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Crano, Ricky D'AndreaPosthuman Capital: Neoliberalism, Telematics, and the Project of Self-Control
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Comparative Studies
The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate some of the ways in which neoliberal social and economic discourse, in particular the work of Friedrich Hayek and Gary Becker, has influenced the cultural evolution of the late-twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. Chapter One introduces the scope and methods of the project and situates market-oriented social epistemology alongside the development of complexity theory in the physical and information sciences. Chapter Two situates Hayek’s philosophies of social science and communication within the broader science cultures of the postwar decades, arguing that his conceptualization of prices and markets is deeply rooted in coterminous projects of cybernetics and general systems theory. Consequently, Hayek’s ideas about autonomy, information, and cultural transmission are seen to dovetail with the dominant scientific paradigms and media technologies of the late twentieth century. Chapter Three argues that contemporary financial markets and telematic screen cultures have become operationally analogous in their actualization of neoliberal rationality and social thought. Expanding my reading of neoliberalism beyond Hayek’s macrological approach to examine the emerging and all-consuming micrological approach of “human capital” theorists like Becker, this chapter details the ways in which new media platforms, algorithmic cultural practices, and what cultural critics have named the “financialization of daily life” have become primary agents of governmentality today. Chapter Four offers an original interpretation of Michel Foucault’s 1979 lectures on neoliberalism, one that reads the abrupt change of course in his research—which, directly following his interrogations of Hayek, Becker, and others, jumped from contemporary political economy to ancient cultures of self-care—as an attempt to locate a genealogical precedent for the subjectivist governmental rationality he had revealed as a dominant theme of neoliberal discourse.

Committee:

Brian Rotman (Committee Co-Chair); Philip Armstrong (Committee Co-Chair); Eugene Holland (Committee Member); Kris Paulsen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Comparative; Economic Theory; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Social Research; Social Structure; Technology; Web Studies

Keywords:

neoliberalism; cybernetics; autopoiesis; posthumanism; social control; Hayek; Becker; Foucault; digital culture; subjectivity; epistemology; human capital theory; human sciences; governmentality; networks; new media; intellectual history

Natinsky, Ari SimonPsychotherapy and the Embodiment of the Neuronal Identity: A Hermeneutic Study of Louis Cozolino's (2010) The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social Brain
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
In recent years, there have been several ways in which researchers have attempted to integrate psychotherapy and neuroscience research. Neuroscience has been proposed as a method of addressing lingering questions about how best to integrate psychotherapy theories and explain their efficacy. For example, some psychotherapy outcome studies have included neuroimaging of participants in order to propose neurobiological bases of effective psychological interventions (e.g., Paquette et al., 2003). Other theorists have used cognitive neuroscience research to suggest neurobiological correlates of various psychotherapy theories and concepts (e.g., Schore, 2012). These efforts seem to embody broader historical trends, including the hope that neuroscience can resolve philosophical questions about the relationship between mind and body, as well as the popular appeal of contemporary brain research. In this hermeneutic dissertation I examined a popular neuropsychotherapy text in order to explore the historical fit between neuroscience and psychotherapy. The study identifies the possible understandings of the self (i.e., what it means to be human) that could arise from Western therapy discourses that are based on neuroscientific interpretations of psychotherapy theories. The methodology of this dissertation consisted of a critical textual analysis of Louis Cozolino's (2010) The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social Brain. The primary content, rhetorical strategies, and recurring themes in Cozolino's book were outlined and interpreted from a hermeneutic perspective. This included a historical critique of Cozolino's claims about the origins, purpose, and efficacy of psychotherapy, his assertions about the relationship between self and brain, and examples of his psychotherapy case vignettes. Rhetorical strategies in his writing included analogy, ambiguity, speculative language, and figures of speech such as metaphor and personification. A discussion of these findings addressed the implications of Cozolino's efforts with regards to patient care, psychotherapy theory integration, and the possible effects that these efforts may have on the profession of psychology. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd .

Committee:

Philip Cushman, PhD (Committee Chair); Alejandra Suarez , PhD (Committee Member); Gary Walls, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Mental Health; Modern History; Neurosciences; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Science History; Therapy

Keywords:

hermeneutics; neuroscience; interpersonal neurobiology; neuropsychotherapy; brain-based psychotherapy; neuroimaging; biomedicine; self; selfhood; psychotherapy; clinical psychology; theoretical and philosophical psychology; textual analysis; rhetoric

Wilkenfeld, Daniel AkivaExplaining and Understanding
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Philosophy
I argue for a new approach to the philosophy of explanation, one that treats explaining as an activity defined functionally by its propensity to produce understanding. Since this account is best articulated along with an account of understanding, I develop one. Specifically, I argue that understanding is best construed as a way of representing what is understood in a way that allows one to make efficacious inferences and successfully manipulate objects in the world. This pair of views stands in contrast with traditional views in the philosophy of science, which have been largely concerned with characterizing explanation in terms of some favored structure (e.g. deductive arguments) or content (e.g. reference to causes or mechanisms). I also explore the relationship between understanding and knowledge, arguing that understanding does not depend on justified belief. Finally, I address the recalcitrant mystery of explanatory asymmetry, arguing that later facts can sometimes explain earlier ones.

Committee:

Robert Kraut (Advisor); Stewart Shapiro (Advisor); Declan Smithies (Committee Member); Richard Samuels (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Explaining; understanding; philosophy of science; epistemology

Wickstrom, Craig MA Post-Critical Science of Administration: Toward a Society of Explorers
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2017, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
What is meant by "science" and whether it is an appropriate model for public administration has been a subject of debate since Woodrow Wilson called for a science of administration in 1887. This dissertation introduces another voice into that debate, the voice of a world-renowned physical chemist named Michael Polanyi. Polanyi's sharp criticism of positivism reinforces the arguments of those questioning the legitimacy of an administrative science, but instead of rejecting it, he constructed an alternative definition of science that recognizes the indeterminacy of reality, the personal nature of knowledge, and the centrality of "the logic of tacit knowing." Because all knowledge is tacit or rooted in tacit knowing, we can know more than we can tell, and tacit knowing becomes evident in the dynamic order of polycentric entities and in their reliance on tradition and the person, constrained by community, and morally responsible for discovery and practice.

Committee:

Michael Spicer, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Helen Liggett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Walter Gulick, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Epistemology; Philosophy of Science; Public Administration

Keywords:

Michael Polanyi post-critical science public administration tacit knowing personal knowledge intuition faith heuristic meaning discovery responsible practice community tradition dynamic spontaneous order public liberty free society indeterminate reality

Hines, Lauren ElizabethMoving out of the Shadows: Resistance and Representation in the Struggle for Migrant Rights
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Geography
This thesis examines organizational attempts at and consequences of institutionalizing support for migrants. In addition, the thesis investigates specific instances of migrant mobility and strategic incapacitation as resistance to regimes of immigration enforcement and as contestation of US claims to sovereignty. Immigration enforcement depends upon the policing and subsequent restriction of migrants’ movement. These regimes of enforcement crossing multiple scales serve as a dragnet, generating a pretext for law enforcement interaction with migrants with potential for bypassing the criminal justice system. Immigration enforcement as well as local practices, discourses, and policies work together to render migrants as racialized, criminal subjects facing detention and removal. Connecting specific case studies of localized regimes of enforcement and targeted acts of resistance, this thesis exposes how migrants come to be understood as either lawful and worthy to remain in the US, or criminal and deserving of removal. This thesis discusses specific instances of enforcement through migrant incapacitation as well as mobility-centric attempts at resistance. I critique actions carried out by national campaigns and organizations by examining strategy behind these attempts at resistance as well as general effectiveness in contesting the discursive and practice-based criminalization of migrants. In its exploration of migrant advocacy and regulation, this paper argues for a new rights-based organizing approach no longer dependent on the binary opposition of migrants as criminal/lawful.

Committee:

Mathew Coleman, Dr. (Advisor); Nancy Ettlinger, Dr. (Committee Chair); Joel Wainwright, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Geography; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

immigration; enforcement; resistance; migrant

Houchens, Jesse P.Alternatives to the Calculus: Nonstandard Analysis and Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
We attempt to clarify and evaluate what shall be called Mac Lane’s thesis—the thesis that nonstandard analysis (NSA) and smooth infinitesimal analysis (SIA) are alternatives to the standard approach to the calculus. In doing so, we outline the historical approaches to the calculus, the standard approach to the calculus, and two nonstandard approaches, namely NSA and SIA; we also attempt to clarify and evaluate a set of comparisons of NSA and SIA, namely John L. Bell’s 5 mathematico-philosophical contentions and Bell’s historical contention.

Committee:

Philip Ehrlich, PhD (Advisor); Stewart Shapiro, PhD (Committee Member); Todd Eisworth, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Alternatives to the calculus; alternatives; calculus; nonstandard analysis; NSA; John L. Bell; J.H. Keisler; smooth infinitesimal analysis; synthetic differential geometry; philosophy of mathematics; mathematical philosophy; analysis; intuitionistic

Mooney, Ryan E.Guiding “Big Science:” Competing Agency of Scientists and Funding Organizations in American Cold War Research
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 2015, Department of History
This research project aims to evaluate the agency of scientists participating in American Cold War research initiatives funded by the government. The aim will be to weigh the internal direction of scientific programs versus the external pressures faced from patron organizations such as the Department of Defense. The project utilizes secondary sources supported by governmental documentation as well as written and oral accounts of scientific and technical personnel involved in select research efforts. The two initiatives examined were aerospace research and its eventual adaptation to the space program, as well as nuclear testing and the national laboratories which supported it. Sources strongly suggested significant internal direction on the part of rank-and-file laboratory and technical personnel and very little pressure to orient research toward defense-related activities, despite some cooperative overlap.

Committee:

Brian Bonhomme, PhD (Advisor); Donna DeBlasio, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Ayana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; American History; Military Studies; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

history of science;history of space program;history of nuclear testing;history of aerospace research

O'Loughlin, Ryan J.Thomas Kuhn and Perspectival Realism
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2017, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
In this paper I discuss Giere’s reading of Kuhn as affirming perspectival realism and I present evidence demonstrating that this reading of Kuhn is correct. I consider several scientific realist theses that Kuhn rejects and discuss whether and to what extent perspectival realism may be regarded as a scientific realist position. I suggest adding Kuhn’s account of incommensurability, understood in its later form, to Giere’s account of perspectival realism. I conclude by providing a definition of perspectival realism that incorporates Kuhn’s incommensurability thesis as well as the specific claims of scientific realism that are compatible with perspectival realism. Perspectival realism thus understood is, at most, a weak form of scientific realism.

Committee:

Philip Ehrlich (Advisor); John Bender (Committee Member); Yoichi Ishida (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Thomas Kuhn; perspectivism; perspectival realism; scientific realism; Giere; incommensurability; lexicon; perspective

Ashirova, Margarita OlegovnaUtilization of Placebo Response in Double-Blind Psychopharmacological Studies, Contextual Perspective
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2015, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
Placebo response has been an elusive phenomenon in the fields of medicine, medical research, and psychology. Even though it has been heavily utilized as a comparator treatment in double-blind psychopharmacological studies, the reliable definition and consistent understanding of placebo response are missing. In this contextual exploration, I outlined the state of current placebo response research and variable rates of placebo response reported in double-blind studies. I identified the gap in the literature—lack of consistent understanding of placebo response—that has led to a waste of resources by the psychopharmacological research industry. Further, I compared and contrasted the current inconsistent Western medical understanding of placebo as outlined by a leading expert on placebo research (Fabrizio Benedetti) and the potential new understanding of placebo response based on philosophical concepts of Hans-Georg Gadamer. I concluded that placebo response appeared to be a contextual phenomenon and therefore could be expected to behave similarly to other contextually based healing modalities as described by Gadamer. I determined that the positivistic approach of modern medical research was not an appropriate method for understanding, researching, or defining placebo. Thus, I argued that psychopharmacological research could be improved by changing the way it used placebo in its control groups and maximizing placebo response in both placebo and active treatment groups instead of minimizing it. I argued that this new approach would bring the drug trial environment closer to the real life treatment environment and improve the quality of the drug trials. The electronic version of this dissertation is at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLINK ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu

Committee:

Alejandra Suarez, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); William Heusler, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Peter Hunsberger, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Health; Health Care; Health Sciences; Medicine; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Nursing; Pharmaceuticals; Pharmacology; Philosophy of Science; Physiological Psychology; Psychobiology; Psychology; Science History; Sociolinguistics

Keywords:

placebo; placebo response; placebo effect; theoretical; hermeneutics; Gadamer; psychopharmacology; double-blind; contextual theory

Newhart, Daniel W.“Smart” Mixed Methods: The Interaction of Philosophy and Research Design in Higher Education Inquiry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
The following dissertation uses existing data from the National Study of Student Engagement (NSSE), collected at a large Midwestern university, and combines this data with a component of using journals and interviews to explore the meaning of “student engagement” in depth. 4,870 students took the NSSE in 2010, with a response rate of 22% (Phase I). From this sample, 50 first year and senior students were chosen for qualitative follow-up, with five agreeing to participate in a three-phase qualitative study. Students were interviewed while taking the NSSE instrument (Phase II), and then were asked to journal, for one week, the activities that they engaged in during a week in their college experience, both outside and inside the classroom (Phase III). Students were also interviewed one-on-one to further explore the meaning of student engagement in their own lives (Phase IV). While the empirical portion of this study is important, the main focus of the dissertation is on the “how” of the way in which the research is conducted. Data analysis showed that often, a deeper understanding of how students were thinking about their college experience could add to the extant student engagement theory and interpretation of NSSE results. In this study, the interaction of philosophy and research design is highlighted as an exemplar of a “nomad science” in a higher education context.

Committee:

Patti Lather, PhD (Advisor); Leonard L. Baird, PhD (Committee Member); Susan R. Jones, PhD (Committee Member); Bryan R. Warnick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Theory; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

mixed methods; philosophy; higher education; nomad science

Ghosal, TorsaBooks with Bodies: Experientiality in post-1980s Multimodal Print Literature
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, English

In Books with Bodies: Experientiality in post-1980s Multimodal Print Literature , I examine contemporary British and North American authors’ use of books as platforms for multimodal narration. “Multimodality” refers to the concurrent use of several semiotic systems (such as writing, maps, charts) for communication. The pointed juxtaposition of different semiotic systems in a literary text requires a combination of perception processes on the reader’s part. My dissertation charts the ways in which multimodal literary books published in response to the proliferation of electronic reading and writing interfaces from the 1980s onward prompt metacognitive awareness about "reading" as an experience that is grounded in bodily interactions and sensory contact with the modes and the platforms that mediate literature. I term this metacognitive awareness about the readers’ embodied engagement with the text’s material form "presence," by revising Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht’s notion of "presence-effect."

The theoretical framework for this dissertation comes from three fields: I combine approaches to multimodality that originated in the study of social semiotics, insights from the cognitive sciences--the “second-generation” models of cognition--and twentieth century philosophies of experience, particularly those of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Michel Serres, and Gumbrecht. By analyzing multimodal fictions, poetry, and lyrical essays such as Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time (2003), Salvador Plascencia’s The People of Paper (2005), Anne Carson’s Nox (2010), Jonathan Safran Foer’s Tree of Codes (2010), and Doug Dorst and J.J. Abrams’s S. (2013), among other texts, Books with Bodies subverts the distinction between higher-order mental abilities (such as language processing) and lower-order perceptions (like touch) which underlies prior scholarship on the cognitive impact of literature. Indeed, I argue that the tendency to unpack the literary experience primarily in terms of how the mind processes language persists due to the equation of cognition with computation in first-generation artificial intelligence (AI) researches that influenced cognitive literary studies. Drawing on insights from queer and disability studies, I show that when we take cognition as analogous to information processing, we pathologize behavioral or cognitive differences. Thus, at a time when AI researches are finally moving beyond language processing to consider embodiment, my dissertation demonstrates the manner in which contemporary literature can contribute to the understanding of embodied, enactive intelligence.

Committee:

Brian McHale (Advisor); Frederick Luis Aldama (Committee Member); Jared Gardner (Committee Member); Jesse Schotter (Committee Member); Danuta Fjellestad (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; American Literature; British and Irish Literature; Canadian Literature; Comparative; Literature; Mass Media; Modern Language; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

cognition; narrative theory; multimodality; presence, consciousness; poetics; experience; experientiality; books; bookishness; print; digital; media; contemporary literature; Anglophone

Paul, DeborahEFFECT OF AN ACUTE AEROBIC VS. RESISTANCE VS. AEROBIC-RESISTANCE EXERCISE BOUT ON COGNITION AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF)
Master of Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Purpose: This study examined the effect of an acute aerobic vs. resistance vs. aerobic-resistance exercise bout on cognition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods: Ten healthy, physically active and/or trained subjects (5 males, 5 females: age 27.9 +/- 8.1 yrs) performed three acute exercise sessions: a 30 minute run at ~85% max heart rate (MHR), a 15 minute run at ~85% MHR followed by a 15 minute super-set resistance training bout, and a 30 minute super-set resistance training bout in a random cross-over design. Pre, immediately post (post), and 30-minutes post (post 30) exercise, BDNF and Stroop Incongruent tests were administered. Results: BDNF levels were significantly greater at post measurement compared to pre (p < .05). Post levels were significantly less than post 30 (p <.05); there were no differences between pre and post 30 (p = .05). There were no statistically significant differences in BDNF across the exercises (p = .05). The Stroop Incongruent times were significantly quicker at post compared to pre (p < .05); there were no significant differences in mean reaction times between post and post 30 (p = .246) or between pre and post 30 (p = .078). There were no significant differences in reaction times across the exercises (p = .05). Conclusion: Under the study conditions, all modalities elicited a significant rise in BDNF and a cognition improvement with no mode demonstrating a greater effect than another. These findings provide indicate that more than one mode of exercise may prove promising in neuronal and cognitive health.

Committee:

Emily Kullman, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kenneth Sparks, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kathleen Little, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeremy Genovese, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kristine Still, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Neurosciences; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

BDNF, acute exercise, aerobic, resistance, combined, cognition

Atanasova, Nina AAnimal Models and the Unity of Neuroscience
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: Philosophy
Contemporary neurobiology abounds with multiple experimental protocols and procedures aiming to study identical phenomena. This state of affairs seems to put in jeopardy the integration of experimental results and the extrapolation of laboratory knowledge to natural world phenomena. The problem is further complicated when knowledge produced through animal experimentation is extended to humans. My thesis is that the multiplicity of protocols fosters rather than precludes progress in neurobiology. It is especially valued when the results of different experiments converge. In these cases, the validity of knowledge claims increases. Converging experimental results get integrated. To date, no comprehensive philosophical analysis of animal experimentation in neurobiology exists. For this reason I analyze the functions of animal models in experimental neurobiology. I argue that even though animal models are related to model and experimental organisms, in the case of neurobiology, they are better conceptualized as experimental systems rather than as a subclass of the other two classes of biological models. In a case study, I trace the developments of and the variations on the basic design of Morris water maze experiments to exemplify the motivation for producing variations on basic experimental protocols. Ultimately, I defend a view of the structure of experimental neurobiology which I call optimistic pluralism. It is an extension of the so called perspectival pluralism according to which the integration of multiple partial perspectives employed in the study of any given phenomenon maximizes the knowledge about this phenomenon. It is optimistic because it justifies the possibility for multiple partial perspectives to converge and be integrated in order to provide knowledge about complex phenomena. This view justifies the desirability of multiple experimental protocols in contemporary neurobiology because it values the multiplicity of perspectives they provide.

Committee:

Robert Richardson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Robert Skipper, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); John Bickle, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Angela Potochinik, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Animal Models;Experimental Neurobiology;Unity of Neuroscience;Calibration;Validation;Experiment

Andrew, James BHume, Skepticism, and the Search for Foundations
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, Philosophy
In this paper I present an account of how epistemology should be pursued. I challenge epistemological projects which focus exclusively on how our fundamental beliefs about the world – specifically our beliefs about inductive and mathematical knowledge – can be foundationally justified. To their detriment, these projects often ignore the naturalistic question of why we have these beliefs in the first place. Chapter one begins with an account of David Hume’s doctrine of knowledge, which is read most often as bifurcating knowledge into two epistemological classes. I refer to this bifurcation as the Received View of Hume’s epistemology. On this interpretation, knowledge divides exhaustively into relations of ideas, on the one hand, and matters of fact on the other. Chapter One concludes that attempts to justify either epistemological class unduly overemphasizes the importance of this distinction and risks undermining Hume’s actual epistemological goals. I argue that Hume sought a naturalistic explanation of how humans acquire (inductive and mathematical) beliefs as opposed to an explanation that restricts epistemology to a skeptical project of demonstrating why our beliefs are ultimately unjustifiable. Skepticism plays an important role in Hume’s epistemology, but this skepticism is less important than his more positive naturalistic project to explain how and why we have different kinds of beliefs. I argue that this latter point has significance beyond interpretive studies of Hume as it has normative implications for the study of knowledge in general: epistemologists should not only establish why our beliefs about the world are justified, but also provide a naturalistic explanation of the etiology of our beliefs. This latter project is often ignored – yet restricting epistemology to the foundational search for justifications cannot succeed on its own, for we can only articulate how our beliefs might be justified by expanding epistemology to include an account of how we acquire our beliefs in the first place. To make this broader point, I focus on movements within the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics which attempt to establish an epistemic foundation to justify our knowledge claims. In Chapter Two, I analyze attempts within the philosophy of science to provide a solution to Hume’s problem of induction via some sort of foundational a priori premise or axiom. In Chapter Three, I analyze the logicist and neo-logicist projects within the philosophy of mathematics to provide a foundation for mathematical knowledge – or at least arithmetic – using only basic logical principles. Both of these chapters discuss how these epistemological projects focus exclusively on securing foundations for inductive or mathematical knowledge. Interestingly, both are unsuccessful in achieving their respective justificatory goals. I argue that the ultimate reason for this failure, in both cases, is their exclusive focus on foundations. Thus, in light of these difficulties, Chapter Four concludes by suggesting that epistemology is better served by expanding its project to include a more Humean, naturalistic, and scientific understanding of both inductive and mathematical beliefs in lieu of projects focused exclusively on the epistemic justification of these beliefs. These two projects are “two sides of the same coin,” so to speak. If we want to know what justifies our beliefs we have to know how we come to have our beliefs, and vice versa.

Committee:

Madeline Muntersbjorn (Committee Chair); Susan Purviance (Committee Member); John Sarnecki (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Epistemology; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

David Hume; Epistemology; Induction; Logicism; Skepticism; Naturalism

Swekoski, Don G.Rhetorical Revolutions: Heidegger and Aristotle
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Philosophy
In an overarching sense, this work explores Martin Heidegger’s conception of Aristotle's Rhetoric. Specifically, I analyze Heidegger’s characterization of Aristotle’s Rhetoric as a hermeneutic of everydayness. Further, because rhetoric lays bare the conceptual structures underlying inauthentic modes of disclosure, I argue it may then act as an antidote to monolithic metaphysics.

Committee:

Gene Pendleton, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Wattles, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Odell-Scott, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Bartolo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Heidegger; Aristotle; Rhetorical Hermeneutics

Khattar, MithunModulation of TCR Signals Reprograms Immune Tolerance in Transplantation and Type-1 Diabetes
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), University of Toledo, 2012, College of Medicine
T-cells play a central role in cell mediated immune responses to foreign and self antigens that lead to organ transplant rejection as well as autoimmune diseases. Optimal T-cell activation and expansion requires antigen recognition via cognate T-cell receptors (TCRs) along with co-stimulatory and cytokine signals. TCR engagement with specific antigen-MHC complexes regulates T-cell responses against auto- and allo-antigens. In the current study, we have investigated the immune regulatory effects of TCR engagement with its specific mAb, with and without, its cognate antigens. Herein, we found that in vivo administration of an anti-mouse TCRb mAb (H57-597) resulted in a preferential reduction of antigen-reactive T-cells and enrichment of CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells. In transplantation models, transient H57-597 mAb treatment produced long-term cardiac allograft survivals and significantly prolonged survivals of skin allografts in naïve recipients as well as heart allografts in skin-sensitized recipients. While Treg cells were involved in maintaining donor-specific long-term graft survivals, immunity was retained against third party allografts. Strikingly, a single injection of H57-597 mAb completely inhibited the rapid development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in RIP-OVAhi mice while a transient H57-597 mAb treatment at eight weeks of age prevented the development of T1D in normoglycemic NOD mice. Moreover, a brief course of H57-597 mAb therapy after onset of T1D induced remission in six out of eight NOD mice. In contrast to anti-CD3 mAb, administration of H57-597 mAb induced limited T-cell activation and proliferation signals that correlated with lower levels of inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, transient modulation of the TCRb chain by H57-597 mAb exhibits potent and safe therapeutic effects to control auto- and allo-immune responses.

Committee:

Stanislaw Stepkowski, DVM, PhD (Committee Chair); Wenhao Chen, MD, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Wooten, PhD (Committee Member); Randall Ruch, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Kirken, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Health; Health Care; Health Sciences; Immunology; Molecular Chemistry; Pathology; Pharmaceuticals; Pharmacology; Philosophy of Science; Therapy

Keywords:

T-cell; tolerance; allograft; type-1 diabetes; Treg; cytokine; mAb

Rickels, Christopher AInherited Ontologies and the Relations between Philosophy of Mind and the Empirical Cognitive Sciences
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, Philosophy
A productive relationship between the philosophy of mind and the empirical cognitive sciences not only is possible, but also is pursued productively by practitioners from both sides. In the first two chapters, I consider two examples of sets of concepts (“folk psychology” and the “architecture of the mind”) which are shared between the philosophy of mind and the empirical cognitive sciences and analyze them from both perspectives. I introduce a historical-analytical apparatus called “inherited ontologies” to track these sets of concepts and how they emerge, mutate, and replicate over time in order to show that what can begin as semantic opacity can end as ontological confusion. I argue that the important question is not whether we inherit our implicit ideas about the mind from our genes or our culture, but how shared inheritance manifests in different ways in different individuals. In the third chapter, I argue that the plurality of kinds of minds should inform how we research our minds. Instead of supposing that a plurality of approaches to study a plurality of minds is a problem to be solved, we should embrace cognitive and methodological diversity as not only possible but desirable in a shared problem space. The cognitive sciences should develop a unity of purpose without collapsing into a presumed uniformity of subject matter.

Committee:

Madeline Muntersbjorn, Ph.D (Committee Chair); John Sarnecki, Ph.D (Committee Member); Stephen Christman, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Education; Linguistics; Metaphysics; Neurosciences; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Psychology; Science History

Keywords:

philosophy; philosophy of mind; cognitive science; inherited ontology; philosophy of psychology; folk psychology; nativism; empiricism; modularity; speculative psychology; meme; memetics; philosophy of science

Mari, Walid OmranExtracellular Microvesicles as a Novel Biomarker for Wound Healing
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2017, Pharmacology and Toxicology
Introduction: Wound healing is a sophisticated dynamic process that involves complex coordination among a variety of resident cells in a suitable extracellular environment. Chronic wounds are defined as wounds that fail to heal within a period of 3 months. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a closed suction drainage system is used to enable mass transport of fluid from the body as an adjunct to surgical procedures. (Oasis-ultra) is a triple layer extracellular matrix containing different types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like heparin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. In addition, it has adhesion molecule such as fibronectin and laminin along with various growth factors. Extracellular vesicles, (EVs); microvesicles and exosomes are a diverse family of membrane bound vesicles laden with various proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that cells release to the extracellular environment. EVs play a crucial role in cell to cell communication, as they carry signaling molecules, like lipids, proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. We hypothesize that there is a correlation between the concentration of EMVs and the percentage of wound healing in treated chronic wounds and the healing percentage will be enhanced by the combination of Oasis ultra and NPWT. A prospective, multi-centered, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial that permitted by the Ethics Committee of the Copernicus was conducted to study whether the combination of Oasis ultra and NPWT will enhance the healing of chronic wounds when compared with only NPWT, to measure the concentration of EMVs in the collected wound fluids and correlate it with the percentage of wound healing and to analyze the extracellular microvesicles composition to look for growth factors, chemokines and cytokines that play role in the wound healing Material and Methods: Wound fluid samples obtained from 14 patients with stage IV trunk pressure ulcers. The patients were divided in two groups (7 in each group, n=7): control group on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) alone & study group with NPWT plus Oasis Ultra dressing. NPWT was replaced two times a week, and Oasis Ultra was applied once weekly for all subjects. Wound size was measured every week and healing percentage was calculated for the whole 12 weeks of the study. A canister of NPWT device (wound VAC) was collected from the patients every four weeks of the study and brought to the lab where a hole was made in the canister by using a drill to drain the fluids. Protease inhibitor added to the fluid before the fluid stored in a -80°C freezer. EMVs were isolated using Differential Ultracentrifugation methods, and EMVs concentration in wound fluid was measured by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis machine (Nanosight). EMVs were analyzed for cytokines and growth factors using BioPlex Pro cytokine assays after determining protein concentration using Bradford assay. Results: Our data showed that overall healing percentage in the study group after 12 weeks of study was ~ 89% as compared with the control group, which was ~ 52% (P < 0.05). Further, to examine the correlation between EMVs and wound healing percentage, simple linear regression was conducted using SPSS and Prism pad soft wares. The data showed that there is a strong positive correlation between EMVs concentrations in wound fluid and the healing percentage, the R-square was 0.66, and (P = 0.05). The study group shows high levels of intravesicular concentration of pro-healing cytokines and low levels pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, control group shows high levels of intravesicular concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low levels of pro-healing cytokine Conclusion: Our clinical trial demonstrates that using Oasis-Ultra combined with NPWT hasten the healing percentage in stage IV pressure ulcers. There is a correlation between EMVs concentration in wound fluid and the healing percentage of the wound. EMVs composition could determine the outcomes of the wound healing. The EMVs particles in wound fluid could serve as a biomarker of the wound healing.

Committee:

Richard Simman, M.D. (Advisor); David Cool, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeffrey Travers, M.D., Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Pathology; Pharmacology; Pharmacy Sciences; Philosophy of Science; Physiology

Keywords:

Microvesicles; Wound Healing; Growth Factors; Cytokines

Lamb, MauriceCharacteristics of Non-reductive Explanations in Complex Dynamical Systems Research
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Arts and Sciences: Philosophy
I argue that philosophical accounts of scientific explanation appear to agree that identification of constraints is a significant feature of scientific explanation. Moreover, scientific explanations are evaluated according to how well they facilitate human prediction, manipulation and understanding of a given phenomena. The constraints identified in an explanation may be due to the physical states and structures as they are observed, as in the speed of light or the mass of the coffee mug on the table. These are physical constraints. Constraints also depend on the choices and perspectives of the individuals or communities producing and consuming the explanation. These latter constraints I refer to as framing constraints. Framing constraints include the choice to observe a biological organism within a particular eco-system as well as the choice to explain in the context of the observable universe. Ultimately, both physical constraints and framing constraints are not distinctive categories but extremes on a continuum. Complex dynamical systems theory provides a framework for characterizing and understanding increases in system order in the context of certain constraints. Increases in system order entail increases in the observed correlations of spatial, temporal, or energetic features as represented by variations in a system’s degrees of freedom. I argue that these increases in correlation length provide a basis for identifying characteristic scales of a system of interest that are larger than the scale defined in terms of the system’s smallest components. In the context of scientific explanation, increases in order also result in the elimination of smallest scale degrees of freedom and their corresponding constraints. When the smallest scale degrees of freedom are eliminated from an explanation, the explanation is non-reductive. Given the proposed account of explanation in terms of constraints and insights regarding scale in terms of complex dynamical systems theory, I conclude that scientific explanations in the life and social sciences are sometimes non-reductive and multi-scale.

Committee:

Anthony Chemero, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jessica Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Polger, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Angela Potochinik, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Complex Systems;Explanation;Reduction;Non-reduction;Self-Organization;Philosophy of Science

McKenzie, AndrewAnarchy Is What Individuals Make of It
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Political Science
Theories and models of political behavior, while sometimes predicated on methodological individualism, routinely fail to consider the possibility and potential impacts of human free will—or the implications if humans lack free will. I argue that all models of social behavior, whether individualistic or holistic, must take at least an implicit position on whether individuals can make free (i.e., autonomous) cognitive and behavioral choices. However, social scientists’ everyday agnosticism on the question of free will threatens theoretical falsehood and practical irrelevance. I discuss the consequences for political science—focusing on international relations—of the existence or absence of free will. I use metapreferences as a modeling technique to help us conceptualize how free will and causation interrelate, and from this develop the argument that free will elevates the importance that natural science and technology play in creating preferred social outcomes. I close by applying the preceding arguments to the study of war.

Committee:

Randall Schweller (Advisor); Alexander Wendt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

International Relations; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Political Science

Keywords:

International relations; free will; voluntarism; determinism; volition; autonomy; war; Fearon; technology; anarchy; structure; agency; neorealism; rational choice; rationality; metapreferences; social science; political science; philosophy of science

Gaskin, James E.Evolution and Variation of Digitally-enabled Design Routines: An extended event-sequencing approach
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Management Information and Decision Systems
Digitally-enabled generative organizational processes (such as product design and development) change frequently and vary greatly within and between companies, and over time, making them difficult to understand and manage. These kinds of generative processes can be viewed as sets of organizational routines afforded by technology, which in this thesis are commonly labeled as “sociomaterial routines”. To further complicate sense-making of such processes for scholars and practitioners, digital innovations continue to alter the form of sociomaterial routines through the simultaneous consolidation of tasks and expansion of capabilities, and thus provide means to both increase and decrease complexity and variety in organizations. This complex dynamic of sociomaterial routines offers a tantalizing, yet heretofore elusive, opportunity to explore the effects digitalization and process structure have on process variety. The primary research questions addressed in this thesis are: 1) How are sociomaterial routines structurally composed, 2) what variations (over time and space) can we identify across sociomaterial routines, and 3) what can explain these variations? The theorizing and analysis of routine variation and evolution provides new insights and genuine opportunities for research inquiries—such as finding systematic drivers of variation among routines—that have been hitherto out of reach (Pentland et al. 2009). The substance of the thesis draws primarily upon three research articles my colleagues and I have published. The first introduces the suite of tools and techniques we have developed for exploring the structure of sociomaterial routines and analyzing their variation. The second article examines the way in which routines evolve, and the role embedded digital capabilities play in driving that evolution. The third develops and validates a theory of routine variation over across four world class design organizations . The findings from these studies suggest that sociomaterial routines can be represented using seven common elements (e.g., actors, activities, tools, etc.), and that variations in routines can be identified through a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Furthermore, the thesis begins to explain causes of evolution and variation in routines, and hence, informs the way in which they can be managed.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen (Advisor); Youngjin Yoo (Committee Member); Brian Pentland (Committee Member); Fred Collopy (Committee Member); Richard Buchanan (Committee Member); Richard Boland, Jr. (Other)

Subjects:

Design; Epistemology; Evolution and Development; Information Systems; Information Technology; Management; Philosophy of Science; Social Research; Social Structure

Keywords:

Organizational routines; Sociomateriality; Product design and development; Sequence analysis; Process analytics; Organizational genetics

Molter, Daniel J.Species, Units of Evolution, and Secondary Substance
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
Species are classes of organisms on the traditional view, but David Hull argues that species as units of evolution are better understood as individuals composed of organisms as their parts. Phillip Kitcher counters that evolutionary species are better understood as sets. Following Elliot Sober, I argue that constituent definition prohibits a set-theoretic interpretation of species. Following John Dupré, I argue that species and units of evolution are ontologically distinct entities that require different names. “Species” is the proper name of the species category, a class containing many intensionally-defined classes of organisms. The units of evolution that Hull describes are spatiotemporally-individuated physical objects. Following the principle of priority in biological nomenclature, Hull's transgenerational biological individual cannot be called "Species", because that name has a prior valid use. I argue that Hull's species-as-individual has a prior valid name which can be found in Aristotle's Categories. Organisms are members of species, but they are parts of Secondary Substances.

Committee:

Arthur Zucker, PhD (Committee Chair); Wendy Parker, PhD (Committee Member); John Bender, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Metaphysics; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

species; secondary substance; species-as-individuals; David Hull; intensional definition; class

Arledge, Christopher S.Cosmological Model Selection and Akaike’s Criterion
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
Contemporary cosmology is teeming with model underdetermination and cosmologists are looking for methods with which to relieve some of this underdetermination. One such method that has found its way into cosmology in recent years is the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The criterion is meant to select the model that loses the least amount of information in its approximation of the data, and furthermore AIC shows a preference for simplicity by containing a penalty term that penalizes models with excessive complexity. The principle aim of this paper is to investigate some of the strengths and weaknesses of AIC against two philosophical backdrops in order to determine its usefulness in cosmological model selection. The backdrops or positions against which AIC will be assessed are I) realist and II) antirealist. It will be argued that on both of these positions there is at least one feature of AIC that proves problematic for the satisfaction of the aims of the position.

Committee:

Philip Ehrlich (Advisor); John Norton (Committee Member); Yoichi Ishida (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

philosophy; philosophy of cosmology; philosophy of science; AIC; cosmological modeling; model selection

Huth, Brian RMODELS, PERSPECTIVES, AND SCIENTIFIC REALISM: ON RONALD GIERE’S PERSPECTIVAL REALISM
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Philosophy
Ronald Giere argues for a version of scientific realism based on his model-theoretic constructivist account of scientific theories. According to Giere, science provides truths from within specific constructed perspectives. Ultimately, Giere’s account provides a perspectival realism in concern to scientific theories. However, Giere’s perspectival realism ultimately falls short of being a robust scientific realism. Following a critique first charged against Giere by Anjan Chakravartty, I argue that Giere’s perspectivism ultimately translates into a form of relativism that is incompatible with the tenants of scientific realism.

Committee:

Frank Ryan, Phd (Advisor); Michael Byron, Phd (Committee Member); David Pereplyotchik, Phd (Committee Member); Matthew Crawford, Phd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Ronald Giere; scientific realism; relativism; philosophy of science; model-theoretic conception of scientific theories

Hale, Evan L.Knowledge, Truth, and the Challenge of Revisability: A Critique of Actor-Network Theory
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences

I am concerned in this thesis with a relatively narrow subject matter which has the potential to be brought to bear on numerous philosophical endeavors, from metaphysics to ethics to political science. Of necessity, I will only deal with a few of the possible applications/derivations.

The subject matter in question is the revisability of knowledge, the fact that we can know p at one time and know not-p at another. In Chapter 1, I will establish the truth of this claim and consider its relevance to the question of truth in general. If knowledge is revisable, does that mean truth is? I ultimately answer yes, after considering various popular alternatives.

In Chapter 2, I extend the analysis to the potential revisability of ontology itself. Whereas the first chapter considers the relation of knowledge to truth with that of truth, the second chapter considers the relation of truth to reality. This discussion will involve a brief historical survey of modern representationalism, the philosophical view that the subject represents the external world internally. Representationalism is ultimately rejected in favor of William James’ radical empiricism, which can handle a revisable ontology and, when coupled with his pragmatism, the revision of truth.

Chapter 3 will treat what I take to be the most significant application of knowledge/ontology revision today: actor-network theory (ANT). Relying mostly on the work of Bruno Latour, I will show how ANT is a contemporary sociological application of James’ more psychologically-oriented radical empiricism. I will display some of the strengths and weaknesses of ANT, and point toward work, both metaphysical and epistemological, that needs to be done in the future if we are going to understand better the import of revisability in our sciences and our lives.

Committee:

Madeline Muntersbjorn, PhD (Advisor); James Campbell, PhD (Committee Member); John Sarnecki, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

knowledge; truth; metaphysics; ontology; epistemology; actor-network theory; radical empiricism

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