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Christopher, Yvonne M.Welfare Dependency and Work Ethic: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2017, Applied Behavioral Science: Criminal Justice and Social Problems
This study examined relationships between work ethic and welfare dependency. The 65-item Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) (Miller, Woehr, & Hudspeth, 2002) and the 28-item MWEP (Meriac, Woehr, Gorman, & Thomas, 2013) with attached socioeconomic surveys were administered to n=338 and n=247 adult subjects, respectively. A negative correlation between the two variables was anticipated, so that as levels of agreement with work ethic increase, reported use of welfare benefits decrease. After running correlation matrices to examine Pearson’s r, hierarchical regressions were conducted, culminating in a model which partially predicts the connection between the variables. Bivariate analyses for the 65-item MWEP data indicated that marital status, age, sex, centrality of work, waste time, delayed gratification, self-reliance, morality/ethics, hard work, and leisure were statistically significantly correlated. Bivariate analyses for the 28-item MWEP data indicated that centrality of work and hard work were statistically significantly correlated. These findings could be used in the design of a comprehensive assessment tool to be utilized at the point of entry into the welfare system.

Committee:

Gary Burns, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jacqueline Bergdahl, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Jonathan Varhola, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Demographics; Labor Economics; Public Policy; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Statistics; Welfare

Keywords:

Work ethic; welfare; dependency; labor force; unemployment; disability; SNAP; food stamps; TANF; temporary assistance for needy families; welfare reform

Daffon, Jennifer KThe Effects of Gender and Perception of Community Safety on Happiness
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2017, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
Income-based indicators of happiness have been shown to be limited in their ability to predict happiness. Alternative measures of happiness have been gaining prominence in happiness research, and two predictors of happiness were investigated in the current study. The extent to which happiness (measured by affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being) could be predicted by gender and perception of community safety was investigated with 19,644 participant responses to The Happiness Alliance Survey. Multiple linear regression models indicated that gender and community safety are significant predictors of affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The effect of the predictor variables was similar for all three of those happiness measures. B values indicated that both predictor variables had the greatest impact on psychological well-being and the least impact on life satisfaction. While all three models were statistically significant, they did not similarly predict the satisfaction with affect, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being scores. The results suggest that while gender and perceptions of community safety should be considered as part of the whole picture that supports a full life, there are likely other variables and life domains that have stronger influences on happiness.

Committee:

Suzanne Engelberg, PsyD (Committee Chair); Alejandra Suarez, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Musikanski, J.D, M.B.A (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology; Public Policy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

happiness; positive psychology; community safety; gender; Sustainable Seattle; Happiness Alliance; multiple regression; quantitative; subjective well-being

Kinser, Jonathan A.Beneath the Smoke of the Flaming Circle: Extinguishing the Fiery Cross of the 1920s Klan in the North
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, History
By the end of 1925, the Ku Klux Klan had lost most of its members across the United States. This work examines opposition to the group from 1922 to 1926. It seeks to understand the decline in membership the 1920s Klan experienced after its power peaked in 1923 and 1924. To do so, it examines anti-Klan activity in Steubenville, Ohio; Williamson County, Illinois; and in Ohio’s Mahoning Valley with a focus on Niles, Ohio. Legal efforts to oppose the Klan by the Knights of Columbus and two foreign-language newspapers in the Mahoning Valley are explored. However, examining the role of the Knights of the Flaming Circle, a rival organization, in opposing the Klan in these locations is the primary focus. The Knights of the Flaming Circle emerged as an opponent to the Klan in August of 1923 and spread from Pennsylvania into Ohio and Illinois. Initially, the group, founded in Kane, Pennsylvania, championed the causes of liberty and equality and announced its intention to challenge the Klan in an orderly and legal fashion. However, as the organization spread to the industrial cities of Western Pennsylvania and Ohio, the tone of the organization’s rhetoric changed, and, the threat of violence between it and the Klan loomed. The threat became a reality when the Flaming Circle movement reached the coalfields of Williamson County in late 1923. Not long after, Niles, Ohio, joined Williamson County, as the other primary location of conflicts between the factions. From August 1923 to early 1925, the Flaming Circle’s fierce opposition to the Klan resonated around the country due to numerous violent riots and because these incidents were covered by the local and national press. This ensured that even people not located in areas where the two groups were active had constant updates anytime there was trouble. As a result of the conflicts, and a host of other complicating factors, Klan membership dropped significantly across the United States. This study seeks to understand what motivated both sides to engage in such violent behavior toward each other and to analyze why the Knights of the Flaming Circle were successful in helping to halt the Klan movement in the North.

Committee:

David Hammack, PhD (Committee Chair); John Grabowski, PhD (Committee Member); John Flores, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin McMunigal, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Law; Mass Media; Modern History; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Religious History; Social Studies Education; World History

Keywords:

Ku Klux Klan; Knights of the Flaming Circle; Youngstown; Williamson County; Niles; Steubenville; Kane; Ohio history; Jonathan Kinser; 1920s; anti-Klan; Catholics; immigrants; Italians; Slovaks; Knights of Columbus; riot; KKK; decline of the KKK; religion

Martof, Ashley NicoleAnalysis of Business Models for the Use of Additive Manufacturing for Maintenance and Sustainment
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Aircraft operators must maintain and sustain their aircraft through the platform’s life cycle. The Department of Defense (DoD) is no exception. Many DoD missions may require a time-sensitive production of spare parts. This lends itself to spare parts production by the Department of Defense itself and such an approach could be enabled by additive manufacturing. In order for the government to be able to produce spare parts in-house an entirely new business model between the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the government has to be established. A physical spare part would not be the transacted item; instead the technical data package (TDP) would be exchanged. Industry needs to be incentivized to adopt a data focused business model. A key question is can industry achieve equivalent profit similarly to the traditional spare parts production? This research explores business models from the perspective of industry. A survey was provided to both government and industry to identify differences and similarities in assumptions and expectations. Four different business models were developed. The business models were applied to two different case studies to evaluate the pros and cons of the various models. This analysis provides industry and government a reference for discussions on approaches toward future maintenance and sustainment manufacturing operations.

Committee:

Brett Conner, PhD (Advisor); Darrell Wallace, PhD (Committee Member); Martin Cala, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Costs; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Public Policy

Keywords:

Additive Manufacturing; Business Models; Aerospace and Defense; 3D Printing

Reece, Jason WilliamIn Pursuit of a Just Region: The Vision, Reality and Implications of the Sustainable Communities Initiative
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, City and Regional Planning
The planning field has a long history of intersecting with, contributing to and addressing issues of social, racial and geographic equity, from the late 19th century work of Jacob Riis and Jane Addams to contemporary movements such as progressive regionalism and environmental justice. Planning has had a conflicted history in engaging issues of equity and racial or social inclusion, with the profession at times being at the forefront of social justice issues, and at others acting as an accomplice in many of the most discriminatory urban policies in 20th century American history. While planning has often served the needs of marginalized groups, racial discrimination has been interwoven with various aspects of planning practice and policy throughout the 20th century. The model of sustainable development, which has become dominant in planning practice in the past two decades, presents a vision for balancing economic development, environmental protection and social equity, known as the three “e’s” of sustainable development. By the late 2000s the principles of sustainability have made their way into the thinking of many federal agencies. The Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Sustainable Communities’ Initiative (SCI), introduced by the Obama Administration, sought to take these principles and translate them to practice at a scale not previously attempted in the United States. HUD invested more than $200 million in seventy- four regions across the U.S. who received three- year regional sustainable development planning grants. The planning initiatives were intended to better coordinate housing and transportation while supporting more sustainable and equitable land use, infrastructure, and zoning decisions. SCI included a strong equity and fair housing mandate, introduced new equity planning and fair housing tools, and provided extensive support for equity planning in the program. My research examines the experience of forty- five regional planning grantees awarded SCI grants in 2010. This research is a formative program evaluation of the SCI. This research seeks to understand if the SCI’s effort to affirmatively further fair housing and support regional equity led to stronger equity outcomes in regional sustainability planning processes and plans. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach integrating plan evaluation and thematic analysis of documents, I find that equity planning efforts in the SCI fostered a stronger equity component to regional sustainability plans. For some regions, SCI was transformational in fostering new understandings and approaches to supporting equity planning, although the depth of the equity component of the planning process and plan recommendations varied substantially between grantees within the 2010 cohort of grantees. The SCI experience speaks to the potential benefits of stronger, more proactive federal support by HUD for equity planning. Despite this progress, serious concerns regarding the implementation of SCI linger. The communicative rational planning model of SCI has substantial shortcomings in implementing complex regional sustainability plans. I propose integration of the collective impact theory to address this shortcoming in existing theory and to foster more productive implementation of SCI plans.

Committee:

Jennifer Evans-Cowley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jill Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Rachel Kleit, PhD (Committee Member); Bernadette Hanlon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; Architecture; Area Planning and Development; Black Studies; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Studies; Ethnic Studies; Geography; Legal Studies; Native American Studies; Public Health; Public Policy; Sustainability; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

equity planning; advocacy planning; sustainable development; just city; fair housing; collective impact; HUD; sustainable communities initiative; regionalism; progressive planning; race; social justice; racial justice; communicative planning; engagement

Kinahan, Kelly L.Neighborhood Revitalization and Historic Preservation in U.S. Legacy Cities
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2016, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
Legacy cities – also known as shrinking, rust belt, and post-industrial cities – are places facing persistent population decline, disinvestment, and structural economic challenges. Scholars and practitioners argue that historic buildings are among the key assets for neighborhood stabilization and revitalization, yet demolition of existing buildings is a dominant public policy approach in legacy cities. Using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, this three-essay dissertation (1) develops a typology of legacy city neighborhoods across five cities (Baltimore, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Richmond, & St. Louis) and five census decades (1970-2010), (2) identifies patterns of federal historic rehabilitation tax credit (RTC) activity and evaluates the effects of RTC investments on racial, socioeconomic, and housing characteristics across legacy city neighborhood types from 2000 to 2010, and (3) examines how and why RTCs are deployed as a preservation tool in different neighborhood contexts. Hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis are employed in the first essay, identifying eight distinct neighborhood types (Established & Stable Homeowners; Highly Bifurcated; Competitive, Educated, & Struggling; Educated Newcomers; White Immigrants; Declining & Black; Black, Stressed, & Disadvantaged; Collapsed Urban Core) and supporting the coherency of legacy cities as a meaningful analytic grouping. In the second essay, descriptive statistics show the distribution of RTC activity across all legacy city neighborhood types, and a difference-in-differences regression model counters arguments in the existing literature that RTCs contribute to revitalization or gentrification in legacy cities. Using key person interviews and a comparative case study approach of two St. Louis neighborhoods, the final essay uncovers key lessons as to how and why the RTC functions as a preservation and reinvestment tool across different types of neighborhoods in a declining citywide context, including the size/scale of historic urban fabric, importance of stable neighborhoods as testing grounds for RTC investments, role of situational conditions and cultural contexts, and the economic and cultural values rooted in RTC decision-making.

Committee:

Stephanie Ryberg-Webster, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Galster, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brian Mikelbank, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rosie Tighe, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Policy; Urban Planning

Keywords:

legacy cities, neighborhood revitalization, historic preservation

McCrea, Austin MichaelReligious Policy Adoption in the American States: Measuring and Validating Influence of the Christian Right
BA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science
This paper attempts to bring a greater understanding to the adoption of Religious Freedom and Restoration Act (RFRA) bills and similar religious policies at the state-level. Based off the trends and patterns of the past decade, religious legislation is a highly controversial and divisive issue that has created a gulf between secularism and religious freedom. To understand these adoption patterns, I advance a framework of analysis based on several theories that share a similar spatial distribution to that of RFRA across the American states. An extant body of literature discusses the role of the Christian Right as an effective state-level movement. I explore how the organizational strength of the movement influences states to adopt these policies. Moreover, I explore the implications of the policy innovation literature to test how innovativeness affects the likelihood of adoption. Finally, I consider the concept of social capital and how population characteristics affect adoption.

Committee:

Daniel Hawes (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

Religion; Social Capital; Public Policy; RFRA

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Zhang, WendongThree Essays on Land Use, Land Management, and Land Values in the Agro-Ecosystem
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
Over the past few years, U.S. agriculture has experienced a myriad of macroeconomic and environmental changes that have profound implications for the well-being of farm households and the farm sector. An expanding biofuels market and growing export demand from China have led to rising agricultural commodity prices since mid-2000s. However, during the same time period, the residential housing market collapsed in 2007-2008 could impose a downturn pressure on farmland market, and there is a growing concern for environmental problems due to excessive agricultural nutrient runoff as well as stronger calls for more effective agri-environmental policies to curb nonpoint source agricultural pollution. Economic analyses of farmer decisions in this constrained and evolving environment are critical to understand how these changes have impacted farmer welfare and trade-offs with ecosystem and other societal benefits. Using individual-level data on farmland parcels and farmers from Ohio and Lake Erie basin, my dissertation examines how the recent housing market bust, expanding ethanol production, and rising environmental concerns have impacted farmers’ land use, land management, and land transaction decisions and the implications for farmer welfare. Farm real estate represents over 80% of the balance sheet of the farm sector and is the single largest item in a typical farmer’s investment portfolio, and thus changes in farmland values could affect the welfare of the farmer household and farm sector in general. The first two chapters of my dissertation examine the trends and determinants of farmland values in the Midwest in the 2000s decade. In particular, the first chapter identifies the impact of the recent residential housing market bust and subsequent economic recession on farmland values, using parcel-level farmland sales data from 2001-2010 for a 50-county region under urbanization pressure in Western Ohio. My estimates from hedonic regressions reveal that farmland was not immune to the residential housing bust; the portion of farmland value attributable to urban demands for developable land was almost cut in half shortly after the housing market bust in 2009-2010. The second chapter investigates the capitalization of expanding biofuels market in surrounding farmland values. In particular, it tests for structural change in the relative effects of proximity to agricultural market channels before and after the construction of seven ethanol plants in or near western Ohio in late 2006 – early 2007. Instrumental variables regression on the matched sample demonstrates the positive capitalization of newly constructed ethanol plants. The last chapter examines the interplay between agriculture and the environment and the trade-off between farmer welfare and ecosystem benefits resulting from alternative agri-environmental policies. Using individual level data on farm, field, and farmer characteristics, the third chapter develops a structural econometric model of farmer’ profit-maximizing output supply and input demand decisions, and quantifies the impacts of alternative nutrient management policies, including uniform and targeted fertilizer taxes. Results reveal that neither a fertilizer tax nor an educational campaign could alone achieve the policy goal of a 40% reduction in agricultural nutrient loadings into Lake Erie, and spatial targeting has the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of the policies.

Committee:

Elena Irwin (Advisor); Brian Roe (Committee Member); Sathya Gopalakrishnan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Agriculture; Economics; Environmental Economics; Public Policy; Sustainability; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Farmland Values, Housing Market Bust, Ethanol, Agri-Environmental Policy, Spatial Targeting, Lake Erie, Harmful Algal Bloom, Nonpoint Source Pollution, Hedonic Price Method, Propensity Score Matching, Structural Model, Integrated Ecological-Economic Model

Hrouda, Debra R.Factors Associated With Readiness For Treatment In A Sample Of Substance-Dependent, Trauma-Exposed Incarcerated Women
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Social Welfare
Substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder are significant factors in criminal-justice-involved women. While mandated treatment may help engage some in treatment, there remains a significant proportion of offenders who do not respond, relapse, and end up back in the criminal justice system - especially for people who are ambivalent and/or do not recognize a need for treatment. The Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) recognizes that people are at different levels of readiness to change behaviors related to substance misuse. Studies have shown that following the stage-based approach leads to greater engagement and retention in treatment ultimately leading to better outcomes overall. If mandated treatment approaches followed the TTM, it is likely offenders at all stages of readiness will be engaged and stay in treatment leading to improved criminal justice outcomes. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of a sample of 187 incarcerated women who met criteria for at least one substance dependence disorder and were trauma-exposed. Subjects were interviewed while incarcerated to determine SOCRATES scores; PTSD and Cocaine diagnoses; criminal justice; and demographic characteristics. It employed ordinal logistic regression to explore the relationship between demographic, criminal justice, and behavioral health-related factors and the newly-developed SOCRATES variable: Ambivalence in the context of Recognition Findings: Results supported the use of the SOCRATES in this population; offered a framework for examining Ambivalence in the context of Recognition (heretofore missing); and reinforced the contention that factors previously found to be associated with mandated treatment outcomes (and traditionally used to determine criminal justice sanctions) do not adequately predict stage of change readiness. Similarly, trauma-related factors were not significantly associated with Ambivalence in the context of Recognition - perhaps indicating that trauma factors may not inhibit readiness. Implications: Ambivalence in the context of Recognition was not related to any of the factors previously shown to predict success with criminal justice sanctions (e.g. mandated treatment). Policy-makers, those who make recommendations to the courts, as well as treatment providers might consider adding the direct assessment of readiness, ambivalence, and recognition to provide a more complete picture of potential targets and approaches.

Committee:

Kathleen Farkas, PhD (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Tracy, PhD (Committee Member); David Hussey, PhD (Committee Member); Christina Delos Reyes, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Criminology; Gender; Gender Studies; Legal Studies; Management; Mental Health; Public Policy; Social Work; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women; jail; Transtheoretical Model; behavior change; ambivalence; problem recognition; substance dependence or abuse; trauma exposed; PTSD; engagement; mandated treatment; SOCRATES; motivation; cocaine; criminal justice; sanctions; offender; TTM

Hasan, Syed MThree Essays on Export and Productivity-Impact of Financial Constraints and Technological Innovation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
This research, which is divided into three essays, is designed to demonstrate the impact of (a) financial constraints on the investment and export decisions of firms, (b) level of technological intensity of production process and utilization of public incentives such as science parks and (c) the importance of monetary policy reform in securing the benefits of trade reforms. The first essay investigates the impact of technology upgrade on idiosyncratic productivity and choice of production market by firms. The second essay focuses on efficiency of public policy instruments aimed at correcting technology market failure and to check if such support leads to an efficient outcome. The third essay analyzes the impact of opening up an economy on domestic financial growth under constraints imposed by monetary policy. The empirical analyses use either microeconomic firm-level or macroeconomic country-level data. Theoretical and empirical analysis confirms that firms face financial constraints while making technology upgrade decisions. The extent of the constraints depends on firms’ initial productivity and the cost of credit. As a result, credit-constrained firms may not be able to cross the minimum productivity threshold required to enter and survive in a foreign market. Empirical analysis using firm level data for six Latin American countries confirms the hypothesis that firms face credit constraints in technology adoption and the extensive margin of trade. Empirical estimation shows that the most efficient utilization of incentives such as science parks is by firms located therein and employing the highest proportion of the high tech oriented workforce. As this proportion falls the productivity distribution of science park firms also moves to the left. Analysis done at the three digit NAICS level shows that efficient utilization of incentives such as science park incentives need to be industry-specific to cause positive productivity improvements, otherwise such policy instruments may end up only as life support for less efficient enterprises. At the macro level financial constraints imposed by monetary policy have an overwhelming effect on growth of the domestic financial sector. Thus the reallocation of resources towards the most productive units of the economy following trade liberalization is not achieved unless the degree of credit constraints is significantly relaxed. Results show that the volume of domestic credit made available to the private sector depends on the cost of credit that is the interest rate.

Committee:

Ian Sheldon (Advisor); Henry Klaiber (Committee Member); Alessandra Faggian (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics; Public Policy

Keywords:

Productivity,Export,Technology,Innovation,Credit Constraint,Agglomeration,Sorting,Selection

Meyer, Gregory AllenJudging programs: a method to improve the communication skills and analytical ability of undergraduate Animal Science majors at The Ohio State University
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 1999, Human and Community Resource Development
The typical undergraduate student in the Animal Sciences Department at The Ohio State University is female, has limited commercial livestock experience and aspires to enroll in Veterinary School after graduating with a bachelor’s degree. However, she is unlikely to be admitted to Veterinary School and will be forced to make an alternate career choice. Employability of these students should be a major concern of college administrators. Alumni studies indicate the belief that communication skills and decision¬-making ability are two of the most important attributes for career success. To ensure career success, reflective of these studies, the Animal Sciences curriculum should be broad-based, emphasizing classes and programs that improve and develop employability traits, as well as those that increase technical expertise. Judging programs are an effective method of improving communication skills and analytical ability. Students with livestock experience are more likely to participate on collegiate judging programs, because of their existing interest. Students without livestock experience do not typically participate. The stigma of judging programs not providing technical, science-based information, and thus providing limited educational benefit, permeates the psyches of many faculty advisors. Unfortunately, their academic guidance may limit the personal development of students that may very well need communication and analytical skills the most. Administration must switch paradigms and encourage, if not require, participation in judging programs for the personal development and employability of all Animal Sciences’ students at The Ohio State University.

Committee:

Kenneth Culp, III. (Advisor); Thomas B. Turner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Policy

Singh, Ajay SarangdevotCultural Worldview, Psychological Distance, and Americans’ Support for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation Policy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Environment and Natural Resources
Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an objective for members of the Conference of the Parties to stabilize greenhouse gases concentrations to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” Meeting this objective assumes humans have a significant effect on climate and those changes will lead threats to humans and the environment. Implementing the UNFCCC and subsequent protocols will require members of the Conference of Parties to ratify binding agreements which set emission standards and establish mechanisms to mitigate those emissions to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system or increase society’s ability to adapt to changes in order to avoid danger. Creating and adopting agreements at the Federal level in the United States has proved difficult. Opposition to ratifying protocols and amendments agreed upon by other COP members or adopting policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions can be explained by various social, political, and psychological factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to continue an exploration of how cultural worldviews and psychological distance of climate impacts influences levels of support for mitigation and adaptation approaches to addressing climate change.

Committee:

Jeremy Bruskotter, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Tomas Koontz, Dr (Committee Co-Chair); Eric Toman, Dr. (Committee Member); Robyn Wilson, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Public Policy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Climate change, climate policy, cultural worldview, psychological distance

Choo, YeunKyungStrategies for Urban Cultural Policy: The Case of the Hub City of Asian Culture Gwangju, South Korea
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Arts Administration, Education and Policy
In the field of urban cultural policy, hardly any non-Western studies have researched the initial stage of policy design and the role of culture, despite its significance in today’s evolving policy design processes. The purpose of this dissertation study is to explore the role of culture under the influence of policy paradigm shift and to gain a comprehensive understanding of contemporary urban cultural policy design. Based on a complementary set of preexisting models and studies that challenge the limitations of the Multiple Streams Model, this study investigates multiple aspects of the Hub City of Asian Culture (HCAC) project in South Korea. Conducting an in-depth case study by incorporating document analysis, personal interviews, and several timelines, the study provides a thick description on the new urban cultural development model of HCAC. The findings indicate that there is a significant paradigm shift in contemporary urban cultural policy design, and culture has been operationalized as an innovative and autonomous tool to manage the complexity of policy design, situations, and networks. The HCAC policy design adopted multiple culture-driven tools from precedent international cases and strategically integrated them to the policy design and initial implementation processes for the sustainable management of the project. Finally, the study makes recommendations for future researchers to advance the policy analysis model for exploring undiscovered cases around the world. The study also recommends cultural policy makers to recognize the need to minimize the government’s intervention in policy making, and learn how to collaborate with and nurture the vitality of policy communities.

Committee:

Margaret Wyszomirski (Advisor); Edward Malecki (Committee Member); Wayne Lawson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Arts Management; Public Administration; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Urban Planning

Keywords:

culture policy, urban cultural policy, culture-led urban regeneration, Gwangju, the Hub City of Asian Culture, new governance, Multiple Streams Model, Alternative Lenses Analysis, operationalized culture, culture and decentralization

Will, Rachel GauerA CRITICAL META-ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY WATER MANAGEMENT OUTCOMES IN PERU: IDENTIFYING CAUSES OF SCARCITY AND THE EFFECTS OF ADAPTATION
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Due to a combination of social and climatic factors, anthropogenic water use within Peru has surpassed natural water availability. Existing literature on water management in the arid and semi-arid regions of Peru demonstrates that there are significantly different outcomes related to water security at the community level. In order to produce a comprehensive understanding of the social and environmental causes of water insecurity, this thesis focused on a critical meta-analysis of published case studies related to community level water management in Peru. Three outcomes were analyzed including social equity to resource access, equity and inclusion in the decision-making process, and ecological consequence. As each case study in the analysis shared the environmental constraint of climatic aridity, the analysis highlights the social causes of water scarcity at the community level, providing an impetus for meaningful mitigation. Additionally, the analysis demonstrates the ability for local communities to self govern water resources and highlights the consequences of state-sponsored diversion schemes on community level water management outcomes. Finally, the thesis compares multiple ways in which social equity regarding water access, governance inclusion, and positive environmental outcomes are being achieved at multiple scales within Peru.

Committee:

Tyner James (Advisor); Sheridan Scott (Committee Member); Curtis Jacqueline (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Conservation; Cultural Anthropology; Environmental Justice; Environmental Studies; Geography; Latin American Studies; Natural Resource Management; Public Policy; Sustainability; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

water management; water resource management; water; Peru; natural resource management; meta-analysis; discourse analysis; geography; political ecology;

PERRY, JAY MARTINThe Chinese Question: California, British Columbia, and the Making of Transnational Immigration Policy, 1847-1885
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, History
This work examines the nineteenth-century anti-Chinese movement in California and British Columbia and its effects on transnational immigration restrictions in the United States and Canada. Although not directly adjacent, California and British Columbia’s relatively isolated positions on the West Coast fostered economic and cultural ties that kept them closely connected. These connections included unified opposition to Chinese immigrants who challenged the era’s racial ideology of Anglo-American and Anglo-Canadian supremacy. By 1880, California was home to 71% of the Chinese in the United States while 99% of Canada’s Chinese lived in British Columbia. The American and Canadian governments largely ignored Chinese immigration but California and British Columbia implemented local, state, and provincial policies denying the Chinese political participation and equal treatment in the legal system. California and British Columbia embarked on a campaign to convince their federal governments to limit Chinese immigration – a campaign that included the sharp rhetoric of regional politicians and biased government reports painting the Chinese as incapable of grasping the nuances of American and Canadian citizenship. The transnational anti-Chinese effort finally caught the attention of federal lawmakers who reversed long-standing traditions of open immigration and enacted the first national immigration restrictions of either country by specifically targeting the Chinese. These acts ultimately embedded racial characteristics as prerequisites for entry into the laws of both nations.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso (Advisor); Scott Martin (Committee Member); Vibha Bhalla (Committee Member); Eber Dena (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Asian American Studies; Canadian History; Canadian Studies; History; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Public Policy

Keywords:

transnational history; immigration policy; Chinese Exclusion Act; Chinese Immigration Act; Chinese immigration; anti-Chinese movement; California; British Columbia; San Francisco, CA; Victoria, BC; Denis Kearney; Noah Shakespeare

Bolzenius, Sandra M.The 1945 Black Wac Strike at Ft. Devens
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
In March 1945, a WAC (Women’s Army Corps) detachment of African Americans stationed at Ft. Devens, Massachusetts organized a strike action to protest discriminatory treatment in the Army. As a microcosm of military directives and black women’s assertions of their rights, the Ft. Devens strike provides a revealing context to explore connections between state policy and citizenship during World War II. This project investigates the manner in which state policies reflected and reinforced rigid distinctions between constructed categories of citizens, and it examines the attempts of African American women, who stood among the nation’s most marginalized persons, to assert their rights to full citizenship through military service. The purpose of this study is threefold: to investigate the Army’s determination to strictly segment its troops according to race and gender in addition to its customary rank divisions; to explore state policies during the war years from the vantage point of black women; and to recognize the agency, experiences, and resistance strategies of back women who enlisted in the WAC during its first years. The Ft. Devens incident showcases a little known, yet extraordinary event of the era that features the interaction between black enlisted women and the Army’s white elite in accordance with standard military protocol. This protocol demanded respect all who wore the uniform, albeit within a force segregated by gender, race, and rank. It is this conflict that gave rise to one of World War II’s most publicized courts-martial, the black Wac strike at Ft. Devens.

Committee:

Judy Wu (Advisor); Susan Hartmann (Committee Member); Tiyi Morris (Committee Member); Peter Mansoor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Black History; Black Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Military History; Military Studies; Public Policy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC; World War II; Fort Devens; strike; African American women; military; court- martial; intersectionality; culture of dissemblance; Fort Des Moines; Alice Young; Anna Morrison; Mary Green; Johnnie Murphy; WAAC; African American; public policy

Ferguson, DavidGrade-Level Readability of Municipal Websites: Are They Creating Digital Inequalities of Opportunities that Perpetuate the Digital Divide?
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2014, Urban Studies and Public Affairs
The adoption of information technologies as a platform for disseminating government information has influenced traditional roles of public service delivery and citizen participation. There is concern whether the readability of government websites where public information found is creating digital inequalities of opportunities that perpetuate the digital divide. This study aimed to access the readability level of a sample of municipal websites in the U.S. to determine if municipal websites are being written at too high of a level for citizens to comprehend. The research utilized population data from the 2010 U.S. Census of municipalities to create a data set for analyzing readability of websites. This dissertation sought to answer six research questions. What is the readability ease score and grade level of a sample of municipalities’ websites with population greater than 5,000 citizens? Are the states’ mean Flesch-Kincaid reading grade levels different from the national average reading grade level Do municipal websites’ main pages read at the targeted state’s standard reading grade level? Is the mean Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level of the city webpages within the state equal to the targeted state’s standard reading grade level? Is there difference between the FKGL score mean difference among cities (small, medium, and large)? Do city websites offer audio or visual portals? Implementing new writing strategies that focus on high readability of text and issues of communication with the audience can assist in guiding decisions that improves effectiveness of municipal websites’ online instructions and text. The findings revealed that municipal web pages are being written at levels greater than the national average reading grade level. In addition, the majority of municipal websites are absent of audio visual alternatives to text. This can impose a significant challenged to (all) citizens trying to access important information that can influence their lives economically, socially, and politically. Today, being able to access information from e-government websites is more important than ever, given the world we live in. Identifying high readability of text and issues of communication can assist in guiding decisions that improves effectiveness of municipal websites’ online instructions and text.

Committee:

Raymond Cox III, Dr. (Advisor); Camilla Stivers, Dr. (Committee Member); Ghazi-Walid Falah, Dr. (Committee Member); Francis Broadway, Dr. (Committee Member); Namkyung Oh, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Administration; Public Policy

Keywords:

Readability;digital divide;municipal websites

Ortega Pacheco, Daniel VicenteInvestigating the role and scale of transactions costs of incentive-based programs for provision of environmental services in developing countries
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Public Policy and Management
The use of incentives for the provision of environmental services occupies a critically important place in the international development agenda. The use of local approaches for watershed services provision and international efforts for global provision of climate change land-based mitigation services are among promising management options. These two options have the potential to significantly reduce the overall costs of meeting environmental targets through market-based institutional arrangements. Despite widespread agreement that transaction costs are important, existing research has not yet considered the scale and role of transaction costs in determining: 1) the rate of adoption of incentive-based schemes for the provision of watershed services in the developing world, and 2) the supply of mitigation services associated with avoided emissions from deforestation, particularly in a developing country context. To address the former, the first chapter of this dissertation identifies patterns of adoption and the exogenous and endogenous factors that help to explain the number of incentive-based programs adopted during the last decade. Using an econometric model, it suggests that the degree of adoption can be interpreted as diffusion of interdependent induced institutional innovations. The second chapter presents a conceptual framework for transaction costs and reports results of field data collection and empirical estimates of the scale of transaction costs of mitigation through land-based activities in Ecuador taking place under alternative incentive-based institutional arrangements. The third chapter of this dissertation develops an econometric model to estimate the elasticity of land supply in Ecuador and evaluates the effect that transaction costs have on incentive-based mitigation activities. Knowledge generated from this research aims at enriching the scholarly debate on policy diffusion and climate change policy and provides critical insights for policymakers interested in incentive-based institutional arrangements for the provision of environmental services.

Committee:

Anand Desai (Advisor); Andrew Keeler (Committee Member); Brent Sohngen (Committee Member); Trevor Brown (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Administration; Public Policy

Keywords:

water; climate change; mitigation; institutions; Payment for environmental services; transaction costs

Sowell, Patrick Wm.Maintaining US Preeminence in a Hazardous Commons: Developing National Security Space Strategy to Address the Strategic Environment
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences - Political Science

This thesis begins by considering the idea of operational space how states can approach it and the importance of policy and strategy. The United States has a long history of established space policy, stretching from the Carter administration to present day under the Obama administration. The Obama administration's recently published National Space Strategy in 2010 shares much in common with previous policies while taking into consideration developments in operational space. Following this latest policy from the Obama administration, the Department of Defense and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence published a subordinate National Security Space Strategy in 2011. This strategy outlines the strategic environment of space, characterizing it as congested, contested, and competitive, and executes the policy of the 2010 NSP through Strategic Approaches that consider the above characterization.

The author supplements the 2011 NSSS' description of the strategic environment of operational space with five characteristics: hazardous commons, mechanics, unpredictability, inaccessibility, and reach. In consideration of the author's characterization of the strategic environment, and in the interest of bringing about the conditions desired in operational space which apply to national security as enumerated by the 2010 NSP, the author offers recommendations for additional emphasis and action in four areas: situational awareness, norms, replenishment, and alternatives.

Committee:

Patrick Haney (Advisor); Laura Neack (Committee Member); Brad Hamant (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; International Law; International Relations; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

national security; space; space strategy; space policy; hazardous commons; United States

Pirring, Andrew ThomasAN INTERNSHIP IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY WITH THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY IN THE OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE OFFICE
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2012, Environmental Sciences
The purpose of this report is to describe my internship experience with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The duration of my internship was from June to August 2011. The focus of my internship was to work with the Innovations Director in the Innovations, Partnerships and Communications Office (IPCO) while developing new outreach policy and updating Superfund outreach policy. My primary responsibilities were to work with the various policy writers within OSWER and throughout the USEPA to ascertain outdated policy, which hinders successful outreach when completing projects in lesser fortunate communities. This report summarizes the project, activities, training and experiences I was involved in during my internship.

Committee:

Suzanne Zazycki, JD (Committee Chair); Philip Russo Jr, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Crist, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; History; Political Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

EPA; OSWER; Pirring; Kohn; Innovations;

Doyle, Daniel S.A Discourse-Proceduralist Case for Election and Media Reform after Citizens United
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Journalism (Communication)
This paper interrogates the U.S. Supreme Court's 2010 Citizens United v. FEC decision from the perspective of J¿¿¿¿rgen Habermas's Between Facts and Norms. It takes a legal-historical look at U.S. policy impetus toward legitimation procedures up to the Warren Court, and normatively reconstructs the U.S. constitutional right to participate in politics. Using a close reading of judicial literature defending the old status quo of campaign finance law against Citizens United's lawsuit, the paper examines market colonization of a discussion space that, according to Habermas, ought to be set aside for non-coerced political discussions. The paper argues that because rights derive from the natural human capacity for language and reason, any right to political participation should be able to protect public political discourse from the colonizing components of non-human market systems, namely corporations. The thesis further argues that public political discourse is important because elections are important, and that critical responses to Citizens United should be situated within movements for election reform and media reform more than campaign finance reform alone.

Committee:

Bernhard Debatin (Committee Chair); Aimee Edmondson (Committee Member); Hans Meyer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Communication; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Ethics; Journalism; Labor Relations; Law; Legal Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Public Policy; Sociology

Keywords:

citizens united; election reform; election integrity; media reform; campaign finance; first amendment; constitutional amendment; habermas; communism; capitalism; critical theory

Wrenn, Douglas HarveyThree Essays on Residential Land Development
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics

For many decades, the relationship between urban and rural places was well understood. Beginning in the early 20th century, however, this distinct dichotomy broke down as large numbers of businesses and people migrated out of the central city. As a result of this expansion of the urban center and the growth in suburban and exurban development, many urban fringe areas in the U.S. have become characterized by low-density and fragmented development. As a result of these changing land use patterns and the potential for both positive and negative outcomes, researchers and policymakers have become interested in understanding both the demand-side and supply-side incentive mechanisms that have led to this type of fragmented development. The objective of this research is to fill several gaps in the empirical literature on residential land conversion and land use policy by using unique micro-level data on historical subdivision development, land conversion, the platting and subdivision approval process, house prices and policy changes.

In our first essay, we build on the growing literature that looks at the effect of regulation on housing supply decisions and focus specifically on the question of whether the expected time to completion affects both the decision to develop as well as the quantity of lots chosen by the individual landowners. Using a unique micro dataset on the timing of subdivision approvals by a local planning agency and a sample selection Poisson model, we test the effects of implicit costs that arise from uncertain subdivision approval on the timing, quantity and pattern of residential subdivision development. Consistent with theory, we find that these regulation-induced implicit costs reduce the probability and size of subdivision development on any given parcel. Our results contribute to the growing supply-side literature on housing and land use, and provide a new explanation of scattered residential development as the outcome of heterogeneous regulatory costs and optimal land development.

In our second essay, we compare two competing hypotheses of exurban land development. Previous research has shown that local land use spillovers can impact land use outcomes and patterns. In this paper, we simultaneously test this hypothesis and our regulation hypothesis by combining both hypotheses into the same sample selection Poisson model to determine the power of each factor in explaining the timing and intensity decisions of subdivision developers. Our results show that, while many of the land use variables are significant, the impact of regulatory uncertainty is larger and that it provides a better explanation of the timing and intensity decisions of developers.

In our last essay, we develop a nonparametric estimation technique for spatial panel data. Using a Monte Carlo experiment, we show how extending current geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to account for temporal heterogeneity provides a better fit to the data when coefficient heterogeneity exists in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. We also show how the technique can be used in modeling real-world land use change by applying the proposed technique to a panel dataset of historical subdivision development.

Committee:

Elena Irwin, PhD (Advisor); Mark Partridge, PhD (Committee Member); Abdoul Sam, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Economics; Environmental Economics; Public Policy; Urban Planning

Keywords:

uncertainty; land conversion; land use policy; spatial analysis; real options; sample selection; spatial spillovers; nonparametric modeling

Ingle, Beau StevenCollaborative Partnerships and Invasive Species Management: Filling the Voids in Management
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Environment and Natural Resources
Prior research on collaborative approaches has occurred extensively in relation to watershed management. However, such an analysis has yet to be conducted on the role collaborative partnerships play in managing invasive species. The management of invasive species had largely been carried out by state and federal wildlife agencies in a more centralized, top-down fashion, just as efforts to address specific watershed issues had been done prior to the adoption of collaborative management methods. As invasive species are becoming progressively established in native habitats, more novel approaches - including collaborative partnerships between public, private, and non-profit entities - have been sought to prevent and mitigate ecological disturbances. One of the various questions this study seeks to answer is to what degree do these collaborative institutions influence the policies formulated and implemented at various levels of government to combat the spread of invasive species, and what determines this effect? Through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with officials from two collaborative partnerships in the Great Lakes and Florida, the above questions will be explored so as to contribute to the existent knowledge of collaborations and to offer how collaborations may be used more effectively in the future to manage invasive species.

Committee:

Tomas Koontz (Advisor); Jeremy Bruskotter (Committee Member); Paul Boardman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

collaborative partnerships; invasive species; Florida; Great Lakes; citizen participation; public policy

Muhlestein, David BooneMeasuring Health Policy Effects During Implementation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Public Health

The policy making and implementation process is poorly understood by many quantitative health services researchers leading to potential threats to the validity of some studies. There is an extensive qualitative literature on the policy making process and a distinction arises between those that decide on a policy (policy makers) and those that implement a policy (policy actors). As multiple actors implement a policy there are multiple concerns raised including heterogeneity of effect among actors, evolving policies as different policy actors interact amongst themselves, variable implementation times among actors and spillover effects as actors engage with other, non-intended groups. When measuring health policies, each of these factors needs to be considered when designing studies and drawing conclusions to properly inform policy makers of policy effects.

Crowd-out in health insurance occurs when individuals would have private insurance but for the existence of a public insurance program. Policy makers concerned with crowd-out will put barriers to enrollment in public plans which may discourage the neediest people, who the programs are intended to help, from enrolling. Past estimates of children’s crowd-out during expansions in eligibility to Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program have varied widely and are national in scope. I estimate state-specific levels of crowd-out using a regression discontinuity analysis to estimate crowd-out independent of an expansion for children near the eligibility threshold. I find that among states with similar eligibility levels, there is significant variability among crowd-out levels.

To evaluate how crowd-out levels may change over time, I estimate crowd-out in Ohio from 2004-2012. I find that crowd-out levels were not constant over time and decreased during these years.

Caps on noneconomic damages are viewed by some as a means of lowering the cost of healthcare. A potential unintended effect of these caps is that people with meritorious claims may not be able to find appropriate legal representation and will not be compensated for their injury. A challenge in measuring the effect of these tort reforms is that different states implement the same general policy differently and have different statutes of limitations, meaning the effective date for a policy will vary. By applying state-level, interrupted time series and matched pair difference-in-difference designs, and adjusting for the variable implementation times, I estimate state-specific effects. I find that facially similar noneconomic damage cap statutes led to significantly different effects on the rate of malpractice settlements, with many states seeing no effect from the policy.

Changes in Medicare reimbursement policies are known to affect the behavior of providers serving the Medicare population, but less is known about how such policies may spillover onto the non-Medicare population. I evaluate the change in the rate of bariatric surgeries in the United States after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services passed several National Coverage Decisions using an interrupted time series design. I find a significant decrease in the rate of bariatric surgeries for the Medicare and non-Medicare populations. The timing and magnitude of these changes were nearly identical for both populations.

Committee:

Thomas Wickizer, PhD (Advisor); Eric Seiber, PhD (Committee Member); Abigail Shoben, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Public Health; Public Policy

Keywords:

healthcare policy; health services research; Medicare; Medicaid; health policy; crowd-out; Children's Health Insurance Program; bariatric surgery; tort reform; noneconomic damages;

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