; motives; gratifications sought; the Internet; love; sex; romantic relationships; online dating; perceptions; attitudes; stereotypes; survey methods; facebook; college students

Grubbs, Joshua Briggs“WHY DID YOU MAKE ME DO THAT?” ANGER AT GOD IN THE CONTEXT OF MORAL TRANSGRESSION
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Psychology
Transgression has been a focus within the psychological community for many years, with special focus on moral transgressions as a type of spiritual struggle. Recent research has placed an emphasis on another spiritual struggle, anger toward God, which appears is often associated with blaming God for a negative life event. The present study explored the relationship between these two struggles. In the context of a web-based survey, undergraduates (N=138) reflected upon an instance of personal moral transgression and then completed a series of questionnaires assessing attitudes and beliefs in the context of transgression. Consistent with hypotheses, the extent to which individuals viewed their transgressions as arising from dispositional or trait-like qualities robustly predicted negative evaluations of God. This association demonstrates a previously unexplored link between two forms of spiritual struggle and provides insight into the manner in which spiritual struggles interact.

Committee:

Julie EXLINE, PhD (Committee Chair); Heath Demaree, PhD (Committee Member); TJ McCallum, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experimental Psychology; Health Care; Pastoral Counseling; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Religion; Religious Congregations; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

RELIGION; SPIRITUALITY; GOD; TRANSGRESSION; ANGER; RELIGIOSITY; DEITY

Koksal, TamerThe Effect of Police Organization on Computer Crime
PHD, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science

This study explores the effectiveness of local and state law enforcement in dealing with computer crime. Several criteria are used as a measure of effectiveness. The first one is based on the General Deterrence Theory (GDT), which enables to test whether higher probability of arrest for computer crimes deters future computer crimes. Another criterion for establishing police effectiveness is the amount of computer crime statistics that enter departments’ records under circumstances of extremely low reporting of computer crimes. Factors such as having a cybercrime special unit, or computerization in a department are explored in terms of whether they increase computer crime statistics. Computer crimes are drawn from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) crime data collected from state and local law enforcement agencies. Departmental variables are assessed using the Sample Survey of Law Enforcement Agencies (SSLEA), which is administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ program on Law Enforcement and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS). According to the findings, there is some evidence that deterrence works in the context of computer crimes after some threshold number of detected computer crimes is reached.

While testing the effect of police organization on computer crime, the models are also controlled for the demographic characteristics of the jurisdictions served by the related law enforcement agencies. In making sense of the effect of demographics on computer crime, two themes are utilized: the digital divide and the lifestyle exposure theory of victimization. Findings suggest that there might be a positive correlation between involvement in online activities characterized as “risky” and being a victim of a computer crime.

Committee:

Renee J. Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); David A. Kessler, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Nawal Ammar, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Javed I. Khan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yuri Breitbart, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Criminology; Political Science; Social Research

Keywords:

computer crime; cybercrime; law enfocement; NIBRS; General Deterrence; digital divide; lifestyle exposure

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