Search Results (1 - 25 of 310 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Gifford, RoyFactors Contributing to Sustainable Brand Growth
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Management
Brand leaders are responsible for leading brand building activities in very complex systems within organizations (e.g., sales, marketing, operations, finance). Firms spend an enormous amount of resources to support brand building activities in their complex systems. Ad spending worldwide reached $513 billion in 2015, 5% growth versus 2014. Global R&D spending reached $480 billion in 2015. Despite this level of spending and focus, brand deaths occur (e.g., Oldsmobile, Plymouth, and Woolworth Stores). Yet, some (e.g., John Deere) have demonstrated continued brand growth over time. The fact is that some brand leaders are successful at driving brand performance and some are not. What is the secret to staying relevant to consumers across generations of consumers (e.g., Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials)? Research shows that brands with the ability to emotionally connect with their consumers have innovative product offerings that create value with consumers. But, what impact do the feelings and behaviors of brand leaders and consumers have on brand engagement to drive brand performance? I began my research journey (study #1) with the goal of exploring the differences between growing brand leaders and declining brand leaders. I found that leaders who exhibit emotional intelligence, hope, and social identity build stronger emotional connections between their brands and consumers, which leads to sustainable brand growth. In study #2, I explored how organizational behavior impacts a brand leader’s market orientation. This study was the first to link the feelings and behaviors of leaders to market orientation. Based on my findings, I discovered that a brand leader’s shared values with the firm and participation in their brand community impact a firm’s level of market orientation. I believe these findings start to reveal insights into how brand leaders drive business performance by increasing brand engagement with consumers. In study #3, I answered what motivates a consumer to participate in a brand community. I believe these findings will provide key insights to brand leaders trying to build stronger emotional bonds between their brands and consumers. Previous research has shown the outcomes of consumers interacting with brands in a brand community and the results of consumers participating in a brand community. However, there is a gap in research regarding why consumers are motivated to participate in a brand community. I found evidence to suggest that a consumer’s conformity motivation, brand loyalty, and attachment style increase their brand community participation. This research shows that the feelings and behaviors of brand leaders and consumers increase brand engagement to drive brand performance. I found that the brand community is a source of the emotional connection that drives engagement between the brand leader and the brand as well as the consumer and the brand. It is truly a tale of two individuals (brand leader and consumer) engaging with the brand at a crossroads called brand community. I believe these will be important learnings for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand this phenomenon to position their brands for sustainable long-term growth.

Committee:

Casey Newmeyer (Committee Chair); William Ross (Committee Member); Rakesh Niraj (Committee Member); James Gaskin (Committee Member); Roger Saillant (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Marketing; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

emotional intelligence; market orientation; brand community; sustainable brand growth; brand leaders; consumers

Parks, Tomas AA Theoretical and Empirical Study of Global Talent Management: Three Operationalizations of GTM and their Impact on Firm Performance
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2017, Monte Ahuja College of Business
This theoretical and empirical study of Global Talent Management (GTM) analyzes the four major theory and practice gaps of GTM as identified in the literature. It proposes three operationalizations of GTM and empirically analyzes their impact on perceived firm performance. A thorough literature review provides the framework for the operationalizations of GTM. The empirical analysis includes a replication of six scales using a sample of Talent from firms using GTM systems. These scales represent the constructs of the three operationalizations of GTM. Then a series of multiple regression equations analyze the impact of the operationalizations of GTM on perceived firm performance and perceived hiring practices. The scales are all replicated except for one, thus contributing to the literature. In addition, support for the impact of GTM on perceived firm performance is found. The result is theoretical and empirical support for the impact of GTM on perceived firm performance for a sample of 369 talented individuals in firms using GTM systems.

Committee:

Susan Storrud-Barnes, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rajshekhar Javalgi, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Richard Reed, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Doren Chadee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Talent; Talent Management; Global Talent Management; Human Resources; Strategic Human Resources; Multinational Corporation; Multinational Enterprise; Engagement; Development; Support; Retention; Alignment; Deployment; Evaluation; TM; GTM; HRM; IHRM; SHRM

West, Sarah M."Serviam": A Historical Case Study of Leadership in Transition in Urban Catholic Schools in Northeast Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Education and Human Services
The purpose of this historical case study was to explore, through the lens of knowledge transfer, answers to the following two questions: how did the Sister-educators from one community in Northeast Ohio prepare themselves for leadership, and when it became clear that the future of their urban school depended on transitioning to lay leadership, how did Sister-principals prepare their religious communities and their school communities for that change. This qualitative study focuses on six members of one active, engaged, service-based community which has supported schools Northeast Ohio for over a century. The research revealed that a successful Sister-to-laity leadership transition will have its foundation in charismatic love, encourage faith-filled mentoring of faculty and students, honor the mission of the founding community, and support an overarching leadership culture of magnanimity to all stakeholders. This model can be employed in other educational and nonprofit settings where non-hierarchical servant leadership would be an effective approach.

Committee:

Marius Boboc, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Lehfeldt, Ph.D (Committee Member); Adam Voight, Ph.D (Committee Member); Matt Jackson-McCabe, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Religion; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; School Administration; Teaching

Keywords:

qualitative research, case study, religious education, Catholic school culture, urban school leadership, religious congregations, Catholic school leadership, leadership models, education policy, Northeast Ohio Catholic education, education history

Mark, Margaret WoodrowPracticing Sacred Encounters: A Narrative Analysis of Relational, Spiritual, and Nursing Leadership
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2017, Leadership and Change
This research examined one large health system that has, through a stated mission outcome that every encounter is a sacred encounter, sought to enhance relationships occurring within the health care environment. Seeking to understand the lived experience of sacred encounters through the lens of nurse leaders in one acute care hospital settings this study examined how nurse leaders experienced their leadership role in realizing sacred encounters. Participants were defined as nurse leaders from one hospital setting and included nurse managers, directors and one vice president. A narrative thematic analysis framed by situational analysis was the method of inquiry. Data was gathered through an intensive interview process eliciting an in-depth exploration of the experience of the participants, along with their personal interpretation of that experience. Two questions were asked to each participant, the first to gain an understanding about their personal experience with sacred encounters and the second to allow the nurse leader to reflect on his or her personal leadership behavior as it related to the realization of sacred encounters within their primary area(s) of responsibility. A review of research of current literature focused on relational leadership, spiritual leadership and nursing leadership theory. The major finding was that organizational culture can be defined from the top of the organization and, through well-defined and purposeful leadership behaviors, be realized at the point of bedside care. This study was limited to a one-faith-based hospital. Future research should focus on broadening the scope of inquiry about organizational culture and how espoused culture can be translated into action through purposeful leadership behaviors. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, https://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLINK ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Hollaway, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Peter Vaill, D.B.A. (Other)

Subjects:

Health Care Management; Nursing; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

nursing; nurse managers; leadership; nurses; relational leadership; spiritual leadership; spirituality; organizational culture; narrative inquiry; organizational psychology

Wei, HongguoTop-down and Bottom-up Effects: An Examination of Relational Compassion in Leader-follower Dyads
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Organizational Behavior
Compassion at work has received increasing attention, yet little is known about its connotation and application in leader-follower dyads. Building on the notion of an ethic of care and the psychological approach to compassion, relational compassion is conceptualized as a three-dimensional construct involving encountering, communicating, and experiencing to emphasize the mutuality and shared experience between leaders and followers in ongoing organizational relationships. To explore what relational compassion means between leaders and followers and how it impacts leader and follower outcomes at work, I conduct two studies in this dissertation. In Study 1 I operationalize the construct of relational compassion as a subjective dyadic evaluation using in-depth interviews, literature review, and content adequacy assessments. I then obtain leader-follower data from U.S. and Chinese samples to provide evidence of construct validity of the 11-item relational compassion scale including (a) factorial structure, (b) convergent validity, (c) discriminant validity, and (d) measurement invariance. In Study 2 I build a theoretical model of how the top-down (leader-to-follower) and the bottom-up (follower-to-leader) relational compassion influence leader and follower outcomes. I theorize self-efficacy as a mediator, and perceived organizational injustice (PINJ) and transactional leadership (TRANS) as two contextual moderators. Matched data are collected longitudinally from leader-follower dyads at work groups in a Chinese real estate company. Results showed that 1) follower-to-leader relational compassion (FCOM) increases both leader and follower self-efficacy, which respectively leads to high leadership effectiveness, and follower job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. 2) After controlling for transactional leadership, at the group level leader-to-follower relational compassion (LCOM) increases leader self-efficacy, which is positively related to leadership effectiveness. 3) PINJ and TRANS negatively moderate the positive relationship between LCOM and leader self-efficacy, and positively moderate the negative relationship between FCOM and leader self-efficacy. This dissertation contributes to research and practice at the intersection of compassion and leadership. Specifically, a relational perspective complements and extends current understanding of compassion. Relational compassion is not about the giver but the interaction and mutuality between the giver and the receiver. It is not only the subjective power of the leader but also the power and resources of followers.

Committee:

Diana Bilimoria (Committee Chair); Jagdip Singh (Committee Member); John Paul Stephens (Committee Member); Melvin Smith (Committee Member); Yunxia Zhu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

relational compassion; leader-follower dyads; scale development; self-efficacy; organizational context

Saiz, Carolina Del CarmenOpportunities for Conversion to More Sustainable Practices by Houses of Worship through Team Performance Enhancing Strategies that Include Leadership with Facilitative Skills
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
This research focused on assessing the performance of teams of volunteers in Houses of Worship (HOWs) in the State of Massachusetts that are successfully planning, advancing and completing sustainable initiatives. The sustainable initiatives included solar photovoltaic (PV) installations, city public parks cleaning projects, efficient windows installations, efficient lighting fixtures installations, and building insulation improvements. The goal of this research was to assess the dynamics of a total of eight successful teams, including the relationships among team members and their leaders with facilitative skills that they perceived were instrumental to their effective and efficient performance. The role of team leadership was more relevant than anticipated, and it presented statistical interdependence with team interpersonal processes such as: collaboration, cooperation, cohesion, communication, coordination, trust, and especially conflict resolution. Based on this knowledge and qualitative data from interviews, a set of guidelines on “best practices” was produced, containing recommendations on how to build and manage HOW teams to conduct local sustainability projects. Key words: sustainability best practices, team, leader with facilitative skills, House of Worship (HOW), solar energy, energy efficiency.

Committee:

James Gruber, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); James Jordan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Pojasek, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Energy; Environmental Studies; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Sustainability

Keywords:

sustainability; team; leadership; facilitative skills; House of Worship; solar energy; energy efficiency; environment; climate change

Lyddy, Christopher J.Mindfulness: Investigating a Potential Resource for Resilience Against Workplace Ego Depletion
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Organizational Behavior
Mindfulness, the psychological quality of enhanced and accepting present-moment attention often cultivated via meditation, has been increasingly linked to effective individual self-regulation in organizational contexts. In particular, it may help avert ego depletion, a temporary inability to resist maladaptive impulses that undermine goal realization. Ego depletion may be particularly likely and harmful in adverse organizational environments that demand and drain self-control resources. To explore whether mindfulness practices may act as a resource helping to avert ego depletion, I conducted two studies of individuals facing workplace adversity. An interview study of 26 health system workers receiving mindfulness training revealed that their routine and extraordinary challenges, including Hurricane Sandy recovery, provoked widespread dysregulation. Within this environment, mindfulness provided a portfolio of psychological resources that helped avert ego depletion. A laboratory study of 117 college students demonstrated that mindfulness diminished ego depletion while facing the workplace challenge of negative performance feedback. Randomly assigning brief mindfulness practice prior to receiving negative feedback averted self-esteem loss and associated ego depletion. Jointly, these studies provide evidence that mindfulness confers psychological resources that mitigate ego depletion and foster self-control while facing workplace adversity. These findings have implications for understanding of self-regulation, resilience, and compassion within organizations.

Committee:

John Paul Stephens (Committee Chair); Ronald Fry (Committee Member); Cooperrider David (Committee Member); Heath Demaree (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Mindfulness; self-regulation; ego depletion; workplace training

Sinha, VinayakSentiment Analysis On Java Source Code In Large Software Repositories
Master of Computing and Information Systems, Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems
While developers are writing code to accomplish the task assigned to them, their sentiments play a vital role and have a massive impact on quality and productivity. Sentiments can have either a positive or a negative impact on the tasks being performed by developers. This thesis presents an analysis of developer commit logs for GitHub projects. In particular, developer sentiment in commits is analyzed across 28,466 projects within a seven-year time frame. We use the Boa infrastructure’s online query system to generate commit logs as well as files that were changed during the commit. Two existing sentiment analysis frameworks (SentiStrength and NLTK) are used for sentiment extraction. We analyze the commits in three categories: large, medium, and small based on the number of commits using sentiment analysis tools. In addition, we also group the data based on the day of week the commit was made and map the sentiment to the file change history to determine if there was any correlation. Although a majority of the sentiment was neutral, the negative sentiment was about 10% more than the positive sentiment overall. Tuesdays seem to have the most negative sentiment overall. In addition, we do find a strong correlation between the number of files changed and the sentiment expressed by the commits the files were part of. It was also observed that SentiStrength and NLTK show consistent results and similar trends. Future work and implications of these results are discussed.

Committee:

Bonita Sharif, PhD (Advisor); Alina Lazar, PhD (Committee Member); John Sullins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Information Technology; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Sentiment Analysis; Emotions; Commit logs; Java projects; Large Software Repositories

Hayes, Susan M.A Mixed Methods Perspective: How Integral Leaders Can Contribute to the Growth of Emerging Leaders
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
Given that organizational complexity continues to increase, leaders are looking for credible information, and a process that helps them become a better leader. Emerging leaders are faced with trying to be the best leader they can be while leading teams of people who think and act differently from them. To assist emerging leaders with their leadership, this study explores the literature and looks to highly respected and admired leaders for how they became the leader they are today. The purpose of this study was fourfold: first, to identify and describe first and second tier integral theory leaders from a sample of leader respondents from a U.S. Midwestern city; second, to describe how first and second tier integral theory leaders define leadership; third, to determine what second tier integral leaders see as leading to their becoming the leader they are today; and fourth, to identify the integral leader’s perspectives and advice that can be shared with emerging leaders. This study focused on the convergent space of three theories. The first theory is the field of adult development theory with transformational leadership, the constructive-developmental theories, and meaning making; the second is the field of integral theory with Wilber’s all quadrants, all levels (AQAL) theory, and first and second tier consciousness; and the last is the hero’s journey as described by Joseph Campbell, and the quest for truth. The (AQAL) framework was used in a mixed methods perspective to explore how people assessed as integral leaders defined leadership, developed into integral leaders, and how they can contribute to the growth of emerging leaders. This study was dual-phased: Phase 1 was a quantitative and qualitative survey completed by 624 leaders, and Phase 2 was a telephone interview with eight integral leaders. From the thematic analysis of all the data, four themes emerged: looking inward, looking outward, being a good leader and paying it forward by mentoring others. Implications for emerging leaders, leadership and change, and future research are discussed. This ETD is available in open access in OhioLink ETD, http://ohiolink.edu/Center and AURA http://aura.antioch.edu/

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ron Cacioppe, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rica Viljoen, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

mixed methods; integral theory; hero journey; spiral dynamics; tier one development; tier two development; leader; leadership; adult development; emerging leaders

Kuczmanski, Jacob JohnThe Effects of the Planning Fallacy and Organizational Error Management Culture on Occupational Self-Efficacy
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2016, Psychology
The current study examined the effects of planning errors and organizational error management culture on occupational self-efficacy. A total of 223 participants were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes where they were asked to imagine themselves completing a project at a fictitious company. The vignettes were constructed using a 2 (planning error: present, not present) x 2 (error management culture: high, low) betweensubjects factorial design. In the planning error condition, the participant was described as making a planning error when completing the project, whereas in the no planning error condition, no error was made, and the project was completed on time. In the high error management culture condition, the company was described as being open to errors and emphasized communication and learning from errors, whereas in the low error management culture condition, the company was described as not being open to errors and penalized the participant if an error was made. After reading the scenario, the participants rated their level of occupational self-efficacy. Results showed a significant main effect of planning errors on occupational self-efficacy, such that occupational selfefficacy was lower in the planning errors condition than in the no planning errors condition. Future research should continue to explore additional consequences of planning errors and other errors in the workplace. Moreover, future research should further examine ways that organizations can reduce errors in their employees and ways to reduce the negative effects of the errors when they do occur.

Committee:

Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Morell Mullins, Jr., Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

planning errors; organizational error management culture; occupational self-efficacy; workplace errors; error; planning fallacy; self-efficacy; planning; fail; failures; workplace failure; optimistic bias

Halper, Leah R.Continuous Learning: Choosing and Allocating Resources to Strengths and Weaknesses
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Individuals are continuously learning and improving over a lifetime. This continuous, self-directed learning can be very important for individual career success because organizations improve through the continuous learning of the employees. Yet, there is little research about how individuals choose between multiple domains. This study investigates how individuals use beliefs about their relative strengths and weaknesses to allocate resources to learning. To develop a set of hypotheses, the literatures on self-regulation, motivation, learning, and goal orientation are reviewed. Specifically, the role flexibility context of individuals, meaning how much control individuals have over which roles relevant to a particular task are most important, was hypothesized as an important predictor of learning choice. Anticipated relative improvement, or the belief in which area may improve more in a certain amount of time, was also hypothesized as a predictor and hypothesized to interact with learning goal orientation. Participants (N = 171) were assigned to either a high role flexible or a low role flexible condition and were given the chance to choose to study either a relative strength or a relative weakness. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Role flexibility condition was a significant predictor. Anticipated relative improvement also predicted study topic choice. The predicted interaction between relative improvement and goal orientation did not relate to study topic choice. Limitations and future research are discussed in terms of construct, internal, and external validity.

Committee:

Jeffrey Vancouver, PhD (Advisor); Rodger Griffeth, PhD (Committee Member); Kimberly Rios, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

Learning; goals; resources; role flexibility; learning curves; anticipated relative improvement

Dynes, Morgan E.A National Study of Child and Family Therapists: The Relationships between Parent Engagement, Supervision and Training, and Burnout
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Clinical
Extensive previous research has included investigations of the importance of parent engagement in the effective implementation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) for children and families, and the role that service-providers play in the engagement process. Additionally, past studies have explored the associations between staff outcomes such as burnout and professional efficacy, and organizational factors such as constraints and supervision, to examine their impact on treatment delivery (Ingoldsby, 2010; McCurdy & Daro, 2001; McGuigan, Katzev, & Pratt, 2003). The overarching goal of this study was to examine the relationships between service providers’ experiences with parent engagement, organization-level factors, and therapist outcomes of burnout and professional efficacy using a national online survey. Participants were 148 (19 males and 129 females) child and family therapists who work at mental health facilities across the United States. Therapist parent engagement efficacy mediated the relationship between barriers to parent engagement and the Personal Accomplishment sub-scale of burnout. Supervision and training were not associated with any variables of interest. However, therapist perceptions of organizational constraints were found to be significantly correlated with all variables of interest. Serial multiple mediation analyses suggest that the effects of organizational constraints on parent engagement efficacy are mediated by barriers to parent engagement, and the effects of organizational constraints on emotional engagement and personal accomplishment are mediated by both barriers to parent engagement, and parent engagement efficacy. Future directions and implications are discussed with respect to furthering research efforts and the clinical applications for workforce development and improved delivery and implementation of evidence-based practices.

Committee:

Carolyn Tompsett, Ph.D. (Advisor); Eric Dubow, Ph,D. (Committee Member); Dara Musher-Eizenman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Starr Keyes, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Mental Health; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Work

Keywords:

parent engagement; supervision; training; professional efficacy; efficacy; burnout; child therapist; counseling; social work; organizational constraints; usual care; routine practice; evidence-based treatment

Adams, Laural L.Theorizing Mental Models in Disciplinary Writing Ecologies through Scholarship, Talk-Aloud Protocols, and Semi-Structured Interviews
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This project explores how disciplinary habits of mind are circulated through forms of representation to instantiate English Studies disciplines, institutions which then shape scholars' practices for producing knowledge. Using a critical discourse analysis on scholarship, semi-structured interviews, and a talk-aloud protocol, I find that scholars' thinking and writing rely heavily on mental models. Scholars employ small-scale working representations of dynamic systems to help them reason through disciplinary problem spaces, including research questions and composing issues. Unlike the sciences, English Studies fields have not fully exploited mental models in research and teaching; nor have they been considered fully in writing studies' research on cognition and writing. In order to understand the role of mental models in writing and disciplinarity, I employ ecology theory to link the representational nature of mind to external media. I find that as scholars write, they produce complex mental models of disciplinary content that are comprised of objects of study, relationality between these objects, and discipline-specific forms of dynamism applied to "run" the models. Mental models are multimodal compositions that employ representational modalities afforded by "mind," such as force, image, and affect; their design reveals scholars' tacit values and assumptions. My research suggests that reflecting on mental models can enable scholars to extend their reasoning and critically evaluate their assumptions. During writing and revision, scholars model a generic reader's mind "unfolding" as it encounters the writing in order to anticipate eventual readers' "situation models." Scholars also model hypothetical exchanges with familiars with whom they have previously written in order to predict critiques and feedback. Mental models have a significant role in enculturating new members and constructing and maintaining disciplinarity. I propose that a facility with mental models is a significant component of reasoning-based "literacies" and suggest ways that scholars and teachers can make deliberate use of mental models in scholarship and in teaching writing. I describe the significance of mental models in knowing and composing in new media contexts with multimodal affordances that compare and contrast to those of the mind. I also suggest additional methods for analyzing and collecting data on mental models and writing.

Committee:

Lee Nickoson, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kristine L. Blair, Dr. (Committee Member); Jorge Chavez, Dr. (Committee Member); Sue Carter Wood, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Composition; Ecology; Educational Theory; Epistemology; Higher Education; Language; Literacy; Multimedia Communications; Organizational Behavior; Rhetoric; Social Research; Teacher Education; Technology

Keywords:

Mental Models; Writing Studies; Ecology and Complexity Theory; Disciplinarity; Disciplinary Writing Ecologies; Cognition and Writing; Social Cognition; Scholarship; Multimodal Composing; English Studies; Critical Discourse Analysis; Talk-aloud Protocol

Dixon, Deirdre PainterSTAYING ALIVE: THE EXPERIENCE OF IN EXTREMIS LEADERSHIP
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Management
Staying Alive: The Experience of In Extremis Leadership Abstract by DEIRDRE DIXON In extremis situations present unique and difficult demands on a leader because they involve highly unstable conditions and life threatening danger for all involved. Not surprisingly, leading during in extremis situations is one of the least studied areas of leadership. This research helps to fill this gap by using a mixed-methods approach that includes three distinct phases. Each phase utilizes the in extremis setting to distill core elements of leadership that emerge in that unique context. The goal is to help leaders to be more effective when entering situations where their lives and the lives of others are in immediate danger. In the first phase, I interviewed thirty US Army platoon leaders who had recently returned from Iraq and/or Afghanistan about their experience of in extremis leadership. The findings that emerged were modeled and tested with a 494 leader sample from all military branches. Those findings were then extended to professions that are often considered to be facing similar life threatening situations, with a sample that included 514 in extremis leaders from police and fire fighting as well as the military. xiv Results of the first qualitative study included finding a simultaneous, rather than a sequential occurrence, of sense-making and sense-giving during in extremis situations.. This suggests that the process proceeds best when leaders are in a heightened state of situation awareness. Training facilitates leaders’ sense-making by freeing up cognitive capacity, and sense-giving can be an interdependent social activity with subordinates in certain circumstances. The second study revealed that situation awareness and team training were most relevant to outcomes. The final study explored leader characteristics and their impact on situation awareness and self-efficacy across a broader set of professions facing in extremis situations. The findings show that a leader’s mental flexibility can be a delicate balance between being too flexible and not enough. Surprisingly, it was found that leaders in the dangerous occupations of police, fire, and military experience perilous environments in different ways. This suggests that understanding the different in extremis experiences of these three occupations is imperative, especially because they are often grouped together for social science studies.

Committee:

Richard Boland, Jr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

in extremis; leadership; situation awareness; sensemaking, sense giving,self-efficacy; mental flexibility; stress tolerance; military; Army

Sweitzer, Sarah D.The Influence of Negative Affectivity on Perceived Morale and Team Cooperation
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Workplace negative affectivity (NA) has been well-examined in the literature, but no study has explored its influence on perceived morale and perceived team cooperation. One hundred and fifty-eight undergraduates from a small university in the Midwest were randomly assigned to one of two vignette conditions and then answered questions about morale, cooperation, and affectivity. The study hypothesized that the presence of high NA would negatively affect perceived morale and perceived team cooperation. The hypotheses were supported, indicating that NA has a significant effect on both perceived morale and perceived cooperation, such that higher NA is related to lower perceived morale and lower perceived team cooperation. Results also indicated that participant positive affectivity was not related to either perceived morale or perceived cooperation, but NA shared a negative relationship with perceived cooperation. The results of this study have several implications for companies, including that employee disposition may impact team environments. Future research should continue to explore how personality may affect workplace environments.

Committee:

Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Personality Psychology; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

negative affectivity; affectivity; disposition; personality; morale; team cooperation; collaboration; teamwork; workplace; negative affect; perceived; perception

Bookmyer, Eric DanielNeed for Cognition and its Effects on Equity Theory Predictions
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Despite the growing trend in workplace applications of need for cognition (NC) on decision making, a gap still exists in its applications to other areas of I-O psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individual difference of NC on equity theory predictions. This study consisted of a sample of 225 Mechanical Turk participants who completed a 32-item survey measuring their NC level and perceptions of equity and satisfaction based on a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated no significant differences between NC level and the amount of information utilized in the equity comparison process, contrary to predictions. Additionally, there were no significant differences between NC level on perceptions of distributive justice. The present study did, however, further support equity theory predictions by indicating lowered distributive justice in the underpayment and overpayment conditions and higher distributive justice in the equitable payment condition. Supplemental analyses were also conducted into pay satisfaction, which found that those low in NC were more satisfied in an underpayment condition than those high in NC. This research has implications on the workplace suggesting that employers should strive to compensate employees equitably to achieve the highest distributive justice perceptions. Additionally, results suggest that employers may want to consider an employee’s NC level when focusing on pay satisfaction, and this is an area that future research should further examine.

Committee:

Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

equity theory; need for cognition; equity; distributive justice; pay satisfaction; decision making; mechanical turk; MTurk; equity perceptions; workplace; individual differences; organizational behavior

Andrea, Hernandez LeighEffective Networked Nonprofit Organizations: Defining the Behavior and Creating an Instrument for Measurement
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
This correlational research design, which included a convenience sample of 157 nonprofit staff and board member responses to a Likert-type survey, was used to conduct a principle components analysis (PCA) to develop subscales related to networked nonprofits. As defined in the study, a networked nonprofit has a set of intentionally built trusting relationships and has systems and strategies that engage various stakeholders in meaningful conversations. They achieve their missions by developing strong partnerships where they invest in the goals of other organizations to mobilize resources for a common shared mission and values. While there were correlations between the level respondents rated their organization as a networked nonprofit, or networkedness, and effectiveness reported by respondents, the two networked nonprofit subscales revealed as a result of PCA (Stakeholder/External and Systems Vision/Internal) included elements found in effective as well as networked nonprofits. Also, the Maturity of Practice items were narrowed and reviewed through bivariate correlation. While they correlate to one another, they did not correlate to the networkedness or effectiveness measures. This seems to indicate a disconnect between the actual practice of networkedness as evidenced through social media and evaluation measures and the networked mindset or organizational culture. In other words, the way respondents perceive their levels of effectiveness and networkedness may indeed not align with actual behaviors. My ETD may be copied and distributed only for non-commercial purposes and may not be modified. All use must give me credit as the original author. A video author introduction in MP4 format accompanies this dissertation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivatives 4.0 International License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at Ohiolink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd and Antioch University's AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/

Committee:

Kusy Mitchell, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Wergin Jon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Renz David, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Freiwirth Judy, Psy.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Public Administration; Social Work; Sociology

Keywords:

networked; nonprofit; nonprofits; not-for-profits; networked nonprofit; networked nonprofits; nonprofit effectiveness; networkedness; Maturity of Practice; effectiveness; social media

Sprinkle, Therese A.Beyond a Need-Based Fairness Perspective: Coworkers’ Perceptions of Justice in Flexible Work Arrangements
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Business: Business Administration

Past research on flexible work arrangements (FWA, or those short-term restructurings of work hours to accommodate work-life balance) has established that employees who take advantage of such policies, as well as employees who believe that they might use the policies someday, respond with positive attitudes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., performance). However, no research has examined the perceptions and behaviors of those coworkers who have to carry on in the workplace while the FWA-user is gone. The FWA Coworker Impact Model was developed and tested on a sample of adults who work in organizations where short-term FWA practices are allowed and taken. Data were collected from an online research panel and was tested using structural equation modeling. This research has found that FWA-in-practice is made up of four components: (1) the justification of leave taking, (2) the redistribution of work, (3) following norms and (4) coworker consideration. Three of these four components were found to influence coworkers’ perceptions of justice associated with FWA (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), and with important workplace perceptions and behaviors (organizational citizenship behavior, political behavior, and counterproductive work behaviors). Specifically, following norms was found to be related to all dimensions of justice, suggesting that any short-term FWA which does not conform to the tacit or formal practices is considered unfair. Redistribution of work had a negative relationship with OCB. This warrants further investigation but may suggest that any redistribution of work in the short term will begin to eat at coworkers’ helping and altruistic behavior in the workplace.

This research addresses three gaps in our current understanding of FWA: (1) the treatment of FWA as a singular event rather than as a series of workplace practices, (2) the limited scope of organizational justice as only need-based rather than as a multidimensional construct when applied to FWA, and (3) the exploration of only positive outcomes as opposed to both positive and negative outcomes associated with FWA. The FWA Coworker Impact Model has implications for FWA policies and procedures, as well as FWA-users’ behavior.

Committee:

Suzanne Masterson, PhD (Committee Chair); Paula Dubeck, PhD (Committee Member); Elaine Hollensbe, PhD (Committee Member); Phillip Neal Ritchey, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Work-family research;flexible work arrangements;organizational justice;organizational citizenship behavior;counterproductive workplace behavior;politicking;

Kalinoski, Zachary T.Error Management Training: Further Tests Of Mediation And Moderation
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2009, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
This study investigated an alternative training approach that would improve transfer performance scores above traditional training approaches. Specifically, error-management training was proposed to help trainees learn complex tasks, as opposed to error-avoidant training approaches, which sought to give trainees step-by-step protocols for learning that would minimize the occurrence of errors during training. This study was designed to examine the effects of training type on transfer performance and transfer errors, as well as the effects of meta-cognition, emotion control and cognitive appraisals as mediators of the training type-performance relationship. A third issue of this study investigated the personality-training type interactions from a situation strength perspective. Participants (N = 181) from a Midwestern university completed four training trials and two transfer trials of a computerized version of a class scheduling task and completed surveys of relevant constructs. Results revealed that training type did not have an effect on transfer performance or errors, training type did not predict meta-cognition, emotion control and challenge appraisals, but did predict threat appraisals. Finally, personality did not have a main effect on performance, nor did it interact with training type. The relative contributions of this study was the effects of training type on cognitive appraisals (threat in particular) and its relevance for future theoretical frameworks of error management training research, the effects of training type on error attitudes and error attitude effects on performance. Previous operationializations of error management training also may not be as clear-cut as once thought.

Committee:

Debra Steele-Johnson, PhD (Committee Chair); Nathan Bowling, PhD (Committee Member); Dragana Claflin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Experiments; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

error-management training; training; performance; cognitive appraisals; meta-cognition; emotion control; perfectionism; optimism; errors

Tamanini, Kevin B.Evaluating Differential Rater Functioning in Performance Ratings: Using a Goal-Based Approach
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Measuring performance in the workplace is an endeavor that has been the central focus of many applied researchers and practitioners. Due to the limited information that objective data provides to decision makers, subjective data are often used to supplement performance ratings. Unfortunately subjective ratings can be biased. Indeed, rating errors frequently bias ratings and have plagued performance evaluations. Much of the performance appraisal (PA) research has focused on ways of eliminating, detecting, or controlling these rater errors. The results from these areas are mixed and insufficient in providing insights and understanding about how to deal with rater errors.

This research extends and tests a technique called differential person functioning (DPF; Johanson and Alsmadi, 2002) to the detection of rater bias (specifically leniency/severity) during a performance evaluation, as well as test a goal-based approach for performance evaluations. The DPF technique is used to identify the responses for a given individual that are different for different groups of items. The goal-based approach proposes that individuals’ pursuit of different goals is what leads to different ratings. Two studies were conducted to examine these phenomena.

The first study was a pilot study to refine the materials and manipulations that were to be used in the main study. Specifically, two different evaluation formats were compared, sex differences were examined, and the manipulation was tested. In the second study (i.e., the main study) the sensitivity and consistency of the DPF technique was compared with two other traditional methods for detecting leniency/severity. Participants completed an actual performance evaluation for a faculty member under one of three different response instructions.

The results of the main study indicated that the DPF technique was not more sensitive than the other traditional methods. Indeed all methods examined were insensitive to the manipulation, thus all were ineffective at detecting rater bias. Although the DPF method was ineffective, results provided support for the goal-based approach. Those raters who were responding under different instructions (i.e., goals) provided significantly different ratings. These findings suggest that there was a reasonable opportunity for differential ratings to occur across groups, but yet none of the detection techniques were effective at detecting them. The discussions of these studies provide implications for the findings as well as implications for the DPF technique, the goal-based approach, and other personnel decisions.

Committee:

Jeffrey Vancouver, PhD (Committee Chair); Paula Popovich, PhD (Committee Member); Griffeth Rodger, PhD (Committee Member); Markman Keith, PhD (Committee Member); Johanson George, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

Performance ratings; Differential Person Functioning; Rater Errors

Datta, RoshniKnowledge-Based Performance Management Framework
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Computer Science and Engineering
Today’s business environments are highly complex and more prone to change than ever. With the ever-changing dynamics both within and outside an enterprise, organizations find it difficult to extract the macroscopic view of the organization’s performance from a repository of customer requests and relevant workflow data and take actions. In this thesis we 1) develop a business-IT ontology and framework to interpret data for pro-active decision making and 2) use the framework as the basis for a performance dashboard tool. By using agent – based modeling, the tool allows the user to make processing decisions not only based on analysis of individual customer requests but also the relative importance of each request with respect to other requests and the business context. The implemented "Performance Dashboard” displays metrics that set off alarms when actions and results are not aligned with strategy. This empowers individuals through providing visibility that transforms data into useful information.

Committee:

Rajiv Ramnath, Phd (Advisor); Jayashree Ramanathan, Phd (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior

Weinblatt, BrianAn Examination of Academic Decision-Making During Two University Mergers
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study examined decision-making processes during two university mergers, instances of major organizational change. Processes were evaluated in the context of traditional and modern academic decision-making models. A qualitative method of inquiry, designed as a multiple instrumental case study, entailed interviews with 6 participants at a pilot site, followed by 37 interviews and document analysis at two case study sites. Interview transcripts and documents were coded and analyzed, yielding a thematic evaluation.

Four major themes were found pertaining to the two mergers: avoidance of conflict, need for validation, momentum, and disconnect among views. The study found that more traditional models of decision-making were employed at one institution, while more modern models were used at the other. Both institutions exhibited administrative leadership utilizing tools to exert influence to effect the mergers. Conclusions included a highlight on American higher education institutions in transition from traditional to more modern approaches of decision-making, described as a “grey zone” between the models. Implications of the study included the necessity for modern higher education administrators to maintain a delicate balance between traditional and evolving modern approaches of higher education decision-making.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Chair); David Meabon, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald McGinnis, MD (Committee Member); Robert Yonker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

university decision-making; higher education decision-making; university mergers; higher education mergers; university consolidation; higher education consolidation

Wang, BryanThe Relationships among Organizational Characteristics, Lean Practices, HRD Practices, and the Institutionalization of Lean Practices in Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among organizational characteristics, lean practices, HRD practices, and the institutionalization of lean practices in small and medium-sized manufacturers. Results showed that the institutionalization of lean practices is related to the type of production and the level of implementation of certain HRD practices. Further interviews assisted in interpreting the results of the study. This study suggested the importance of HRD to support organizational change.

Committee:

Ronald Jacobs, PhD (Advisor); Joshua Hawley, EdD (Committee Member); Shahrukh Irani, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Industrial Engineering; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

HRD; lean; Institutionalization

Coombe, Duncan DavidSecure Base Leadership: A Positive Theory of Leadership Incorporating Safety, Exploration and Positive Action
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Organizational Behavior
This research proposes the notion of Secure Base Leadership through a multi-method approach incorporating two separate research studies. The research sought to first inductively explore the concept of Secure Base Leadership through a qualitative study and then to deductively test those conceptions in a quantitative study. Secure Base Leadership is a direct reference to Ainsworth’s and Bowlby’s original conceptions of Secure Base as it relates to the dual control systems of attachment and exploration as described in Attachment Theory. Secure Base Leadership is an explicitly ‘positive’ relationship based approach to leadership in that it seeks to understand the behaviors of an exemplar type of ‘leadership as relationship’. The qualitative results indicate that Secure Base Leadership has eight dimensions. However, the quantitative analysis indicates three factors underpinning these eight dimensions. The three factors correspond theoretically to the Attachment and Exploration control systems of Attachment Theory but also stress the importance of a positive style of problem solving. The three factors are referred to as the Safety, Exploration and Positive Dealing Factors and taken together represent a positive theoretical and practical approach to leadership. The results show that Secure Base Leadership predicts the outcomes of leadership effectiveness, psychological safety and follower job satisfaction (rated by followers) and leadership effectiveness (rated by manager of the leader). This research further suggests that aspects of Secure Base Leadership resonate with a broader conception of Love, especially the notion of Acceptance and Safety. This thesis makes a contribution to the literatures of Positive Organizational Scholarship, Leadership as Relationship, Attachment Theory and Love in Organizations.

Committee:

Eric Neilsen, PhD (Committee Chair); David Kolb, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald Fry, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Whitehouse, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Secure Base Leadership; Secure Base; Attachment Theory; Love; Safety and Exploration

Hagerty, RonnieRole of Foundations in the Changing World of Philanthropy: A Houston Perspective
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
From the earliest days of the American nation, philanthropy has had a defining role in leading change. Philanthropy has provided vision and voice for nascent social movements ranging from civil rights and the women’s movement to AIDS research and environmentalism. As the 21st century has moved into its second decade, philanthropy finds itself facing significant pressures that threaten to compromise its ability to innovate and advocate for issues and individuals whose voices cannot be heard over the public rhetoric of the day. Once perceived as the purview of the rich and well connected, modern philanthropy cuts across social, economic, and ethnic classifications. Historically, private foundations have played a defining role in philanthropic investment. These tax-exempt charitable organizations, typically funded by a single source (individual, family, or corporation), were created to serve the common good, primarily through grantmaking. As philanthropy continues to evolve through new models and methodologies that enrich, extend, and question traditional giving parameters, foundations are exploring new paradigms for redefining and reinforcing their leadership capabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of economic and social forces defining the environment in which private foundations operate in the 21st century, and to learn how Houston foundations are adapting to this new reality. Further, the research captured their individual and collective vision for the future of foundation philanthropy. The dissertation provides a brief overview history of philanthropy to position it in a 21st century context. Within this construct, the study has assessed the nature and impact of current philanthropic challenges, and sought an understanding of future learning and leadership strategies as defined of by members of the Houston foundation community. This qualitative, multicase research study is comprised of in-depth interviews with Houston foundation leaders. Rather than setting out to illustrate a particular theory, the study has been designed to capture the perceptions of foundation leaders as they assess and adapt to a rapidly changing philanthropic environment. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy, PhD (Committee Chair); Lize Booysen, PhD (Committee Member); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Sandie Taylor, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Organizational Behavior; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Philanthropy; Foundations; Nonprofit Sector; Charities; Charitable Organizations; Fundraising; Grantmaking; Philanthropic Foundations; Private Foundations; Houston; Change; Giving Motivation; Community; Leadership

Next Page