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Grugan, Cecilia SpencerDisability Resource Specialists’ Capacity to Adopt Principles and Implement Practices that Qualify as Universal Design at a 4-Year Public Institution
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Due to the continuous growth of diverse student bodies on college campuses, creating accessibility for each unique student needs to be considered. Students who have a disability or disabilities are a substantial part of this growing diverse student body. Since disability resource specialists play a significant role in creating accessibility for such students, they can consider implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore where disability resource specialists fall on Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change and Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise in regards to implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. Six participants were included in this study out of eight who were invited to participate. Out of those six participants, the study showed that all participants demonstrated a strong presence in the Unfreezing stage of Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change. Also, the study showed that all participants showed a level of knowledge as the second tier to Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise. Limitations as well as recommendations for future research included recruiting a larger sample of participants to provide greater analysis of the study.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Suzanne Franco, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Stephanie Krah, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Engineering; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Instructional Design; Intellectual Property; Labor Relations; Management; Mass Communications; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Personal Relationships; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Public Policy; Reading Instruction; Recreation; Rehabilitation; Robotics; Robots; School Administration; Secondary Education; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Systems Design; Teacher Education; Transportation

Keywords:

Universal Design; Accommodations; Accessibility; Organizational Change; Proactive Practices; Disability; Disability Resource Specialists; Disability Services; Higher Education; Student Affairs

Pannu, RabindraPath Traversal Around Obstacles by a Robot using Terrain Marks for Guidance
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Engineering and Applied Science: Electrical Engineering
The problem of autonomous robots avoiding obstacles while traversing a terrain requires efficient algorithms. There has been much research work done for the cases where the locations of obstacles are known before the path is planned. We present here an algorithm for the case in which the robot has no prior knowledge about the locations of the obstacles. The robot starts its navigation knowing the coordinates of the start and the destination points and adjusts its path as it encounters obstacles. Many existing algorithms are designed for the contexts in which the robot determines its location based on information provided by either the GPS system or an overhead camera. Our algorithm has been developed for the context in which the robot determines its (x, y) coordinates based on the grid marks on the terrain, and does not depend on the global systems for positioning cues. We have shown that our algorithm can successfully traverse the terrain for most of the situations even though there are some exception cases in which the robot gets stuck while there still is a possible path through the maze of obstacles. The robot also returns to the starting location, navigating only the shortest path running through the cells navigated while going towards the destination. This thesis describes the algorithm, implementation details for the Khepera robot used, and the results obtained with our algorithm.

Committee:

Raj Bhatnagar, PhD (Committee Chair); Karen Davis, PhD (Committee Member); Manish Kumar, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, C, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Robots

MacRobbie, Danielle ElizabethAn Investigation of Technological Impressions in Steve Reich and Beryl Korot's Three Tales
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Music History
The impact of technology upon the twentieth century and the influence it continues to exert upon the present human community is self-evident. The allure and power of technology are broadcast via the grandest media and performance entertainment, while on the opposite spectrum, technology is being continually refined to render its electro-mechanical or bio-technical feats for humans. It is this theme of the increasing growth and import of technology upon every facet of human life that serves as the subject of Three Tales, a twenty-first century documentary digital video opera by composer Steve Reich and video artist Beryl Korot. In this work, Reich and Korot confront society's negligence of particular directions that technological development and application have undergone in the past century, and advise against taking the same paths in the coming era. Even as modern technology is critiqued in Three Tales, the work itself bends to accept the reality of technology's significance upon modern thought and life. In keeping with Reich and Korot's categorization of the work as a "documentary digital video opera," Three Tales is a performance work heavily dependent upon technology for its generation, presentation, and discussion of the interchange between technology and humankind. This thesis will investigate how technology has shaped the course of an artwork whose purpose is to expose and debate the handling of technology in current society. Technology in Three Tales is examined from various perspectives. Chapter one presents the foundational role of technology as "tool," "subject," and "theme." Chapter two considers how visual and audio technologies are used in Three Tales to suggest the effects technology may have upon perceptions of human connectedness and isolation. Chapter three investigates the inherent paradox in Three Tales that occurs from using technological devices for the work's production while its theme critiques modern, technological advances. The chapter also considers the influence technology has upon the formation of Three Tales's generic identification.

Committee:

Eftychia Papanikolaou (Advisor); Alexa Woloshyn (Committee Member); Mary Natvig (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ethics; History; Information Technology; Medical Ethics; Military History; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Music; Nanotechnology; Robotics; Robots; Spirituality; Technology; Theology

Keywords:

Steve Reich; Beryl Korot; Three Tales; Technology; Hindenburg zeppelin; Bikini Atoll; Cloning; electronic music; IRCAM; freeze frame sound; new music theater; Kismet; human connectedness; human isolation; technology and art; art and politics; paradox

Doorly, Nicole C.A Neuromechanical Model for Cockroach Locomotion
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Robotic models can be used to better understand complex biological systems. For this project, a robotic model of the left mesothoracic (middle) cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) leg was built to explore the dynamics of the neuromechanical system underlying insect locomotion. The robotic hardware was designed to represent—as accurately as possible—cockroach morphology. To improve on previous robotic models of the cockroach leg, the Trochanter-Femur joint was added. Control of the robotic leg was designed to represent hypothesized neural connections in the cockroach—this controller was adapted from observed neural connections in the stick insect leg. The model was capable of generating stable locomotive actions (i.e. forward stepping and inside turning) and analysis of joint movements showed significant similarities to actual cockroach behavior. Finally, experiments addressing step frequency and behavioral transitioning showed the power of the model as a hypothesis-testing tool for biologists.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor)

Subjects:

Robots

Keywords:

robotics; insect locomotion; modeling

Boxerbaum, Alexander SteeleA Whegs Robot Featuring a Passively Compliant, Actively Controlled Body Joint
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2010, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
In this work, I present the next generation of Whegs™ robots, DAGSI Whegs™, which has been completed and extensively field-tested. Several innovations have made this robot more rugged and well suited to autonomous operation than previous designs. Specifically, an actively controlled, passively compliant body joint has been designed and tested. To date, it is the only Whegs body joint to have never failed. The chassis is a structural box design, which is both water and dirt resistant, and provides a flexible mounting system for electronics. New designs of the wheel-legs, torsion devices and steering mechanisms have also been developed and tested. Two large payload spaces have been created by moving the drive chains to the interior sides of the chassis, and the torsion devices to the outside. A two-dimensional dynamic simulation of the robot has also been constructed, and has been used to study the effects of weight distribution on obstacle climbing and to investigate future autonomous climbing strategies. Moving the center of mass forward allows the robot to climb taller obstacles. Using a weight distribution optimized using simulation, DAGSI Whegs™ can climb step shaped obstacles as tall as 2.19 times the length of a leg. Results from field testing show that the robot has good climbing capabilities in rugged unstructured terrain.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, D (Advisor); Joseph Mansour (Committee Member); Kiju Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering; Robots

Keywords:

biorobotics; search and rescue robots; reduced actuation; whegs; body joint; worm gear; passive compliance; series elastic actuator

Moses, Kenneth C.A Durable Terrestrial Drive Train for a Small Air Vehicle
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2010, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Weight, aerodynamic profile, and strength are considered in the design of a terrestrial drive train for a small air vehicle. Several drive trains were developed and their performance characteristics compared in order to show a progression in their designs. Each iteration contained minor improvements, approaching the goal of a durable terrestrial drive train for a small air vehicle. These drive trains were analyzed in the Case Western Reserve University low-speed wind tunnel for their influence on the performance of the aircraft. The change in lift produced by the aircraft’s airfoil ranges from -1.0% to -4.5%. The drive trains were also tested for their ability to withstand the shock and reduce the impact of landing. Spring steel wire wheel-legs are found to reduce the peak deceleration by 15.8%. The results identify one drive train that meets the performance goals and is suitable for general use in this scale application.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Chair); Yasuhiro Kamotani, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Prahl, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Mechanical Engineering; Robots; Technology

Keywords:

Micro Air Vehicle; MAV; hybrid vehicle; drive train; terrestrial locomotion; aerial locomotion; wind tunnel; impact test; aircraft design; aerodynamics;

Marvel, Jeremy AlanAutonomous Learning for Robotic Assembly Applications
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, EECS - Computer Engineering
Robotic manipulators have been used to perform a myriad of repetitive industrial tasks with varying degrees of success and precision over the past several decades. Their use in mechanical assembly tasks, however, has been relatively minor due to both their limitations in classical position-control paradigms and the difficulty in algorithmically describing the process of assembly. Though the technology for sensing and compliantly adapting to physical contact has improved, robotic assembly solutions are still largely relegated to simple responsibilities such as peg-in-hole and rigidly fixtured configurations. This dissertation represents the progressive development and assessment of self-guided learning for model-assisted robotic assembly applications. Utilizing industrial manipulators outfitted with six-degree of freedom (DoF) force/torque sensors for compliant motion control, a method for self-optimization of assembly search parameters is developed that allows the robot to determine when its performance has improved using simple metrics of success. Based on prior experiences, the robot then generates internal representations—or models—of the assembly process in order to attempt to predict when certain parameter sequences are likely to result in superior assembly performances. This method is further augmented to algorithmically determine the quality and anticipated effectiveness of the models based on their profiles in the parameter-performance mapping space. Analysis of simulations with arbitrarily-large N-dimensional parameter spaces suggest that even relatively simple models are capable of abstracting useful information of assemblies, even in the presence of noise. These results were then corroborated by running physical trials with and without assistive models on a variety of automobile part assemblies.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman, PhD (Committee Chair); Francis Merat, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Member); Kiju Lee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Engineering; Robots

Keywords:

Assembly; Machine Learning; Robot Learning

Liu, YipingFuzzy Control of Hopping in a Biped Robot
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Electrical and Computer Engineering

Current bipedal robots with articulated legs, even the most impressive prototypes to date, still lack the ability to execute dynamic motions such as jumping and running with comparable performance to biological systems. Recently a new biped prototype, KURMET, has been built at OSU to serve as an experimental platform for further investigation into the performance of dynamic movements in bipedal machines with biologically-realistic features. KURMET has series-elastic actuators (SEA) at all leg joints. The presence of SEAs provides the compliance that is needed in dynamic motions, yet also complicates the controller's tasks, especially when combined with articulated legs in a system that is not naturally stable.

This thesis develops a fuzzy control system for hopping with KURMET. With this controller, KURMET can stably hop at varying heights and forward/backward velocities. The control system is arranged into two levels. The low-level control executes the hop motion. It employs a hopping state machine that is specifically designed to accommodate the natural dynamics of the SEAs. The high-level control is a fuzzy controller that is called at discrete instances (every top of flight (TOF)) to regulate the key parameters in the state machine. Through proper selection of these parameters, the desired hop height and velocity can be achieved. The fuzzy rulebase is generated via an iterative training process, which is done off-line through dynamic simulation using detailed models of the articulated mechanism and the series-elastic actuation. The fuzzy rulebase is later modified by on-line adaptation.

The fuzzy rulebase has fewer than 200 rules; however, the overall fuzzy control system is able to produce robust and accurate hopping performance in KURMET. Experimental data shows that the maximum error of the torso height at TOF is controlled within 1 cm and the maximum error of the torso velocity at TOF is controlled within 5 cm/s.

This thesis also experimentally investigates the high jump potential in KURMET. With a jumping state machine that is modified from the previous hopping state machine, KURMET is able to produce a maximum nominal jump height of 75 cm. When normalized to the length of the biped's link segments (25 cm), this performance is significant relative to human jumps.

Committee:

David Orin (Advisor); Yuan F. Zheng (Other)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robots

Keywords:

biped;robot;KURMET;legged;locomotion;dynamic movement;jump;hop;robotics;fuzzy control;intelligent control;SEA;series-elastic actuator;state machine

Rutter, Brandon LewisRobotic Models of Neuromechanical Step Generation in Insects
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, EMC - Mechanical Engineering

Walking is a means of locomotion that is ubiquitous among terrestrial animals and the matter of considerable technical inquiry; both for biological understanding and description, and engineering construction and control. Although wheels and treads have numerous advantages over legs for low-complexity terrain, the promise of adept legged locomotion in a much broader range of rugged environments is eloquently demonstrated in the animal kingdom. Of primary interest in the understanding of such agility is the ability of animals to smoothly transition between behaviors requiring substantially different local behavior of locomotor appendages.

Recent developments in our understanding of insect walking systems, encapsulated in the study of the neural mechanisms of stick insect leg coordination by (Ekeberg, Blümel, & Büschges, 2004), have made it possible to construct models of local leg control based on known properties of biological systems. Such models can provide the appropriate “ports” to investigate and predict the effects of descending commands in the transition between and generation of different local behaviors.

This dissertation describes the development and use of robotic models of step generation to address questions about descending control. Robotic models were desired both for the ease of experimental interaction and the fidelity of physical modeling they can provide. The NeuRoMod software suite was developed, and provides interactive operation and experimental scripting for the robotic models.

The local control methods of the stick insect described by Ekeberg et al. are standardized as Sensory Coupled Action Switching Modules (SCASM), and tools for the use of this concept in modeling are developed and demonstrated. The apparent generality of SCASM as a computationally simple control concept is also addressed.

Experiments were conducted to demonstrate model usage, in the testing and generation of biologically relevant hypotheses. The basic function, neuromechanical nature, and resilience of SCASM-controlled steppers is demonstrated. Simple muscle models are found to provide significantly improved, reliable stepping. Control methods for forward walking and inside turning in the cockroach model are presented, and experiments are conducted investigating how descending influences can cause transitions between these behaviors. The results support the general reflex cascade hypothesis presented by (Mu & Ritzmann, 2008a).

Committee:

Roger Quinn, Ph.D. (Advisor); Roy Ritzmann, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kiju Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Willis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Kirsch, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Neurology; Robots

Keywords:

robots; modeling; neuromechanics; walking; legs; insect; cockroach; stick insect; real-time; RT-Linux; leg kinematics; turning; neurobiology; Blaberus discoidalis; Carausius morosus

Murphy, Taylor Byers Apprehending Remote Affordances: Assessing Human Sensor Systems and Their Ability to Understand a Distant Environment
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Current generation teleoperated human-robot systems remain difficult to operate. Understanding the properties of a distant environment through the sensors on a robot is much more difficult and error prone as compared to the same perceptual judgments when the human observer is directly present in that environment. In other words, human observers have difficulty perceiving the affordances of the environment such as passability, traversability, and reachability when a robot mediates their access to the environment. This thesis presents the results of a study that measures the ability of human observers to perceive the affordance reachability using simulations of three different robots that vary in their camera configurations. Two are based on robots currently in use, and the third is a novel approach to human-robot systems that considers them a perceptual system. Observer perception of reachability varied across the three systems. Measuring the ability to perceive affordances provides a means to assess a robot as a human-sensor system. This approach contrasts with current methods, which focus on evaluating human-robot systems in search tasks (e.g., counts of targets, areas visited).

Committee:

David Woods, PhD (Advisor); Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Remote Sensing; Robots

Keywords:

Robot; teleoperation; virtual environment; robotics; control systems; applied perception; perception; affordances; reachability; unmanned ground vehicle;unmanned vehicle; sensor system;

Yetkin, HarunStabilzing Control of an Autonomous Bicycle
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Electrical and Computer Engineering
In this thesis, we utilize the precession e fect of the gyroscope to stabilize the bicycle both at zero forward velocity and varying velocities. Equations of motion of a bicycle with a wheel mounted on its bottom are derived and a first order sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the goal of stabilization. In order to verify the designed feedback controller, two experimental setups are built; an inverted pendulum setup and a bicycle setup. SMC design for the static bicycle model is tested on both the inverted pendulum and the bicycle setups. In order to judge the performance of the controller, a well-tuned PID controller is also tested on these setups. Then, in the light of the experimental results obtained on the inverted pendulum setup, a controller scheme for the stabilizing control of an autonomous bicycle is designed and tested on various road structures through simulation environment.

Committee:

Umit Ozguner, Professor (Advisor); Keith Redmill, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Gyroscopic stabilization; Unmanned bicycle stabilization; Autonomous bicycle

Bilancini, AnneThe Most Delicate Parts: Stories
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2013, English
The Most Delicate Parts is a collection of stories in which the fantastic collides with everyday life. Oksana Baiul becomes a swan in the skating rink. An ancient king haunts a bachelor's downstairs bathroom. And a girl automaton enters a beauty pageant. The collection is especially interested in creating images that recall the strangeness of fairy tales and magical realism. This attention to image creation often serves as an alternative method of gaining access into a character's carefully guarded interior, perhaps the strangest space within these stories.

Committee:

Margaret Luongo (Committee Chair); Joseph Bates (Committee Member); Erin Edwards (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Animals; Robots

Keywords:

fairy tales, magical realism, fictive biography

Warren, Emily AmandaMachine Learning for Road Following by Autonomous Mobile Robots
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2008, EECS - Computer Engineering
This thesis explores the use of machine learning in the context of autonomous mobile robots driving on roads, with the focus on improving the robot's internal map. Early chapters cover the mapping efforts of DEXTER, Team Case's entry in the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. Competent driving may include the use of a priori information, such as road maps, and online sensory information, including vehicle position and orientation estimates in absolute coordinates as well as error coordinates relative to a sensed road. An algorithm may select the best of these typically flawed sources, or more robustly, use all flawed sources to improve an uncertain world map, both globally in terms of registration corrections and locally in terms of improving knowledge of obscured roads. It is shown how unsupervised learning can be used to train recognition of sensor credibility in a manner applicable to optimal data fusion.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman, PhD (Advisor); M. Cenk Cavusoglu, PhD (Committee Member); Francis Merat, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Engineering; Robots

Keywords:

machine learning; autonomous robot; driving; Urban Challenge; sensor fusion; unsupervised learning; global map; road following

Colbrunn, Robb WilliamA Robotic Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator for Spine Research
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2013, Fenn College of Engineering
An influential conceptual framework advanced by Panjabi represents the living spine as a complex neuromusculoskeletal system whose biomechanical functioning is rather finely dependent upon the interactions among and between three principal subsystems: the passive musculoskeletal subsystem (osteoligamentous spine plus passive mechanical contributions of the muscles), the active musculoskeletal subsystem (muscles and tendons), and the neural and feedback subsystem (neural control centers and feedback elements such as mechanoreceptors located in the soft tissues) [1]. The interplay between subsystems readily encourages “thought experiments” of how pathologic changes in one subsystem might influence another—for example, prompting one to speculate how painful arthritic changes in the facet joints might affect the neuromuscular control of spinal movement. To answer clinical questions regarding the interplay between these subsystems the proper experimental tools and techniques are required. Traditional spine biomechanical experiments are able to provide comprehensive characterization of the structural properties of the osteoligamentous spine. However, these technologies do not incorporate a simulated neural feedback from neural elements, such as mechanoreceptors and nociceptors, into the control loop. Doing so enables the study of how this feedback—including pain-related— alters spinal loading and motion patterns. The first such development of this technology was successfully completed in this study and constitutes a Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator. A Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator has the potential to reduce the gap between bench and bedside by creating a new paradigm in estimating the outcome of spine pathologies or surgeries. The traditional paradigm is unable to estimate pain and is also unable to determine how the treatment, combined with the natural pain avoidance of the patient, would transfer the load to other structures and potentially increase the risk for other problems. The novel Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator described in this work has demonstrated, through simulation and cadaveric experimentation, that it is able to incorporate data from external sensors (e.g. force, motion tracking) to modulate spine biomechanical responses. In addition, the Neuro-Musculoskeletal Simulator exhibited the ability to use an estimated nociceptive response in unilateral facet arthritis to elucidate statistically significant compensatory kinetic and kinematic changes. These changes included a 37% increase in spine shear force, and an 18% increase in applied spine torque.

Committee:

Robert McLain, M.D. (Committee Chair); Antonie van den Bogert, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lars Gilbertson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Daniel Simon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Hammonds, Ph.D. (Committee Member); George Chatzimavroudis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomechanics; Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research; Engineering; Health Care; Kinesiology; Mechanical Engineering; Neurosciences; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Robot; Robotics; Musculoskeletal; Pain; Control; Spine; Cervical; Engineering; Neural; Cadaveric, Testing

Murphy, Taylor BWithin Reach: The Contribution of Dynamic Viewpoint to the Perception of Remote Environments
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Remote sensor platforms, operating as part of a human sensor system, allow practitioners to extend their reach into remote environments normally inaccessible to humans and to substantially change the scale at which they work. Despite the utility these sensor platforms provide to domain practitioners, their operation remains difficult, slow, and error prone. Previous work has claimed these problems stem from the fact that currently available sensor platforms are not designed to work with the human operator as part of a larger perceptual system. As a result, operators struggle to understand the physical layout of the remote environment, and the opportunities for action in that environment. These clams are well founded from perceptual psychology, but have not yet received empirical verification. Additionally, research performed on human sensor system perception has not yet addressed the effects of viewpoint motion on perceptual performance. Both gaps in the human sensor system perception literature have been addressed in the current work. The three experiments performed to address these gaps extended previous research examining operators’ ability to judge the reachability of target objects in a remote environment. The first two experiments found that the human sensor system was well modeled using approaches from perceptual psychology. These results support the claims made in previous work, that sensor platforms operate as part of a larger perceptual system. The third experiment in the current work found that viewpoint motions that ii provides new perspectives onto a scene of interest significantly improved participants’ perceptual performance. These results provide the first empirical verification of Roesler (2005) and Morison (2010)’s Perspective Control model. Taken together the results from the current work have implications for the design and testing of future sensor platforms in order to overcome the challenges facing current generation platforms and improve their performance.

Committee:

Michael Rayo (Advisor); David Woods, D. (Committee Member); Alexander Morison (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Robots; Systems Design

Keywords:

sensor; perception; control; human-machine interaction; supervisory control; human-robot interaction; ecological perception; affordances; mediated perception;

Liu, TaomingA MAGNETICALLY-ACTUATED ROBOTIC CATHETER FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION ABLATION UNDER REAL-TIME MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING GUIDANCE
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis focuses on design, modeling, and analysis of a magnetically actuated robotic intravascular catheter for performing atrial fibrillation ablation under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Specifically: A three dimensional deflection model of a steerable catheter in free space is proposed and experimentally validated using a hardware prototype. In the proposed method, the catheter is modeled as a series of finite segments. For each finite segment, a quasi-static torque-deflection equilibrium equation is calculated using the beam theory. By using the deflection displacements and torsion angles, the kinematic model of the catheter is derived. A Jacobian-based iterative inverse kinematics method for controlling the steerable catheter is presented. The repeatability and accuracy of the open-loop control of the catheter system performing complex geometric trajectories using this inverse kinematics method is experimentally evaluated. The proposed three dimensional kinematic model is extended to incorporate the catheter-surface contact by taking contact forces and torques into account. A systematic approach to the design optimization of a magnetically-actuated steerable catheter for atrial fibrillation ablation in the left atrium, is proposed. The study investigates the relationship between the catheter material and the catheter's steering performance and evaluates the design optimization of the electromagnetic coils, such as the optimal winding turns for the coils, the optimal size for the side coils and the optimal locations of the coil sets on the catheter. The selected design is validated on a simulated atrial fibrillation ablation in a realistic left atrium model. The simulation verifies that the catheter is successfully able to reach every target on the circumferential lesions.

Committee:

Murat Cavusoglu, Dr. (Committee Chair); Wyatt Newman, Dr. (Committee Member); Mark Griswold, Dr. (Committee Member); Vira Chankong, Dr. (Committee Member); Francis Merat, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Robotic Catheter; Magnetically-Actuated Catheter; Atrial Fibrillation Ablation; Real-time MRI Guidance; Robotic Intravascular Catheter; Catheter Deflection Model; Iterative Inverse Kinematics; Catheter-Surface Contact Model; Catheter Design Optimization

Hunt, Alexander JacobNeurologically Based Control for Quadruped Walking
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Current robotic control methods take advantage of high computing power to compute trajectories and perform optimal movements for a given task, yet these robots still fall far short of their animal counterparts when interacting with the environment. Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations almost effortlessly. In order to improve our robotic systems and build better control methods, it makes sense to look more closely at how animals solve this interaction. In this work, I developed a control model of mammalian walking with models grounded in neuroscience and computational neuroscience. First, I developed a neuromechanical model of a rat with 14 degrees of freedom and 28 muscles, and I explored how hypothesized neural architectures can be used to coordinate four limbs in a walking gait for a rat. Additionally, through simulated ablation experiments, I developed hypotheses on how inter-leg pathways work together to maintain limb timing. After this, I developed a procedure to train the neural system to produce dynamic walking in both a rat simulation and a robot named Puppy. This method works by first using a model of the system (rat or robot) to determine required motor neuron activations to produce stable walking. For the robot, this required building a force-length-pressure model of the McKibben actuators to enable accurate force control. Parameters in the neural system are then set such that it produces similar activations to the desired pattern. I applied the same training procedure to both the simulated rat and the robot and show that it is capable of producing continuous, self-supported stepping in both systems.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, PhD (Advisor); Joseph Mansour, PhD (Committee Member); Kiju Lee, PhD (Committee Member); Hillel Chiel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering; Neurosciences; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Robotics; Computational Neuroscience; McKibben; Rat; Dog; Control; Festo; CPG; Afferent Feedback

Smith, Lauren MelissaThe Tri-Wheel: A Novel Robot Locomotion Concept Meeting the Need for Increased Speed and Climbing Capability
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
A need has been expressed for a robot locomotion concept that incorporates both efficient, rapid motion on smooth surfaces as well as the capacity to traverse a variety of challenging terrain obstacles, including but not limited to: stairs, rubble, and other environmental impediments. Currently, this dual capability has not been optimized successfully for existing locomotion concepts. This research seeks to meet this need with a novel mobility concept called the Tri-Wheel and chronicles its theoretical conception, design, and preliminary testing. An in-depth discussion of the design process and determination of derived requirements is first presented to substantiate the final configuration. The Tri-Wheel is then manufactured and installed on an existing robot chassis for testing, ultimately proving the concept successful by meeting the stated research objectives.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Committee Chair); Paul Barnhart (Committee Member); Joseph Mansour (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

robot locomotion; wheels; gearing; first responder; novel locomotion platform; wheel-leg hybrid; Tri-Wheel

Hughes, Bradley EvanA Navigation Subsystem for an Autonomous Robot Lawn Mower
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2011, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis describes a cost effective, accurate, and precise electronic navigation system which is suitable for outdoor commercial mobile robots. The hardware design of the system incorporates commercial off the shelf Global Positioning System receiver modules and support electronics. The software design of the system makes use of an open source positioning library to enable Real Time Kinematic satellite positioning. The designed navigation system has been integrated with a preexisting mobile robot platform, an autonomous robot lawn mower, which includes a set of reference sensors to provide accurate robot pose information. The reference platform is used to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the new cost effective system. A degradation factor of 1.7 in terms of positional accuracy is traded off in favor of achieving a cost savings factor of about thirty.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, PhD (Advisor); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Chair); Marc Buchner, PhD (Committee Member); Francis Merat, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

mobile robot; autonomous guided vehicle; global positioning system; navigation system; control system; robot lawn mower; consumer product automation; low cost navigation

Bonus, Alexander EvanThe Metronomic Performance Practice: A History of Rhythm, Metronomes, and the Mechanization of Musicality
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Musicology

Through the analyses of treatises, scores, letters, and technologies spanning four centuries, this multidisciplinary history of rhythm charts the various, shifting meanings in musical time and movement as pedagogies and performance practices became increasingly influenced by clockwork machines—-and Johann Maelzel’s metronome most conspicuously—-over the course of the modern age. Depicting how “musical time” constitutes an ever-changing belief system in what “time” means, this study charts the ascendance of a new musical-temporal ontology brought about by Western performance-culture’s increasing reliance on metronomes.

This history explains how scientific methodologies and machines—-promoting metronomic time above all else—-were first actively applied to musicians and their performances in the latter decades of the nineteenth century. The influential work of modern scientists, pedagogues, and only later composers—-with their precision-oriented beliefs in metronomic time and rhythm—-eventually helped to create a new performance-practice tradition, a new musical culture in which mechanical objectivity became a prevailing aesthetic in the twentieth century. Highlighting the writings of philosophers such as Mersenne, Diderot, and Rousseau; musicians such as Quantz, Beethoven, and Stravinsky; scientists such as Wundt, Scripture, and Seashore; and pedagogues such as A. B. Marx, Christiani, and Jaques-Dalcroze, the narrative explicates how and why this temporal revision occurred, and what outcomes followed when scientific modes of metronomic action were imposed upon past, subjective musical practices.

As this history of musical time, metronomes, and musicality uncovers, the very meanings and cultural values underlying “rhythm” and “tempo” have palpably changed since the twentieth century due to a heretofore-unacknowledged paradigm shift: a metronomic turn in which the once-innate musical “beat” became both conceptually and audibly mechanized.

Committee:

Mary Davis, PhD (Committee Chair); Daniel Goldmark, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Bennett, D.Phil (Committee Member); Martha Woodmansee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Dance; Education History; European History; History; Music; Music Education; Philosophy; Robots; Science History; Technology

Keywords:

metronome; metronomic; rhythm; rhythmic; meter; tempo; time; movement; mouvement; pulse; tactus; rubato; performance practices; musicality; automaton; Maelzel; Beethoven; Dalcroze; Eurhythmics; pedagogy; gymnastics; Wundt; pendulum; chronography; beat

Morison, Alexander M.Perspective Control: Technology to Solve the Multiple Feeds Problem in Sensor Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Industrial and Systems Engineering
The recent explosion of sensing capability has influenced many domains such as medical care, public safety, and national defense. Along with the new capabilities have come new opportunities for providing tele-medicine at a distance, providing surveillance of a large physical area, and to perform reconnaissance in hostile environments. In many, if not all, of these systems performance has not kept up with the perceived opportunities these capabilities embody. Instead, generic challenges have emerged that appear fundamental to human-sensor systems. One such challenge, the multiple feeds problem, refers to the difficulty or inability of human-sensor system users and decision makers to integrate the diversity of sensor feeds that have been instantiated through these sensor systems. This challenge emerges from the lack of adequate system design for the coordination of the multiple perspectives these sensor systems represent. The Perspective Control approach addresses the multiple feeds problem through Perspective Control; a method of controlling point-of-view. In the Perspective Control approach, sensors are considered generic points-of-observation that conform to a spherical coordinate system. A user is able to control a sensor by expressing a desired view direction through a novel input device called a Perspective Controller, which also embodies a spherical coordinate system. This device not only provides a method for controlling a single sensor, but also a method for navigating between sensors. In navigating between sensors the layout of the sensor network is perceived directly (i.e., a form of extending perception). The ability of Perspective Control to solve the multiple feeds problem is established through an operational engineering demonstration that utilizes user controlled viewpoint to control a network of video cameras. This demonstration is embedded in a video surveillance context utilizing a network of pan and tilt capable video cameras. At the heart of the Perspective Control engineering demonstration is the Perspective Control apparatus which is a working prototype designed and built based on constraints of a generic point-of-observation. In addition to the Perspective Controller the engineering demonstration leverages an indoor, video camera surveillance network and a 3-dimensional virtual environment. Perspective Control is one potential approach for solving the multiple feeds problem.

Committee:

David Woods, PhD (Advisor); Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Member); James Todd, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Coleman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Robots; Systems Design

Keywords:

sensors; layered sensing; perception; control; human-machine interaction; supervisory control; human-robot interaction

Bontrager, Nicholas A.The Conflation of Image Making and Image Fixation in Six Acts
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Art
Questioning the disjunction which occurs between the real and virtual structure of the moving image, this selection of works and concepts explores the dissection of time and exploitation of structural artifacts. Expanding upon the disjunction which occurs, the subsequent writing investigates the conflation of image making and image fixation which is ever-present within my studio practice. Looking at the history of film and television as a visual and narrative structure, this work will survey the methods and techniques in which a conversational gap can be actualized and given a physical form.

Committee:

Kenneth Rinaldo (Committee Chair); Amy Youngs (Committee Member); Laura Lisbon (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Criticism; Design; Epistemology; Film Studies; Fine Arts; Motion Pictures; Museums; Performing Arts; Robotics; Robots; Technology

Keywords:

new media; film studies; survival; epistemology; narrative structure; time travel; image conflation; generative imagery

Dentler, Donald RichardDesign, Control, and Implementation of a Three Link Articulated Robot Arm
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2008, Mechanical Engineering

Robots have become commonplace in the manufacturing environment, allowing tasks ranging from the most repetitive to the most complex to be automated. As technology advances, robotics evolves to be both more precise and practical.

The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of a robotic system through the use of a three link articulated robotic arm. An in depth description of the various actuators, controllers, and drivers is included. The arm will be designed following the physical principals governing static and dynamic requirements of motion. The design process includes both examining structural requirements and control implementation. Component selection must be optimized for the design in terms of performance and physical properties. Using the robot arm and simulated motion programs, both forward and inverse coordinate transformation solutions are presented.

Committee:

Yueh-Jaw Lin, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Robots

Keywords:

¿¿¿¿1; MOTOR; ROBOT; TORQUE; lc2; ROBOT ARM

Starkman, JamesThe Robot Operating System in Transition: Experiments and Tutorials
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2018, EECS - System and Control Engineering
ROS, the Robot Operating System, was first made available in 2007. Since then, usage has grown considerably, along with the number of potential applications and use cases. Unfortunately, design decisions made when ROS was in its infancy still apply today and have begun to show their age. These decisions include: only being supported on the Ubuntu Linux distribution, assuming the use of powerful workstations, adhering to older versions of libraries and programming languages, and the lack of encrypted communications. Rather than addressing the limitations of ROS within the confines of the existing development framework, the Open Source Robotics Foundation decided in 2014 to develop an entirely new project, ROS2, which is backwards-incompatible with ROS1. This new project aims to address all of the above limitations and more. This thesis explores the trade-offs between ROS1 and ROS2.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Committee Chair); Cenk Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Greg Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

ROS; robot operating system; port; migrate

Prasad, DeepikaPursuit Evasion From Multiple Pursuers Using Speed Fluctuation
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Engineering and Applied Science: Electrical Engineering
An intelligent path planning algorithm for an evader whose objective is to escape capture for as long as possible was designed and implemented on Khepera III robots. To achieve the chase a pursuer algorithm was designed and implemented on two Khepera III robots. This pursuit evasion problem is an unpredictable and dynamically changing environment in which the difficulties faced by the evader when planning an escape route due to the pursuers are corral and capture conditions. The evader considers both the pursuer’s locations and increases or decreases its speed according to the distance between itself and either of the pursuers. It also comes to a stop or reverses into a previous location when need to avoid capture arises. The successful execution of the evader algorithm is analyzed by comparing the results of this speed fluctuation algorithm with one devoid of change in speed. The implementation of the algorithm over Khepera III robots aimed at representing the successfulness of this technique in practical cases, as the work in this field is still relatively new.

Committee:

Raj Bhatnagar, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Karen Davis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Robots

Keywords:

Pursuit Evasion;robots;pursuer;evader;pursuit evasion games;

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