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Newhart, Daniel W.“Smart” Mixed Methods: The Interaction of Philosophy and Research Design in Higher Education Inquiry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
The following dissertation uses existing data from the National Study of Student Engagement (NSSE), collected at a large Midwestern university, and combines this data with a component of using journals and interviews to explore the meaning of “student engagement” in depth. 4,870 students took the NSSE in 2010, with a response rate of 22% (Phase I). From this sample, 50 first year and senior students were chosen for qualitative follow-up, with five agreeing to participate in a three-phase qualitative study. Students were interviewed while taking the NSSE instrument (Phase II), and then were asked to journal, for one week, the activities that they engaged in during a week in their college experience, both outside and inside the classroom (Phase III). Students were also interviewed one-on-one to further explore the meaning of student engagement in their own lives (Phase IV). While the empirical portion of this study is important, the main focus of the dissertation is on the “how” of the way in which the research is conducted. Data analysis showed that often, a deeper understanding of how students were thinking about their college experience could add to the extant student engagement theory and interpretation of NSSE results. In this study, the interaction of philosophy and research design is highlighted as an exemplar of a “nomad science” in a higher education context.

Committee:

Patti Lather, PhD (Advisor); Leonard L. Baird, PhD (Committee Member); Susan R. Jones, PhD (Committee Member); Bryan R. Warnick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Theory; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

mixed methods; philosophy; higher education; nomad science

Mackey, David R.Niebuhr, Dewey, and the Ethics of a Christian Pragmatist Public Elementary School Teacher
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, Educational Leadership

This conceptual study asks how a Christian public elementary school teacher might go about teaching in a classroom in ways that reflect or draw upon said teacher’s personal Christian beliefs while also maintaining the secular character required of a public school classroom in a pluralistic democracy. In other words, I ask how a Christian educator can teach in a public school classroom in a manner that honestly maintains that classroom’s secular nature without pretending to be an atheist. This study positions three social texts (Ohio HB 184, a teacher training workbook by Margaret A. Searle, and vignettes describing my own techniques for establishing classroom order) as foils for my argument, standing as exemplars of situations that I encounter every day in the classroom. I argue vis-à-vis these texts using critique, interpretation, and reasoned analysis in order to show how I, as a Christian teacher, might respond to situations in classrooms that I have judged to be immoral. How do I determine if classroom situations are immoral? In what ways do I analyze these situations and morally reason out a response?

Since my conceptual language must avoid dependence on absolute truths and totalizing narratives that are incompatible with my desire to protect the pluralistic nature of my classroom, I use pragmatist philosophy to guide my argument. When articulating my privately held Christian moral stance as it applies to classroom situations, I rely heavily on the theological pragmatism of Reinhold Niebuhr. When attempting to translate my privately held Niebuhrian Christian convictions into moral constructs that are appropriate to share in public space, I rely on the pragmatism of John Dewey, a pragmatism that thoroughly avoids reliance on exclusive, dogmatic, or supernatural foundations for morality, instead offering a morality wedded to an inclusive notion of democracy. My attempt to merge the pragmatisms of Niebuhr and Dewey yields intriguing, yet imperfect results, but from this effort comes a reasoned moral argument based on theological pragmatist notions of irony, democracy, love, and hope.

Committee:

Richard Quantz, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Kathleen Knight Abowitz, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Dennis Carlson, PhD (Committee Member); Valerie Ubbes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Elementary Education; Ethics; Philosophy; Religion; Religious Education; Spirituality; Teaching; Theology

Keywords:

education; John Dewey; Reinhold Niebuhr; pragmatism; ethics; Christianity; teachers; Christian teachers; teaching; public schools; elementary education; theology of education; pragmatist philosophy

Andrew, James BHume, Skepticism, and the Search for Foundations
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, Philosophy
In this paper I present an account of how epistemology should be pursued. I challenge epistemological projects which focus exclusively on how our fundamental beliefs about the world – specifically our beliefs about inductive and mathematical knowledge – can be foundationally justified. To their detriment, these projects often ignore the naturalistic question of why we have these beliefs in the first place. Chapter one begins with an account of David Hume’s doctrine of knowledge, which is read most often as bifurcating knowledge into two epistemological classes. I refer to this bifurcation as the Received View of Hume’s epistemology. On this interpretation, knowledge divides exhaustively into relations of ideas, on the one hand, and matters of fact on the other. Chapter One concludes that attempts to justify either epistemological class unduly overemphasizes the importance of this distinction and risks undermining Hume’s actual epistemological goals. I argue that Hume sought a naturalistic explanation of how humans acquire (inductive and mathematical) beliefs as opposed to an explanation that restricts epistemology to a skeptical project of demonstrating why our beliefs are ultimately unjustifiable. Skepticism plays an important role in Hume’s epistemology, but this skepticism is less important than his more positive naturalistic project to explain how and why we have different kinds of beliefs. I argue that this latter point has significance beyond interpretive studies of Hume as it has normative implications for the study of knowledge in general: epistemologists should not only establish why our beliefs about the world are justified, but also provide a naturalistic explanation of the etiology of our beliefs. This latter project is often ignored – yet restricting epistemology to the foundational search for justifications cannot succeed on its own, for we can only articulate how our beliefs might be justified by expanding epistemology to include an account of how we acquire our beliefs in the first place. To make this broader point, I focus on movements within the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics which attempt to establish an epistemic foundation to justify our knowledge claims. In Chapter Two, I analyze attempts within the philosophy of science to provide a solution to Hume’s problem of induction via some sort of foundational a priori premise or axiom. In Chapter Three, I analyze the logicist and neo-logicist projects within the philosophy of mathematics to provide a foundation for mathematical knowledge – or at least arithmetic – using only basic logical principles. Both of these chapters discuss how these epistemological projects focus exclusively on securing foundations for inductive or mathematical knowledge. Interestingly, both are unsuccessful in achieving their respective justificatory goals. I argue that the ultimate reason for this failure, in both cases, is their exclusive focus on foundations. Thus, in light of these difficulties, Chapter Four concludes by suggesting that epistemology is better served by expanding its project to include a more Humean, naturalistic, and scientific understanding of both inductive and mathematical beliefs in lieu of projects focused exclusively on the epistemic justification of these beliefs. These two projects are “two sides of the same coin,” so to speak. If we want to know what justifies our beliefs we have to know how we come to have our beliefs, and vice versa.

Committee:

Madeline Muntersbjorn (Committee Chair); Susan Purviance (Committee Member); John Sarnecki (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Epistemology; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

David Hume; Epistemology; Induction; Logicism; Skepticism; Naturalism

Lehnert, Matthew RGhost Hunting and A Moroccan Forest: a geography of Madness
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, Geography
This Thesis explores the interrelatedness of hauntology, the methods of madness, and non-representational theory to take a simulacramous view of a Moroccan forest. The author intertwines journal entries written during a manic episode to argue for a schizoaffective turn, which is taking place in the social sciences. The thesis flows in five acts. Act one discusses non-representational theory and its relationship to hauntology and the methods of madness. Act two juxtaposes `intimate sensing’ and `remote sensing’ of a Moroccan forest. Forest coverage is measured and deforestation rates are given from 1984-2011. Act three discusses the narrative of the environment constructed by the French about North Africa. Act four discusses a new agricultural program in Morocco which the author deconstructs using the work of David Harvey. The author concludes that this agricultural program is a threat to the health of the forest in question. The thesis concludes with thoughts on the nature of gathering knowledge, and what it means in today’s post-modern epoch.

Committee:

Sujata Shetty (Committee Chair); David Nemeth (Committee Member); Bhuyian Alam (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; African Studies; Environmental Justice; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Studies; Forestry; Geography; International Relations; Islamic Studies; Mental Health; North African Studies; Philosophy; Political Science; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

Morocco; Deforestation; Non-representational theory; Green Plan; Remote Sensing; Hauntology; Methods of Madness; post-modern; Accumulation by Dispossession; David Harvey; Nigel Thrift; Baudrillard; schizoaffective; affect; Middle Atlas; intimate sensing

Swekoski, Don G.Rhetorical Revolutions: Heidegger and Aristotle
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Philosophy
In an overarching sense, this work explores Martin Heidegger’s conception of Aristotle's Rhetoric. Specifically, I analyze Heidegger’s characterization of Aristotle’s Rhetoric as a hermeneutic of everydayness. Further, because rhetoric lays bare the conceptual structures underlying inauthentic modes of disclosure, I argue it may then act as an antidote to monolithic metaphysics.

Committee:

Gene Pendleton, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Wattles, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Odell-Scott, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Bartolo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Heidegger; Aristotle; Rhetorical Hermeneutics

Templin, Carl S.Dismantling the War Machine: The Existential Foundations of Peace
Master of Education, University of Toledo, 2010, Education Theory and Social Foundations
This thesis is an elaboration on the theoretical basis for a new understanding of what peace is as well as how best to teach it. Central to this new understanding is an investigation of the conditions experienced by students (and others) who live in a state of discord both on an individual and a societal level. The traditional interpretation of peace as antithetical to war or violence serves to mask its true ontology. The true antithesis of peace is discord, which is a quality of the human spirit that is expressed socially. Similarly, the conception of war or violence as the results of systemic inadequacies and the creation of new systems to correct these perceived inadequacies only adds to and complicates the problems that lead to a lack of peace. Rather than attempting to produce peace by directly instituting systemic changes, a first step toward the achievement of peace may be to open spaces for learning within already existing systems in order make changes that assist students in recognizing the difference between power and authority and, as a matter of pedagogy, stressing the importance of freedom and cultural diversity instead of social conformity.

Committee:

Dale Snauwaert, PhD (Committee Chair); Lynne Hamer, PhD (Committee Member); Dwayne DeMedio, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Theory; Pedagogy; Philosophy

Keywords:

existentialism; peace education; educational theory; war; peace

Rickels, Christopher AInherited Ontologies and the Relations between Philosophy of Mind and the Empirical Cognitive Sciences
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, Philosophy
A productive relationship between the philosophy of mind and the empirical cognitive sciences not only is possible, but also is pursued productively by practitioners from both sides. In the first two chapters, I consider two examples of sets of concepts (“folk psychology” and the “architecture of the mind”) which are shared between the philosophy of mind and the empirical cognitive sciences and analyze them from both perspectives. I introduce a historical-analytical apparatus called “inherited ontologies” to track these sets of concepts and how they emerge, mutate, and replicate over time in order to show that what can begin as semantic opacity can end as ontological confusion. I argue that the important question is not whether we inherit our implicit ideas about the mind from our genes or our culture, but how shared inheritance manifests in different ways in different individuals. In the third chapter, I argue that the plurality of kinds of minds should inform how we research our minds. Instead of supposing that a plurality of approaches to study a plurality of minds is a problem to be solved, we should embrace cognitive and methodological diversity as not only possible but desirable in a shared problem space. The cognitive sciences should develop a unity of purpose without collapsing into a presumed uniformity of subject matter.

Committee:

Madeline Muntersbjorn, Ph.D (Committee Chair); John Sarnecki, Ph.D (Committee Member); Stephen Christman, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Education; Linguistics; Metaphysics; Neurosciences; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Psychology; Science History

Keywords:

philosophy; philosophy of mind; cognitive science; inherited ontology; philosophy of psychology; folk psychology; nativism; empiricism; modularity; speculative psychology; meme; memetics; philosophy of science

Litteral, Jacob A.Is Humanism to blame? Heidegger on Environmental Exploitation
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2017, Humanities
Humanism has been targeted as the source of environmental exploitation. With the aid of Martin Heidegger's philosophy, this paper will attempt to answer the environmental critique of humanism. It will be shown that humanism is not to blame for environmental exploitation. This paper will also present Heidegger's alternative to contemporary environmentalism in addressing the issue of exploitation.

Committee:

Donovan Miyasaki, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Erik Banks, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Linda Farmer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Philosophy; Philosophy

Keywords:

philosophy; environmental philosophy

Franco, Savio DennisThe Interior Lives of Exemplary Leaders: A Phenomenological Study of Lay Leadership Commitment to Mission and Identity at a Catholic, Marianist University
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2016, Educational Leadership
This study demonstrates the value of organization-specific articulations of exemplary leadership. The research topic relates to leadership and organizational studies in general, and higher educational leadership and organizational commitment in particular. The focus of inquiry is the complex, human-organizational phenomenon of exemplary leadership commitment to mission and identity among lay leaders in the Catholic and Marianist tradition of one top-tier research university in the United States. The context of inquiry is the emerging prominence and critical role of lay leadership in Catholic higher education. The researcher offers an in-depth examination of how exemplary lay leaders experience and practice their personal commitment to Catholic-Marianist mission and identity. The research objective is to understand and describe the essential meanings in the lived experiences of exemplary lay leaders, presenting individual descriptions and collective syntheses of the phenomenon in focus. The intended audience includes leaders in Marianist and Catholic higher education; administrators involved in leadership development and mission and identity enculturation; and researchers in higher education, phenomenology, and interdisciplinary studies in leadership and organizational behavior. Using the transcendental phenomenological research method, the researcher generates eight individual “portraits-in-words,” containing multilayered human portrayals that allow the reader to intuit and empathize with the interior experiences and meaning making of the exemplary lay leaders in this study. The researcher also analyzes the experiential data collectively, presenting numerous “composite syntheses” of the apparent textures and underlying structures of the phenomenon in focus. Finally, the researcher describes three “streams” within the lived experience of the phenomenon, namely: exemplary lay commitment, exemplary Marianist leadership, and the experience of Catholic and Marianist mission and identity, concluding with a brief “statement of essence” containing essential meanings that do not vary across the descriptions of exemplary lay leaders. This study contributes to the narrative of Catholic and Marianist higher education by empirically investigating the interior lives of exemplary leaders, articulating a phenomenology of exemplary lay leadership commitment to mission and identity, and drawing insights from the lived experiences of present-day exemplary leaders in order to inform future leadership practice, development, and research. The future of mission and identity in Catholic and Marianist higher education hinges on one critical factor – the ongoing presence of the interior phenomenon of exemplary lay leadership commitment to mission and identity. This study sheds a bright light on this noteworthy and necessary phenomenon – sine qua non (without which nothing) – thus preserving its legacy in institutional memory, and offering “seeds” for reflection, conversation, and action. Key terms: phenomenology, interior life, exemplary leadership, lay leaders, commitment, mission and identity, Catholic, Marianist, university, higher education, interdisciplinary studies, organizational behavior, educational philosophy, leadership ethics, organization-specific articulations of exemplary leadership.

Committee:

Molly Schaller (Committee Chair); Carolyn Ridenour (Committee Member); Joseph Watras (Committee Member); David Fleming, S.M. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Ethics; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Management; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Philosophy; Spirituality; Teaching

Keywords:

phenomenology; interior life; exemplary leadership; lay leaders; commitment; mission and identity; Catholic; Marianist; university; higher education; interdisciplinary studies; organizational behavior; educational philosophy; leadership ethics

Kurlinkus, William CNostalgia and New Media: Designing Difference into Rhetoric, Composition, and Technology
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, English
In this project I construct a democratic model of new media composing education and production that uses nostalgia (a community, tradition, and emotion-focused lens) to uncover design lessons within a diverse set of techno-composing milieus: the hipster craft movement, the new capitalist workplace, debates in the field of composition studies, and several client-designer interactions. In doing so, I argue that because communities value diverse technological pasts, so, too, do they inevitably imagine diverse ideal futures. Sadly, citizens and students who value technological futures beyond efficient high-tech profusion are historically labeled technophobic and/or illiterate. Through such a dismissal, scholars of technology--from ER doctors to new media composition instructors--miss out on a wide array of design assets and possible futures that could make the world a better place. To counter this anemic thinking, I develop a cross-cultural rhetoric of technology, which uses nostalgia to identify, mediate, and design from techno-logical "contact zones" (see Pratt; Pfaffenberger; Selfe and Selfe; Canagarajah), spaces where different communities with different understandings, values, goals, and literacies surrounding writing technologies interact and clash in systems of uneven power. In doing so, I call for the expansion of definitions of technological literacy in new media composition; I argue for teaching composing students to mediate technological conflicts; and I illustrate how composers can learn from the contextualized memories of their audiences in order to create more inclusive, creative, and profitable texts.

Committee:

Cynthia Selfe (Advisor); H. Lewis Ulman (Committee Member); Beverly Moss (Committee Member); Nancy Johnson (Committee Member); Susan Delagrange (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Composition; Design; Education; Education Philosophy; Literacy; Philosophy; Rhetoric; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

nostalgia; new media; rhetoric; composition; literacy; technology; design; wicked design; new media composition; multimodality; multimodal composing; multiliteracy; philosophy of technology; technology; democratic design; metis

McKenzie, AndrewAnarchy Is What Individuals Make of It
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Political Science
Theories and models of political behavior, while sometimes predicated on methodological individualism, routinely fail to consider the possibility and potential impacts of human free will—or the implications if humans lack free will. I argue that all models of social behavior, whether individualistic or holistic, must take at least an implicit position on whether individuals can make free (i.e., autonomous) cognitive and behavioral choices. However, social scientists’ everyday agnosticism on the question of free will threatens theoretical falsehood and practical irrelevance. I discuss the consequences for political science—focusing on international relations—of the existence or absence of free will. I use metapreferences as a modeling technique to help us conceptualize how free will and causation interrelate, and from this develop the argument that free will elevates the importance that natural science and technology play in creating preferred social outcomes. I close by applying the preceding arguments to the study of war.

Committee:

Randall Schweller (Advisor); Alexander Wendt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

International Relations; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Political Science

Keywords:

International relations; free will; voluntarism; determinism; volition; autonomy; war; Fearon; technology; anarchy; structure; agency; neorealism; rational choice; rationality; metapreferences; social science; political science; philosophy of science

Abram, IsaacIssues of Sustainability in the Works of James C. Scott
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
This thesis will explore several pertinent issues regarding environmental sustainability that arise in the recent work of James C. Scott, a professor of Anthropology and Political Science at Yale University. As a result of his official academic titles, fellow scholars overlook the applicability of Scott's work to contemporary issues in environmental studies. But even though his academic pedigree might seem an odd mix from which to cull salient insights into issues of environmental sustainability, this thesis will show that Scott's interdisciplinary background gives him a uniquely advantageous vantage point from which to explore environmental issues. Scott's work offers a panoply of insights that strike at the root of many environmental problems. Chief among his inquiries is the state's role in instigating ecological catastrophe. Scott's analysis of this role is so penetrating and comprehensive that it prompts readers to question the compatibility between the existence of states and prospects for environmental sustainability. The briefest encapsulation of Scott's argument is that states invariably — and perhaps necessarily endeavor to organize existence, and that this organizational compulsion disrupts natural ecological flows, thus producing dire consequences for biota. A second, related insight is that human groups who strive to resist the state invariably — and perhaps necessarily exhibit a more balanced, harmonious commingling with the natural order. The conscious evasion of state-like structures among stateless peoples compels them to apply a set of practices that reduce their environmental impact to nearly nil. These dual insights deserve careful attention given that environmental issues have been thrust to the forefront of social life in recent years. Accordingly, one purpose of this thesis is to recast Scott as one of the most relevant thinkers who can contribute to the conversation regarding sustainability. A second purpose of this thesis is to survey Scott's anthropological studies of Southeast Asian hill peoples. Such a survey will supply an empirical account of the practices that human groups utilized to escape the state's grip while also building sustainable communities. A final purpose of this thesis is to assess whether the practices of these stateless groups enable them to be deemed 'resilient' and thus provide an inspirational model for achieving environmental sustainability.

Committee:

Julie White (Committee Chair); DeLysa Burnier (Committee Member); Nancy Manring (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Justice; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Studies; History; Native Studies; Philosophy; Political Science

Keywords:

James C Scott; sustainability; environmentalism; political agronomy; anarchism

Molter, Daniel J.Species, Units of Evolution, and Secondary Substance
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
Species are classes of organisms on the traditional view, but David Hull argues that species as units of evolution are better understood as individuals composed of organisms as their parts. Phillip Kitcher counters that evolutionary species are better understood as sets. Following Elliot Sober, I argue that constituent definition prohibits a set-theoretic interpretation of species. Following John Dupré, I argue that species and units of evolution are ontologically distinct entities that require different names. “Species” is the proper name of the species category, a class containing many intensionally-defined classes of organisms. The units of evolution that Hull describes are spatiotemporally-individuated physical objects. Following the principle of priority in biological nomenclature, Hull's transgenerational biological individual cannot be called "Species", because that name has a prior valid use. I argue that Hull's species-as-individual has a prior valid name which can be found in Aristotle's Categories. Organisms are members of species, but they are parts of Secondary Substances.

Committee:

Arthur Zucker, PhD (Committee Chair); Wendy Parker, PhD (Committee Member); John Bender, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Metaphysics; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

species; secondary substance; species-as-individuals; David Hull; intensional definition; class

Warm, RichardLeading Deeply: A Heroic Journey Toward Wisdom and Transformation
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
This dissertation will explore leadership as a mytho-poetic transformational journey toward self-knowledge, authenticity, and ultimately wisdom; the power to make meaning and give something back to the world in which we live; and the necessity of transformation. I view leadership as a transformative process and a transformational responsibility. As leaders we must undergo our own transformation in order to lead change on a larger scale. The dissertation will be both philosophical and theoretical, exploring how the threads of the hero’s journey, transformation, wisdom, and leadership intertwine. It will also examine the role of education in this process. Education does not necessarily mean institutional learning as it is so often taken to mean. A broader understanding of what education is and how it needs to serve us individually and as a society, particularly with the intention of developing wisdom and leadership (or wisdom in leadership) will be explored. The hero’s journey, the mytho-poetic journey toward authenticity and self-knowledge, is the golden thread that weaves itself throughout this dissertation. It is both the idea of developing leadership and wisdom as a journey (as opposed to a destination) and the idea that meaning and authenticity is ultimately what drives wisdom and leadership. These concepts manifest themselves in different ways throughout the chapters. In many ways this is a very unorthodox and unusual way to approach leadership. It asks for full engagement, participation, excellence, and mastery—a lifelong dedication. None of these concepts are new, but most of them are often unheeded or not practiced. It also focuses on the common good, an element that research in both wisdom and higher stages of consciousness share. The intent is to explore the transformational process inherent in becoming a leader and consequently leading transformation that ultimately makes the world a better place on a number of different levels—leading deeply. Leading deeply makes a difference through tapping into meaning and purpose. When our lives are about contribution and giving back, growth and wisdom, evolution and making the world in which we live and in which our children will live a better place, the experience of life becomes deeper, richer. Leading deeply connects us back to life, creates meaning, and helps us understand that what we are doing does matter. A leader is one who has gone through his or her own heroic and transformative journey, returning with a gift, and enabling others to do the same. The goal is development. It is directed toward growth, flourishing, higher levels of consciousness, and understanding. It is paradoxically rooted in tradition yet always embracing the change in which we live. Leading deeply takes us deeper to what is ultimately important for all of us. This electronic version of dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Laura Morgan Roberts, PhD (Committee Member); Jonathan Reams, PhD (Committee Member); Donna Ladkin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Business Education; Developmental Psychology; Education Philosophy; Organization Theory; Philosophy; Spirituality

Keywords:

leadership; wisdom; transformation; hero&8217;s journey; mastery; theory; self knowledge; eudaimonia; flourishing; education; leadership development; theoretical; mythology; poetry; authenticity; common good; meaning

Arledge, Christopher S.Cosmological Model Selection and Akaike’s Criterion
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
Contemporary cosmology is teeming with model underdetermination and cosmologists are looking for methods with which to relieve some of this underdetermination. One such method that has found its way into cosmology in recent years is the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The criterion is meant to select the model that loses the least amount of information in its approximation of the data, and furthermore AIC shows a preference for simplicity by containing a penalty term that penalizes models with excessive complexity. The principle aim of this paper is to investigate some of the strengths and weaknesses of AIC against two philosophical backdrops in order to determine its usefulness in cosmological model selection. The backdrops or positions against which AIC will be assessed are I) realist and II) antirealist. It will be argued that on both of these positions there is at least one feature of AIC that proves problematic for the satisfaction of the aims of the position.

Committee:

Philip Ehrlich (Advisor); John Norton (Committee Member); Yoichi Ishida (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

philosophy; philosophy of cosmology; philosophy of science; AIC; cosmological modeling; model selection

Gardner, KaiInto the Fray : Norman Jacobson, the Free Speech Movement and the Clash of Commitments
BA, Oberlin College, 2015, History
Norman Jacobson, a renowned political theorist at the University of California, Berkeley, experienced firsthand the radical campus politics of the 1960s. Through an analysis of Jacobson's letters, speeches and lectures, this thesis seeks to reconstruct the way Jacobson understood and experienced the 1964 Free Speech Movement. Jacobson attempted to authentically face an overwhelming political crisis at the university. Ultimately, Jacobson knew he must take a stand in response to the student protests. By simply focusing on the concrete political action Jacobson did take, however, one risks overlooking the complexity of his political thought.

Committee:

Clayton Koppes (Advisor); Renee Romano (Committee Chair); Shelley Lee (Committee Member); David Kelley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Education Philosophy; History; Philosophy; Political Science

Keywords:

The Free Speech Movement;Norman Jacobson;existentialism;Albert Camus;The Myth of Sisyphus;authenticity;commitment;responsibility;1960s;radical politics;Mario Savio;political theory;University of California, Berkeley;Clark Kerr;multiversity

Larsen, Randy R.The Role of Nature in John Muir's Conception of the Good Life
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

Aristotle says our best moral guidance comes from considering the lives of exemplary individuals. I explore John Muir, as an exemplar of environmental virtue, and consider the role of Nature in his conception of the good life. I argue his conception consists of a web of virtue including various goods, values, and virtues. I suggest three virtues are cardinal: attentiveness, gratitude and reverence. I explore how Muir cultivated these virtues in Nature.

I argue Muir sought freedom from a popular conception of the good life, grounded in the gilded age values of money and materialism, and was sensitive to the harms these brought to both Nature and individuals. I show that Muir was particularly aware of the effects of what he called the vice of over-industry. I argue Muir was willing to suffer extreme loneliness in order to cultivate his conception of the good life in Nature. I show that he struggled, especially in his thirties, to find a balance between freedom and community.

I show how in Nature Muir cultivated attentiveness to both his intuition and the observable world and I explore the relationship between them. I show that his rejection of anthropocentrism was based, in part, on his observations as a fully-engaged scientist. I argue attentiveness lead Muir to view wild animals as exemplars. He was especially drawn to the skill, beauty and true instinct of wild mountain sheep.

I explore the relationship between gratitude and celebration and Muir's exuberant expressions of ecstasy. I argue that while many of his friends remained stoic, his observation of the celebration of Stickeen, a small black dog, lead him to important insights into the commonality of all “our fellow mortals.” I make the case that Muir was most grateful for beauty as expressed in natural harmony. I distinguish gratitude from appreciation and thankfulness by suggesting gratitude implies reciprocity, as in a debt of gratitude, and that Muir's environmental activism was motivated by wanting to reciprocate his gratitude for Nature. I also posit that through this activism Muir found increased meaning in his life; thus reflecting the nature of a truly reciprocal relationship.

I argue Paul Woodruff's framing of the term reverence offers an important environmental virtue because it positions processors as learning the limits and potentialities of their power and wisdom. Knowing one is neither all-powerful nor helpless is an essential environmental virtue because it steers clear of both apathy and hubris. I argue neither apathy nor hubris is an appropriate response to our current environmental crisis. I show how Muir was able to cultivate reverence through wild adventure.

I conclude by speculating on how President Obama's Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster Commission might have been affected if John Muir were a member the commission.

Committee:

Mitch Thomashow, Dr (Committee Chair); Phil Cafaro, Dr. (Committee Member); Joy Ackerman, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Education; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Studies; Ethics; Philosophy; Religion; Wildlife Conservation

Keywords:

John Muir; virtue ethics; wilderness; Nature; gratitude; attentiveness; reverence; reciprocity; simplicity; freedom; Aristotle; beauty; Stickeen; Deep Horizon Oil disaster; over-industry; ; environmental virtue ethics; environmental ethics;loneliness;

Klein, Robert R.Toward a Good Life in Later Life: Perspectives, Problems, and Responses
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Geography
America is aging. The older share of the U.S. population is expected by 2030 to reach 72 million, almost 20% of the country's total population. What will the experiences of later life be like for this group of people? In order to answer this question, one must consider different perspectives on what it means to age well. One influential definition of aging well is Rowe and Kahn's concept of "successful aging," consisting of three dimensions: avoidance of disease and disability, high physical and cognitive functioning, and active engagement with life. The successful aging paradigm emerged out of a sense of optimism about the new possibilities for older adults today, yet the paradigm also raises fundamental questions about the ability of different actors in society to define standards that can carry important ethical implications and practical consequences. Indeed, empirical research employing Rowe and Kahn's successful aging framework finds that only about 11% of older adults in the US would be considered successful, implying that the vast majority are failures. Similarly, using multilevel modeling for small area estimation and data from the 1999 National Long-Term Care Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey, this dissertation's quantitative state-level analysis shows that fewer than 150 older adults in 1,000 would be deemed successful agers in Wisconsin, the state found here to have the highest rate of successful aging. In short, the successful aging paradigm is well-intentioned, but far too exclusive to serve as a normative model for later life. In order to work toward a more inclusive vision for later life, one might alternatively seek out the perspectives of nursing home residents. What does a good life in later life look like from the standpoint of elders facing the challenges of nursing home life and what can such views tell us about a broader notion of aging well? Qualitative analyses, consisting of secondary qualitative data analysis and meta-ethnography, of interviews with nursing home residents suggest that an inclusive definition of aging well should include at least three components: defining oneself more than being defined by others, acting to realize preferences, and receiving the care one wishes. However, for a variety of reasons, it can be difficult to have the kind of later life one desires. By connecting archival research on a nursing home in Cleveland and its long-term care organization with an account of the growing use of technology in the hospital beginning from 1900 to 1925, the critical historical method of genealogy offers insights into the ways in which societal processes of medicalization and commercialization have impacted eldercare in the nursing home and end-of-life care in the hospital throughout the 20th century and up to the present. Suggestions for possible individual and societal responses to the problems of achieving one's own idea of aging well are offered. One hopes that the quality of aging experiences will be improved in time to benefit the largest group of older adults in US history.

Committee:

Edward Malecki, PhD (Advisor); Virginia Richardson, PhD (Committee Member); Nancy Ettlinger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Ethics; Geography; Gerontology; Health; Health Care; History; Medical Ethics; Medicine; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

aging well; successful aging; aging in place; end-of-life care; nursing home; hospital; critical gerontology; crystallization; geography; multilevel modeling; secondary qualitative data analysis; meta-ethnography; genealogy; Estes; Foucault; Dewey

Hickey, Chris L.The Phenomenal Characteristics of the Son-Father Relationship Experience
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine what the son-father relationship experience feels like (the phenomenology of the son-father relationship), and how the relationship experience affects leadership development, specifically in the son. I chose to reverse the order of the typical reference on this topic (father-son) in order to emphasize the significance of the son (role) being the central character or object of interest, even in instances where the character is a father in addition to being a son. Additionally, it should be noted that all fathers are sons, but not all sons are fathers (biologically, and/or socially, and/or conceptually). My central research question is: How is leadership development influenced by the phenomenological characteristics of the son-father relationship experience? I address this question through a series of interviews with adolescent boys age 17 and men between 18 and 45 years of age. The foundation of my interview protocol is built on a series of theory-based questions (Wengraf, 2001) that are outlined below. Analysis of these interviews is presented along with a comparative review of the scholarly literature on leadership development in adolescents. The primary value of this research is its applicability to youth leadership development programs with respect to the potential to add an emphasis on values and practices that cultivate healthy sustainable relationships that are consistent with responsible and effective parent involvement and planning, family leadership, and community support. While there is considerable consideration being acknowledged to an anecdotal connection between how boys are, or should be, affected by the leadership qualities of their fathers, very little was articulated about how the participants felt their own leadership development was influenced by the relationship experience, particularly juxtaposed to the amount of attention the participants spent on describing their feelings and emotions about their son-father relationship experience. In this respect, what is particularly noteworthy is the richness of the interviews with respect to the participant’s accounts of the phenomenal characteristics of the son-father relationship experience, including how sons articulate their feelings about the relationship, at and over time. This dissertation is accompanied by an Author’s Introduction supplemental file [mp4]. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Philomena Essed, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael J. Diamond, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Toby Miller, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Asian American Studies; Behavioral Psychology; Black Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Counseling Education; Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Ethnic Studies; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Gender Studies; Hispanic American Studies; Individual and Family Studies; Literacy; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Personality; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Preschool Education; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Studies Education; Social Work; Sociology; Special Education

Keywords:

Phenomenal Characteristics; Phenomenology; Father-son relationship; Leadership Development; Adolescents; Family leadership; Leadership Qualities; Fathers; Feelings; Emotions; Male Development; Attachment Theory; Father Hunger

Teeple, Jamie EricA Multidisciplinary Normative Evaluation of Media as an Educational Institution
Master of Education, University of Toledo, 2013, Education Theory and Social Foundations
In this thesis, I seek to determine whether or not media in the form of advertisements can be considered not simply a morally “neutral” societal triviality, but more so a potentially deleterious, “unjust” pedagogical phenomenon. I initiate this reinterpretation of media as an educational force by first attempting to justify via the work of Joe Kincheloe, Patrick Slattery, and Shirley Steinberg (2000) an interpretation of media as an “educational institution”. I then utilize Martha Nussbaum’s (2011) interpretation of the Capabilities Approach to frame advertisements that utilize implicit persuasion to delimit consumers’ ability for free product selection as manifestations of media as an “unjust” educational institution. I then draw upon the work of Flavio Vega (Martin, 1992), Martin Heidegger (1962), Emmanuel Levinas (1997), and Slavoj Zizek (2008) to depict two specific advertisements as discriminatory, and thus vehicles of media as a discriminatory educational institution. I then return to Martha Nussbaum (2011) and the Capabilities Approach to argue that discriminatory media forms can also be considered “unjust” because they undermine the Central Capability of “affiliation”. I subsequently use this dual interpretation of media as an unjust and discriminatory educational institution to warrant a call for educational responses. I then include in what I deem to be effective educational responses to media as an unjust and discriminatory educational institution not only Douglas Kellner’s and Jeff Share’s (2005) elaboration of critical media literacy, but also Richard Rorty’s (Hayden, 2001; Voparil, 2006) conception of sentimental education and David Takacs’ (2002) interpretation of an assets model of multiculturalism. I finally critique Claudia Ruitenberg’s (2010) affect-based pedagogical model of inductive political education as being complicit in cultivating antagonistic intersubjective relationships and lend support instead for Rorty’s (Hayden, 2001; Voparil, 2006) and Takacs’ (2002) pedagogical models.

Committee:

Dale Snauwaert (Advisor); Renee Martin (Committee Member); Thomas Barden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Theory; Philosophy; Sociology

Keywords:

Education; Media; Advertisements; Racist Advertisements; Commercials; Critical Media Analysis; Heidegger; Zizek; Nussbaum; Rorty

Ganoe, Kristy L.Mindful Movement as a Cure for Colonialism
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, American Culture Studies/Ethnic Studies
This study investigated aikido, a martial art that emphasizes non-violent conflict resolution. After an extensive period of preliminary research including personal study of aikido and historiographical contextualization of aikido lore, fifteen aikido students and instructors were interviewed, and thirty-four students were observed during a total of sixty-four classes at two different aikido schools, each of which were led by female head instructors who taught a mixed-sex student body. Ethnographic data was analyzed from a multidisciplinary perspective that blends feminist cultural studies with decolonial and psychoanalytic theories. Connections between research participants' understandings of the concept of power and their approaches to conflict resolution are explored. Participants described power as: physically internal, the ability to be grounded and centered, the ability to direct and re-direct energy, the ability to maintain awareness of one's self and environment, and the ability to cultivate growth. Study participants' sense of generative power resonated interpersonally through participants' self-reported and observed conflict resolution strategies, which include: maintaining awareness of one's environment, adjusting one's posture through practices called centering and grounding, not fighting by turning (tenkan) and blending with one's "opponent" while entering (irimi) the conflict with measured assertiveness, and maintaining a capacity for a wide range of reactions (ukemi). Participants demonstrated an ability to think about and productively engage with large-scale social conflicts (such as gender violence) by relying on philosophically and kinesthetically sophisticated understandings of links between the personal and the political. This is because the movement practice aikido challenges colonial ways of knowing by functioning as an embodied meta-ideological deconstruction, one of several (r)evolutionary tactics discussed in decolonial feminist theory. This dissertation concludes with a meditation on the application of aikido philosophy to a practical deconstruction of the social institutions of contemporary American imperialism.

Committee:

Vikki Krane, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ellen Berry, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Marv Belzer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Don Callen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Christina Guenther, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Alternative Dispute Resolution; American History; American Studies; Art Criticism; Art Education; Art History; Asian American Studies; Communication; Comparative; Cultural Anthropology; Dance; Education; Education Philosophy; Ethics; Ethnic Studies; Fine Arts; Folklore; Gender Studies; Kinesiology; Modern History; Multicultural Education; Peace Studies; Pedagogy; Performing Arts; Philosophy; Physical Education; Rhetoric; Sociolinguistics; Sports Management; Sustainability; Womens Studies; World History

Keywords:

Aikido; Cultural Studies; Womens and Gender Studies; Decolonial Theory; Peace Studies; Mindful Movement; Martial Arts; Transformative Praxis; Performance Studies; Decolonial Feminist Cultural Studies; Consciousness Studies

Rowe, Bradley D.Consuming Animals as an Educational Act
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership
The main purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that consuming animals is an educational act that warrants sustained attention. The main question I address is: What does the consumption of animals have to do with the life of the educated person? I argue that we should learn more about the lives—which is to say, the deprivation, torment, and death—of the animals we eat. This sort of learning requires a fresh way to think about not only education, but also food, eating, and animals. I aim to illuminate the extent to which we are implicated in systems of immense suffering, and at the same time, provoke us to grow by questioning deeply-entrenched habit of consuming animals. This dissertation is a theoretical exploration that may or may not lead to dietary change, but that does, I believe, hold potential to change the way we think and act in the world. In Chapter 1, I lay out the reasons why consuming animals is a rich subject for educational philosophy. Chapter 2 is a brief overview of the animal ethics literature to analyze the moral arguments for bringing nonhuman beings into the realm of human moral consideration. Clearly, eating animals is an ethical act and it is important to review who has said what about it. In Chapter 3, I explore John Dewey’s conception of growth and argue that, for human moral growth, we should consider the habit of consuming animals. In Chapter 4, I shift the focus to (mis)education at the cultural level. I argue that it is important to understand the consumption of animals—as a problem of cultural miseducation—so that we are better situated to rethink and resist the cultural forces that shape the consenting attitudes underlying this fundamental act of consumption. Chapter 5 examines the educational significance of understanding animals-becoming-meat—that is, the agricultural and slaughtering practices that turn living, full-bodied animals into fragmented, edible pieces of meat. This chapter has a broader function, too, as I make a case for extending scholarly inquiry addressing consumerism and commercialism to (re)encompass production and labor. Animals-becoming-meat is a particular form of production and labor that illustrates and exposes the larger problems of distance, ignorance, and alienation in contemporary life; it also demonstrates how the foundational role of production is largely concealed and thus taken for granted in consumer society. I end with Chapter 6 where I argue that the most effective and transformative pedagogical means to understand animals-becoming-meat is to watch the process unfold, with our own eyes. Given the great extent that corporate agriculture goes to conceal the brutality behind its walls, I believe we must be unsettled with disturbing visuals of animals-becoming-meat. I argue that education should unveil the exploitive practices that remain deliberately hidden from public view—even if it is culturally taboo to do so.

Committee:

Bryan Warnick (Committee Chair); Antoinette Errante (Committee Member); Philip Smith (Committee Member); Ann Allen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Environmental Education; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Studies; Ethics

Keywords:

"meat eating and education; animal ethics and education; food and schools; food consumption and education"

Warnke, Jeffery HCivic Education in an Age of Ecological Crisis: A Rawlsian Political Liberal Conception
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Foundations of Education: Philosophy of Education
The ecological crisis as defined by the scientific community raises questions that challenge contemporary ethical, political, and educational theory. Situating the problem in the tradition of democratic theory, this study lays out a Rawlsian political liberal conception of sustainability that hinges upon a liberal conception of justice that places moral duties on the state, the citizen, and the educational institutions of contemporary societies. As such the idea of ecological integrity rises to the category of a matter of justice which requires a political principle of sustainability that functions as a normative precommitment. This normative precommitment in turn places moral duties on the government of democratic peoples and concomitantly the citizenry that are the source of legitimate democratic authority. The demanding role of citizenship in this conception thus places an imperative on education which by its nature is a normative activity and thus demands a renewed civic purpose for education that entails the sustainability as well as the stability of democratic society.

Committee:

Dale Snauwaert, PhD (Committee Chair); Lynne Hamer, PhD (Committee Member); Revathy Kumar, PhD (Committee Member); Vicki Dagostino, PhD (Committee Member); Fuad Al-Daraweesh, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Environmental Justice; Environmental Philosophy; Ethics

Keywords:

Democracy; John Rawls; Political Liberalism, Education, Environmental Ethics; Citizenship; Justice; Public Reason

Houchens, Jesse P.Alternatives to the Calculus: Nonstandard Analysis and Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
We attempt to clarify and evaluate what shall be called Mac Lane’s thesis—the thesis that nonstandard analysis (NSA) and smooth infinitesimal analysis (SIA) are alternatives to the standard approach to the calculus. In doing so, we outline the historical approaches to the calculus, the standard approach to the calculus, and two nonstandard approaches, namely NSA and SIA; we also attempt to clarify and evaluate a set of comparisons of NSA and SIA, namely John L. Bell’s 5 mathematico-philosophical contentions and Bell’s historical contention.

Committee:

Philip Ehrlich, PhD (Advisor); Stewart Shapiro, PhD (Committee Member); Todd Eisworth, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mathematics; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

Alternatives to the calculus; alternatives; calculus; nonstandard analysis; NSA; John L. Bell; J.H. Keisler; smooth infinitesimal analysis; synthetic differential geometry; philosophy of mathematics; mathematical philosophy; analysis; intuitionistic

Briney, Carol EMy Journey with Prisoners: Perceptions, Observations and Opinions
MLS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
Carol E. Briney is the founding executive director of Reentry Bridge Network, Inc. and Reentry Solutions, Inc. Briney believes that a systematic approach is required to reduce the likelihood of recidivisim. For nearly a decade, she has written and facilitated holistic pro-social programs inside prisons and in community forums. Her programs support bridging the gap between prison and community by focusing on human value, grief-impairment, daily literacy, reentry and job readiness, trauma-informed care, the healing arts, and understanding poverty. Briney's work is founded on her strong belief - If we can’t help people to realize their own universal value, how can we expect them to see the value in their victims or their environment? This is gained through asset building, not punitive action. It takes community to reduce recidivism.

Committee:

Richard Berrong, PhD (Advisor); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member); Manacy Pai, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Aging; Art Criticism; Art Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Black History; Black Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Criminology; Cultural Anthropology; Cultural Resources Management; Curriculum Development; Developmental Psychology; Divinity; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Evolution and Development; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Forensic Anthropology; Gender Studies; Gerontology; Individual and Family Studies; Inservice Training; Instructional Design; Journalism; Kinesiology; Language; Linguistics; Literacy; Logic; Mental Health; Metaphysics; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Modern Literature; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Pastoral Counseling; Peace Studies; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Political Science; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Administration; Public Policy; Religion; Religious Education; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociolinguistics; Sociology; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Theology; Urban Planning; Vocational Education; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

prison; reentry; trauma; poverty; grounded theory; universal value; punitive; recidivism; corrections; Retablo; play therapy; male prisoners; female prisoners; socio-metaphysics; grief-impairment; grief and loss; truth-telling; poverty; hood; prison art

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