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Bui, Elise ThuylinhGeneralization Processes in the Evaluative Conditioning of Foods
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Evaluative conditioning (EC), the pairing of objects (conditioned stimuli, CS) with positively and negatively valenced unconditioned stimuli (US) in order to induce attitude change, has been demonstrated to be a viable method of changing attitudes towards foods and corresponding eating behaviors. Positively conditioning healthy foods and negatively conditioning unhealthy foods should result in healthier food preferences. Of current interest is the extent to which EC can generalize beyond the conditioned foods to entire dimensions underlying food judgment, particularly health and taste. The current research includes three EC experiments using the Video Surveillance paradigm (Jones, Fazio, & Olson, 2009) and three experiments using physical push-pull movements as US. Four healthy CS foods were paired with positive US and four unhealthy CS foods were paired with negative US. Participants then reported eating intentions for a variety of foods, including non-CS foods. Initial experiments demonstrated that conditioning a few exemplar food items through either method increased sensitivity to health and decreased sensitivity to taste when judging a variety of additional foods. Additional experiments using both methods replicated the generalization effect with regard to health sensitivity, but only when a task that preceded the EC procedure promoted, rather than interfered with, categorization of the CS foods by health. A push-pull experiment demonstrated that using specific food as CS produced effects comparable to those obtained when conditioning higher level categories, such as fruits and vegetables. We also demonstrated that the eating likelihood measure prospectively predicts healthiness of eating behavior outside of the lab. This research shows that EC can generalize to an entire dimension underlying food judgment and that this effect is facilitated by accessibility of the health dimension at the time of exposure to the EC pairings.

Committee:

Russell Fazio, PhD (Advisor); Kentaro Fujita, PhD (Committee Member); Richard Petty, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

attitudes; evaluative conditioning; health; psychology; implicit processes

Daffon, Jennifer KThe Effects of Gender and Perception of Community Safety on Happiness
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2017, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
Income-based indicators of happiness have been shown to be limited in their ability to predict happiness. Alternative measures of happiness have been gaining prominence in happiness research, and two predictors of happiness were investigated in the current study. The extent to which happiness (measured by affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being) could be predicted by gender and perception of community safety was investigated with 19,644 participant responses to The Happiness Alliance Survey. Multiple linear regression models indicated that gender and community safety are significant predictors of affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The effect of the predictor variables was similar for all three of those happiness measures. B values indicated that both predictor variables had the greatest impact on psychological well-being and the least impact on life satisfaction. While all three models were statistically significant, they did not similarly predict the satisfaction with affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being scores. The results suggest that while gender and perceptions of community safety should be considered as part of the whole picture that supports a full life, there are likely other variables and life domains that have stronger influences on happiness.

Committee:

Suzanne Engelberg, PsyD (Committee Chair); Alejandra Suarez, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Musikanski, J.D, M.B.A (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology; Public Policy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

happiness; positive psychology; community safety; gender; Sustainable Seattle; Happiness Alliance; multiple regression; quantitative; subjective well-being

Schuepfer, KurtThe Impact of Anthropomorphism Type on Social Exclusion Recovery
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Psychology
Anthropomorphism, or perceiving non-human entities in human-like ways, is motivated by the need to socially connect. Although previous research has shown that engaging in anthropomorphism satiates belongingness needs, it has not addressed the possibility that particular types of anthropomorphizing may aid more than others. The current work presents three experiments that explored the effect of anthropomorphism type on recovery from social exclusion. Specifically, in a Pilot Study I tested the hypothesis that reading about an animal anthropomorphized with experiential capacities (versus agentic capacities) would more greatly facilitate recovery of basic needs and mood following exclusion. In Study 1, I attempted to replicate the Pilot Study findings using a more construct-valid operationalization of anthropomorphism. In Study 2, I examined the possibility that this effect would blunt a downstream behavioral consequence of exclusion, namely aggression. Overall the results provided mixed support for the hypotheses. In only one of three studies did I find evidence that experiential anthropomorphism facilitates greater recovery of basic needs following social exclusion. Implications of these findings for the literatures on both social exclusion and anthropomorphism are discussed.

Committee:

Heather Claypool (Committee Chair); Kurt Hugenberg (Committee Member); Jonathan Kunstman (Committee Member); Neil Brigden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

anthropomorphism, mind perception, social exclusion, ostracism, social psychology

Klotzman, Jill RTHE IMPACT OF FEMINIST IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT ON THE INTERNALIZATION OF SOCIOCULTURAL PRESSURES AND BODY DISSATISFACTION
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2019, School of Professional Psychology
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between perceived sociocultural pressures and internalization of the thin ideal and to determine whether or not high levels of feminist identity development moderate this relationship. The study also investigated the relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction and whether or not high levels of feminist identity development moderated the relationship. Two multiple hierarchical regression analyses were performed using data collected from a female undergraduate student sample (N=403) from Wright State University. These data were derived from a survey containing the Perceived Sociocultural Pressure Scale (PSPS; Stice & Argas, 1998), the Body Stereotype Scale-Revised (IBSS-R; Stice, Marti, Spoor, Presnell, & Shaw, 2008), the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BASS-R; Petrie, Tripp, & Harvey, 2002), and the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS; Bargad & Hyde, 1991). Findings showed that while pressures and internalization and internalization and body dissatisfaction were significantly and positively correlated, high levels of feminist identity development did not moderate the strength of these relationships. The findings of this study indicate that future research is necessary to pinpoint specific aspects of feminist identity that may serve to protect women from internalization and/or the development of body dissatisfaction. Furthermore, this study highlighted that further research is necessary in order to better understand how and why women with higher levels of feminist identity development tend to perceive more sociocultural pressure to be thin than their less feminist counterparts.

Committee:

Jeremiah Schumm, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Daniela Burnworth, Ph.D (Committee Member); Cheryl Meyer, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Feminism; Feminist Identity; Sociocultural Pressures; Thin Ideal; Internalization; Body Dissatisfaction; Female; Moderation; Eating Disorder; FIDS

Gomez, Alex AFeelings of Enlightenment: A Hermeneutic Interpretation of Latent Enlightenment Assumptions in Greenberg's Emotion-Focused Therapy
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2018, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how a mainstream theory of psychological practice might inadvertently conceal and ignore contemporary values and ideologies and their pathological consequences. Through a hermeneutic approach, I interpreted Leslie Greenberg's Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings (2nd ed), a popular and widely used theory in psychotherapy. As a practitioner with humanistic foundations, this was also an opportunity for the author to understand his own unexamined values as a therapist. Specific EFT constructs and concepts that reflected Enlightenment assumptions and values were examined. EFT was situated within Enlightenment philosophy, particularly it's alignment with European movements for increasing individual freedoms and resisting church and other perceived arbitrary authority. An argument of how Enlightenment perceptions were disguised within EFT's scientific and objectivist frameworks was formed based on this contextualization. One way that Enlightenment philosophy contributed to increasing individual freedom was by relocating moral sources within the individual, which led to a configuration of the self that is reflected in theories like EFT. Broadly, the assumptions that were surfaced reflected philosophical ideas promulgated by Descartes, Locke, Kant and Rousseau, as well as essential ideas from Expressivist and Romantic philosophies in general. Several themes were identified through the interpretation: The Reduction and Reification of Emotion as a Basic Building Block, The Emotional Brain and Interiorized Emotion, Emotion Scheme and the World Inside Our Brain, Immunity from Cultural Influence, Emotion Transformation as a Return to Grace, Internal Guide and the Voice of Nature, and Uniting of the Expressivist and Instrumental Stance. Examining the assumptions of EFT revealed how moral assumptions can become concealed within a mainstream psychotherapy theory, which in turn helped to explore its sociopolitical consequences. The conclusion maintained that EFT perpetuates a one-sided emphasis on individual minds, biological causes, and subjective experience, while deemphasizing social and political problems. In fact, EFT treatment of individual suffering seems to encourage the client to adapt even further to the unacknowledged individualistic ideologies that may have created the suffering. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohio Link ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Phil Cushman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sarah Peregrine Lord, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Mental Health; Philosophy; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

hermeneutics; hermeneutic research; qualitative text analysis; psychologists; psychotherapists; clinical psychology; psychotherapy; emotion-focused therapy; EFT; sociocultural psychology; implicit assumptions; implicit values; enlightenment philosophy

Gonsalves, Crystal RThe Remembered Experience of Adoption: Factors Supporting Healthy Adjustment
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
This qualitative research study is designed to explore ideas, customs, and practices related to adoption from the perspective of adult adoptees. While many studies seek to explain the negative impact of adoption, minimal literature exists with regard to a phenomenological exploration of adoption practices that successfully promote healthy adjustment and a sense of resilience and well-being in adopted children. Existing research on adoption has largely been conducted quantitatively, which can fail to capture the personal, lived experience of a positive adoption experience that leads to healthy adjustment. Specifically, little is known about which factors of the adoption experience adoptees perceive as contributing to healthy adjustment and a sense of well-being. The proposed study located themes and patterns that became apparent through narrative inquiry concerning factors in the adoption experience that contributed to adjustment. Narrative research honors the knowledge held in stories that are retrieved from memory (Fry, 2002). By interviewing adults who were adopted as children, it is hoped that their personal stories can augment clinical conceptualizations of adoption and shed light on positive meaning-making experiences in the context of adoption. These conceptualizations will be of use to persons and professionals who work closely with those involved in adoption, including mental health professionals and paraprofessionals working closely with adoptees and their families. This information is of value for those involved in family dependency treatment courts, child welfare services, and other agencies who wish to promote positive experiences for children and families who become involved in the adoption process. The electronic version of the dissertation is accessible at the Ohiolink ETD center http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Steve Kadin, PhD (Committee Chair); Bella DePaulo, PhD (Committee Member); Violet Oaklander, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

adoption; adopted; attachment; adjustment; resilience; phenomenological; qualitative; biological; adoptive parents; adoption registry; adoption stereotypes; adaptability; age of adoption; disclosure; racial identity; ethnic identity; closed; open adoption

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Hinsenkamp, Lucas DanielCompensatory Bolstering: Uncertainty or Threat?
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Psychology
There are many processes by which people can become more extreme in their attitudes and judgments—some more reasonable and rational, some more unconscious and motivational in nature. Across two studies, this thesis focuses on one process that has demonstrated the potential to polarize judgments: defensive bolstering. There are many concurrent theories attempting to explain why, when we feel uncertain and/or threatened, we compensate by bolstering, or extremitizing, various judgments. None of these theories, however, have manipulated threat and uncertainty in an orthogonal manner. Thus, it has been unclear whether feelings of uncertainty are driving the bolstering effects as some theories argue, whether feelings of threat are the driving force as others argue, or if there is something special about the confluence of both uncertainty and threat that is pervasive amongst manipulations in the field. Study 1 examined the viability of a procedure which required participants to imagine hypothetical scenarios to vary threat and uncertainty. This study showed that the combination of threat and uncertainty produced more defensive bolstering than their absence. Bolstering was shown across three measures frequently used in the psychological defense literature. Study 2 then applied these vignettes to disentangle threat from uncertainty and demonstrated that imagining the scenario high in both uncertainty and threat produced greater bolstering on the same measures used in Study 1 than just uncertainty or threat, alone. Collapsing across Studies 1 and 2 in an exploratory analysis suggested that the only condition in which participants extremitized on the dependent variables was when uncertainty was combined with threat. This research suggests that defensive, compensatory bolstering effects may not be due solely to either the experience of uncertainty or threat, as many theories claim, but that it may actually rely on the experience of both.

Committee:

Richard Petty, PhD (Advisor); Duane Wegener, PhD (Committee Member); Ellen Peters, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

compensatory bolstering; psychological defense; uncertainty; threat; mortality salience; polarization; extremitization

Dynes, Morgan E.A National Study of Child and Family Therapists: The Relationships between Parent Engagement, Supervision and Training, and Burnout
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Clinical
Extensive previous research has included investigations of the importance of parent engagement in the effective implementation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) for children and families, and the role that service-providers play in the engagement process. Additionally, past studies have explored the associations between staff outcomes such as burnout and professional efficacy, and organizational factors such as constraints and supervision, to examine their impact on treatment delivery (Ingoldsby, 2010; McCurdy & Daro, 2001; McGuigan, Katzev, & Pratt, 2003). The overarching goal of this study was to examine the relationships between service providers’ experiences with parent engagement, organization-level factors, and therapist outcomes of burnout and professional efficacy using a national online survey. Participants were 148 (19 males and 129 females) child and family therapists who work at mental health facilities across the United States. Therapist parent engagement efficacy mediated the relationship between barriers to parent engagement and the Personal Accomplishment sub-scale of burnout. Supervision and training were not associated with any variables of interest. However, therapist perceptions of organizational constraints were found to be significantly correlated with all variables of interest. Serial multiple mediation analyses suggest that the effects of organizational constraints on parent engagement efficacy are mediated by barriers to parent engagement, and the effects of organizational constraints on emotional engagement and personal accomplishment are mediated by both barriers to parent engagement, and parent engagement efficacy. Future directions and implications are discussed with respect to furthering research efforts and the clinical applications for workforce development and improved delivery and implementation of evidence-based practices.

Committee:

Carolyn Tompsett, Ph.D. (Advisor); Eric Dubow, Ph,D. (Committee Member); Dara Musher-Eizenman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Starr Keyes, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Mental Health; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Work

Keywords:

parent engagement; supervision; training; professional efficacy; efficacy; burnout; child therapist; counseling; social work; organizational constraints; usual care; routine practice; evidence-based treatment

Sweitzer, Sarah D.The Influence of Negative Affectivity on Perceived Morale and Team Cooperation
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Workplace negative affectivity (NA) has been well-examined in the literature, but no study has explored its influence on perceived morale and perceived team cooperation. One hundred and fifty-eight undergraduates from a small university in the Midwest were randomly assigned to one of two vignette conditions and then answered questions about morale, cooperation, and affectivity. The study hypothesized that the presence of high NA would negatively affect perceived morale and perceived team cooperation. The hypotheses were supported, indicating that NA has a significant effect on both perceived morale and perceived cooperation, such that higher NA is related to lower perceived morale and lower perceived team cooperation. Results also indicated that participant positive affectivity was not related to either perceived morale or perceived cooperation, but NA shared a negative relationship with perceived cooperation. The results of this study have several implications for companies, including that employee disposition may impact team environments. Future research should continue to explore how personality may affect workplace environments.

Committee:

Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Personality Psychology; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

negative affectivity; affectivity; disposition; personality; morale; team cooperation; collaboration; teamwork; workplace; negative affect; perceived; perception

Sharpe, Tanzeah Shanae RobinsonShades of Knowledge: Young Children's Perceptions of Racial Attitudes and Preferences
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2014, College of Education
This study explores the racial attitudes and preferences among 164 children between three and seven years of age. The study is a partial replication of the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test which concluded that segregation, along with prejudice and discrimination, caused feelings of inferiority and self-hatred in African-American children. Significant changes to the original doll test are introduced in the current study. This study is based on an embedded mixed method design which utilizes Chi-square, cross-tabulations, and free-choice interviewing. The data were analyzed in response to research questions designed to test the racial attitudes and racial preferences of the participants. The findings of this study concluded that the participants can identify and have an awareness of racial differences, show doll preference, and display positive self-image. Qualitative themes that emerged from the research concluded that the participants liked the doll that looked most like them (or a family member), had a skin tone they liked, or was pretty. Themes associated with why participants did not like the doll that looked like them included skin tone and miscellaneous responses such as facial features and because the doll did not resemble the child’s doll at home. The findings of this study are compared to the results from the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test.

Committee:

Judy Alston, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rosaire Ifedi, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Sunny Munn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

early childhood education; self-esteem; identity; racial awareness; racial identification; racial preference; child development; Kenneth Clark; Mamie Clark; doll test; racial development

Mariutto, ElizabethRelationship Commitment and its Associations with Relationship Contingency, Body Surveillance, and Body Shame
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2011, Psychology
Women are socialized to adopt a sexually-objectifying perspective toward their own bodies (self-objectification; Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) through monitoring their bodies habitually (body surveillance), leading them to experience greater body shame (Augustus-Horvath & Tylka, 2009). Recently, it has been suggested that relationship contingency and self-objectification variables may be further understood by introducing a third component: relationship commitment (i.e., Sanchez & Kwang, 2007). The current study investigated the role of relationship commitment, as a moderator of relationship contingency, as it predicts body shame, as mediated by body surveillance. This study utilized an undergraduate sample of 103 female students who had been in a relationship for at least one week. A combined mediational and moderational model of linear regression was used. Results indicated that body surveillance appears to mediate the relationship between relationship contingency and body shame. Relationship commitment neither had a main effect nor a moderating effect on body shame and body surveillance. However, relationship commitment was significantly negatively correlated with relationship contingency. This study was unable to explore differences between those of varying sexual orientations due to the small number of non-heterosexual participants, but found no racial differences in a small subsample. Future studies may aim to explore the applicability of this model to more diverse populations.

Committee:

Christine M. Dacey, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Cathy McDaniels Wilson, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

body image in women; monogamous relationships

Rood, Jennifer EExamining Perceived Stigma of Children with Newly-Diagnosed Epilepsy and Their Caregivers Over a Two-Year Period
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2013, Psychology
Children with epilepsy, approximately 326,000 children under the age of 15 in the United States, are at a high risk for stigma (Begley et al., 2000; Jacoby & Austin, 2007). Long-term impacts of experiencing stigma include increased depression, poor self-concept, low overall quality of life, and low perception of ability to manage illness (Cheng-Fang et al., 2009; Dilorio et al., 2003; Funderburk et al., 2007; Leaffer et al., 2011; Weiss et al., 2006). Few studies have examined the perception of stigma (i.e., the internalized sense of shame that occurs from possessing a stigmatized attribute and the anticipation that others will discriminate against the stigmatized individual) among children with epilepsy (Jacoby & Austin, 2007). The aims of the current study are to: 1) examine the course of perceived epilepsy-related stigma among children and their caregivers 2) examine the influence of seizure absence/presence on children and caregivers' perception of epilepsy-related stigma and 3) examine the congruence of child and caregiver perception of child epilepsy-related stigma. Ninety-seven caregivers and 39 children with epilepsy participated in this longitudinal study, with children's ages ranging from 2 to 12, with a mean age of 7.14 ± 2.87. Using hierarchical linear modeling, both caregivers (t1, 76 = -2.57 p<.01) and children with epilepsy (t1, 29= -3.37, p<.01) reported decreasing amounts of epilepsy-related stigma from diagnosis to two-years post-diagnosis. However, there were no difference in caregiver report (t(65) = .93, p = .52) or child report (t(25) = -.89, p=.75) of perceived stigma with children currently experiencing seizures when compared to children who have been seizure-free for the past year. Additionally, intraclass correlations revealed poor caregiver-child agreement of perceived epilepsy-related stigma at baseline (r = .01, p =.49), one year following diagnosis (r=-.06, p=.83), and two years following diagnosis (r=-.049, p=.83). Specifically, caregivers reported higher levels of stigma compared to children at baseline and two years post-diagnosis; whereas children reported higher levels of stigma compared to caregivers at one year post-diagnosis. These findings suggest that children with epilepsy perceive decreasing amounts of epilepsy-related stigma over the first two years after diagnosis, but their level of stigma is not influenced by their seizure status. Finally, this study suggests that children and their caregivers have different opinions of the level of perceived stigma that children with epilepsy experience throughout the course of their first two years following diagnosis.

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Jennifer Gibson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Avani C. Modi, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

epilepsy in children; stigma - social psychology

Appleman, Michael JEmerging Adulthood: The Pursuit of Higher Education
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
The introduction of this thesis project will provide an overview of emerging adulthood and the context of higher education in contemporary society. In chapter two, a conceptualization of emerging adulthood will be provided. Given the social psychological nature of emerging adulthood, chapter two will explain the influence of identity development and social factors on emerging adults. In chapter three, self-authorship will be discussed as a theory for considering how emerging adults make meaning of their experiences, progress toward mature thinking, and assume responsible roles in adult life. Next, chapter four will provide an analysis of the relationship between emerging adults and higher education. An emphasis in chapter four will be the Learning Partnerships Model which articulates the potential for higher education to foster the development of self-authorship. This will provide one example of the way higher education cultivates individuals, and the implications for emerging adults. Lastly, a conclusion follows in chapter five to discuss the intersections between emerging adulthood, self-authorship, and higher education, with an emphasis on the social and cultural implications of emerging adulthood as a newly theorized phase in the human lifespan.

Committee:

Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Advisor); Li Huey-Li, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Megan Moore-Gardner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Aging; Cognitive Psychology; Curriculum Development; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Individual and Family Studies; Multicultural Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

emerging adulthood; higher education; self-authorship; educational philosophy; social and cultural foundations; lifespan; student development; identity development; decision-making; possible selves; future-oriented thinking; student learning outcomes

Hsing, Courtney KellyVisual Imagery Perspective and Conceptual Processing of Core Affect
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Psychology
Emotions can serve specific functions that can enhance individuals’ adjustment to the environment (Keltner & Gross, 1999). The conceptual act model suggests that the experience of emotion results when people conceptually analyze their core affect and categorize it as an instance of emotion (Barrett et al., 2007). The current studies were designed to investigate how visual imagery perspective can be manipulated to influence the experience of core affect as an instance of emotion (indexed by the correspondence between implicitly and explicitly measured affect). Visual images of actions necessarily have a perspective, and can be depicted from an actor’s first-person or observer’s third-person perspective. Images vary on this dimension whether they are internally or externally generated, or depict one’s own or others’ actions. The two perspectives differentially facilitate qualitatively distinct processing styles that a person applies to interpret and evaluate events (Libby & Eibach, 2011). The first-person perspective facilitates greater reliance on experiential processing, which sets the stage for understanding events based on the phenomenology and cognitive associations evoked by concrete features of the environment (Shaeffer, Libby & Eibach, in press). The third-person perspective facilitates greater reliance on conceptual processing, which sets the stage for understanding events in terms of abstractions that coherently integrate the event with broader frameworks of propositional beliefs and knowledge (Shaeffer et al., in press). Participants in Studies 1 and 2 completed an implicit measure (IPANAT; Quirin, Kazen, & Kuhl, 2009) of current affect and a trait measure of alexithymia (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994). Before explicitly reporting their current affect (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988), participants were primed with a set of photographs depicting common actions either from the first-person or third-person perspective (Shaeffer et al., in press). In Study 1, we found that the third- (versus first-person) perspective predicted the tendency to categorize positive core affect as an instance of emotion. This effect was moderated by alexithymia, a construct associated with deficits in the conceptual knowledge about emotion. Specifically, high (versus low) alexithymia predicted the tendency to experience positive core affect as emotional in the third-person perspective. In Study 2, following an anger recall task, we found that the third- (versus first-person) perspective predicted the tendency to experience negative core affect as an instance of emotion, regardless of alexithymia. This research suggests third- (versus first-person) perspective may facilitate the experience of core affect as instances of emotion.

Committee:

Lisa Libby (Advisor)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

visual imagery perspective, emotion, affect

Bookmyer, Eric DanielNeed for Cognition and its Effects on Equity Theory Predictions
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Despite the growing trend in workplace applications of need for cognition (NC) on decision making, a gap still exists in its applications to other areas of I-O psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individual difference of NC on equity theory predictions. This study consisted of a sample of 225 Mechanical Turk participants who completed a 32-item survey measuring their NC level and perceptions of equity and satisfaction based on a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated no significant differences between NC level and the amount of information utilized in the equity comparison process, contrary to predictions. Additionally, there were no significant differences between NC level on perceptions of distributive justice. The present study did, however, further support equity theory predictions by indicating lowered distributive justice in the underpayment and overpayment conditions and higher distributive justice in the equitable payment condition. Supplemental analyses were also conducted into pay satisfaction, which found that those low in NC were more satisfied in an underpayment condition than those high in NC. This research has implications on the workplace suggesting that employers should strive to compensate employees equitably to achieve the highest distributive justice perceptions. Additionally, results suggest that employers may want to consider an employee’s NC level when focusing on pay satisfaction, and this is an area that future research should further examine.

Committee:

Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

equity theory; need for cognition; equity; distributive justice; pay satisfaction; decision making; mechanical turk; MTurk; equity perceptions; workplace; individual differences; organizational behavior

Singh, Ajay SarangdevotCultural Worldview, Psychological Distance, and Americans’ Support for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Policy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Environment and Natural Resources
Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an objective for members of the Conference of the Parties to stabilize greenhouse gases concentrations to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” Meeting this objective assumes humans have a significant effect on climate and those changes will lead threats to humans and the environment. Implementing the UNFCCC and subsequent protocols will require members of the Conference of Parties to ratify binding agreements which set emission standards and establish mechanisms to mitigate those emissions to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system or increase society’s ability to adapt to changes in order to avoid danger. Creating and adopting agreements at the Federal level in the United States has proved difficult. Opposition to ratifying protocols and amendments agreed upon by other COP members or adopting policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions can be explained by various social, political, and psychological factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to continue an exploration of how cultural worldviews and psychological distance of climate impacts influences levels of support for mitigation and adaptation approaches to addressing climate change.

Committee:

Jeremy Bruskotter, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Tomas Koontz, Dr (Committee Co-Chair); Eric Toman, Dr. (Committee Member); Robyn Wilson, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Public Policy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Climate change, climate policy, cultural worldview, psychological distance

Hill, RenaMedia Violence and its Effects on Young African American Men
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2012, Psychology
This study investigated the effects that the viewing of violence in movie clips has on the aggressive affect and self-efficacy for aggression/violence among African American men when the aggressive/violent model is similar versus different to them in race/ethnicity. A dimension of racial identity (race centrality) was also investigated as a protective factor against aggressive affect and self-efficacy for violence. The sample consisted of 127 African Americans aged 18 to 22, of which only the 76 men were investigated in this study. Aggressive affect significantly increased after viewing a movie clip with an African American, aggressive model but not after viewing a movie clip with a Caucasian, aggressive model. There were no significant results found concerning self-efficacy for aggression. There was no relationship between race centrality and aggressive affect.

Committee:

Anna Ghee, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Lynn Bowers, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Salsman, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Mass Media; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

violence in mass media; African Americans; aggressiveness; blacks - racial identity

Currans, Kristn DThe social reputation of children with Asperger's Disorder in the classroom: Teachers' impressions
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2006, Psychology
The social reputations of children (ages 6-11) with Asperger's Disorder (AD) (n = 16) and classroom peers (n = 16) were examined using a modified version of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a measure of social behavior, completed by teachers. Teachers also completed a Behavioral Assessment Scale of Children - Teacher Report Scale (BASC-TRS) for each child, a measure of observed behavior. Relative to their peers, children with AD scored higher on the Sensitive-Isolated dimension and lower on the Sociability-Leadership dimension of the RCP, indicating less positive social reputations. They were observed to engage in more disruptive and fewer adaptive behaviors. The findings suggest that the behavior of children with AD negatively impacts their social reputations and acceptance by peers. The need for social skills interventions is discussed, and suggestions for further research are made.

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Crighton Newsom, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

psychology; education; social reputation; asperger syndrome; children

Riccardi, StephanieCommunity Expectations Prior to Conception: Sex and Age Differences in Attitudes towards Teenage Pregnancy
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2013, Psychology
This study evaluated the association between sex and/or age group with regard to minimum expectations for preferred goal achievement by teenagers prior to conceiving a child. Participants were 314 individuals aged 12-82, living for a minimum of one year in an urban, low income and predominantly African American community with high rates of teenage pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire about their attitudes regarding preferred minimum expectations for goal attainment in the areas of yearly income, education level, social supports, and housing and relationship status prior to teenagers conceiving a child. Analyses revealed that age groups have statistically different views regarding minimum expected yearly income, X2 (10, n = 312) = 35.21, p=001, Cramer's V = .24 (medium effect size), and preferred relationship status, X2 (8, n = 309) = 25.34, p = .001, Cramer's V = .20 (small effect size), for teenage girls. There was no association found for minimum expected educational attainment for both teenage females and males. Additionally, age groups have different opinions about where teenage females acquire information about birth control, X2 (6, n = 308) = 22.67, p = .001, Cramer's V = .19 (small effect size). There were no significant differences found between male and female respondents reported preferences for minimum expectations for goal achievement prior to conception.

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Kathleen Burklow, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Cathy McDaniels Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

teenage pregnancy; role expectation

Apseloff, Rebecca JKnowledge and Attitudes About Twins
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2013, Psychology
This study explored knowledge and attitudes about twins in a sample of 326 undergraduate students; 20 students in the sample self-identified as twins. There were small but significant correlations between student's knowledge about twins' scores and positive attitude toward twins scores, and an inverse correlation between knowledge about twins and the negative attitudes toward twins score. Additionally, a small but significant correlation was found between individual's knowledge about twins and the number of twins in their social sphere. Positive attitudes about twin's scores were also significantly correlated with number of twin pairs known to the respondent and with rated degree of closeness to twins. Finally, an independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference between twin's and non-twin's positive attitudes about twins, with twins having more positive attitudes about twins than non-twins. A frequency analysis of survey items revealed that, in general, participants were familiar with basic information about twins, but were less knowledgeable about less commonly reported information about twins. While most student attitude scores appear to have been fairly neutral, exposure to twins is associated with more positive attitudes and greater knowledge, which is consistent with findings regarding other attitudes toward minority groups. Replicating these findings with a larger, more heterogeneous sample is recommended to further expand our knowledge in this area.

Committee:

Kathleen J. Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Stephen P. Fritsch, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Renee Zucchero, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

twins; psychology

Hines, Karen AnneImagining the future and predicting emotions: The influence of imagery perspective on anticipated emotions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Psychology
When people make decisions about the future, they often rely on how they anticipate they will feel to guide their decisions. What factors guide how people arrive at these predictions about how they will feel? One factor which may influence anticipated emotions is imagery perspective. People often picture future events, and they can picture them from a first or third-person perspective. Chapter 1 discusses an imagery perspective model and applies the model to explain how imagery perspective influences anticipated emotions. In this chapter, we make the argument that imagery perspective influences the cognitive style of processing an event. This processing style affects the subjective meaning of the event, which influences anticipated emotions. Specifically, using a first-person perspective causes people to use bottom-up processing, relying on the associations evoked by the concrete features of the event. In contrast, using a third-person perspective causes people to use top-down processing, integrating the event into its broader context. Therefore, if an event is more meaningful in terms of its broader context than its concrete features, picturing the event from a third-person perspective should produce a greater anticipated emotional impact of the event. Chapter 2 presents two studies which demonstrate that if an event is more meaningful in terms of its broader context than its concrete features, picturing the event from a third-person perspective should produce a greater anticipated emotional impact of the event. Chapter 3 involves one study which replicates the findings from Studies 1a and 1b, and it also shows that when the meaningfulness of the broader context is removed, those who use a first versus third-person do not differ in their anticipated emotional reactions. Chapter 4 further broadens the predictions of the current model in terms of the influence of imagery perspective on emotion. In this chapter, we examine various aspects of events that might influence the relationship between imagery perspective and emotion, and we also examine how the current model predicts that imagery perspective should influence different types of emotional reports and judgments.

Committee:

Lisa Libby, Ph.D. (Advisor); Russell Fazio, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kentaro Fujita, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Psychology

Keywords:

imagery perspective; anticipated emotions; social cognition

Sandhu, Reena P.Father Attachment Predicts Adolescent Girls' Social and Emotional Development
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
The principle focus of research on parental attachment and involvement has been about mothers and their young children, with the role of fathers relatively neglected. In addition, the study of father-child relational processes during the adolescent period has been meager, compared to mother-child influences during adolescence. The few studies on father-adolescent relationships rarely focused on the father-daughter attachment bond. This research study aimed primarily to consider the nature of father attachment on the social and emotional development of adolescent girls. The variables of interest were Father Attachment, Social Problems, Social Competence, and Internalizing Behavioral Problems, as perceived by adolescent girls. The archival survey data for this study were gathered from 246 adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 16 years old who participated in Ferrari's 2008 study on "Attachment, personal resources and coping in trait-anxious adolescent girls." Results supported the proposed hypotheses, revealing statistically significant correlations among perceived quality of Father Attachment, and adolescent girls' Social Competence, Social Problems, and Internalizing Behavioral Problems. Together, Father Attachment, Social Competence and Social Problems accounted for over half of the variance (54.5%) of Internalizing Behavioral Problems. In addition, Father Attachment and Social Problems each uniquely predicted Internalizing Behavioral Problems in a standard multiple regression analysis. However, once Father Attachment and Social Problems were accounted for, the relationship between Social Competence and Internalizing Behavioral Problems was no longer significant. Incorporating these findings in prevention and treatment programs could prove to be crucial, particularly for programs aimed at promoting emotional well being among adolescent girls. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mary Wieneke, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Patricia Linn, Ph.D (Committee Member); Lisa Ferrari, Psy.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Canadian Studies; Counseling Psychology; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Father-Attachment, Adolescent Girls, Social Competence, Social Problems, Internalizing Behavioral Problem

Lackovich-Van Gorp, Ashley N.Positive Deviance and Child Marriage by Abduction in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
This dissertation uses Positive Deviance (PD) to understand child marriage by abduction in a community in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia. Marriage by abduction occurs among the poorest 10% of the Sidama population and entails the kidnapping of girls between the ages of 10 and 14 for forced genital circumcision, rape and marriage. PD is a problem solving approach that mobilizes a community to uncover existing yet unrecognized solutions to solve the specific problem. This study, which entailed an examination of the evolution of marriage norms among the Sidama as well as an analysis of the underpinnings of marriage by abduction, discovered that some community members practice behaviors and strategies that can prevent child marriage by abduction. The results support PD application to this specific form of child marriage as well as the practice as a whole, offering an alternative to traditional behavior change methodology. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Alan Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Monique Sternin, MA (Committee Member); Sandra Cheldelin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Studies; Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Gender Studies; Social Psychology

Keywords:

positive deviance; child marriage; Ethiopia; Sidama; action research; mothers; daughters; abduction; harmful traditional practice; adaptive behavior change; adolescents; adolescent development; international development

Saks, Jeremy M.Demographic Congruency, Advertisements, and Television Shows: The Effect of Advertisement Viewing on Television Show Evaluation
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Journalism (Communication)
This thesis examines demographic congruency between television shows and advertisements and the effects that it has on program evaluation. Two groups of college- aged participants watched the same popular television show for their age group but some saw commercials targeted at them while others saw advertisements for products and services for elderly people. Theoretically based on Mandler's discrepancy/evaluation theory, results showed that individuals exposed to demographically incongruent advertisements explicitly evaluated the television show less favorably than those that saw congruent commercials. Additionally, an implicit associations test found marginally significant and contrasting results where the demographically incongruent advertisements led to a higher liking among those who viewed them along with the show. The results, as well as potential explanations, are discussed.

Committee:

Carson Wagner, PhD (Committee Chair); Jatin Srivastava, PhD (Committee Member); Hans Meyer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Experimental Psychology; Experiments; Journalism; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

television; advertising; demographics; congruency; incongruency; experiment; Mandler; expectancy; disconfirmation

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