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Pollock, Asher WPhase Shift
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Ohio University, 2017, Studio Art
Phase Shift is the thesis of Asher Pollock, submitted for graduation from the Honors Tutorial College of Ohio University. It contains writing and paintings that collectively question concepts, genres, and methods of story-telling known well to many audiences.

Committee:

Laura Larson (Committee Chair); Jennie Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art Criticism; Art Education; Art History; Arts Management; Performing Arts; Personal Relationships; Personality; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Religious History; Rhetoric; Social Research; Spirituality; World History

Keywords:

queer, poseidon, neptune, phase, shift, water, story, stories, painting, paintings, art, artist, man, they, them, gay, men, myth, mythology, mythic, myths, gods, god, family, love, loneliness, despair, ice, independence, conceptual, contemporary, modern

Kinser, Jonathan A.Beneath the Smoke of the Flaming Circle: Extinguishing the Fiery Cross of the 1920s Klan in the North
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, History
By the end of 1925, the Ku Klux Klan had lost most of its members across the United States. This work examines opposition to the group from 1922 to 1926. It seeks to understand the decline in membership the 1920s Klan experienced after its power peaked in 1923 and 1924. To do so, it examines anti-Klan activity in Steubenville, Ohio; Williamson County, Illinois; and in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley with a focus on Niles, Ohio. Legal efforts to oppose the Klan by the Knights of Columbus and two foreign-language newspapers in the Mahoning Valley are explored. However, examining the role of the Knights of the Flaming Circle, a rival organization, in opposing the Klan in these locations is the primary focus. The Knights of the Flaming Circle emerged as an opponent to the Klan in August of 1923 and spread from Pennsylvania into Ohio and Illinois. Initially, the group, founded in Kane, Pennsylvania, championed the causes of liberty and equality and announced its intention to challenge the Klan in an orderly and legal fashion. However, as the organization spread to the industrial cities of Western Pennsylvania and Ohio, the tone of the organization’s rhetoric changed, and, the threat of violence between it and the Klan loomed. The threat became a reality when the Flaming Circle movement reached the coalfields of Williamson County in late 1923. Not long after, Niles, Ohio, joined Williamson County, as the other primary location of conflicts between the factions. From August 1923 to early 1925, the Flaming Circle’s fierce opposition to the Klan resonated around the country due to numerous violent riots and because these incidents were covered by the local and national press. This ensured that even people not located in areas where the two groups were active had constant updates anytime there was trouble. As a result of the conflicts, and a host of other complicating factors, Klan membership dropped significantly across the United States. This study seeks to understand what motivated both sides to engage in such violent behavior toward each other and to analyze why the Knights of the Flaming Circle were successful in helping to halt the Klan movement in the North.

Committee:

David Hammack, PhD (Committee Chair); John Grabowski, PhD (Committee Member); John Flores, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin McMunigal, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Law; Mass Media; Modern History; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Religious History; Social Studies Education; World History

Keywords:

Ku Klux Klan; Knights of the Flaming Circle; Youngstown; Williamson County; Niles; Steubenville; Kane; Ohio history; Jonathan Kinser; 1920s; anti-Klan; Catholics; immigrants; Italians; Slovaks; Knights of Columbus; riot; KKK; decline of the KKK; religion

Sutherland, Samuel SMancipia Dei: Slavery, Servitude, and the Church in Bavaria, 975-1225
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, History
While the history of slavery in the Middle Ages remains a hotly debated subject, most traditional narratives posit a significant decline in the use of slavery in the Latin West at some point in the early Middle Ages, leaving slaves to be found only in insignificant numbers or in `peripheral’ regions to the north. There is substantial reason to revise this narrative, however, particularly in light of the evidence from the German duchy of Bavaria in the years between 975 and 1225 CE. There, a significant and economically important population of slaves can still be found in the twelfth century, along with a diminished but still active local slave trade. The evidence for the continued vitality of slavery in central-medieval Bavaria is contained mostly in the records of donation to monastic and ecclesiastical institutions that were collected in libri traditionum. From a survey of the donation records contained within the surviving libri traditionum of twenty-seven Bavarian monasteries and churches, it is possible to reconstruct the past condition of servile individuals manumitted as tributary freedmen of the Church, and to discover the still substantial population of slaves owned by the Church itself.

Committee:

Alison Beach, Ph.D. (Advisor); Christina Sessa, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sara Butler, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; Medieval History; Middle Ages; Religious History

Keywords:

slavery; medieval slavery; slave trade; serf; serfdom; Bavaria; medieval Bavaria; medieval Germany; concubinage; cartulary; libri traditionum; servi cottidiani; mancipia; mancipium; ancilla; famulus; servus

George, Christopher EricCan I Get a Witness?: Reclaiming the Baptist Testimony Tradition to Enhance Sense of Community in a Church Congregation
Doctor of Ministry, Methodist Theological School in Ohio, 2015, Practical Studies
This Doctor of Ministry research project was motivated by a pastoral concern about loss of community in a specific congregation. Inspired by conversations with members of the congregation, the project sought to address people’s need for a community characterized by freedom and love. In the process, the project discovered a larger issue present in American society, namely the loss of community and sense of connectedness which permeates our culture. The Christian church, following the Biblical mandate to seek reconciliation, advances God’s mission by fostering unity and strengthening community. Recognizing the value of storytelling in the creation and strengthening of community, this research project reclaimed the Baptist testimony tradition and encouraged Christian storytelling in the context of a local church, namely First Baptist Church of Mobile. The project sought to empower a community of believers to discover and share stories with one another in an effort to foster friendship and mutual understanding. In the process, the project not only strengthened community in the context of this congregation, but provided a model for other congregations and church leaders who are committed to meeting a growing need for community in the Christian church specifically and American society generally.

Committee:

Diane Lobody, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Clergy; Families and Family Life; Personal Relationships; Religious Congregations; Religious History

Keywords:

community, church, congregation, testimonials, storytelling,

Hentschel, Jason AshleyEvangelicals, Inerrancy, and the Quest for Certainty: Making Sense of Our Battles for the Bible
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2015, Theology
This dissertation seeks to understand and evaluate the hermeneutical logic and apologetic mentality behind American evangelicalism’s appeal to biblical inerrancy during its twentieth- and twenty-first-century battles for the Bible. In nuanced agreement with Christian Smith’s charge that evangelicalism’s pervasive interpretive pluralism renders appeals to biblical inerrancy meaningless, I argue that what drives the perpetuation of such appeals is a fundamental desire for epistemic certainty in the face of what is perceived to be a devastating subjectivism. This is a certainty said to be obtained and maintained by an oversimplified conception of sola scriptura and a biblical hermeneutic replete with modernistic assumptions about textual objectivity and the effects of history and tradition upon interpretation. After attending to the intersection of the hermeneutical theory of Hans-Georg Gadamer with those of high-profile evangelicals James Packer and Clark Pinnock, I propose the adoption of a more community-centered conception of biblical authority alongside a rehabilitation of faith as trust in God’s own faithfulness.

Committee:

William Trollinger, Jr. (Advisor); Brad Kallenberg (Committee Member); William Portier (Committee Member); Anthony Smith (Committee Member); Peter Thuesen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Modern History; Religion; Religious History; Theology

Keywords:

Evangelicalism; inerrancy; certainty; sola scriptura; biblical hermeneutics

Knight, Katherine R.Malone University as an Intentional Community: An 1892 Friends Bible Institute Simulation
Undergraduate Honors Program, Malone University, 2015, Honors Thesis
Malone University was founded by J. Walter and Emma Malone in 1892 as an Evangelical Friends Bible training school. At the founding, the school was an intentional community referred to as the Friends Bible Institute. In simulating four days in the life of an 1892 Friends Bible Institute student body, participants had the opportunity to learn experientially about the history of Malone University, intentional communities, evangelism, and the nature of true community. True community involves conflict resolution, commitment, and common goals. Malone University today still carries out the intentions of the founders of the Friends Bible Institute, just in a different format. However, it is possible that Malone University in 2015 does not emphasize the Friends value of evangelism and social reform as much as it did at its founding.

Committee:

Lauren Seifert (Advisor); Welling Jacci (Committee Member); Jay Case (Committee Member); Malcolm Gold (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Behavioral Psychology; Bible; Education History; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; Religious History; Sociology; Spirituality

Keywords:

Malone University; J Walter and Emma Malone; Friends Bible Institute; 1892; intentional community; conflict resolution; community; evangelism; spiritual formation; simulation; Christianity

Sack, Susan K.Teilhard in America: The 1960s, the Counterculture, and Vatican II
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2014, Theology
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, SJ, visionary priest, paleontologist, and writer, is an important landmark figure in twentieth-century French Catholicism. Especially from 1950 onward, Teilhard also significantly impacted the Catholicism of the United States. The period of 1959–1972 was the crucial age during which Teilhard’s writing and thought were first available in North America; over five hundred primary and secondary works concerning him were published in the US during these years. This period was also the decade of the counterculture, the Second Vatican Council, and the dissolution of the immigrant subculture of the church in the United States. A full-scale study of the U.S. reception of Teilhard de Chardin in this early period contributes not only to an awareness of the thought of this important figure and the impact of his work, but also further develops an understanding of U.S. Catholicism in its religious and cultural dimensions during these years, and provides clues as to how it has further unfolded over the past several decades. The manner in which this reception occurred, including the intensity of this phenomenon, happened as it did at this particular point in the history of both the United States and the Catholic Church because of the confluence of the then developing social milieu, the disintegration of the immigrant Catholic subculture, and the opening of the church to the world through Vatican II. Additionally, as these social and historical events unfolded within U.S. culture during these dozen years, the manner in which Teilhard was read, and the contributions which his thought provided changed. At various points his work became a carrier for an almost Americanist emphasis upon progress, energy and hope; at other times his teleological understanding of the value of suffering moved to center stage. Most importantly, Teilhard wrote concerning humanity’s desire for the divine, and strove to place that desire for unity within the context of both religion and science. In the end, it has been his attempts to leap the interstice between the secular and the sacred, particularly in terms of his Christology, that remain of value today, and which have had, and which continue to have impact upon U.S. Catholic theology.

Committee:

William Portier, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dennis Doyle, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Kathleen Duffy, PhD (Committee Member); Anthony Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Cecilia Moore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Religious History; Spirituality; Theology

Keywords:

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin; United States 1960s; Vatican II; American Counterculture; Teilhard historiography; American Teilhard Association, Catholic spirituality; Christology

DeLong, Tyler BenjaminEucharistic Unity, Fragmented Body: Christian Social Practice and the Market Economy
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2015, Theology
The following is an interpretive synopsis of Henri de Lubac and Karl Polanyi's particular thought about how human sociality is organized around the formal influence of theological and economic structures, giving shape to the practice of everyday life. For De Lubac, social fragmentation and unity are central theological categories for understanding both the first instance of sin and the unfolding of salvation in history. God is at work in the world as an active agent in the reparation of discordant humanity, restoring humankind to its original state as one collective body in the Church. Karl Polanyi's analysis of the rise of market economics gives us a historical instance of social and ecological fracture, providing the possibility of relating de Lubac's theological argument in a particular historical context. Two competing logics of social formation emerge: 1.) the Eucharist implicates human sociality toward deep forms of community in the Church; and 2.) the mechanism of the self-regulating market actively dissolves these thick forms of community, organizing sociality around capital markets and production. Placing de Lubac and Polanyi in conversation provides a way of thinking theologically about the history of unity and break in an increasingly dispersed social era.

Committee:

Vincent J. Miller, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kelly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Portier, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Environmental Economics; Environmental Justice; Ethics; Home Economics; Labor Economics; Religion; Religious History; Social Structure; Sociology; Theology

Keywords:

Eucharist; Henri de Lubac; Karl Polanyi; Catholic Church; Ecclesiology; Capitalism; Free Market; Economics; Thomas Aquinas; Agrarianism; Ecology; Creation; Sociality; Christian Social Practice; Community; Distributism; Unity

Henderson, Jonathon CaseImam, Shah, and Ayatollah: Charismatic Leadership in the Shi'i Tradition, and its Role in Iran's Shi'ite Revolutions
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2010, Humanities
This thesis examines the role of charismatic religious leadership in Iran's two Shi'ite revolutions. Included within the larger arguments of this work, are sections addressing the scholastic categorizations of charisma, the development of the Shi'i Islamic tradition, and they way in which the charisma of the was appropriated by later Shi'i figures to bring about social, political, and religious revolutions in Iran. For this work, Shah Isma'il ibn Haydar and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini serve as examples of charismatic Shi'i figures that drew upon the suspended charisma of the Shi'i Imams. This work also briefly comments on events in contemporary Iran in order to provide insight into the future of revolutionary Iran.

Committee:

Awad Halabi, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Ava Chamberlain, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Valerie Stoker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Religious History

Keywords:

IMAM; Khomeini; SHI; Isma; IRAN; charisma; CHARISMATIC

Otto, Jeffrey ScottA philological survey of late 15th-century Wallachian edicts in the Hilandar Monastery Library
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1994, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures
none

Committee:

Charles Gribble (Advisor)

Subjects:

Religious History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies

Johnson, Terri LynneWorship Styles, Music, and Social Identity: A Communication Study
Master of Applied Communication Theory and Methodology, Cleveland State University, 2008, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences

This study explored worship style, music and social identity from a communication perspective. Specifically, this study was interested in understanding the variables that influence worship music preference. Results indicated that Missouri Synod Lutherans who prefer traditional worship components identify more strongly with the larger organization, the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod (LCMS). Moreover, music preference strongly predicts worship style preference. In addition, parishioners perception of self-disclosure in hymns and praise songs was also examined. Results indicated that certain dimensions of self-disclosure are more prevalent in hymns and praise songs than others and perceived self-disclosure is stronger with those who attend a contemporary worship service than those who attend a traditional service.

Research participants completed a questionnaire survey, which utilized the Revised Self-Disclosure Scale to measure their perception of self-disclosure through worship music and the Identification with a Psychological Group scale to measure their identification with the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod. Additionally, the survey measured music preference, worship preferences, lifestyle values and religiosity

Committee:

Jill Rudd, PhD (Advisor); Kimberly Neuendorf, PhD (Committee Member); Guowei Jian, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Religious Congregations; Religious History

Keywords:

worship styles; music; social identity; communication; Lutheran; traditional worship; contemporary worship

Gustafson, Adam R.The Artistic Patronage of Albrecht V and the Creation of Catholic Identity in Sixteenth-Century Bavaria
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2011, Interdisciplinary Arts (Fine Arts)

Drawing from a number of artistic media, this dissertation is an interdisciplinary approach for understanding how artworks created under the patronage of Albrecht V were used to shape Catholic identity in Bavaria during the establishment of confessional boundaries in late sixteenth-century Europe. This study presents a methodological framework for understanding early modern patronage in which the arts are necessarily viewed as interconnected, and patronage is understood as a complex and often contradictory process that involved all elements of society.

First, this study examines the legacy of arts patronage that Albrecht V inherited from his Wittelsbach predecessors and developed during his reign, from 1550-1579. Albrecht V’s patronage is then divided into three areas: northern princely humanism, traditional religion and sociological propaganda. The final chapter follows the influence of Albrecht V’s patronage through the Thirty Years’ War, during the reign of his grandson, Maximilian I. During the early years of Albrecht V’s reign, his patronage reflected his values as a noble who pursued a particularly northern, humanist agenda. During his reign, a resurgence of traditional religious experience occurred in Bavaria that the Jesuits, supported by Albrecht V, used to rouse support for Catholicism. This movement affected Albrecht V’s identity, and his patronage and the legacy of his patronage reflected and supported the entrenchment of traditional Bavarian Catholicism. Jacque Ellul termed the establishment of such structures sociological propaganda. That Bavaria remained staunchly Catholic during the Protestant Reformation is often attributed to the absolutist policies and social discipline of Albrecht V – a process known as confessionalization. However true the confessionalization thesis is, any approach for analyzing Bavarian artworks of the period must also include the possibility that the lower classes were as influential in shaping the patronage and religious identity of Albrecht V as the Wittelsbach court was in shaping the religious identity of Bavaria.

Committee:

Wilson Dora, PhD (Committee Chair); Charles S. Buchanan, PhD (Committee Member); Michele L. Clouse, PhD (Committee Member); William F. Condee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art History; Medieval History; Music; Performing Arts; Religious History; Theater History

Keywords:

Albrecht V; Wittelsbach; early modern; confessionalization; sociological propaganda; Bavaria; Munich; patronage

De Simone, Peter ThomasAn Old Believer “Holy Moscow” in Imperial Russia: Community and Identity in the History of the Rogozhskoe Cemetery Old Believers, 1771 - 1917
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, History

In the mid-seventeenth century Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow, introduced a number of reforms to bring the Russian Orthodox Church into ritualistic and liturgical conformity with the Greek Orthodox Church. However, Nikon‘s reforms met staunch resistance from a number of clergy, led by figures such as the archpriest Avvakum and Bishop Pavel of Kolomna, as well as large portions of the general Russian population. Nikon‘s critics rejected the reforms on two key principles: that conformity with the Greek Church corrupted Russian Orthodoxy‘s spiritual purity and negated Russia‘s historical and Christian destiny as the Third Rome – the final capital of all Christendom before the End Times. Developed in the early sixteenth century, what became the Third Rome Doctrine proclaimed that Muscovite Russia inherited the political and spiritual legacy of the Roman Empire as passed from Constantinople. In the mind of Nikon‘s critics, the Doctrine proclaimed that Constantinople fell in 1453 due to God‘s displeasure with the Greeks. Therefore, to Nikon‘s critics introducing Greek rituals and liturgical reform was to invite the same heresies that led to the Greeks‘ downfall. However, Tsar Alexei‘s support for Nikon‘s reforms in 1666 split the Russian Orthodox Church in the raskol, between those who supported the reforms, and those who rejected the reforms and identified themselves as staroobriadtsy, or Old Believers (more properly known as Old Ritualists). In the centuries since the raskol, Old Believers maintained their identity as not only defenders of pre-Nikonian Russian Orthodoxy, but also their understanding of Russia‘s historical destiny as the Third Rome.

This dissertation focuses on the importance of place (defined by geographic location, the construction of community buildings, architecture, the layout of community space, liturgical spaces, and economic foundations) and community (defined by a shared spiritual identity and goals of maintaining spiritual purity) to the Old Believer community of the Rogozhskoe Cemetery of Moscow from its founding in the 1770s until 1917. Founded by priestly (popovtsy) Old Believers (those who still accepted the sanctity and significance of priests in a corrupt world, unlike the priestless (bespopovtsy) branch), the Rogozhskoe community eventually became a major spiritual center for the priestly branch of the Old Rite throughout the Russian Empire.

Drawing primarily from a collection of archival material held in the Russian State Library and published documents and works by the Rogozhskoe Old Believers, I argue that Rogozhskoe Cemetery both became a physical and ideological representation of the community‘s attempt to create a Holy Moscow in their understanding of the Third Rome Doctrine. Furthermore, I argue that the Rogozhskoe Old Believers envisioned their Holy Moscow as a part of two worlds: a community devoted to their shared faith in the Old Rite and as a model Christian community within the Russian Empire. This study, then, argues that the Rogozhskoe Old Believers adapted their Holy Moscow to meet their need to maintain their faith and respond to the political, social, cultural, and economic changes in Imperial Russia from the second half of the eighteenth to early twentieth century.

Committee:

Nicholas Breyfogle (Advisor); David Hoffmann (Committee Member); Robin Judd (Committee Member); Predrag Matejic (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Religious History; Russian History

Keywords:

Rogozhskoe Cemetery; Moscow; Russia; Imperial Russia; Old Believers; Russian Orthodoxy; Community; Identity

Gutekunst, Jason AlexanderWabanaki Catholics: Ritual Song, Hybridity, and Colonial Exchange in Seventeenth-Century New England and New France
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2009, Religion
This work examines the phenomenon of seventeenth-century Wabanaki Catholics as an instance of Native American Christian religious hybridity, with an emphasis upon the Native American appropriation of Gregorian chant. This study is divided into three chapters. The first chapter analyzes a spectrum of methodological approaches from the disciplines of religionswissenschaft, anthropology, ethnomusicology, and postcolonial studies in order to establish a new hermeneutic for the interpretation of Native American music-making in colonial North America. The second chapter addresses the range of historical, mythological, and religious factors that informed Wabanakis and Europeans as they approached each other in situations of colonial contact and exchange. The third chapter combines the new hermeneutic constructed in the first chapter with the contextual conditions set forth in the second chapter toward an analysis of the meanings borne by Wabanaki Catholic musico-religious praxis as evidenced in the Thomas Kyrie manuscript and other seventeenth-century North American musical documents.

Committee:

Dr. Peter W. Williams (Advisor); Dr. Lisa J. M. Poirier (Committee Member); Dr. Daniel M. Cobb (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Music; Native Americans; Native Studies; Religion; Religious History

Keywords:

Wabanaki; Native American; Native American song; Gregorian chant; North America; religion;religious studies; colonialism; conversion; chant; indigenous studies; ritual song; Thomas Kyrie manuscript;postcoloniality

Gutowski, James ArthurPolitics and Parochial Schools in Archbishop John Purcell's Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2009, College of Education and Human Services
This study chronicles the contentious relationship between advocates of public schools and those promoting Catholic education in Ohio during the career of Archbishop John Purcell of Cincinnati. Using information culled from qualitative research into primary resources such as personal correspondence, published proceedings and newspaper articles of the time, this monograph reconstructs a history of philosophical and political conflict accompanying the parallel development of two burgeoning school systems. The years from 1833 to 1883 saw the development of an equilibrium between the two systems that helped to define Thomas Jefferson’s concept of the “wall of separation” between church and state. Public schools did not have to share tax-generated funding with parochial schools which, in turn, were irrefutably protected from taxation themselves. Furthermore, the history of competing school systems exhibits the paradox of religious liberty in America and uncovers an evolution in the nature of opposition to Catholicism in the United States.

Committee:

James Carl, PhD (Committee Chair); David Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Carl Rak, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Shelton, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Tebeau, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Education; Education History; History; Political Science; Religion; Religious Education; Religious History; School Administration; Teacher Education; Teaching; Theology

Keywords:

Catholic; Geghan; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Rutherford B. Hayes; school funding; church taxation; nativism; Gilmour

Ladd, Adam J.Bernini's Cornaro Chapel: Visualizing Mysticism in the Age of Reformation
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis examines the interaction between the viewer, the depicted Cornaro men, and the scene of Teresa’s transverberation. The result is a fresh interpretation of Bernini’s Cornaro Chapel. Rarely has the theatricality of Bernini’s Cornaro Chapel gone unmentioned in literature. Scholarship thus far, however, has not gone beyond the formal, visual qualities of the chapel that suggest a theater space. I suggest that these qualities were more than just aesthetic choices—they were intended as an important aspect of the overall message being communicated to the viewer. The theme presented to the viewer of this chapel was one that carried with it a recent history of controversy and debate. The post-Tridentine Roman Church walked a fine line between acceptance and condemnation of mystical theology, as it had the potential to either confirm God’s divine interaction with the Roman Church, or to inspire protest and dissent against the rigid orthodoxy inherent in the Catholic faith. To guide the viewer toward an appropriate response to the subject matter, this thesis suggests that Bernini intentionally designed the chapel space as a play-within-a-play, a popular Baroque device that Bernini explored just years before the Cornaro commission in his play The Impresario. This creative device serves to focus the attention of the audience on the interaction that takes place between audience and performance, as the real audience sees a performed audience reacting to the play-within-a-play. In the Cornaro Chapel, the viewer witnesses a performance of Teresa’s mystical experiences to an audience of the Cornaro men, seven of whom were Cardinals of the Church. As such, we witness the creation of a canonized saint within the confines of the Church’s sanctioned system of doctrinal validation. We are reminded that such validation does not come from us, but from the upper echelons of Church hierarchy. Both the viewer’s experience and understanding of this miracle is controlled by Bernini’s structuring of the chapel space.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, PhD (Advisor); Diane Scillia, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Fred Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Carol Salus, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Art Criticism; Art History; Fine Arts; Gender Studies; History; Performing Arts; Religious History; Theater History; Theology

Keywords:

Bernini; Counter-Reformation; Teresa of Avila; Teresa de Jesus; Baroque; Baroque sculpture; play-within-a-play; theatrum mundi; Federico Cornaro

Hurst, Laurel MyersDrive vs. Vamp: Theorizing Concepts that Organize “Improvisation” in Gospel Communities
MA, Kent State University, 2010, College of the Arts / School of Music

Black Gospel and Southern Gospel quartet singing expresses the soul of Christian experience in America, but in ways that reference the distinct cultural and musical heritages of their respective communities.

This thesis uses the semiological method demonstrated by Kofi Agawu to identify musical features for analysis from the Black Gospel and Southern Gospel quartet styles. The cultural-factor approach proposed by Joseph H. Kwabena Nketia is applied to key musical features to reveal the uniqueness of African-American and Euro-American communities in four key aspects: musical behavior, the contexts for music making, the perceptions of musicians in the two communities, and the cultural frame of reference that gives rise to the two musical styles.

The conclusion of this study is that Black Gospel quartet music is unique because “improvisation” is organized according to the principles of Ensemble Thematic Cycle (ETC) as defined by Meki Nzewi. ETC form in Black Gospel expresses interconnectedness in the community. Southern Gospel quartet music is unique because improvisation is organized according to the principles of tonal harmony as suggested by Douglas Harrison. Improvisation in tonal harmony present in Southern Gospel quartet music expresses self-determinism of the individual.

Committee:

Kazadi wa Mukuna, PhD (Advisor); Linda B. Walker, PhD (Committee Member); Mr. Chas Baker (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African Studies; American Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; European Studies; Folklore; Music; Performing Arts; Philosophy; Religious History

Keywords:

semiology; Kofi Agawu; Black Gospel; Gospel; Southern Gospel; gospel quartet; African-American; African rhythm; polyrhythm; groove; Nzewi; Meki Nzewi; intersubjectivity; improvisation; African diaspora; cultural factor approach; Ensemble Thematic Cycle

Feldheim, AndrewThe Spiritual Dynamic in Alcoholics Anonymous and the Factors Precipitating A.A.'s Separation From the Oxford Group
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2013, Comparative Religion
Alcoholics Anonymous has grown since the mid-1930's from a loose cohesion of individuals seeking recovery to iconic status as a paradigmatic self-help organization. Few people among the many familiar with A.A. are aware of its genesis from a popular Christian evangelical organization called the Oxford Group. This paper charts the course of A.A. from its Oxford Group roots, both in terms of historical development and the evolution of the spiritual dynamic that served as the functional nexus for both organizations. This paper also addresses key differences in the agendas of both groups that eventually necessitated their separation, as well as the questionable assumption that Alcoholics Anonymous is the more "secular" of the two.

Committee:

Elizabeth Wilson, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Alternative Medicine; American History; Religion; Religious History; Spirituality

Keywords:

Alcoholics Anonymous; alcoholism; evangelical; Oxford Group; spiritual dynamic

Wang, Tiffany RDevout Pedagogies: A Textual Analysis of Late Nineteenth Century Christian Women
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This project is situated in scholarship surrounding the rescue, recovery, and (re)inscription of historical women rhetors, particularly those within religious spaces. It places a lens on the rhetorical practices of two religious women: Jessie Penn-Lewis and Margaret E. Barber. I argue that it is important to investigate these women, for doing so reveals not only an area that has not received extensive critical attention, but also informs how scholars look at pedagogy, particularly in religious spaces. The project and methods are grounded in feminist research practices. This project is historical in nature and will thus draw upon feminist historical and archival research methods as my primary methods of investigation. Further, this project is framed as two case studies, which examine closely through textual analysis surviving work produced by these women to begin to extend our knowledge of pedagogical and rhetorical practices in religious spaces. The heuristic used to investigate these texts and women bring forward key themes for study and application such as: how space is used, whether rhetorical or physical; what kind of tools can be used or appropriated for teaching practices; how texts and women circulate and under what conditions and intentions. Finally, I argue for their inclusion within the rhetorical canon as well as rewriting histories of women’s rhetoric; for their work is not only worthy of recognition from the past but more importantly for future scholarship that acknowledges the ways in which institutions of power are still over girls and women. This dissertation points further to the need to research literate practices of “ordinary” people and the barriers of public and private still existing today.

Committee:

Sue Wood, PhD. (Advisor); Ellen Gorsevski, PhD. (Other); Kristine Blair, PhD. (Committee Member); Lee Nickoson, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Religious History; Rhetoric

Keywords:

rhetoric; archival research; feminist rhetorical practices; teaching practices; pedagogy; textual analysis; case study; composition studies; religion; religious women

Feiner, Christina AnnFifth Monarchist Constructions and Presentations of Gender in Print
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, History
This thesis argues that Fifth Monarchist ideas on gender were not easily categorized because of the active construction and negotiation of gender within their religious/political ideological framework and within Interregnum England. The study argues this through a series of cases studies of two male and two female Fifth Monarchists. This thesis contributes to the field with a gender analysis of the male Fifth Monarchists.

Committee:

Michael Graham (Advisor); Michael Levin (Advisor)

Subjects:

European History; Gender; History; Religious History

Keywords:

gender; print; Fifth Monarchist; Early Modern England; England; radical religion; Interregnum England; Mary Cary; Anna Trapnel; John Rogers; Christopher Feake; European History; history; religion

Winwood, George MA Study of the Propaganda of the Anti-Saloon League of America : A Typical Representative of "The Pressure Group"
BA, Oberlin College, 1939, Politics

Democratic government implies that "the people shall rule." This means if it means anything, that public opinion shall found expression in law. The mechanism by which this takes place seems to me to be one of the basic problems of popular government. Democracy without organization is in conceivable and public opinion that is organized is likely to be evanescent and ineffective--a phantom. In a Greek city-state or in a New England town, the determination of the collective will upon a particular problem will occasion no great difficulty. But direct democracy falls down in the face of increasing numbers. The individual man, swallowed up into a sea of highly differentiated human beings, finds it necessary to organize with others of a like mind so that by concerted action they may bend the state to their will. Political parties are one result of this process. But political parties invariably include adherents whose wills are hopelessly at variance upon all but a very few questions. Especially is this true where, as in the United States, a two-party system and tradition exist.

It is this situation which has engendered the pressure group. Within the matrices of the major political parties minor associations are formed which , without regard for party opinion on other matters, carry on agitation for or against projects deemed favorable or prejudicial to their interests. In 1921 Senator LaFollette, Sr., could point to one hundred and twenty-one such national organizations with permanent offices in Washington.

The Anti-Saloon League is one such organization—One—kind—one example of, the “Pressure Group.” It is, or was, in its day, the most powerful. This thesis is an effort to make a closer study of this representative of the pressure group, to analyze its functions and study its activities and operations upon this voting population of our nation. The methods of the Anti-Saloon League are not peculiar to the League but were also used by the Association Against The Prohibition Amendment, the League of Women Voters and innumerable associations interest in influencing legislation. The Anti-Saloon League differs from these other organizations in that it was an alliance or combination of Protestant churches.

Many people conclude from this that the church had no right to engage in politics. Individual persuasion, not legislation, should be the method employed to advance God’s kingdom. The church should confine its attention to the future life and not meddle in mundane matters. Such a view, it seems to me, is of very doubtful validity. Life cannot be rigidly categorized. Business, religion, club life, politics are not so many district entities. They are all parts of a full social personality. The business man does not lay aside his economic philosophy when he considers a political problem. Churchmen do no lay aside their religion when they turn to vote. To protect the state from the influences of church, business, labor, and other such organizations and associations is to leave it a meaningless void.

To say that the members of business organizations or religious organizations shall not take an active part in politics is to say that they shall have no voice in the determinations of the legal arrangements governing their own lives. It is not a sufficient answer to say that their influence should be individual and not corporate. Without organization, in the modern state, the individual is lost and his influence is neglible.

It seems to me that this study of the propaganda of that Anti-Saloon League is worthwhile, for the League is one of the most powerful propaganda machines ever set up in the United State and while not representative of the "very latest" type of propaganda its work from 1893 to 1919 is an excellent example of the work of a "pressure group" and its efforts were typical of all such propaganda dispensing or organizing.

Committee:

(Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science; Religious History; Sociology

Keywords:

organizations;Protestant;church;Anti-Saloon League;propaganda;pressure group;United States;

Harwood, Victoria MarieReexamining a National Disaster: The Local Charles E. Coughlin and the Community's Response
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, History
During the late 1920s and through the 1930s, Father Coughlin was broadcasted nationwide. However, by 1935, it became apparent that he harbored racist sentiments, and as his popularity grew, so did his extremist tendencies. When he was officially silenced, much of the nation regarded him and still regards him as intolerant and infamous. However, this is not the full picture of the life of Father Coughlin or where his story ended. Although Coughlin may have been brash, ignorant, and quasi-fascist in his ideology, he was much more than the harsh national figure. This being said, very few historians have examined Father Coughlin in his locality, which is where Coughlin was, at many times, a strikingly different character. By assessing news articles written about him in the local newspapers, analyzing the archived records and figures and the history of Coughlin’s parish, examining Father Coughlin’s radio broadcasts and Social Justice, evaluating funerary items, and integrating other documents from the priest’s past, this project argues that Father Coughlin was an important and valued figure in his parish and the community. After his removal from the national eye, Father Coughlin was still considered an important and reverend figure in the community as memorialized in various materials such as yearbooks and in the memories of the people of metropolitan Detroit who, in many cases, tended to share his views and experienced a side to Coughlin that met their needs and concerns. These memories, and thus this research, showcase a more personal, local side of Father Coughlin rather than an impersonal, nationalist figure while, by no means, advocating his obvious flaws. Furthermore, while not all the memories are positive, and admirers of Coughlin dwindled throughout the years, Coughlin was never forgotten in his community, and he is still remembered today.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso, PHD (Advisor); Michael Brooks, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Religious History

Keywords:

Charles Coughlin; Royal Oak; Michigan; Detroit; local history; radio priest

Geis, Amy Lynn“The Key to All Reform”: Mormon Women, Religious Identity, and Suffrage, 1887-1920
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2015, History
When Mormon suffrage leaders of Utah, such as Emmeline B. Wells, called for a meeting of suffragists to be held in the Salt Lake Assembly Hall on January 10, 1889, they were soon overwhelmed by the number of women in attendance. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Utah Woman Suffrage Association, which sought to restore the franchise to the women of Utah who had lost the vote two years prior as a result of the Edmunds-Tucker Act. Not only would they inevitably achieve re-enfranchisement through Utah’s statehood campaign, Mormon women also participated in the reintegration of the national woman suffrage movement, which reunified in May 1890. Throughout this process, Mormon women continually reconciled and renegotiated their identities, which were complicated by ideas about religion, gender, sexuality, and civic duty in late nineteenth and early twentieth century America. In “`The Key to All Reform’: Mormon Women, Religious Identity, and Suffrage, 1887-1920” I contend that the Mormon women’s suffrage movement was inextricably linked to developing gender ideologies within the Latter-day Saint Church. Using Mormon women’s publications, this study traces the evolution of female Mormon activism and intellectual thought as Mormon suffragists adapted to changes within the national suffrage movement, ultimately reintegrating themselves into the nation-wide battle for the ballot. Complicated by nationwide debates about polygamy and driven by social reform, the Mormon suffrage movement became a catalyst for the debate about “woman’s sphere” – which was forever transformed by suffrage. With persecution seemingly in their past and developments towards statehood as early as 1894, Mormon women increasingly positioned themselves as civic beings in a newly adopted state.

Committee:

Kim Nielsen (Advisor); Todd Michney (Committee Member); Ami Pflugrad-Jackisch (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Religious History; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Mormon; suffrage; statehood; women; intersectionality; maternalism; feminism; Mormonism; Emmeline Wells; The Womans Exponent; state suffrage associations; Edmunds-Tucker Act; nineteenth-century social movements

Williams, James C.THE ROAD TO HARPER’S FERRY: THE GARRISONIAN REJECTION OF NONVIOLENCE
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
On December 2, 1859, the date of John Brown’s execution for treason, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison delivered a eulogy in Boston for the antislavery vigilante. To his audience that night, Garrison lauded Brown for embodying the revolutionary spirit of the founding generation. While not likening Brown to Christ as some abolitionists had, Garrison did portray Brown as a martyr whom God would reward with “the victor’s crown.” That Garrison would praise Brown is unsurprising from our vantage-point today. We expect that one radical abolitionist would have endorsed another, but this assumption is unwarranted. In fact, Garrison’s eulogy for Brown marks a departure from his position of twenty years: the pacifism of “Christian nonresistance,” which absolutely forbade violence. The Garrisonian abolitionists were initially as pacifistic as their leader, but during the 1850s, they redefined Christian nonresistance to be compatible with condoning antislavery violence. In a decade of intense sectionalism and increasing violence around the issue of slavery, the Garrisonians embraced resistance. While the causes of this change in Garrisonian attitudes toward violence are admittedly complex, this thesis argues that the change was facilitated by an earlier change in their religious beliefs, specifically their substitution of a secular natural law ethic for a traditional religious source of authority. Focusing on the Garrisonians during the late 1840s and throughout the 1850s, the argument falls into three parts, each corresponding to a chapter. Chapter one, “Turning the Other Cheek,” shows that the Garrisonian commitment to nonresistance was inextricably religious in origin, taking for granted the moral authority of the Bible and of Jesus of Nazareth. Chapter two, “Taking Uncle Tom’s Bible,” relates how the Garrisonians came to reject the religious assumptions underpinning their belief in Christian nonresistance. Finally, chapter three, “Racing towards Harper’s Ferry,” demonstrates that Garrison and his fellow abolitionists redefined nonresistance in terms presupposing their rejection of traditional religious sources of authority and their acceptance of secular sources of authority.

Committee:

Elizabeth Smith-Pryor, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Leonne Hudson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Religious History

Keywords:

Garrisonian; Christian nonresistance; abolitionism; Second Great Awakening; moral suasion; nonviolence; peace reform; antebellum reform; Garrison, William Lloyd; May, Samuel Joseph; Wright, Henry Clarke; Whipper, William; Ballou, Adin; Mott, Lucretia

Post, Kaeleigh ANo Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement
Master of Sacred Theology (S.T.M.), Trinity Lutheran Seminary, 2014, History-Theology-Society Division
"No Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement" looks at the role of violence in the discussion of the atonement. This is accomplished by first examining a number of well-known atonement theories including Anselm's substitutionary theory, Abelard's moral exemplar, ransom theory, and Christus Victor for their connection to violence. Then, three less well-known theories such as Julian of Norwich's theory, Patrick Cheng's theosis theory, and womanist theories are looked at in light of their connection to violence. Finally, a proposed theory of atonement, which attempts to be as low-violence as possible, is presented. Throughout the thesis, the topics of what is violence and why a nonviolent atonement theory is needed are addressed.

Committee:

Joy Schroeder, PhD (Advisor); Cheryl Peterson, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Bible; Biblical Studies; Classical Studies; Divinity; Gender; History; Medieval History; Middle Ages; Religion; Religious History; Theology

Keywords:

Atonement; Abelard; Anselm; Womanist Theology; Sin; Queer Theology; Violence; Aulen; Christus Victor; Romans; Ransom Theory; Theosis

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