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Johnson, Kathryn EFrom Analog to Digital Control: A Study of the Russian Experience with Communications Technologies
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Slavic and East European Studies
A culture of control existed in Russia that possesses roots in the tsarist period and continued into the Soviet era. The desire to control evolved to protect and promote the state, as well as to ensure a monopoly over truth; thus communications technologies, because of their ability to transmit information through various means, became a target of this control. This thesis examines the current attempts to recapture a culture of control in Russia in response to the growth of the Internet and social media. It will assess the parallels between the past and present methods of control and conclude that modern methods of control are reminiscent of previous styles of controls. While the intent to control communication is also characteristic of the Soviet period, more modern methods have evolved to control access to information in the post-Soviet context, specifically developed to address the Internet environment and to prevent backlash. Thus, instead of outright control and censorship, methods of control exhibited include second and third generation techniques such as legal regulation, surveillance, and government propaganda. The practice of facilitating the spread of the Internet throughout Russia while maintaining the desire to control it represents an older dichotomy of seeking a modern state infrastructure, while fearing its potential for subversion and instability. This thesis will also explore the difference between the terms control and surveillance, as surveillance is important for the government’s control over communication through knowledge of information flow, and is facilitated by the growth of cellular technology and computer networks today. Finally, the thesis will assess the reasons for recapturing past methods of control and will conclude that the state seeks to control communications not only for political reasons, but also for national security reasons, which may be both real and imagined. There are also efforts to shape the Russian population into a more moral and stable society. The government seeks to do this by ensuring its voice is heard and its hand is seen in one of the only remaining mediums that remains out of the government’s full control.

Committee:

Jessie Labov, PhD (Advisor); Jennifer Suchland, PhD (Committee Member); Jeffrey Lewis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Russian History; Slavic Studies; Technology

Keywords:

communication; technology; Russia; control; intelligence services; Internet; Navalny; surveillance;

Lanzillotti, Ian ThomasLand, Community, and the State in the North Caucasus: Kabardino-Balkaria, 1763-1991
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History
The Caucasus mountain region in southern Russia has witnessed many of post-Soviet Eurasia’s most violent inter-communal conflicts. From Abkhazia to Chechnya, the region fractured ferociously and neighboring communities took up arms against each other in the name of ethnicity and religion. In the midst of some of the worst conflict in Europe since 1945, the semiautonomous, multiethnic Kabardino-Balkar Republic in the North Caucasus remained a relative oasis of peace. This is not to say there were no tensions—there is no love lost between Kabardians, Balkars, and Russians, Kabardino-Balkaria’s principal communities. But, why did these communities, despite the agitation of ethno-political entrepreneurs, not resort to force to solve their grievances, while many neighboring ones did? What institutions and practices have facilitated this peace? What role have state officials and state structures played in, on the one hand, producing inter-communal conflict, and, on the other hand, mediating and defusing such conflict? And why has land played such a crucial rule in inter-communal relations in the region over the longue duree? More than enhancing our knowledge of a poorly-understood yet strategically important region, the questions I ask of Kabardino-Balkaria are windows on larger issues of enduring global relevance. What processes affect peace and stability in regions of ethno-confessional diversity? What role do states play in forging and manipulating ethnic, national, and religious affilitations? What are the dynamics of governance in multiethnic and multiconfessional states? When and why do group identity categories, such as ethnicity and religion, matter? This dissertation explores the themes of inter- and intra-communal relations, the expansion and evolution of imperial rule and governance, and the causes of peace and violence. I explore these themes particularly through the socioeconomic relations that developed around land use and ownership in central Caucasia, a region of extraordinary ethno-confessional and social diversity. In order to explore the deep roots of contemporary issues of governance, inter-communal relations, nationalism, and conflict in the Caucasus region, this study examines these issues over the longue duree, from the extension of Russian rule in the late eighteenth century through the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. This periodization of over two centuries allows for a comparative exploration of these themes over different regimes: the pre-colonial Kabardian princely confederation, the tsarist state, the Soviet Union, and post-Soviet Russia. My dissertation offers three broad conclusions to these questions. First, it argues that peace has prevailed in Kabardino-Balkaria because Kabardians, Balkars and Russians were interdependent stakeholders in a system of inter-communal relations, each occupying their own economic niche. Each group benefited from this system and had a stake in its preservation. Second, my research shows that the Kabardian majority has worked to ensure the continued inclusion of ethnic minorities in this system. Third, I demonstrate that imperial conquest and governance had both destructive and creative effects on inter-communal relations, by weakening some relationships, strengthening others, and, through colonization and resettlement, creating new ones. Finally, I argue that the category of ethnicity had little intrinsic importance on an everyday level for the diverse peoples of this region. Indeed, for much of the period examined in this study, class or estate categories and confessional affiliations usually had far greater meaning in society than ethnic or national ones. But ethnic and national cateogiries could become important political tools and, often, catalysts for conflict in the hands of elites of various stripes.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle (Advisor); Theodora Dragostinova (Committee Member); David Hoffmann (Committee Member); Scott Levi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ethnic Studies; European History; History; Peace Studies; Russian History; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

ethnicity; Caucasus; Kabardians; Circassians; Balkars; Karachai; Cossacks; Ossetians; Ingush; Chechens; Kabardino-Balkaria; inter-communal relations; Soviet nationality policies; nation building; imperial integration; the Russian Empire; land relations

Otto, Jeffrey ScottA philological survey of late 15th-century Wallachian edicts in the Hilandar Monastery Library
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1994, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
none

Committee:

Charles Gribble (Advisor)

Subjects:

Religious History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Walworth, CatherineMaking Do for the Masses: Imperial Debris and a New Russian Constructivism
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History of Art
Russian Constructivist artists rejected the “elitist” medium of painting and instead set about redesigning the objects of everyday life under socialism in a devastated and “closed” economy. This dissertation expands the conventional art historical narrative by arguing that Constructivism adapted, rather than failed, in the 1920s. In so doing, I identify an alternative Constructivist strain that developed a tactic of recycling and re-appropriation in response to factory shortages and lack of raw materials. I examine how the former Imperial era’s debris became both the physical and ideological building material for its class enemies’ society, and the repository of lost Constructivist ideals. Applying anthropological models borrowed from Claude Levi-Strauss, I show how his mythmaker typologies—the “engineer” and “bricoleur”— illustrate, respectively, the canonical Constructivists and Russian artists on the margins that deployed a wide range of clever “make-do” tactics. I show how specific examples of existing porcelain “blanks,” clothing, film footage, and architecture from the newly requisitioned “collective stock” underwent transformation. For example, at Paris’s glamorous international exposition of industrial and decorative arts in 1925, a former Russian dressmaker to the Imperial Court received a grand prize for a flapper dress sewn from household table linens. Similarly, while the Soviets had to import Western “capitalist” films to compensate for the shortage of raw film stock in the 1920s, filmmaker Esfir Shub recycled Imperial-era film footage, creating Fall of the Romanov Dynasty, a masterpiece of Soviet propaganda and first feature-length compilation film. St. Petersburg’s Winter Palace, a symbol of Imperial rule and splendor, became a shifting stage for performance, government offices, a museum of the revolution, film set, and at the end of the 1920s, auction house. Similarly, leftover Imperial porcelain dishes, with marks from three previous tsars on their bases, now carried Bolshevik propaganda on their surfaces. These were portable artistic objects whose meanings came from their status as captured loot, a radical surface for socialist themed decoration by State Porcelain Factory artists. Yet, if these artists made innovative use of materials on hand, their methodological approach had already been modeled by the Bolshevik government’s reallotment of aristocratic mansions and reuse of requisitioned private goods. My study is intended, not merely to add these works to the Constructivist canon, but to change the shape of the current discussion, broadening the definitions of “mass production” and “industrial art” as well. Re-appropriated fragments of a former enemy era provided a wider range of play and possibility in the decade between 1918 and 1928. The use of scavenged Imperial leftovers as “raw materials” was economically strategic, but it also allowed artists to manipulate ideology embedded in the found material, creating objects with radically new emotional and symbolic trajectories.

Committee:

Myroslava M. Mudrak (Advisor); J. Ronald Green (Committee Member); Aron Vinegar (Committee Member); Patricia A. Cunningham (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History; Economic History; Film Studies; Russian History; Slavic Studies; Theater

Keywords:

Russian Constructivism; Nadezhda Lamanova, Esfir Shub, Varvara Stepanova; Aleksandr Rodchenko; October Revolution; Soviet Film; Russian Fashion

Trude, Brian J.The Reality of the Provinces and Other Stories
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2016, English (Arts and Sciences)
This thesis is a collection of four stories and a critical introduction titled "Ferris Wheels in Winter." The introduction explicates the common theme uniting the various stories, that of the author's attempt to confront despair by writing about characters who struggle with belief, disillusionment, and disjunction between self and place. This thesis includes the following titles: "The Reality of the Provinces," "The Tourists," "Low-hanging Fruit," and "A Pilgrim's Notes."

Committee:

Patrick O'Keeffe (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Reality; Provinces; Tourists; Low-hanging Fruit; Ferris Wheels in Winter; Reality of the Provinces; Notes; Russia; short stories; disjunction; disillusionment; despair; Camus; Dostoevsky

Walsh, YuliyaFORMS OF ADDRESS IN CONTEMPORARY UKRAINIAN NEWSPAPERS: Morphology, Gender and Pragmatics
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
Abstract This dissertation examines variation in nominal (unbound) address forms and related constructions in contemporary (post-Soviet) Ukrainian. The data come from 134 randomly selected articles in two Ukrainian newspapers dating from 1998–2013. Among the morphological and syntactic issues that receive particular attention are the allomorphy of the Ukrainian vocative and the spread of vocative markings to new categories (e.g., last names). In addition, the dissertation examines how the vocative behaves in apposition with other noun phrases; this sheds light on the controversial question of the status of the vocative in the Ukrainian case system. Another syntactic issue discussed in the study is the collocability of the unbound address and deferential reference term pan, which has become widespread in the post-Soviet period. The dissertation also examines several pragmatic issues relevant for the variation in contemporary Ukrainian address. First, it investigates how familiarity and distance affect the choice of different unbound address forms. Second, it examines how the gender of the speech act participants (addresser and addressee) influence preferencs for particular forms of address. Up to now, there have been scarcely any investigations of Ukrainian from the viewpoint of either pragmatics or gender linguistics. Thus the dissertation lays the foundation for future investigation of these important issues.

Committee:

Daniel Collins (Advisor); Predrag Matejic (Committee Member); Brian Joseph (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Foreign Language; Gender; Language; Linguistics; Morphology; Slavic Studies; Sociolinguistics

Keywords:

Address forms; Ukrainian; Vocative; Apposition in Address; Gender in press; Slavic sociolinguistics; Ukrainian Morphology; Appellative category; Pragmatics; East Slavic; Linguistics; Vocative in Slavic Languages; Terms of Address

Cayias, JenniferA Strategic Analysis of the Chechen Wars: The Keystone of Good Leadership
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, History
At the start of the First Chechen war, the Russian Federation had recently inherited a fractured polity. New leaders tried to piece together a new identity and grand strategy for a state that was still coming to terms with the fact that it was no longer the center of a union. Its new borders were unstable and unsecure, and secession of any one republic threatened a potential chain reaction throughout the region. What Russia needed was a strong, experienced leader, with a clear sense of direction and purpose for the Russian Federation. While many factors contributed to Russia’s domestic troubles, Boris Yeltsin proved unequal to the task of effectively consolidating and directing what remained of the Russian Republic. In the case of Chechnya, after the collapse of the Soviet Union the Russian military still retained a vast arsenal and reserves of manpower, which could have overwhelmed Chechnya from the outset – had they been well coordinated and directed. Dzhokhar Dudaev was exactly what Chechnya needed. He had decades of experience in the ranks of the Russian military and thoroughly understood their tactics, and he also had experience in irregular warfare from his service in the Soviet war in Afghanistan. And, of course, he was very familiar with the irregular and unconventional style of warfare that traversed Chechen history. In 1994 and 1995 Dudaev proved his ability to out-strategize the dysfunctional Russian forces, both politically and militarily. In 1996, two factors brought him down: the sheer mass of the Russian forces sent to Chechnya and their tactical adjustments, as well as undermining from competing Chechen factions. His death to a Russian air strike in that same year hamstrung the Chechen government with weak leadership that resulted in disaster for the nascent Chechen state. Neither the 1994 war nor that of 1999 was won or lost solely by the actions of one side or one leader. A mosaic of complex factors, acting on both sides, contributed to the origins, developments, and outcomes of each war. Technological, training, and coordinative flaws in the Russian strategy during the first war were largely rectified in the second. Additionally, the image of potentially legitimate statehood and victimization that the Chechens enjoyed at the start of the first war vanished by the second, causing the republic to lose its badly needed public support in both Russia and abroad in the international community. While noting the complexity of factors involved in the outcome if each war, key individuals at the helm of each polity created successes and failures out of the assets and liabilities at hand. Similarities between the origins of each war, contrasted with the stark differences in how forces executed their operations and the results they achieved, exemplify the significance that leadership has on an army’s success or failure.

Committee:

Peter Mansoor, PhD (Advisor); Nicholas Breyfogle, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Hahn, PhD (Committee Member); Theodore Hopf, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Military History; Russian History; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Chechnya; Chechen Wars; Dudaev

Reitsema, Laurie JeanStable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analysis of Human Diet Change in Prehistoric and Historic Poland
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Anthropology
This dissertation uses a well-established tool in anthropology – stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of human bones – to reconstruct past human diet in Poland. Bone collagen and carbonate of 32 animals and 167 human skeletons from North-Central Poland are studied. The sites studied are from Rogowo (2nd c. AD), Kałdus (11th-13th c.) and Gruczno (12th-14th c.)., all inland sites near the Vistula River, along with four isolated skeletons from the Neolithic and the Iron Age. With this sample I investigate two primary predictions: 1) stable isotope ratios increase through time, reflecting an increase in consumption of marine fish concomitant with religious and economic change, and 2) stable isotope signatures from medieval samples are more heterogeneous than those from pre-medieval samples and are related to status (as estimated by grave goods) and sex. Collagen was extracted by demineralizing cleaned, ground bone particles in hydrochloric acid, followed by a soak in sodium hydroxide to separate humic contaminants and lipids. Carbonate was purified from bone by soaking cleaned, powdered bone in bleach to remove the organic components, and then in acetic acid to remove diagenetic carbonates. Diagenesis of bone mineral was assessed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Stable isotope analyses were conducted at the Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry Laboratory in the School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of animals are higher than those usually reported for Europe, revealing a different isotopic baseline for North-Central Poland that may result from land management strategies such as manuring and/or burning fields. Human samples show evidence for millet consumption, a uniquely Slavic cultigen in Europe that may be useful in studying Slavic migrations. During the Roman Era, diet was terrestrial-based and included millet and some fish. At the onset of the medieval period, more fish were eaten and diet was highly variable. Contrary to expectations, throughout the medieval period diet became less isotopically varied. Diet at Kałdus was more varied than diet at Gruczno, which likely reflects the different economic functions of the two sites. There are no consistent relationships between burial style and diet, suggesting that differences in diet may not have been drawn on the lines of religion or status. Sex-based differences in stable isotope ratios are observed only in the Roman Era and the latest medieval period, Gruczno site 2, which most closely represents a “true” medieval village. The study samples were intended to isolate temporal diet change and control for regional and between-site variations. However, even in this restricted geographic area, assessing temporal change in diet is not straightforward. Medieval settlements are socioeconomically diverse, complicating simple interpretations of diet change through time. Rather than agreeing with expected, broad trends, diet in this study area was related to local socioeconomic and political circumstances. Local conditions shaping diet in the study area include the shaky foothold of Christianity after state-wide conversion, the Teutonic Order’s influence starting in the 13th c., and the waxing and waning of the medieval sites’ economic importance, independent of trends in Europe at large.

Committee:

Douglas Crews, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Clark Larsen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); M. Anne Katzenberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Sciulli, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Behaviorial Sciences; Biochemistry; Medieval History; Nutrition; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Stable isotopes; carbon; nitrogen; Poland; diet; medieval; collagen; carbonate

Myers, Elena K.Distribution of Uncontracted and Contracted Imperfect Verbs in the 11th Century Russian Manuscript of the Sinaiskij Paterik
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
The Sinaiskij Paterik, one of the oldest written documents in Old Russian literature , was translated from a 7th century Greek original. Scholars are divided on the topic of the place and time of translation of this document into Old East Slavic. The majority of linguists postulate that it was translated in Bulgaria in the 10th century while others believe that the Sinaiskij Paterik was translated in the 9th century by Saint Methodius, and yet others think that the translation took place in Old Rus' in the 11th century. The original text is known as Λειμωνάριον 'meadow', and represents a series of didactic stories about lives of monks. The fact that this is a translation does not mean an absence of variation in the Old Russian text. Indeed, the document contains different kinds of variation. One instance of such variation is the presence in the manuscript of both uncontracted and contracted imperfect forms. It is a very interesting phenomenon as the majority of the imperfects used in Old Russian documents represent a contracted variety, reflecting a process evident already in Old Church Slavonic. The objective of my research was to investigate the factors which might have possibly influenced the use of uncontracted forms in the document and to determine which factors, if any, had conditioned such use. My exhaustive analysis of all conceivable factors led me to conclude that only individual preferences of scribes and the length of words might have influenced the choice of uncontracted forms, whether in the translation or the copying process.

Committee:

Brian Joseph, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Collins, Dr. (Committee Member); Charles Gribble, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Language; Linguistics; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Slavic linguistics; historical linguistics; Old Russian; Old Church Slavonic

Welker, Lauren ELizabethRural Inequality in the Republic of Karelia: Considering Nonfarm Communities in Russian Rural Studies
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Slavic and East European Studies
The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and ensuing market reforms under President Boris Yeltsin increased inequality and economic stress on Russia’s rural residents. The aftermath of agrarian privatization and the chaotic 1990s has been studied by researchers from various disciplines, but little has been done to explain regional variations in quality of life, employment opportunities, and how life in rural nonfarm economies differs from regions where commercial farming is the predominant economic activity. Russia’s northwestern Republic of Karelia has an economy based primarily on forestry and a diverse rural landscape and population, only a small portion of which is engaged in commercial farming. National policies such as market reforms and President Vladimir Putin’s 2006 project to grow the agroindustrial sector have done little to integrate rural nonfarm economies and communities into larger regional and national economies. Members of these communities continue to lead subsistence-based lives and face increasing marginalization as sources of employment and services in their villages close. If scholars and policymakers fail to provide services and maintain infrastructure to peripheral areas, local residents will face continued poverty, while their desire to work and participate in regional economies will be unrealized.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle (Advisor); Yana Hashamova (Committee Member); Linda Lobao (Committee Member); Cathy Rakowski (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

rural poverty; Russia

Mulcahy, Robert AlanA Hero of Two Times: Erast Fandorin and the Refurbishment of Genre
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
This study investigates the popular Adventures of Erast Fandorin series of Boris Akunin, Russia’s best-selling author of detective fiction. With the aid of Mikhail Bakhtin’s concepts of the chronotope and the zone of maximal contact, it addresses questions of genre (in a transnational context), serialization, and the role of zlobodnevnye voprosy (`current issues’) in historical fiction. My analysis locates Akunin in the history of international detective fiction in order to appraise his contribution not only to the genre but also to modern Russian literature. To account for Akunin’s influential status in his home country, I hypothesize the reasons for the extraordinary success of his works and the cult around the protagonist of the series, as well as the significance of Fandorin’s values for contemporary Russian society.

Committee:

Helena Goscilo, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

East European Studies; Literature; Modern Literature; Russian History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Kier, Andrew JamesThe Semantics of Russian 'About' Prepositions: A Corpus-Based Study
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
This study examines, for the purpose of comparison, the semantic content of several important prepositions in modern Russian which translate ‘about, concerning’. It focuses primarily on the two primary prepositions o+LOC and pro, and includes the two secondary prepositions nas¿¿et and po povodu, which also translate ‘about, concerning’. Historically, several scholars have acknowledged that o+LOC and pro express slightly different nuances, although the exact nature of these nuances has become less clear over time (Pe¿¿kovskij 1928/2001, Vinogradov 1947/2001). How has pro survived and remained productive, if the distinction between it and o+LOC has been fading for so long? Vinogradov predicted its demise in the 1940’s, yet it still enjoys a robust presence in both the spoken and written language of the present day. Furthermore, pro in the ‘about’ sense is historically neither rare nor limited to the recent past. Likewise, nas¿¿et and po povodu (both fairly recent additions to the stable of Russian prepositions), which have both undergone subtle lexical shifts of their own in the past few centuries (¿¿erkasova 1967), are also in need of a more articulated semantic description. In this study, which consists of both a qualitative and a quantitative study, I have identified several selectional restrictions—the types of verbs and nouns (and features within them) with which these prepositions occur—associated with the four ‘aboutness’ prepositions, in sample texts written between 1890 and 2009, from the Russian National Corpus. The quantitative study consists of Fisher’s Exact tests performed on approximately 7,000 tokens (which consist of argument phrases with the ‘aboutness’ prepositions). Results indicate that in many instances, pro is associated with nouns which are animate, proper, unmodified, and non-deverbal. A qualitative analysis of the types of verbs associated with ‘aboutness’ PP’s as complements reveals that pro is mostly limited to verbs whose ‘aboutness’ object referent codes the semantic role of Topic. In contrast, with verbs that depict an emotional state (bespokoit’sja ‘be worried’, etc.), the object referent codes the semantic role of Cause; with verbs that depict requesting or supplication (prosit’ ‘ask (for), request’, umoljat’ ‘beseech’, etc.) the object referent codes the role of Proposition. Object referents of pro, however, rarely occur in these semantic roles, being generally limited to the semantic role of Topic; the verbs with which such a referent is associated depict one or more parts of the signal path of a message—speaking, writing, reading, inquiring, hearing (about), or cognitive activity. The performing of activities associated with a Topic object referent do not entail a change of state in any of the participants in the discourse, as is the case with emotional states and requests. I have also examined ‘co-occurrence’ examples, in which o+LOC and pro PP’s occur in the same syntagma or sentence, both subordinate to the same verb. Close readings of these co-occurrences show that in many of them, the semantic/pragmatic opposition between the o+LOC and pro object referents is such that the former are presented as being larger in scope, and more analyzed than the pro entities.

Committee:

Daniel Collins, PhD (Advisor); Charles Gribble, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Joseph, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Culicover, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Linguistics; Modern Language; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Russian; about; prepositions; o+LOC; pro; naschet; po povodu

Wilmes, Justin AProjecting Social Concerns: Russian Auteur Cinema in the Putin Era
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Slavic and East European Studies
In recent years the Putin administration has increasingly consolidated its control over media and suppressed political opposition and dissenting views. Since 2012, ideological controls are ever expanding their reach also in the realm of cinema, circumscribing the social content of films and reflecting a marked shift toward authoritarianism during Putin’s third term as President. On the other hand, high art has often had a paradoxical role in Russia, taking on a larger significance and even becoming increasingly outspoken as authoritarian controls stifle freedom of expression. In the tsarist and Soviet periods, Russia’s great writers were the moral compasses for society; they frequently collided with government censors and their works were sites of conflict for difficult social issues. In the digital age, this torch has largely been taken up by Russian auteur cinema, which has become one of the only remaining sites of civic discourse on sensitive social and political issues. These cinematic discourses are circumscribed by government censorship and funding, and an interesting “cat and mouse” game is taking place. New forms of Aesopian language have appeared in the Putin era. The postmillennial generation of auteur directors has been labeled, for example, the “New Quiets” (Novye tikhie) for their films in the early 2000s, which addressed social issues only obliquely through ii metaphor and allegory. However, several of these directors have taken a “political turn” since 2013, making films that more explicitly address political corruption and authoritarian practices. Through analysis of both aesthetics and content, this dissertation examines the postmillennial generation of auteur filmmakers to better understand the social concerns that preoccupy them, their aesthetic strategies, and what resonance this vanguard of social and political critique has in society. Unlike the majority of studies that focus on a particular aspect of post-Soviet cinema, the present analysis will examine a wider range of social topics—national identity, xenophobia, postcoloniality, political discourse—attempting to illuminate connections among them.

Committee:

Yana Hashamova (Advisor); Helena Goscilo (Committee Member); Stephen Norris (Committee Member); Jessie Labov (Committee Member); Jennifer Suchland (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Russia, Cultural Studies, Film Studies, Auteur

Paschyn, Zorianna MotriaA synchronic analysis of the Ukrainian conjugation
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1971, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
none

Committee:

Kenneth E. Naylor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language; Linguistics; Slavic Studies

Post, Lauren Let’s Talk about Sex: Gender, Nation, and Sex Education in Contemporary Poland
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
In this thesis, I argue that in Poland, the confluence of the Roman Catholic Church, historically entrenched ideas about gender and gender roles, and feminist’s inability to successfully challenge these norms converge in sex education policy. I trace the development of sex education through the pre- World War II era to contemporary policies, and consider current legal and cultural issues preventing the implementation of comprehensive sex education. I analyze secondary sources and when available, primary sources. Sex education policy is contentious, especially in recent years with fears of gender ideology and pedophilia being introduced in classrooms through sex education. NGO’s do exist to advocate for comprehensive sex education policy, but face obstacles through the government, conservative social norms, and the Catholic Church. The Church capitalizes on its social currency earned in the Communist period and conservative mores about sex to implement its preferred policies. Sex education policy is unlikely to change if these mores continue to persist, even as the Polish public becomes more frustrated with Church policy and influence.

Committee:

Jennifer Suchland (Advisor)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

sexual and reproductive health; sex education; Poland;

Manukyan, Kathleen L.The Russian Word in Song: Cultural and Linguistic Issues of Classical Singing in the Russian Language
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures

This is an interdisciplinary dissertation that addresses an array of questions relating to Russian opera and, in particular, the Russian language as it is sung in “classical” or, to use the Russian term, “academic” music (art song and opera). The first half of the dissertation examines several matters of cultural and literary interest, including: the first major programming of Russian operatic music in the West during Sergei Diaghilev’s Saisons Russes; the adaptation of Russian literature to opera; the notion of a Russian “national” vocal timbre; and the current culture of vocal training, professional opera singing, and opera production in Russia.

Having examined some historical, textual, and cultural contexts surrounding the art of singing as practiced in Russia, the second half of the dissertation studies Russian lyric diction – that is, how the language is pronounced for communication and expression during performance of the vocal repertoire. After establishing and contextualizing the precise definition of “lyric diction,” the dissertation investigates ways that the pronunciation of Russian changes from its speech norms in the lyric diction. The centerpiece of the study is an analysis of the vowel reduction patterns of sung Russian. The final portion of the dissertation discusses consonants in the lyric diction, suggesting strategies to assist the Anglophone vocalist in singing intelligibly and expressively in Russian.

In keeping with its interdisciplinary nature, the research for this dissertation encompasses a variety of methods, including literary analysis, in-country ethnographic field research, acoustical analysis by computer, and – perhaps most fruitfully – much listening and observing of recordings of Russian opera and song performance in consultation with native speaker informants.

The results of this research should be of interest to scholars of Russian culture and music and to vocalists, vocal coaches, and voice teachers who are involved or wish to be involved in the performance and presentation of Russian vocal literature. The discoveries about Russian diction help to correct frequent misunderstandings and demystify the subject. They should prove useful for the future development of much needed manuals or other instructional materials on Russian lyric diction. The results may also be of interest to linguistic studies on topics in phonetics, inasmuch as classical singing can be considered a form of maximally emphatic, formal, or stylized speech. Finally, the sections on cultural and literary aspects of Russian opera contribute a new point of view to the omnipresent discussion of Russian musical self-identity versus Western perceptions of Russian music.

Committee:

Irene Delic (Advisor); Helena Goscilo (Committee Member); Andrea Sims (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Russian; opera; vowel reduction; singing

Vdovichenko, Susan E. C.The Beholder’s Eye: How Self-Identification and Linguistic Ideology Affect Shifting Language Attitudes and Language Maintenance in Ukraine
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures

The people of Ukraine are divided by politics, culture, and language. The Dnipro river, which cuts through the country, separates not only east from west, but also a region with a Russian-speaking majority from one with a Ukrainian-speaking majority. This has been the situation for centuries, although in the years after the fall of the Soviet Union the politics of language have become more heated. In the west, nationalism is strong, and Ukrainian tends to be seen as a part of the cultural history of the people. In the east, Russian has been considered the language of the educated, while Ukrainian is often still perceived as a language suitable for only villages.

After nearly a century of widely varying linguistic policies and customs, Ukrainian was declared the sole official language of Ukraine in 1991. Two decades later, language issues remain critical. Ukrainian had been perceived by many as substandard, and in some parts of Ukraine, negative stereotypes about Ukrainian and its speakers remain; conversely, positive ideology is increasing, connecting Ukrainian to patriotism and culture. In a highly bilingual society, communication is rarely at stake. Instead, the way an individual identifies himself affects his attitudes toward others. At the same time, the way that each language is treated, and the power inherently connected in that treatment, further complicates the way people perceive linguistic differences. Using the results of 101 surveys solicited in Ukraine in 2009, this paper examines existing attitudes of native Russian speakers toward Ukrainian and its speakers; linguistic ideology and its affect on attitudes; and beliefs about the importance of maintaining Russian in an increasingly Ukrainian-speaking country. Results are compared across geography, age, basis of self-identification, and ideological beliefs. Quantitative and qualitative data are used to fully illustrate the current linguistic situation. Findings include heightened positive attitudes toward Ukrainian for younger speakers and those who live in Kyiv, and a strong correlation between the way that people identify themselves and the attitudes they hold toward language. Additionally, those who believe in the current ideology aimed at Ukrainian have increasingly positive attitudes toward Ukrainian, and there is some evidence of increasing pressure to speak Ukrainian on the youngest generation, which may lead to a risk of language loss.

Committee:

Ludmila Isurin, PhD (Advisor); Brian Joseph, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Collins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Linguistics; Slavic Studies; Sociolinguistics

Keywords:

Ukraine; Russian; Ukrainian; Sociolinguistics; Identity; Ideology; Maintenance; Linguistic Ideology

Zielinski, Joseph M.Dreams Won and Lost: Fait Accompli and the Creation of Modern Poland, 1918-1923
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, History (Arts and Sciences)
The collapse of the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian Empires in 1918 created a power vacuum in Eastern Europe. Within this vacuum, an independent Poland emerged. The allied powers (France, Great Britain, the USA, and Italy) gathered in Paris to determine the peace settlements and the boundaries of new states. Each state arrived at the conference with their own visions, which, at times, conflicted with other nation's concepts. Events in the East, however, interrupted allied discussions and revealed the uncertainty in allied policy toward Poland. The David Lloyd George papers, published document collections, memoirs, and secondary literature reveal the connection between allied visions for post-war Europe and the level of support provided to Poland. Furthermore, the sources reveal the connection between allied opposition to Polish goals and Poland's use of its military to gain contested territory.

Committee:

T. David Curp (Advisor); Steven Miner (Committee Member); John Brobst (Committee Member)

Subjects:

East European Studies; European History; History; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Poland; Great Britain; Pilsudski; Dmowski; Paris Peace Conference; East Galicia; Upper Silesia; Lvov; Vilna; Upper Silesian plebiscite; border settlements; fait accompli; Polish-Soviet War; inter-war; international relations; diplomacy

Kostetskaya, Anastasia GThe Water of Life and the Life of Water: the Metaphor of World Liquescence in Russian Symbolist Poetry, Art and Film
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Slavic and East European Studies
The Symbolist period in Russian culture emphasized intense cross-pollination and hybridization of the arts. The purpose behind these "poetics of blending" was to show the existence of a spiritual world beyond physical-material reality and that the boundaries between them were not insurmountable. In my dissertation, I claim that this vision of the creative process as pursuing various strategies of blending draws on the overarching metaphoric conceptualization of our world, and the human domain as its integral part, as not "solid", but "fluid matter". I employ conceptual metaphor and blending theory approaches from the field of cognitive linguistics to account for the following: how three interactive arts of the period, poetry, painting and film, use the metaphor of world liquescence in their attempts to transcend the material world, realia, and to reach spiritual reality, realiora. The concept of world liquescence reveals itself not only in the choice of water as a physical substance present in the space of a given poem, canvas or film. The Symbolist arts with their close attention to the inner depths of the human psyche attempt to capture and symbolize the slightest stirrings of the soul through the domain of water and very often introduce this element through the plasticity of music. The "endless" Wagnerian melody reveals itself in poetry through protracted poetic meters and specific types of rhyme as well as various phonetic and semantic devices; in painting it is "endless, monotonic, impassive line without angles", in early filmmaking it is the use of movement vs. stasis, special lighting effects and long takes, including (extreme) close-ups of a person's face. In this connection we can also speak about moving water as a traditional metaphor for time: thus the introduction of music as a temporal element into both the temporal art of poetry and the spatial art of painting marks an attempt to convey its flow in both a congenial dynamic art and in a less congenial static art; film blends both temporal and spatial dimensions, and thus reveals time's liquescence in both modes. My focus is on the following three artists of the period: the poet Konstantin Bal'mont, the painter Viktor Borisov-Musatov and the film director Evgenii Bauer. All three rely on blending artforms traditionally considered incompatible. They therefore offer rich materials for the conceptual integration and hybridization approach.

Committee:

Helena Goscilo (Advisor); Irene Delic (Committee Chair); Myroslava Mudrak (Committee Member); Vitaly Bergelson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Fine Arts; Literature; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Conceptual metaphor theory; conceptual blending theory; Russian Symbolism; Russian Poetry; Russian Art; Russian Film; Konstantin Balmont; Viktor Borisov Musatov; Evgenii Bauer

Furman, Michael DPlaying with the punks: St. Petersburg and the DIY ethos
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
This dissertation is an examination of how St. Petersburg punks create and sustain their culture through social practice and talk-in-interaction. This study examines how punks in the scene build (both literally and metaphorically) communities of svoi [one’s own] that support positive ideologies like mutual-support, mutual-respect and openness. Yet, while this dissertation discusses the positive ways that the community impacts those within the scene, this work also brings to the fore practices of gender inequality within the scene that perpetuate patriarchal social norms. As such, this dissertation represents the first detailed, long-term examination of punk in Russia. Punk in Russia gained international notoriety with Pussy Riot’s rise to prominence in 2009; however, their ascendance also exposed our limited understanding of what punk is and is not in the Russian scene. This dissertation aims to address this gap and explore precisely what Russian punk is and is not from the vantage point of Russian punks themselves. In order to do so, I conducted nearly two years of fieldwork, interviewed 32 punks and analyzed over 6 hours of spontaneously occurring talk-in-interaction. This holistic approach helped facilitate a description and analysis of punk culture in Russia that presents a detailed account of my informants’ full lives. My findings show that the primary punk ideologies operating within the St. Petersburg punk scene are: mutual-respect, mutual-help and a focus on action and agency through Do-It-Yourself (DIY) enterprises. Yet at the same time as I draw on interview data for explicit characterizations of punk ideology, I also examine and analyze punk practice and discourse. This approach helps to elucidate not only the `point of punk’, but also helps to connect interview data to actual discursive practices. Exploring the connection between interview data and real-life practice reveals a contradiction between explicit ideologies of equality within the punk scene and social practices, such as conversational interruptions, that contradict explicit ideologies of equality. By analyzing data drawn from interviews in tandem with fieldnotes and spontaneously talk-in-interaction this study focuses on the content of talk while also examining the important ideological work that talk performs. This reflexive approach to data analysis provides a dynamic and holistic description of the St. Petersburg punk scene from the perspective of the punks who live it. In this way this dissertation adds to a growing understanding of Russian subcultures while also providing a methodological approach that allows the analyst to link micro-linguistic practice to macro-discourses like that of gender equality.

Committee:

Jennifer Suchland, Dr. (Advisor); Gabriella Modan, Dr. (Advisor); Galina Bolden, Dr. (Committee Member); Yana Hashamova, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender Studies; Linguistics; Russian History; Slavic Studies; Social Research

Keywords:

Russia, Punk, Linguistic Anthropology, Russian Punk, Sociolinguistics, Cultural Studies, Ethnography, Conversation Analysis, Narrative Theory, Gender Studies,

Chimchenko, KarolinaOf Embryos and Criminals: (Mis)Representations of Human Trafficking in Polish Media
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Slavic and East European Studies
The development of the human trafficking phenomenon in Poland has repercussions that span throughout the European Union (EU). Because of Poland’s geographic location as the second largest country of the EU’s eastern border, the country plays a critical role in curbing human trafficking throughout the region. As migration and labor policies supported by the media and political actors affect trends in trafficking, the ways in which the media represents trafficking is imperative to society’s understanding of and reaction to trafficking. By performing a research and content analysis on articles available through three news publications’ online websites, I argue that the manner in which Polish media sources report on human trafficking not only affects the public’s understanding but also how society and the government react to it. This study addresses how Gazeta Wyborcza, Rzeczpospolita, and Gazeta Polska Codziennie formulate human trafficking discourse by the use of agenda setting, framing, bandwagoning, and omission techniques. The media uses these techniques to present trafficking in a way that conforms to fit the ideological and political agendas of agencies and actors, constructing a particular (mis)representation the phenomenon. The “criminalization” frame is used by publications in order to convey trafficked persons are helpless and vulnerable, while the “immigration” poses the trafficking issue as merely a matter of border control. This analysis also demonstrates how the issue of human trafficking has become entrenched within a political battleground for influence and has become associated with, or “bandwagoned to”, other contested issues in Poland, in particular, in-vitro fertilization and immigration, in order to support right-leaning parties’ conceptions of a true Polish-Catholic identity. The omission of information mitigates the complex socio-economic conditions such as violent conflict and poverty that push many trafficked persons to seek a chance for safety and stability abroad.

Committee:

Yana Hashamova (Advisor)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies

Stewart, HannahThe Burden of History and the Search for Truth: Polish-Russian Television News Narratives in the Wake of Smolensk
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Slavic and East European Studies
This research analyzes television media in both Poland and Russia and their depiction of the Smolensk tragedy. The crash occurred on April 10, 2010, in Smolensk, Russia, as a Polish delegation traveled to a Katyn memorial service to remember the murder of Polish military officers by the Soviet Union in the Second World War. All 96 on board died, including Polish president Lech Kaczynski and many heads of the military, government and clergy. This research argues that Smolensk television narratives, in their characterization of the crash, the investigation and memorialization, show how elites (who produce and influence the media) create sentiments that contribute to perceptions of nationhood. Each country argues for their own “truth” of Smolensk and their political relations through television news. Television news narratives in both countries show the opposing country as an absolute, negative other, therefore enforcing their own righteousness in their political relations and encouraging nationalist ideas. The nationalism that stems from these television news narratives then promotes belonging to the right and truthful nation that produces these television reports. Given the high viewership of television news in both countries, the potential stakes for persuasion are high. The first portion of this work outlines the history of Polish-Russian relations, which the concept of othering stems from. Then follows a theoretical framework of this research through the definition of nebulous terms such as the nation and identity. An explanation of the parameters of media, particularly television news, comes after. Next is a description of the importance of media research, especially related to belonging and othering. The subsequent portion of this research considers the particularities of Poland and Russia’s government system and its relationship to the specific media landscape of each country. The bulk of this section details television news clips from several prominent state-owned and privately-owned stations in Poland and Russia. Through content analysis, I evaluate each clip individually, and then draw larger, comparative themes from the entirety. I finally relate this analysis to larger concerns regarding Polish and Russian audiences, Polish-Russian political relations, and nationalism.

Committee:

Yana Hashamova (Advisor); Theodora Dragostinova (Committee Member); Daniel Pratt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Media; Slavic Studies

Pavlou, Ioannis NikosThe “Menace from the North” and the Suppression of the Left: Greece and NATO
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Slavic and East European Studies
In the aftermath of the Greek Civil War, the right-wing elements of Greece’s government felt that they needed to join NATO to protect Greek interests from the perceived threat posed by Communism and their Balkan neighbors. Throughout this period of time, the Greek state implemented several drastic and often undemocratic motions that led to measures against minority groups, suppressing left-wing politicians, and applying old nationalistic rhetoric such as the “Menace from the North” to the situation with the Communist regimes in their neighboring countries. During this time, Greek interests often were pushed aside in order to appease the United States and other members of NATO while at other points, Greece nearly went to war with their NATO ally Turkey over the future of Cyprus. Meanwhile, Greece’s new-found alliance with NATO led to an improvement of their military capabilities to the point where the highly nationalistic, anti-Communist army would seize control of the government in 1967 and form a Military Junta. During the seven years of military control, NATO continued to work with the Military Junta which in turn would have drastic consequences when Greece nearly went to war with Turkey over Cyprus. With the collapse of the Junta, Greece has slowly taken steps to begin distancing their decision-making towards Greek interests.

Committee:

Georgios Anagnostou (Advisor); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Greece and NATO, Greek-Turkish Relations over Cyprus, Cyprus Issue, Greek politics

Goddard, Lisa AnneGeorgian Opposition to Soviet Rule (1956-1989) and the Causes of Resentment between Georgia and Russia
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Slavic and East European Studies

This Master’s thesis seeks to examine the question of strained relations between Georgia and the Russian Federation, paying particular attention to the Georgian revolts of 1956, 1978 and 1989 during the Soviet era. By examining the results of these historical conflicts, one can discern a pattern of three major causes of the tensions between these neighboring peoples: disagreement with Russia over national identity characteristics such as language, disputes over territory, and degradation of symbols of national legacy. It is through conflicts and revolts on the basis of these three factors that Georgian anti-Russian sentiment and Russian anti-Georgian sentiment developed.

This thesis is divided into four chapters that will explore the origins and results of each uprising, as well as the evolving conceptions of national identity that served as a backdrop to the conflicts. Following an introduction that lays out the primary questions and findings of the thesis, the second chapter gives a brief history of Georgia and its relationship with Russia, as well as outlines the history and dynamic nature of Georgian national identity. Chapter three, the core chapter, presents the Georgian rebellions during the Soviet era, their causes, and their relevance to this thesis. It then concludes with an analysis of the events and how they are linked to the main argument. Each rebellion was sparked by one of three major causes: the 1956 rebellion was caused by the Khrushchev administration’s invalidation of Georgia’s symbolic national legacy by denigrating Stalin and barring any celebration of this (then) Georgian national hero. In 1978, attempts by the Georgian leadership to impose the Russian language on the Georgian SSR represented an attack on Georgian identity that sparked strong opposition. Finally, the landmark events of 1989 began as a territorial dispute over Abkhazian separatist demands for secession from the Georgian SSR but then exploded into a broad demand for Georgian independence from the Soviet Union. 1989’s uprising is especially important for this chapter in that 1989 is the first uprising in which an independence movement was extremely vocal and led to permanent changes within Georgia.

Chapter four then examines the results of these rebellions and concludes that Georgian anti-Russian sentiment was established during Imperial Georgian occupation and was subsequently bolstered by events and policies within Georgia’s time as a republic of the Soviet Union. Finally, an epilogue is also included in order to examine how the defining 2008 conflict between Georgia and the Russian Federation was connected to the rebellions of the post-1956 period, particularly 1989. The epilogue concludes with the direction in which Georgian and Russian relations may continue in the future, based in the findings of this thesis.

Thus, I assert that the animosity that we see today between Russia and Georgia is not only a result of Georgian independence in 1991, but rather came from a much longer term of erosion, beginning particularly in 1956 and subsequently expanding with each major uprising in Soviet Georgia.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle (Advisor); Irma Murvanishvili (Committee Member); Theodora Dragostinova (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Slavic Studies

Keywords:

Russia; Georgia; Uprisings; Georgian Rebellions; Tension between Georgia and Russia; 1956; 1978; 1989; 2008

Pasternak, James M.Regulation and the Racket: Government Regulation and Transitional State Power as Catalysts for Organized Criminal Syndication
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2001, Slavic and East European Studies
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 has brought the problem of Russian organized crime to the fore of public opinion, political discourse and international media representation. The comparative strength of the Soviet State, with its official low crime rates and general social order, presents a puzzle to researchers studying criminality during the transitional period. Comparatively, the former satellite nations of the Soviet Union have experienced fewer difficulties with organized crime than in the Russian Federation. Although organized crime played a greater role in the administration of black markets in the satellite nations in comparison to the Soviet Union, one would expect countries such as Poland to have a much greater propensity for the expansion of organized crime during the transitional period. The transition to a market economy was achieved with differing degrees of success in Russia and Poland; whereas in Poland, firms have had incentives to join the official economy through the benefits of state institutions protecting property rights, in Russia, predatory regulation has forced firms into the “shadow” economy. Unofficial firms have no recourse to official institutions such as legal arbitration and dispute resolution, and the need for protection from thousands of officially recognized organized gangs has created a demand for protection met by racketeers. This thesis researches the links between transitional state power, excessive bureaucratic regulation, and the growth of organized crime. Its primary focus is the expansion of organized criminal activity in the Russian Federation, but utilizes cross-country comparisons to compare and contrast differences and similarities of organized groups across an international spectrum of case studies and cross-country comparisons. Three main case studies (Russia, Sicily and the United States) will compare the growth of criminal gangs in national contexts, with one case study presented as an anomaly (Japan). Although many reasons contribute in an interrelated manner to the growth of organized crime, this thesis focuses upon aspects of state regulation and regime transition as catalysts underlying the growth of criminal gangs.

Committee:

Timothy Frye (Advisor); Daniel Collins (Committee Member)

Subjects:

East European Studies; Slavic Studies

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