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Tyler, Carmen MHow the Illness Experience Predicts Key Psychosocial Outcomes in Veterans with Brain Injury
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Sciences and Health Professions
The object of this thesis was to examine the illness experience of veterans who have suffered either a stroke or traumatic brain injury. Predictors of key psychosocial outcomes were identified by looking at the illness experience through the veterans’ perspective via self-report measures. Results confirmed relationships between the stressors role captivity, low self-esteem, decreased socialization, and dyad relationship strain and the outcome of depression and between the stressors physical strain and emotional strain and the outcome social/recreational participation for this population. More importantly, role captivity, social/recreational strain, and self-esteem uniquely predicted depression, and both physical and emotional strain uniquely predicted social/recreational strain in veterans with brain injury. Not only has this study demonstrated how the illness experience predicts key psychosocial outcomes in VBIs, it has also illustrated that self-reports from VBIs are reliable and valid indicators of their illness experiences and should be seriously considered when constructing treatment goals and plans.

Committee:

Katherine Judge, PhD (Committee Chair); Harvey Sterns, PhD (Committee Member); Eric Allard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Developmental Psychology; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

veterans; illness experience; brain injury; psychosocial outcomes; stressors; stress process model; perceived distress; appraisal; self-report; role captivity; social-recreational strain; dyad relationship strain; depression; self-esteem;

Lipkin, IlyaTesting Software Development Project Productivity Model
Doctor of Philosophy in Manufacturing and Technology Management, University of Toledo, 2011, Manufacturing and Technology Management

Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today’s business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted.

There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis.

This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD.

Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers.

Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control, Simulation and etc¿¿¿ This research validates findings from previous work concerning software project productivity and leverages said results in this study. The hypothesized project productivity model provides statistical support and validation of expert opinions used by practitioners in the field of software project estimation.

Committee:

Jeen Su Lim (Committee Chair); James Pope (Committee Member); Michael Mallin (Committee Member); Michael Jakobson (Committee Member); Wilson Rosa (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Armed Forces; Artificial Intelligence; Business Administration; Business Costs; Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Economic Theory; Economics; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Management; Marketing; Mathematics

Keywords:

"Software Estimation"; "Software Cost Model"; "Department of Defense Data"; COCOMO; "Software Project Productivity Model"

Bolzenius, Sandra M.The 1945 Black Wac Strike at Ft. Devens
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
In March 1945, a WAC (Women’s Army Corps) detachment of African Americans stationed at Ft. Devens, Massachusetts organized a strike action to protest discriminatory treatment in the Army. As a microcosm of military directives and black women’s assertions of their rights, the Ft. Devens strike provides a revealing context to explore connections between state policy and citizenship during World War II. This project investigates the manner in which state policies reflected and reinforced rigid distinctions between constructed categories of citizens, and it examines the attempts of African American women, who stood among the nation’s most marginalized persons, to assert their rights to full citizenship through military service. The purpose of this study is threefold: to investigate the Army’s determination to strictly segment its troops according to race and gender in addition to its customary rank divisions; to explore state policies during the war years from the vantage point of black women; and to recognize the agency, experiences, and resistance strategies of back women who enlisted in the WAC during its first years. The Ft. Devens incident showcases a little known, yet extraordinary event of the era that features the interaction between black enlisted women and the Army’s white elite in accordance with standard military protocol. This protocol demanded respect all who wore the uniform, albeit within a force segregated by gender, race, and rank. It is this conflict that gave rise to one of World War II’s most publicized courts-martial, the black Wac strike at Ft. Devens.

Committee:

Judy Wu (Advisor); Susan Hartmann (Committee Member); Tiyi Morris (Committee Member); Peter Mansoor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Black History; Black Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Military History; Military Studies; Public Policy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC; World War II; Fort Devens; strike; African American women; military; court- martial; intersectionality; culture of dissemblance; Fort Des Moines; Alice Young; Anna Morrison; Mary Green; Johnnie Murphy; WAAC; African American; public policy

Benson, Kathleen M.Suicide Resilience Among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans: Sense of Coherence as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Traumatic Experiences and Suicidality
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counseling Psychology
With approximately 6,000 U.S. veteran deaths by suicide annually, the examination of protective factors against suicidality among returning veterans has received growing attention (DVA, 2010, January). This study examined the influence of one potential protective factor, a sense of coherence (SOC) as defined by Antonovsky (1979), on the relationship between combat distress and suicidality among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Data from 157 OEF/OIF combat veterans were collected in the primary care waiting area at a VA Medical Center. The average age in the sample was 35.67 (SD = 5.0) and was comprised of predominately White, single, and employed male veterans. Findings from correlation analyses found negative associations between SOC and suicidality, SOC and combat distress; as well as a positive association between combat distress and suicidality. No support for the associations between suicidality and time since active duty service, combat exposure and combat distress, or pre-deployment history of traumatic experiences and combat distress were found. Support was found for the primary hypothesis that predicted SOC would moderate the relationship between combat distress and suicidality. The interaction between SOC and combat distress was a significant predictor of suicidality above and beyond the significant contribution of combat distress and SOC alone. Simple slope analyses indicated that among OEF/OIF veterans with a high SOC, combat distress and suicidality are unrelated suggesting that SOC acts as a buffer. However, among OEF/OIF veterans with a low SOC, the positive relationship between combat distress and suicidality is stronger. This study has several important implications based on the findings stated above. First, it is important for researchers and clinicians to address the phenomenological experience of combat rather than exclusive reliance on mental health symptom inventories in the examination of suicidal risk. Second, the findings provide support that SOC has a mechanistic function in the construct of psychological resilience and may act as a protective factor against suicidality among OEF/OIF veterans who served in a combat-zone. Lastly, the use of theoretical frameworks in conducting resilience research is an important implication for future research examining psychological resilience among OEF/OIF veterans.

Committee:

John Queener, Dr. (Advisor); Kristin Koskey, Dr. (Committee Member); Ronald Levant, Dr. (Committee Member); David Tokar, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Yamokoski, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

OEF OIF Veterans; Suicide; Combat; Sense of Coherence; Resilience

Sowell, Patrick Wm.Maintaining US Preeminence in a Hazardous Commons: Developing National Security Space Strategy to Address the Strategic Environment
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences - Political Science

This thesis begins by considering the idea of operational space how states can approach it and the importance of policy and strategy. The United States has a long history of established space policy, stretching from the Carter administration to present day under the Obama administration. The Obama administration's recently published National Space Strategy in 2010 shares much in common with previous policies while taking into consideration developments in operational space. Following this latest policy from the Obama administration, the Department of Defense and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence published a subordinate National Security Space Strategy in 2011. This strategy outlines the strategic environment of space, characterizing it as congested, contested, and competitive, and executes the policy of the 2010 NSP through Strategic Approaches that consider the above characterization.

The author supplements the 2011 NSSS' description of the strategic environment of operational space with five characteristics: hazardous commons, mechanics, unpredictability, inaccessibility, and reach. In consideration of the author's characterization of the strategic environment, and in the interest of bringing about the conditions desired in operational space which apply to national security as enumerated by the 2010 NSP, the author offers recommendations for additional emphasis and action in four areas: situational awareness, norms, replenishment, and alternatives.

Committee:

Patrick Haney (Advisor); Laura Neack (Committee Member); Brad Hamant (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; International Law; International Relations; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

national security; space; space strategy; space policy; hazardous commons; United States

Childers, Rex A.The Rationality of Nonconformity: the United States decision to refuse ratification of Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, History
On December 12, 1977, the U.S. signed a treaty offered through the ICRC entitled Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977. This treaty drastically altered the relationship between individual behavior in warfare and combatant status. For the United States, the impact of domestic political tensions, the fresh and painful experience in Vietnam, and a continued emphasis on Détente all played parts in the decision to participate in the conference and sign the treaty. Signature during the Carter administration would not be followed by ratification, and would be rejected by subsequent administrations. Was this decision, continued through every administration to date, a simple outcome of a rogue nation exercising its sovereign right based upon its own ability to wage war, or is there more to the story? In this thesis, a new analysis of the political processes and environment surrounding the final treaty's outcomes is offered. The global tensions between superpowers are examined, emphasizing the United States response, in the context of its perceptions of the treaty's requirements. A broader coalition of actors, both state and non-state, would ultimately hold the key to the treaty's significance to conventional warfare. The Global South engaged the issue of lawful behavior in war with a distinct set of outcomes in mind. Their ability to gain agency, build effective coalitions addressing inequities in the asymmetry of warfare that had historically disadvantaged them, and then alter the outcomes of international humanitarian law through democratic practices, are placed in the context of rational choice theory. The logical and methodical approach used by these actors to deconstruct the central premise of conventional warfare distinctions between combatants and noncombatants, consistently the hallmark of advancing improvements in international humanitarian law, resulted in a treaty reversing advancements in civilian protections through a new set of dangerous behaviors made allowable for a new category of privileged combatants (organized resistance movements). The United State's options were limited, and a new and regressive standard for conventional warfare was instituted.

Committee:

Dr. Gary Hess, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Douglas Forsyth, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; International Law; International Relations; Military History

Keywords:

asymmetrical warfare; Carter; civilian; combatant; noncombatant; freedom fighter; geneva conventions; global north; global south; international humanitarian law; law of war; mercenary; national liberation movements; prisoner of war; protocol I

Bauman, Lindsey M"A Bitter Wet-Dry Fight:" How an Infantry Regiment Influenced the Nebraska Prohibition Vote of 1944
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
This thesis examines the often-overlooked connection between the home front and battle front during World War II, specifically between Nebraska communities and the 134th Infantry Regiment, which was originally part of the Nebraska National Guard. The Allied Dry Forces of Nebraska petitioned to put a prohibition initiative on the state ballot during the election of 1944, while thousands of servicemen were overseas. This case study discusses the ways in which Nebraska residents and servicemen responded to it. Most significant was a petition from members of the 134th Infantry, which was sent to the Committee of Men and Women Against Prohibition to denounce the initiative due to the timing of its proposal. Already viewed as important figures in the war in Europe, their military service gave their voices more credence within the community. A vote against the initiative was portrayed by anti-prohibitionists as a way to support the troops, a resident’s patriotic duty during World War II. The servicemen became an essential point of contention and their unexpected involvement in the election ultimately resulted in a bitter struggle between individuals and organizations on both sides. This case study examines how their petition, as well as the letters of other servicemen, impacted the outcome of the vote on the initiative during the election in November.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso (Advisor); Amilcar Challu (Committee Member); Benjamin Greene (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Military History; Modern History; Regional Studies

Keywords:

Nebraska; World War II; Prohibition; 134th Infantry Regiment; Butler B Miltonberger; Allied Dry Forces; Committee of Men and Women Against Prohibition; Keith Neville; Harold D Wilson; Election; 1944; Politics; Morality; Patriotism

Lewis, James R.SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
LEWIS, JAMES R., Ph.D., December, 2015 Cultural Foundations in Education SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT (237 pp.) Dissertation Advisor: Natasha Levinson, Ph.D. Catalyzed by my observations as a U.S. Army Chaplain dealing suicide in the military across the past decade, in this study, I explore and more clearly conceptualize social processes of spiritual fitness and resilience formation in a context of plurality. Guiding questions include: Why do some become suicidal through suffering, while others experience “post-traumatic growth” instead? And if this capacity is a product of resilience, how is such a resilience formed? My research through this interdisciplinary study of literatures of spiritual and social formation through education, has identified three facets of this formation process, entailing 1) socially formed 2) frameworks of meaning 3) that become resilient habitus and habits of mind only through habitual practice, often requiring broad social support, as opposed to being the individual processes often thought. I argue that the integrated components of religious and civic formation, once central to resilience formation through American public education, are now largely ineffective, and have yet to be effectively replaced. It is that process of formation, cultivation and reinforcement of a core of spiritual fitness in resilience which the research of this dissertation is intended to explore and develop. Potential legal ramifications when the language of spiritual fitness is used by public institutions such as the U.S. Army, are also addressed. Army Chaplains have effectively fostered pluralistic models of resilience formation and reinforcement through religious support since before the birth of the United States, uniquely equipping Chaplains as resources for intentional spiritual fitness and resilience formation in the pluralistic context.

Committee:

Natasha Levinson (Advisor); McClelland Averil (Committee Member); Jeffrey Wattles (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Behavioral Sciences; Clergy; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Comparative; Continuing Education; Counseling Education; Curriculum Development; Education History; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; Ethics; Individual and Family Studies; Mental Health; Military Studies; Rehabilitation; Religion; Religious Education; Social Research; Spirituality

Keywords:

spiritual fitness, formation, Army suicide, secular age, social formation, spiritual formation, personal formation, socio-cultural change, Constantinian Christian culture, habits of mind, habitus, Chaplaincy, Army Chaplains, Army Chaplain histor

Samerdyke, Olivia KathleenInformation vs. Propaganda: An Analysis of the Washington Post's Reporting of the Islamic State
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Media and Communication
Since the Islamic State's formation its prominence has soared, particularly in the area of communication where it has garnered a reputation for great skill with propaganda and social media. ISIS propaganda is an integral part of the narrative; however, the focus on propaganda and communication also reveals biases on the part of the United States. This study examines 50 Washington Post articles as a case study research questions dealing with war reporting and propaganda. In addition, it analyzes via both content and text the frequency of propaganda-related messages in the Post, while exploring the line between "pure information" and propaganda. The current events are informed by historical events from World War II through the two Gulf Wars. Ultimately, the results, which reveal some biases on the part of the Post in regards to the ISIS communication-related content, emphasize the need for awareness and active readership in an always political world, full of information.

Committee:

Thomas Mascaro (Committee Member); Ellen Gorsevski (Committee Member); Clayton Rosati (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; Communication; History; Journalism; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Middle Eastern Studies

Keywords:

Islamic State; ISIS; ISIL; Daesh; the Washington Post; propaganda; information; war reporting; history; content analysis; textual analysis

Middleton, Victor EatonImperfect Situation Analysis: Representing the Role of Error and Uncertainty in Modeling, Simulation and Analysis
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2014, Engineering PhD
Much of traditional modeling, simulation and analysis (MS&A) is supported by engineering models - deterministic, Newtonian physics-based representations of closed systems. Such approaches are not well-suited to represent the intricacies of human behavior. This research advocates and seeks to articulate the concept of a more human- centric approach to MS& A, one that better represents decision-making and other cognitive aspects of human behavior as well as it does physical activity. It starts with a view of individuals and groups as complex adaptive systems, which are best represented using agent-based modeling. Representation of human behavior through intelligent agents incorporates models of decision-making, knowledge engineering and knowledge representation, as well as the whole gamut of the psychological and physiological interactions of humans with each other and their environment. This representation is exemplified by consideration of situation awareness/situation understanding (SA/SU) as a core element. This leads to the development of a proof-of-concept simulation of a specific, easily understood, and quantifiable example of human behavior: intelligent agents being spatially "lost" while trying to navigate in a simulation world. This model is named MOdeling Being Intelligent and Lost (MOBIL), noting the ability to be in both of these states is central to the simulation. MOBIL uses a blend of object oriented software principles with agent based modeling to establish the utility of applying the human- centric approach to analysis. Applying that simulation in a number of virtual experiments illustrates how it supports investigation into an individual's SA/SU and associated decision-making processes.

Committee:

Frank Ciarallo, Ph.D. (Advisor); Raymond Hill, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yan Liu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mateen Rizki, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary E. Fendley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Hudak, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Artificial Intelligence; Cognitive Psychology; Computer Science; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems

Keywords:

Situation awareness; situation understanding; error; modeling; simulation; arc node networks; agent based modeling; intelligent agents, human-centric analysis; dismounted combatants; war games

Young, Derick AllenExploratory Study of Participants in Veterans Court
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Youngstown State University, 2014, Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science
Having to work inside of an unforgiving military environment can and does change an individual. Some have to face the worst elements of what humanity has to offer. Some fulfill their obligations without any looming physical, legal, or mental ailments; they carry a burden with them for the rest of their lives without incident. However, some turn to deviant behavior to either cope, or simply survive. Many of our veterans have developed some issue or residual mental disorder which may have had an effect on behaviors turning criminal. What we are trying to understand is who may be at risk in developing these issues or mental disorders through service, and whether they may be more likely to commit criminal acts because of their military service or the residual effects of mental disorders possibly developed through service. The eventual goal of determining whether there is a cause and effect relationship between the veterans' issues and criminality cannot be achieved without first gathering basic data that is lacking in the relevant literature. This exploratory study intends to provide raw material in the quest for understanding larger issues of causality. In particular, this study looks at veteran status, criminal and legal issues, and whether or not these individuals have been diagnosed with a mental disorder such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), any Anxiety Disorder, Stressor Disorders, Depressive Disorders, or any other disorder that can or may be related to their service. The data is analyzed to identify factors that correlate to a veteran's involvement in Veterans court. Through this study, we hope to help improve our understanding of these rising issues, and develop additional strategies and techniques to combat them.

Committee:

Patricia Wagner, J.D. (Committee Chair); C. Allen Pierce, Ph. D. (Committee Member); John Hazy, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Behavioral Sciences; Criminology; Law; Legal Studies; Mental Health

Keywords:

Veteran; Court; Legal; Military; Specialty; Law

Wurl, William M.Admiral William S. Benson and the American Tradition of Sea Power
MA, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis will examine the American sea power tradition, the ideas expressed by U.S. Navy officers regarding the contribution the maritime services made to national power and prosperity. In particular, this study will focus on the relationship between two key components identified by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, historian and naval theorist, in his 1890 classic, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783: the nation’s naval service and its merchant marine. In doing so, this thesis will explore the power-political and mercantile-commercial dimensions of the American sea power tradition formulated in the four decades before World War I and the influence of those dimensions on Admiral William S. Benson, wartime chief of naval operations (CNO) and postwar member of the United States Shipping Board (USSB). Naval historiography centers the American sea power tradition on Mahan. However, his emphasis on the necessity of a large battle fleet and of a large merchant marine was not original, and he deemphasized the merchant marine’s importance over time. Instead, he contributed to a “tradition of thought” regarding these services a decade before his 1890 book. Admiral Benson is depicted in naval historiography as a nationalist and anti-British because of his position at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and his protectionist policies while chairman of the USSB. What is missing in the historiography of Benson is how this multi-generational intellectual tradition shaped his ideas during his varied careers. Benson’s support of a strong navy and a merchant marine not only came from Mahan, but from other sources in his generation. The context that created these ideas changed, but those ideas were modified to be used in the given situations by Benson and his contemporaries during and after World War I. This study divides the period of the 1880s to the 1920s into three distinct but overlapping eras. The late 1870s to late 1890s composed the first era, consisting of a rapid commercial expansion and “new empire” colonialism, and an obsolete navy with a continental view of defense. The late 1890s to 1919 presented a change in American naval policy as the changing great power rivalry of Europe demanded a large navy and a merchant marine for defense. The 1920s was an era of peace and armament limitation led by the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. Benson became worried that American naval preparedness would be jeopardized by the armament limitation treaty. The sea power tradition influenced Benson’s views as he sought to preserve the war-built merchant marine for national defense.

Committee:

Dr. Clarence Wunderlin, Jr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Military History

Keywords:

American sea power; U.S. Navy; American merchant marine; William S. Benson; Alfred Thayer Mahan; Bradley A. Fiske

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonFighting for Air: Cold War Reorganization and the U.S. Air Force Security Service, 1945-1952
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis explores the early history of the U.S. Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), an early Cold War military communications intelligence (COMINT) agency established by the Air Force on October 20, 1948. Using bureaucracy theory, the study seeks to understand why the U.S. Air Force was motivated to create a separate COMINT capability at this point in time, how the capability would be organized, and what functions the organization was expected to provide. Drawing upon a number of declassified Air Force and Executive Branch documents, congressional testimony, official historical studies and oral history materials, this study argues that the Air Force developed the USAFSS to resist dependence upon other military intelligence efforts and that the organization successfully accomplished Air Force objectives for a separate, communications intelligence capability.

Committee:

Ann Heiss, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Information Technology; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Air Force; Cold War; intelligence; national security; military; post-World War II; communications intelligence; COMINT; USAFSS; NSA; National Security Agency; defense; United States; intelligence community; technology; reorganization; USAF; history;

Aurand, Alexander MDynamic Moments on the Cervical Spine Imposed by Head-Mounted Equipment
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Industrial and Systems Engineering
Head-mounted equipment has been suggested as a risk factor for cervical spine disorders (CSDs), but the dynamic effects of wearing head-mounted equipment under non-impulse conditions have not yet been modelled biomechanically. The goal of this research was to evaluate the relative risk of CSDs associated with some common head-mounted equipment configurations worn by pararescue jumpers (PJs). Twenty-four male subjects completed six different head-motion tasks while wearing each of six different equipment configurations. Optical motion capture (MOCAP) was used to quantify the motion and drive a biomechanical model, from which exposed moments could be derived. The addition of head-mounted equipment always led to an increase in resultant moment over wearing no equipment, up to 106%. The minimal equipment accounted for (56-95%) of the total increase in load, with NVG (and associated batteries, if any) accounting for the remainder. When subjects were required to look through the NVG, sagittal flexion on certain tasks increased by up to 14 degrees. There is evidence that the risk of CSDs is increased as a result of wearing head-mounted equipment, and that these risks could potentially be reduced by modifying the head-mounted equipment. The results of this study can inform the development of head-mounted equipment. A multitude of other tasks could be evaluated with respect to risk of CSDs using this technique.

Committee:

William Marras, PhD (Advisor); Ehud Mendel, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Armed Forces; Biomechanics; Engineering; Environmental Health; Industrial Engineering; Kinesiology; Occupational Health; Occupational Safety

Keywords:

biomechanics, cervical spine, risk, neck, moment, load, helmet, night vision goggles, NVG, head-mounted equipment

Deibel, Matthew JASuddenly, I Didn't Want to Die
MFA, Kent State University, 2015, College of the Arts / School of Art
Suddenly I Didn’t Want to Die is a visual documentation of an individual experiencing war. The body of work contains four sculptures, thematically connected that investigate the artist’s perspective from his involvement in the war in Iraq. Excerpts from his personal journal begin the thesis and help establish the psychological mindset he was in during the war and shortly after. Deibel explores his experiences through 3-Dimensional forms that help to visually explain personal struggle. The sculptures presented represent a timeline of events supporting each other’s cathartic references through visual cues. The works are all connected through one man’s experience but reach a broad audience through accessible, recognizable forms.

Committee:

Isabel Farnsworth (Advisor); Paul O'keeffe (Committee Chair); Navjotika Kumar (Committee Member); Gustav Medicus (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Art Criticism; Art History; Fine Arts

Keywords:

sculpture; 3D art; dog tags; personnel identification tags; barbed wire; cow dung; operation Iraqi freedom; operation enduring freedom; Marine Corps; USMC; veteran; veteran artist; war; Iraq; Afghanistan; casualties; catharsis;

Young, James MichaelTo Transform a Culture: The Rise and Fall of the U.S. Army Organizational Effectiveness Program, 1970–1985
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
In the early 1970s, following a decade of social upheaval in the US and a traumatizing military defeat in Vietnam, a group of progressive army officers, armed with recent graduate degrees in the social and behavioral sciences, created a grass roots movement that soon led to the implementation of the largest organizational development program ever conducted. Wartime atrocities and chronic careerism in the Army officer corps, along with President Richard Nixon’s promise to create an All-Volunteer Force (AVF), opened up a window of opportunity for these progressives to promote transformational leadership theories grounded in humanistic psychology. In institutionalizing OD across the Army, these officers attempted to transform the leadership culture throughout the institution. However, various strategies employed to effect cultural change met with strong resistance from an officer corps that rejected the strong humanistic elements that characterized OD in the 1970s. Although institutionalization progressed with strong support from Army Chief of Staff (CSA) General Bernard Rogers, the program proved unsustainable once he vacated his position. By 1980, conservative views of leadership permeated the Army’s school system and its leadership doctrine. Concurrently, OD evolved in its theoretical application and shifted its emphasis from humanistic psychology to open systems. At that point, the Army OE Program was relegated to a far less priority and essentially became a process improvement mechanism. By 1985, a new CSA terminated the program. This is a history of the Army OE Program and the efforts of the progressive officers who implemented it. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Carolyn B. Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Alan E. Guskin, PhD (Committee Member); Jerome V. Martin, PhD (Committee Member); Brian M. Linn, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; Behavioral Psychology; Behaviorial Sciences; Ethics; History; Management; Military History; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

organizational development; organizational effectiveness; humanistic psychology; leadership; Army leadership doctrine; military history; Armed Forces;

Smallwood, Amy LynnShore Wives: The Lives of British Naval Officers’ Wives and Widows, 1750-1815
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2008, History
This thesis provides an analysis of the lives of mid- to late-eighteenth century Royal Navy officers’wives and widows, including how they coped with the challenges of being separated from their husbands for extended periods of time. This separation forced them to accept additional financial and management responsibilities. By successfully managing these tasks, they proved that women were capable of managing money, purchasing property, rearing and educating children, working the patronage system, being political activists, dealing with bureaucracy, and networking. Shore wives performed these duties with the very real fear that their husbands might never come home alive. By taking up these burdens, the shore wives allowed their husbands to have successful careers and proved that women, seen by some as ‘the weaker sex,’ were more than capable.

Committee:

Carol Engelhardt-Herringer, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Paul Lockhart, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Noeleen McIlvenna, PhD (Committee Member); Edward Haas, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Economic History; English literature; European History; Gender; History; Military History; Personal Relationships; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Royal Navy; women's history; military; navy; military wives; eighteenth century; Napoleonic Wars; Britain; Horatio Nelson; Frances Nelson; officer; naval officer; patronage; separate spheres; separation; admiralty; bureaucracy

Doehne, Bryce ASupporting Student Veterans Utilizing Participatory Curriculum Development
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
An organizational level program utilizing Participatory Curriculum Development (PCD) (Taylor, 2003) is presented to assist postsecondary institutions with development, implementation, and evaluation of programs to support student veterans. Postsecondary institutions are provided with a “how to” program manual that includes literature-based core and supplemental programs, trauma-informed theory, and a methodological framework to implement programs. Practical program evaluation measures are offered to assist postsecondary institutions with evaluating the outcomes of their efforts to support student veterans. The electronic version of this dissertation is at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu

Committee:

Bill Heusler, Psy.D. (Committee Chair); Shana Hormann, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Peter Schmidt, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Mental Health; Military Studies; Organization Theory; Psychology

Keywords:

student veterans; support program; participatory curriculum development; military-connected students; program; military veterans; non-traditional students; program manual; innovative program; trauma-informed care; post-secondary institution

Powell, Charles R.H.Addressing Global Threat: Exploring the Relationship between Common Purpose and Leadership
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
While the mention of common purpose is prevalent in leadership studies, there are few attempts to explore the relationship between common purpose and leadership. This study delves into the questions of if and how common purpose and leadership inform one another. How leaders adapt purpose and leadership approaches in response to evolving and turbulent conditions may foster the depth and sustainment of immediate and subsequent accomplishments. Through phenomenological research in the venue of nuclear weapons reduction, a common purpose that is both globally pervasive and imbued with a sense of urgency, the lived essence of those engaged in common purpose can be illustrated. Exploring the symbiosis of the nuclear weapons reduction common purpose and associated leadership may have theoretical implications or provide lessons that can be utilized within other common purpose settings. The electronic version of this dissertation is available through the OhioLink ETD Center at http://ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Philomena Essed, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carolyn B. Kenny, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anne Perkins, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Steve Chase, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; History; Psychology; Public Policy

Keywords:

leadership; common purpose; phenomenology; nuclear weapons reduction; nuclear disarmament; nonproliferation; self-actualization

Haime, KylaThe Soldier's Perspective in A Rumor of War
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2009, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences

Tim O’Brien and Michael Herr, two very famous Vietnam War writers, seem to have gotten war narrative theorists to conclude that Vietnam War Literature cannot be cohesive since the war itself is fragmented. Philip Caputo’s memoir, A Rumor of War, seems to have taken these components of war and has carefully sewn them together to provide his reader’s with a cohesive, truthful, and compelling war narrative. In O’Brien’s narrative, The Things They Carried, facts are given and then called into question, making the reader wonder if any of it is true. In his narrative, Dispatches, Herr makes the reader piece together his scattered statements to gain an understanding. Caputo does the opposite of these two writers. Caputo’s statements are not scattered but placed together to form a flowing cohesiveness but still showing how fragmented life was in Vietnam for the soldiers who fought there.

I will be discussing each component and then looking at how they are so nicely sewn together to form Caputo’s cohesive narrative. The components that I will be looking at are language, emotional/psychological toll, dream sequences, history, and flashbacks. There is also an important part of the narrative where the narrative itself becomes fragmented, as though we are looking through a camera, complete with the clicks that go with it. Each component is interesting to look at by itself but it is also interesting to look at how they fit together. There are also other little tidbits throughout the memoir that are seemingly important to the narrative, so those pieces will also be discussed. Caputo's memoir allows the reader to grasp a deeper understanding of a soldier in war.

Committee:

Adam Sonstegard, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); John Gerlach, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Frederick Karem, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Literature; American Studies; Armed Forces; History; Literature; Military History

Keywords:

Philip Caputo; Vietnam War Literature; A Rumor of War

Spahr, Thomas W.Occupying for Peace, The U.S. Army in Mexico, 1846-1848
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
This dissertation examines the United States‘ execution of the military occupation of Mexico during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). It argues that the occupation was successful and played an important role in achieving the American strategic objectives. The occupation succeeded because (a) President James K. Polk and his military commanders formulated a sound and flexible strategy, (b) a relatively competent corps of professional army officers executed that strategy, and (c) the United States Army maintained consistent military superiority over the Mexicans throughout the conflict. This dissertation examines the military occupation in terms of the American management of the Mexican population down to the city level, and the American reaction to Mexican resistance after the conventional army was defeated and driven from different parts of the country. The Americans were successful during the occupation because they applied an artful blend of conciliation toward the population, calibrated coercion, and co-option of much of the Catholic clergy and Mexican elite. The American victories on the conventional battlefield and conciliation of the population did not in themselves convince the Mexicans to cease resistance. The Army eventually succeeded by transitioning to a more punitive policy, targeting those who resisted or abetted resistance, particularly the elite, and by demonstrating to the Mexicans that they were committed to continuing the occupation indefinitely. Throughout the occupation the Americans demonstrated a flexible strategy that exploited social and racial fault lines in Mexican society. This dissertation does not ignore the faults of the American army in Mexico, often undisciplined and driven by its perception of racial superiority over its adversary. The army committed many atrocities against the Mexican population, and in other circumstances these acts might have undermined the overall effort. Yet the faults of the United States Army did not undermine the occupation because of aggressive efforts by the American leadership to control its troops, the consistent American ability to defeat the Mexicans in battle, and Mexico‘s own inability to unite against the foreign invader. Mexico‘s isolation from external support further hindered its attempts to resist. While misconduct and racism did not undermine the U.S. effort, they did contribute to a legacy of antipathy between the neighboring states. Finally, while the American military occupation succeeded in achieving the U.S. strategic objectives, it left Mexico frail and vulnerable to invasion by other foreign powers.

Committee:

Mark Grimsley, Ph.D (Committee Chair); John Guilmartin, Ph.D (Committee Member); Kenneth Andrien, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Randolph Roth, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; International Relations; Latin American History; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

Mexican War; military occupation; occupation; counterinsurgency; guerrilla warfare; wartime president; Winfield Scott; John Wool; Zachary Taylor

Wang, YaouFailure mechanism and reliability prediction for bonded layered structure due to cracks initiating at the interface
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Mechanical Engineering

Bonded layered structures are widely used to meet high performance requirements that a single layer material cannot satisfy. All layered structures have a finite service life due to inevitable failures caused by chemical, thermal or mechanical loadings during operation. The inevitability of failure in a bonded layered structure demands the prediction of the service life for layered structures, and this requires understanding of the failure mechanism. The failure of bonded layered structures often initiates from a crack at surface, a crack at interface, or interfacial delamination. Failures due to surface fracture or interfacial delamination have been widely studied. However, brittle fractures originating at the interface have not been extensively investigated.

In this work, the failures of bonded layered structures due to cracks/flaws initiating at the interface are investigated. A cracked bilayer domain analysis is first presented for estimation of the SIF for a 3D half-penny shaped crack originating at a bonded interface in idealized bilayer geometry subjected to remote constant tensile and proportional bending loadings. Handbook-type curve-fitted equations are obtained for the SIF as a function of modulus ratio of bonded dissimilar materials through extensive finite element parametric studies. The cracked bilayer domain analysis is then combined with macro-level stress calculations in a structure without a crack (uncracked body analysis), and a simplified method is proposed for accurate estimation of the SIF.

The cracked bilayer domain analysis is extended to estimation of the SIF of a half-penny shaped crack normal to the interface in the top layer of a three-layer bonded structure. To obtain a simple estimate of the SIF, the method of reduction of an idealized cracked trilayer domain to that of a corresponding bilayer domain has been introduced based on the notion of an equivalent homogeneous material for the two bottom layers.

Based on the cracked bilayer/trilayer domain analysis, the effect of adhesive layer on the probability of cracks initiation from the interface in bonded layered structures is quantitatively investigated. The notion of a critical stress density function is introduced to account for the bridging mechanism. The failure probability of glass-ceramic disks bonded to simulated dentin subjected to indentation loads is predicted. The theoretical predictions match experimental data suggesting that the bridging mechanism plays an important role for accurate prognostics to occur.

The developed method is useful in predicting brittle failure initiating from interfacial flaws in a layered structure.

Committee:

Noriko Katsube, PhD (Advisor); Robert Seghi, DDS (Committee Member); Stanislav Rokhlin, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Walter, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Materials; Architecture; Armed Forces; Civil Engineering; Computer Science; Design; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Materials Science; Mechanical Engineering; Mechanics; Metallurgy; Statistics

Keywords:

FEA; FEM; finite element; fracture; failure; failure probability; fatigue; SIF; stress intensity factor; reliability; crack; surface flaw; micromechanics; multilayer; uncracked body analysis; ceramics; statistics

Tackett, D. PatriciaResilience Factors Affecting the Readjustment of National Guard Soldiers Returning From Deployment
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2011, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
Following the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States, there has been increased utilization of the Reserve Components (RC) by the military to fight the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Service members in the National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) represent approximately 40% of the forces involved in these conflicts. Current research indicates that NG/R personnel and their families may be at greater risk to deployment stressors than their Active Component counterparts. Estimates for the development of mental health problems including PTSD among returning RC personnel, range as high as 42%. The focus of this study was to advance the identification of factors that minimize the negative effects of experience in a combat environment, and promote healthy reintegration of military personnel back into society. This research examined self-efficacy, social support, and spirituality with regard to their effects on service members' symptoms of PTSD and levels of resilience subsequent to deployment. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from 223 California Army National Guard soldiers between six to eighteen months following their return from Iraq or Afghanistan. Consistent with previous research, findings showed that the level of combat exposure was the most salient factor predictive of PTSD. Self-efficacy had a small positive effect on PTSD, yet social support and spirituality were not significant. When examining the determinants for resilience, higher levels of self-efficacy, social support, and spirituality were associated with higher levels of resilience, although combat exposure retained a negative influence. Significant differences were found between soldiers who were still under a service commitment with eight years or fewer in the military, and those with more than eight years time in service. The results of this study are encouraging for developing programs designed to better prepare NG/R soldiers for deployment. Implications for future research and military training are discussed. An electronic version of this is available in the open-access OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Michele Harway, PhD (Committee Chair); Barbara Lipinski, PhD, JD (Committee Member); Dawne Vogt, PhD (Committee Member); Chris Howard, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Behavioral Psychology; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Military Studies; Neurobiology; Personal Relationships; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Social Psychology; Spirituality

Keywords:

Self-efficacy; Social Support; Spirituality; Resilience; Combat; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; National Guard; Reserve Components; Military; Deployment; Iraq; Afghanistan; Operation Iraqi Freedom; Operation Enduring Freedom; OEF; OIF

Sribanditmongkol, VorachaiEffects of Psychological Stress on Glucocorticoid Sensitivity of Inflammatory Response to Influenza Vaccine Challenge in Healthy Military College Students
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Nursing
Background: Influenza and other infectious diseases are critical barriers to the health and readiness of military units worldwide with reported rates of annual influenza infection as high as 45%. Vaccination to prevent infections stimulates a transient, inflammatory response, counterbalanced by the anti-inflammatory effects of increased cortisol secretion which enhances antibody production for seroprotection. Paradoxically, chronically-stressed individuals have elevated cortisol levels, but have poorer antibody response to vaccination. Evidence suggests that chronic stress impairs immune cell glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS), leading to excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. This pathway may contribute to impaired immune responses to vaccination and increased risk of infectious illness in military personnel in high stress areas of service. Purpose: The study was conducted to determine if psychological stress diminishes GCS and regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in a population of healthy military students and personnel. It is hypothesized that subjects with greater psychological stress will have lower GCS in an ex vivo laboratory model of influenza vaccine challenge. Methods: A cross sectional design was used with a convenience sample of healthy, military college students and personnel (n = 61). Subjects completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and trait subscale portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) as measures of psychological stress and provided a blood sample. Whole blood was incubated in the presence of influenza vaccine and dexamethasone to evaluate cytokine production and GCS. Associations between psychological stress and cytokine production were evaluated using correlation and linear regression. Results: Pearson correlations, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Dunnett's T3 procedure, and Multiple Regressions were utilized for statistical analyses. PSS and vaccine-stimulated cytokine production were not significantly correlated. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Dunnett's T3 Test revealed significant differences in cytokine concentrations in the 3 ex vivo conditions (i.e., Unstimualted, Vaccine-stimulated, and DEX-inhibited) (p<0.001). Results of the Pearson correlations showed that PSS scores were inversely related to GCS (p<0.05) for all 4 vaccine-stimulated cytokines. Finally, multiple regression models controlling for age, gender, race, and student cumulative grade point average (GPA) revealed a negative relationship between PSS and GCS of vaccine-stimulated production of IL-1ß (ß = -0.420, t = -3.55, p<0.01), IL-6 (ß = -0.296, t = -2.36, p<0.05), and TNF-a (ß = -0.259, t = -2.060, p<0.05), but not IFN-y. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest a biologic pathway through which perceived psychological stress might alter the inflammatory immune response to influenza vaccination and expand understanding of how stress might impact immune function in military populations.

Committee:

Jeremy Neal, PhD (Advisor); Donna McCarthy Beckett, PhD (Committee Member); Thelma Patrick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Endocrinology; Health Sciences; Immunology; Neurobiology; Nursing; Physiology; Psychobiology

Keywords:

Inflammatory response; Influenza virus vaccination; Vaccine; Flu shot; Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI); Psychological Stress; Glucocorticoids; Glucocorticoid Sensitivity; Glucocorticoid Resistance; Military; College Students; Stress

Bilger, Kristie A.The Women's Army Corps and Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service: A Fashioning of American Womanhood and Citizenship
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, History

The focus of the study was to theorize and answer the question of why existing fashion theory in the U.S., as well as abroad, has not tackled the question of American womanhood and citizenship as evidenced in the images of the WACs and WAVES during WWII. Thorough examination of original source materials from pamphlets, recruiting booklets, memoirs, magazine articles, books, case studies,editorials, letters, photos and scrapbooks, a study of fashion has shown historical connections between existing gender systems, social orders, and political ideologies in WWII America. The present study focused on how women's relationships to fashion transformed the evaluation of women's roles and status during WWII and what clothing and adornment meant concerning women in the armed forces. The research also examined the concept of the new woman, and explored how the U.S. government successfully constructed a female appearance that satisfied both public and private concerns.

The ways in which women's roles and status changed during WWII was the result of the government promoting visual identity that typified traditional gender ideology and feelings of national belonging as women contributed to an American victory in the armed forces. An evaluation of fashion was important to see how life in WWII America changed in ways that no other sources of material culture could show. The use of original research material and its application contributes to and builds upon existing scholarship on WWII as well the development of the WACs (Women's Army Corps) and WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). Not only is cultural and social history examined through the creation of WAC and WAVE uniforms but the social conditions, the political power shifts, as well as how the civilian population and female military personnel viewed themselves.

Research shows design changes in uniforms of the WACs and WAVES by a number of interested parties successfully reconciled the initial discord which arose between female recruitment needs and the opinions and perceptions of the public, male recruits, and participant families. Resolving misconceptions regarding the roles and expectations of women during WWII between what was considered acceptable and the changing roles of women and gender in American fashion culture was key to the eventual success of having women assisting the war effort. The roles of women and gender in WWII America alongside American fashion culture were considered within the social, economic, political and cultural implications of the creation of the WACs and WAVES in the 20th century. The military and the families of those women enlisting fulfilled their wartime duty, yet remained feminine and acceptable both in the public and private cultural and social spheres, through the careful fashioning of American women serving their country in WAC and WAVE uniforms.

Committee:

Beth Griech-Polelle, Dr. (Advisor); Susan Voso-Lab, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Charter (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; Gender; History; Textile Research; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC;Women's Auxillary Corps; WAVE; Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service; women's military uniforms; American Womanhood; citizenship; military uniforms;apparel history;female citizenship

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