Search Results (1 - 25 of 233 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Krichbaum, Steven P.Ecology and Conservation Biology of the North American Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) in the Central Appalachians
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
My study presents information on summer use of terrestrial habitat by IUCN “endangered” North American Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta), sampled over four years at two forested montane sites on the southern periphery of the species’ range in the central Appalachians of Virginia (VA) and West Virginia (WV) USA. The two sites differ in topography, stream size, elevation, and forest composition and structure. I obtained location points for individual turtles during the summer, the period of their most extensive terrestrial roaming. Structural, compositional, and topographical habitat features were measured, counted, or characterized on the ground (e.g., number of canopy trees and identification of herbaceous taxa present) at Wood Turtle locations as well as at paired random points located 23-300m away from each particular turtle location. First, I report and discuss basic morphometric and activity area data of the VA and WV turtles. Chapter two uses a nine-year dataset of adult WV Wood Turtles to estimate population size, population growth rate (lambda), and survivorship with open population Cormack-Jolly-Seber and Pradel models in program MARK. My third chapter assess Wood Turtle thermal ecology by examining three data sets of environmental and turtle temperatures: 1) temperatures in three different microhabitat types (unshaded by ground cover [exposed], under vegetation [UV], under litter [UL]) recorded by iButtons at arrays throughout the two study sites; 2) ground temperatures at the locations of radio-tracked individuals and their paired random points measured within 300 meters and 30 minutes of each other; 3) body temperatures estimated with iButtons attached to the shell bridges of adult Wood Turtles. In the fourth chapter, I examine highly localized conditions resulting from short-term weather patterns and fine-scale microhabitat characteristics by comparing ground-level relative humidity at the locations of radio-tracked Wood Turtles to those at paired random points. I use the GIS-based water balance model developed by Dr. James Dyer to examine landscape conditions (such as water deficit [“DEF”] and actual evapotranspiration [“AET”]) resulting from long-term climate patterns and broad-scale habitat conditions (e.g., topographical aspect and soil types). The final two chapters are the heart of my dissertation. Vegetation was identified, measured, counted, or characterized in plots at 640 locations (394 in VA, 246 in WV), evenly distributed between adult turtle and random points. Importance values for overstory trees = 10cm dbh were calculated in 400m2 plots; herbaceous plant taxa were identified in 400m2 and 1m2 plots; woody seedling taxa were identified in 1 m2 plots; forest types were specified at the 400m2 plot and stand (5-20ha) scales. I used the R program “indicspecies”, paired logistic regression, and classification and regression trees (CART) to analyse these data. Over thirty herbaceous and woody seedling taxa were indicators for Wood Turtle presence at the 400m2 and/or 1m2 scales at the VA and WV study sites. I used a series of conditional logistic regressions to quantify habitat use of Wood Turtles at multiple scales across a range of different forest types. At each of the turtle and random points proportions of ground cover were visually estimated within 1m2 plots to assess microhabitat use; structural, compositional, and topographical habitat features were measured in 400m2 circular plots to capture meso-scale ecological data; and stand scale (5-20ha) designations of forest type and seral stage were used to assess macro-scale habitat use. I found that Wood Turtles showed a preference for specific environmental conditions: older forest sites with relatively more herbaceous ground cover, large woody debris, canopy openness, and turtle-level obscurity, and with gentler slopes and warmer aspects.

Committee:

Willem Roosenburg, Professor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Animals; Ecology; Environmental Science; Forestry; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

habitat selection; turtle population biology; program MARK; forest temperatures; turtle temperatures; forest floor humidity; forest herbaceous flora; tree importance values

Szablewski, Christine MarieEvolution of Influenza A Viruses in Exhibition Swine and Transmission to Humans, 2013-2015
Master of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2018, Public Health
Influenza A virus is a zoonotic pathogen whose introduction to humans from animals could potentially cause a pandemic. Animal-linage influenza A viruses (IAVs) that infect humans are referred to as variant IAVs, which are designated with a `v’ after the subtype. To better understand the epidemiology of IAV in exhibition swine and resulting H3N2v in humans, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using full genome sequences from 279 IAV isolates collected from exhibition swine in 5 states from 2013-2015 and 23 of the 25 H3N2v cases reported during those same years. Sixty-six fairs (23.7%) had at least one sample that was positive for IAV and 20 of those fairs (30.3%) had more than one IAV genotype circulating in the pigs. An overall 3-year prevalence of 9.7% (95% CI: 9.1-10.3) was observed. However, the prevalence of IAV in swine significantly decreased from 2014 to 2015 when the proportion of fairs with IAV infected pigs decreased from 30.14% (95% CI: 19.6-40.1) in 2014 to 13.5% (95% CI: 6.9-20.1) in 2015. We found 19 IAV genotypes infecting swine and 6 IAV genotypes in humans, with 5 genotypes in both host species. There was a positive correlation between the number of fairs at which a genotype was present among the pigs and the number of human cases of that same genotype. Additionally, we showed that H3N2v isolates clustered tightly with exhibition swine isolates that were prevalent in the same year. Our data indicate that there are multiple genotypes of swine-lineage IAV that can infect humans, and highly prevalent IAV genotypes during a given year are the strains most likely to infect humans.

Committee:

Andrew Bowman, DVM, MS, PhD (Advisor); Armando Hoet, DVM, PhD (Committee Member); Gregory Habing, DVM, PhD (Committee Member); Kurt Stevenson, MD, MPH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Diseases; Animals; Public Health

Keywords:

RNA viruses; United States; agricultural fair; animal population groups; animals; disease outbreaks; influenza A virus; livestock; public health; respiratory infections; swine; zoonoses

Smiley-Walters, Sarah AnnInteractions between Pigmy Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) and a Suite of Prey Species: A Study of Prey Behavior and Variable Venom Toxicity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology
Interactions between predators and prey are widespread in nature but the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape these interactions are poorly understood. In my dissertation, I use pigmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) and their prey as a system in which to examine several aspects of this species interaction where different ecological and evolutionary factors may be shaping variation in adaptive traits. In Chapter 1, I review factors affecting predator-prey interactions and explain why the pigmy rattlesnake system is valuable for addressing important research questions. In Chapter 2, I present research on the behavioral component of this interaction, demonstrating that native cotton mice do not change their foraging behavior in the presence of a sit-and-wait rattlesnake predator. In Chapter 3, I explore the toxicity of venom to native prey versus non-native "models" to determine to what extent non-native species are representative of prey in the same broad taxonomic group. I show that native prey have higher resistance to venom than non-natives and encourage the use of native prey in future toxicity work. In Chapter 4, I use native treefrog prey from two different populations in Florida and venom from snakes in the same populations to see if there is a signal of local adaptation present in these populations. I show that detection of a signal of local adaptation depends on the measure of venom function used: evidence for local adaptation was observed in the time to death measure of mortality but not in the 24 hour mortality measure. In Chapter 5, I look at the function of venom at a smaller scale by exploring the amount of functional variation present across and within populations of snakes using a lizard model prey. I found the individual component of venom toxicity to be larger than the population-level differences that have been the focus of previous research. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates that rattlesnake venom function differs at both the individual and population scale and that toxicity is relative, depending on the specific prey species tested.

Committee:

H. Lisle Gibbs, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ian Hamilton, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Hetherington, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Stuart Ludsin, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Evolution and Development; Toxicology; Zoology

Keywords:

predator-prey; venomous snakes; LD50; Peromyscus gossypinus; Hyla squirella; Anolis sagrei; adaptive traits; local adaptation; giving-up density; rodent foraging; individual variation

Kennedy, Sara IWhite-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Fawn Survival and Seasonal Movement Patterns of White-tailed Deer and Coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Cleveland Metropolitan Area
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Environment and Natural Resources
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are challenging wildlife species to manage in urban areas. Deer often reach densities which exceed cultural and ecological carrying capacities. Varied public opinions of both species present additional challenges. Cleveland Metroparks implements a population model to guide management efforts to reduce deer densities. However, two elements of the model lacking reliable estimates are fawn survival and migration across park boundaries. Also, the influence of coyotes on deer dynamics is unknown for urban systems. To develop better estimates of survival and habitat use and to understand the coyote-deer relationship, we conducted a multi-year study to quantify coyote and doe movement and fawn survival. Six coyotes were collared with GPS transmitters. Twenty-nine adult deer were captured; seven pregnant does received a radio collar and vaginal implant transmitter. Fifty-seven neonatal fawns were captured and fitted with expandable radio collars. We recorded 22 fawn mortalities. Vehicle strikes and culling were the most common causes of mortality. Average six month survival was 78%. Factors with the potential to influence fawn survival were modeled using known-fate models in Program Mark in a two-step process, first incorporating intrinsic covariates and then adding spatial and habitat covariates to the best-supported model from the first step. The best supported models varied with the time period of the analysis, but all included age class. Additional covariates included in one or more top models included habitat composition, home range size, and road density. Habitat use and selection were examined on a seasonal basis. For does, location data was divided into pre-parturition and post-parturition. Fawn locations were examined at three age classes: birth to two weeks, two to eight weeks, and older than eight weeks. Coyote locations were classified into three periods of differing levels of fawn vulnerability: pre-fawn (March – April), hiding (May – June), and fleeing (July – August). For coyotes, we calculated overlap indices between seasonal home ranges and core use areas. Both does and fawns used natural habitat out of proportion with availability. Both showed little seasonal change in habitat use or selection, although some does increased their use of open habitat post-parturition. Habitat use by fawns showed more variation between individuals than between seasons. Coyotes showed substantial individual variation in all spatial metrics, but a majority increased their use of forested habitat during the hiding period. Seasonal overlap indices varied from 6.2% to 82.5% for home ranges and from 0.0% to 42.9% for core use areas. Improved estimates of population parameters for urban white-tailed deer can aid in management of this potentially overabundant species. Our work demonstrates that fawn survival can be high in urban areas and reinforces the link between urban parkland and surrounding residential areas for managing urban wildlife.

Committee:

Stanley Gehrt (Advisor); Jeremy Bruskotter (Committee Member); Stephen Matthews (Committee Member); Terry Robison (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, coyote, Canis latrans, urban ecology, fawn survival, spatial ecology, predator-prey, ecology of fear

Thomas, Caitlin BSurvival and Growth Responses of Lithobates Pipiens Tadpoles to an Herbicide and an Algaecide used to Control Aquatic Invasive Plants
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Biological Sciences
Chemical herbicides are currently one of the most common methods for managing aquatic invasive plants. Despite their widespread use, little is known about the potential negative effects that several of the most commonly used herbicides may have on vertebrates. Amphibians may be particularly at risk because they can easily absorb toxic substances through their skin. In a controlled chamber experiment, Northern Leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of copper-sulfate and diquat-dibromide, two herbicides commonly used to control invasive aquatic plants. The effect of these herbicides, either alone or combined, were evaluated on survival and growth-related traits of tadpoles over the course of the experiment. Tadpole survival was significantly decreased by copper-sulfate applications and the combination of this herbicide with diquat-dibromide. The copper-sulfate treatment also negatively affected the growth of tadpoles throughout the experiment, as evidenced by lower measures of body weight and body length. Conversely, diquat-dibromide caused a significant increase in tadpole growth, although it was only a transient effect. This study provides relevant information regarding the potential effect of two herbicides (commonly applied simultaneously) on an amphibian species that is considered to be an indicator of the quality of natural wetlands. Therefore, it has important implications for the management of aquatic environments that provide habitats for a multitude of non-target species.

Committee:

Maria Bidart-Bouzat (Advisor); Juan Bouzat (Committee Member); Dan Wiegmann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

Lithobates pipiens; amphibians; frogs; chemical exposure; Copper-Sulfate; Diquat; Weed Management; Aquatic Invasives; Tadpoles; Growth Responses and Fitness

Ligocki, Isaac YoungExpanding Scales of Influence: Behavioral, Physiological, and Reproductive Implications of Relative Power within Social Groups
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology
Individual behavior and the social interactions of individuals in groups are related to one another. Individuals may respond dynamically to interactions with other group members, and their behavior may influence that of those they interact with. I define such interactions as direct interactions, and the resulting effects as direct effects. Individual behavior may also influence and be influenced by the behavior and interactions of group members with whom they do not directly interact. I define such interactions as third party interactions, and the resulting effects as third party effects. In cooperatively breeding groups, in which some group members forego or limit their own reproduction and provide care for the offspring of other group members (alloparental care), third party interactions are predicted to have potentially dramatic effects on group characteristics because group members of different sex or social status may be in conflict regarding the extent of reproductive skew or expectation of alloparental care. The primary aim of the studies in this dissertation was to investigate the impact of third party interactions in the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher through lab- and field-based studies as well as a game theoretical model. In chapter 2, I determined that the relative size of the dominant male and female fish influenced their direct interactions with one another as well as their relative response towards conspecific and heterospecific intruders on their territory. In chapter 3, I found that dominant fish are in conflict regarding the presence and role of subordinate male and female group members. In chapter 4, I concluded that direct agonistic interactions did not influence subordinate female cortisol levels, but one measure of agonism between the dominant pair was associated with elevated cortisol levels in subordinate female fish. In chapter 5, I investigated how members of naturally formed groups respond to territorial intrusions (determined to be perceived as potential joiners to the group) depending on their social status within the group and whether a vacancy existed in the group which the intruding fish could fill. Size-matched subordinate fish and dominant females were most aggressive towards intruders. Dominant and subordinate fish also shifted their response in opposite ways after the removal of a large subordinate group member, suggesting dominants and subordinates are not in agreement regarding group size or the addition of potential joiners to the group. In chapter 6, I developed game theoretical models to predict when subordinate females should attempt to reproduce within groups, and examined how the order of decisions in games influences their outcome. Collectively, this research builds on previous work on conflict within animal groups by providing evidence that individual group members do not always agree on the role and presence of other group members. I extend this body of research by showing that this lack of consensus leads to third party effects within groups which may have implications for group size and membership, reproductive skew in groups, and the extent to which subordinates participate in alloparental care.

Committee:

Ian Hamilton (Advisor); Elizabeth Marschall (Committee Member); Steven Rissing (Committee Member); J. Andrew Roberts (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Endocrinology; Evolution and Development; Freshwater Ecology; Zoology

Keywords:

cooperation; conflict; social behavior; third-party effects; cooperative breeding; Neolamprologus pulcher; Lake Tanganyika

Humes, Cathryn AmandaCobra
BA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
Megan Cassida has been around snakes all her life. When her sister dies in a sudden accident, Megan's bond with snakes--and one cobra in particular--is all that holds her together. Now, three years after the accident, she thinks she's strong enough to handle anything that comes her way. She'll soon find out that she was wrong. But this time, she is completely on her own; there is no one there to save her. In society, we associate beauty with goodness. We assume that something beautiful is safe to approach. But in nature, this concept is flipped. The most beautiful animals can be the most deadly. Through Megan's journey, readers will see that sometimes the most beautiful things are trailed by the darkest shadows.

Committee:

Kimberly Winebrenner (Advisor); Alice Cone (Committee Member); Don-John Dugas (Committee Member); Robin Joynes (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals

Shaw, Samantha J.The Effect of STAT5 on Inflammation-Related Gene Expression in Diabetic Mouse Kidneys
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and renal failure in humans. The molecular pathways that lead to DN are not well known. This research investigates possible roles of several signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins in this disease using a STAT5A/B knockout (SKO) mouse model. Based on previous observations of increased inflammation-related gene expression in the kidneys of diabetic SKO mice, the hypothesis of the current project was that the combination of the loss of STAT5 repression and increase of STAT3 activity escalates inflammation-related gene expression in the kidneys of diabetic SKO mice. In support of this hypothesis, an increase of IRF-1 RNA expression, reflective of the loss of STAT5 repression, was observed in the kidneys of diabetic SKO mice. Levels of phosphorylated STAT3 were also increased in the kidneys of diabetic SKO mice. These results suggest that STAT5 acts as a repressor of inflammation-related genes in DN and, in its absence, expression of these genes is no longer repressed, either due to direct loss of the STAT5 repression or due to increased STAT3 activity which could potentially increase their expression.

Committee:

Karen Coschigano, PhD (Advisor); Calvin James, PhD (Committee Member); Ramiro Malgor, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Biomedical Research; Immunology; Molecular Biology

Keywords:

signal transducer and activator of transcription; STAT; diabetic nephropathy; inflammation; diabetes; stat5 knockout mice; mice;

Barak, Katherine SullivanSpinsters, Old Maids, and Cat Ladies: A Case Study in Containment Strategies
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, American Culture Studies
Using Michel Foucault's notion of containment strategies, this dissertation argues that representations of the crazy cat lady, the reprehensible animal hoarder, the proud spinster, and the unproductive old maid negatively frame independent, single women as models of failed White womanhood. These characters must be contained because they intrinsically transgress social norms, query gender roles, and challenge the limitations of mediated womanhood. In order to explore the role of representation, this dissertation provides a suggestive history of the ways spinsters and old maids evolved into their current iteration, the cat lady. The research begins by tracing cultural representations of cats and women from 2000 BCE through the early modern period. After this retrospective, the research focuses on two particular points of cultural anxiety connected to changing gender roles: the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. During the former, the media characterized spinsters and old maids as selfish, proud, unnatural, unproductive, and childish in newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets. Rather than focusing exclusively on the negative coverage, this dissertation deeply analyzes three transgressive novels, Agnes Grey, An Old-Fashioned Girl, and Lolly Willowes: Or the Loving Huntsman, to contextualize the ways positive representations of spinsters and old maids could threaten patriarchal society. At the turn of the 21st century, spinster and old maid became outmoded terms, but the cat lady emerges as a postmodern version of the same cautionary tale. Fictional television characters like Eleanor Abernathy from The Simpsons and Angela Martin from The Office are deconstructed, revealing the ways the framing and editing contribute to narratives of failed femininity. Participants from reality TV shows like Hoarders and Confessions: Animal Hoarding and the documentary film Cat Ladies are analyzed to demonstrate the ways factual representations further pathologize the cat lady by associating her with hoarding and mental illness. This dissertation illustrates how a marginalized, peripheral character like the cat lady serves as a tool for social maintenance, reinforcing heteronormative gender roles and containing alternative versions of womanhood.

Committee:

Ellen Berry (Advisor); Vikki Krane (Committee Member); Sarah Smith Rainey (Committee Member); Marilyn Motz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Animals; Gender; Gender Studies; Mass Media

Keywords:

Single Women; Popular Culture; Representation; Documentary Film; Reality TV; Television; Feminism; Cat Lady

Schubert, Rob LukenThe Conservative Nature of Primate Positional Behavior: Testing for Locomotor and Postural Variation in Colobus vellerosus and Cercopithecus campbelli lowei at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Anthropology
Several recent field studies have shown that primate posture and locomotion exhibit minimal intraspecific variation. Between January and November 2009, I collected data on positional behavior and habitat use via three-minute instantaneous focal observation of the ursine colobus (Colobus vellerosus) and Lowe’s monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (BFMS), Ghana. I sampled quantitative ecological data on canopy density, understory density, tree size and average number of large trees in two areas of forest characterized by differing degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Using Row x Column statistical comparisons (G-tests, Fisher Exact Tests), I tested for significant intraspecific variation in postural and locomotor profiles for females of each species living in these forest areas. For both species, forest strata, support size, support orientation and postural profiles differed significantly between these forests. Locomotor profiles differed significantly between forests only for guenons. I argue that the mosaic nature of more disturbed forest at BFMS reduced the number of direct, upper canopy arboreal pathways and resulted in more frequent use of lower and thinner supports for both species. Intraspecific postural and locomotor contrasts between habitats are considered in the context of body mass support, balance, and diet. Colobus locomotor consistency may be a product of both their larger body size and leaping specializations of their postcrania. I also tested for significant sex-based differences in positional behavior for both species. While my male dataset was limited, significant differences in overall postural and locomotor profiles were evident. I argue that contrasting nutritional requirements, social roles, and body sizes between the sexes for both species underlie these contrasting positional behavior profiles. While statistical differences in postural (both guenons and colobus) and locomotor profiles (guenons) may be ecologically significant, the differences identified in this study pose little threat to established form-function associations in primates and support the notion that primate positional behavior is largely conserved across sexes and habitats.

Committee:

Scott McGraw (Committee Chair); Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg (Committee Member); Dawn Kitchen (Committee Member); Jeffrey McKee (Committee Member); Susan Johnson (Other)

Subjects:

Animals

Keywords:

positional behavior; locomotion; posture; habitat disturbance; primates; colobus; guenon

Estopinal, AshleyEffects of Migratory Habit on the Genetic Diversity of Avian Populations from the Oak Openings in Northwest Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Biological Sciences
Species are threatened daily by human activities, the most devastating of which are habitat destruction and fragmentation, which can drastically decrease population size. One of the most severe consequences of these decreases in population sizes is the decrease in genetic diversity, which may affect fitness and reduce the adaptive potential of natural populations. These consequences, however, may not affect all species equally due to their past evolutionary history, migratory habits, and current demographic factors. This study focuses on the potential role of migratory habit on the maintenance of genetic diversity of avian species that live in a fragmented habitat. The mitochondrial control region sequences of six Passerine species that breed within the Oak Openings area of Northwest Ohio were compared based upon the species' migratory habit while controlling for the effects of phylogenetic history. Consistent with results from previous studies, species that migrate long distances showed higher levels of genetic diversity (higher numbers of haplotypes and average p-distance) than species that do not migrate. An analysis of variance based on within-population estimates of DNA sequence variation revealed a significant contribution of both phylogenetic history and migratory habit to species' genetic diversity. Overall, 50.72% of the total variation observed across multiple species could be explained by differences in migratory habit. These results emphasize the important role of migratory habit in determining overall levels of genetic diversity, an important consideration for the management and conservation of species that breed within fragmented habitats.

Committee:

Juan Bouzat (Advisor); Gabriela Bidart-Bouzat (Committee Member); Scott Rogers (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Conservation; Genetics; Wildlife Conservation

Keywords:

mtDNA; Passerine; migratory habit; control region; migratory; genetic diversity; Oak Openings; Song Sparrow; Lark Sparrow; Northern Cardinal; Indigo Bunting; Brown Headed Cowbird; American Goldfinch; fragmentation; fragmented habitat; Northwest Ohio

Thompson, Danielle KayeAmphibian and Reptile Species Survey and Habitat Assessment: Incorporating Environmental Education and Outreach
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2008, Environmental Sciences

Amphibians and reptiles are valuable bio-indicators of ecosystem health. The dual life of amphibians, living a part of their lives on both land and water, exposes them to environmental stressors present in both habitat types. Reptiles, as predators of a wide range of organisms, are exposed to a variety of biological contaminants that have been found to accumulate in their systems. These varied characteristics make them excellent determinants of an ecosystems health and stability.

Both groups of organisms were studied at the Oxford Community Park (OCP), in Oxford Ohio to gain a better understanding of the species present and assess the parks habitat quality. Habitat suitability was examined through GIS analysis of habitat cover types present at the park, as well as field studies that examined forest composition, stream quality, and the presence of wetlands. Additionally, water quality was monitored at six locations in the park. Species surveys were conducted using funnel traps, cover boards, and visual scans for specimens throughout the park. Four streams were identified on-site, as well as one remnant farm pond and 38 acres of second growth forest habitat. Five species of amphibians were recorded along with two species of reptiles. These results suggest many of the species found in Butler County are absent from the OCP. Reasons for absence could include, but are not limited to, habitat fragmentation, the agricultural history of the property, and current surrounding land uses.

The Oxford Parks and Recreation Department (OPRD) has expressed a desire to develop educational outreach materials and programming involving amphibians and reptiles in Oxford and the surrounding area. As a result, fact sheets for many amphibians and reptiles of Ohio were created for use by the OPRD at their discretion. Additionally, programs were created to be utilized during the spring break adventure camp and summer camp programs, an interpretive trail guide was created, and the annual Earthfest in uptown Oxford was utilized as a resource for information distribution.

Committee:

Sandra Woy-Hazleton, PhD (Advisor); Hays Cummins, PhD (Committee Member); Donna McCollum, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Boardman, PhD (Committee Member); Jeffery Davis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Amphibians; Reptiles; Environmental Education

Neal, Stacy RaeThe Evolution of Phenotypic Variation in Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Shape Differences in Morphology and Patterns of Morphological Integration in Mormon crickets
MS, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex) are flightless North American shield-backed katydids that exist with a broad range of phenotypic variation including coloration, body size, movement behavior, and male calling behavior. Population types of Mormon crickets are classified as band-forming, non-band-forming, or intermediate based on estimated population density and movement behavior. Despite marked differences in morphology and behavior, these population types are still considered the same species although there is some evidence suggesting that they are genetically distinct (Bailey et al 2005). Mormon cricket morphology has been systematically described in terms of allometric, or size-correlated differences in shape between populations of Mormon crickets. The patterns of relationships between morphological characters have also been examined using morphological integration to see how they have changed over evolutionary time. Twenty-three morphological features of Mormon crickets collected from five populations in 2008 were measured and compared to the geometric mean for each individual. Shape differences by sex and by population type were tested for significance using two-way ANOVA. Principal component analysis of the covariance matrices was employed for data reduction and to explore the interactions between characters among BF and NBF Mormon crickets in terms of variance explained by size and shape versus shape alone. Correlation analysis was employed to test the relationships between morphological characters and movement patterns. Seven hypotheses of differences in covariation structure, or integration, were tested by constructing correlation matrices of the morphological variables and subjecting them to matrix correlations and Mantel tests. Integration patterns were discussed in terms of shape differences in morphology, local ecological conditions, and selection pressures by population.

Committee:

Patrick Lorch, PhD (Advisor); Christopher Vinyard, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Kershner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behaviorial Sciences; Biology; Biostatistics; Ecology; Entomology

Keywords:

Orthoptera; Tettigoniidae; Mormon crickets; Allometry; Geometric mean; Shape ratios; Morphological integration

Distel, Christopher A.Effects of an Insecticide on Competition in Anurans: Could Pesticide-Induced Competitive Exclusion be a Mechanism for Amphibian Declines?
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, Zoology
Amphibian populations are experiencing global enigmatic declines. One proposed factor in declines is pesticide exposure; however, the mechanism has not been described because exposures are often sublethal to amphibians. My research addressed whether pesticide effects could interact with natural factors to cause competitive exclusion in amphibians. My first study addressed whether intraspecific or interspecific competition and insecticide exposure affected syntopic tadpole species (American toads and northern leopard frogs) differently. I also followed postmetamorphic toads and frogs into the terrestrial environment to elucidate any latent effects of the larval environment. There were asymmetric responses between species to both factors. Toad tadpole survival was reduced with either competition or insecticide exposure, but not with both stressors. Leopard frog tadpole survival responded only to intraspecific competitors. There were no latent effects on terrestrial growth or survival. However, larger leopard frog metamorphs were more likely to survive and be larger at spring emergence. My second study addressed intra- or interspecific competitor density and insecticide exposure on tadpole survival and development. Three-fold differences in density of competing species were compared with even numbers of each species. Insecticide exposure reduced tadpole survival of toads but not leopard frogs. Both species experienced reduced survival with increasing intraspecific density. There were no interactions between competitors and insecticide on either species’ survival, and neither was excluded. My third study addressed insecticide exposure through time. A three-stage stochastic population model was built to determine whether the insecticide-induced reductions in tadpole survival could lead to extirpation. Insecticide exposure did not increase the risk of extirpation unless background tadpole survival was already low. With predation, insecticide exposure could begin to increase extirpation risk at greater background survival rates, but these increased risks were still relatively small. Managers seeking to ameliorate any effects of insecticide exposure on wild anurans should consider the presence (though not necessarily density) of multiple anuran species, because more species appears to reduce survival risks. However, over time it appears that the insecticide’s effects may not be as strong as those of natural biotic stressors, so exposure may not increase extirpation risk.

Committee:

Michelle Boone, PhD (Advisor); M. Henry Stevens, PhD (Committee Member); James Oris, PhD (Committee Member); María González, PhD (Committee Member); Craig Williamson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Chemicals; Animals; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Science; Toxicology; Zoology

Keywords:

toad; frog; Bufo; Rana; complex life cycles; community ecology; aquatic food webs; carbaryl; carbamate; population model; multiple life stages

Qin, QingEffects of Divergent Selection for Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) on Mature Weight and Growth Curves in Angus Cattle
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Animal Sciences
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of divergent selection for serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration on mature weight estimated using growth curve functions in Angus cattle. Multiple serum IGF-I measurements (d 28, d 42, d 56 of the 140-d postweaning period and the average of these 3, mean IGF) from a total of 2,514 animals and weight records from birth to at least 3 yr of age from a total of 172 animals were collected from an ongoing divergent selection experiment involving IGF-I that was initiated in 1989. Four growth curve functions (Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy) were used to estimate the parameters for mature weight (A) and maturing rate (k) using the NLIN procedure in SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Based on the criteria of R2, MSE, AIC, and Log Likelihood, the Brody function fitted the weight-age data best, followed by the Von Bertalanffy function. The heritability estimates for serum IGF-I concentration at different ages and growth curve parameters from each function were obtained using a multiple-trait, derivative-free, REML program (MTDFREML). Genetic, environmental, and phenotypic correlations between mean IGF-I and growth curve parameters A and k were also obtained. The direct heritability (h2) estimates for serum IGF-I at d 28, 42, and 56 of the postweaning test were 0.42, 0.42, and 0.33, respectively. The h2 estimates for A from the 4 growth functions ranged from 0.77 to 1.00 in single-trait analyses. In 2-trait analyses, however, such estimates ranged from 0.26 to 0.41. The h2 estimates for k ranged from 0.12 to 0.33 in single-trait analyses, which were consistent with the results from the 2-trait analyses. The genetic correlations between mean IGF-I and A within each growth curve function ranged from -0.38 to -0.06. Although serum IGF-I was negatively genetically correlated with mature weight, the phenotypic correlation between these 2 traits was moderate (from 0.50 to 0.59) due to highly positive environmental correlations (mostly converged to 1.00). The growth curves for the low IGF-I selection line were exceeded the growth curves for the high IGF-I selection line in weight with an average difference of 10 kg after approximately 3 yr of age. This result suggests that selection for IGF-I may affect mature weight in Angus cattle and that the cows from the high IGF-I selection line may be more economical due to lighter mature weights and thus lower maintenance requirements.

Committee:

Michael Davis, Phd (Advisor); Steven Moeller, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Turner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals

Keywords:

IGF-I; growth curve; mature weight

Burns, Colby GailInfluence of Locking Bolt Location on the Mechanical Properties of an Interlocking Nail in the Canine Femur
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Veterinary Clinical Sciences
Long bone fractures are common injuries in the canine patient. The aims of this study were to determine whether the fatigue properties of an interlocking nail construct are influenced by metaphyseal or diaphyseal location of the locking bolt and to evaluate fatigue properties of locking bolts in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone under axial and torsional loading. Paired femora from 20 skeletally mature dogs were implanted with a 6-mm diameter, model 11, interlocking nail (ILN) and locked with a 2.7 mm bolt placed in either the diaphysis or metaphysis. Constructs were tested in axial loading (10 pairs) or torsion (10 pairs) to failure (defined as displacement >2 mm or a total of 500,000 cycles for axial loading, and rotation >45° degrees for torsional loading.) Outcome measures included initial construct stiffness, number of cycles to failure, peak load and peak torque. Microradiography and histology were used to determine the location and nature of construct failure. Metaphyseal bolts failed at higher axial loads than diaphyseal bolts, with bolt failure due to bending at the nail-bolt interface. All metaphyseal constructs were intact after torsional loading with no evidence of fracture of the bone or the bolt whereas 9 of 10 diaphyseal constructs failed catastrophically due to spiral fracture through the adjacent cortical bone. Placement of a locking bolt in metaphyseal bone extends fatigue life under axial loading and decreases the incidence of catastrophic failure under torsional loading. Therefore when inserting an interlocking nail for repair of long bone fractures, efforts should be made to obtain firm seating of at least one locking bolt in metaphyseal bone.

Committee:

Matthew Allen, Vet MB, PhD (Advisor); Alan Litsky, MD, ScD (Committee Member); Kenneth Johnson, MVSc, PhD, FACVSc (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Mechanics; Surgery; Veterinary Services

Bowen, Whitney SavannahJersey Calf Performance in Response to High Protein, High Fat Liquid Feeds with Varied Fatty Acid Profiles
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Animal Sciences
Most milk replacers (MR) in the US are formulated to meet the needs of Holstein calves, yet the fatty acid (FA) composition of milk from Jersey cows differs from that of Holstein milk. Most MR use edible lard as the fat source, which contains primarily long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). However, 10.8% of FA in Jersey whole milk are medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the FA profile of MR with coconut oil (CO), which contains a high concentration of MCFA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: 1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk (pSWM; 27.9% CP, 33.5% fat); 2) 29.3% CP, 29.1% fat MR containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); 3) 28.2% CP, 28.0% fat MR containing 20% of fat as CO (80:20); 4) and 28.2% CP, 28.3% fat MR containing 40% of fat as CO (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water. Calves were monitored 1 wk post-weaning. Calves were weighed at birth and once a week thereafter. Hip height (HH) and wither height (WH) were taken at birth, and 4, 7, and 9 wk. Grain refusals and fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily. Average daily gain and BW did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended (P = 0.10) to have greater HH than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. There was no difference in WH between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on WH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had a higher milk DMI intake than calves fed 80:20 (0.523 vs. 0.498 kg/d). There was no effect of CO on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score > 2 compared to calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 scouring 4.00, 2.00, and 3.63 d, respectively. Respiratory score did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, DMI and ADG were similar among treatments. However, differences among treatments in skeletal growth and fecal scores are indicative of some possible benefits in MCFA on calf health and performance. Additional data on adipose tissue and liver biopsies may provide further evidence of such benefits.

Committee:

Maurice Eastridge (Advisor); Kristy Daniels (Committee Member); Pasha Lyvers-Peffer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Animal Sciences; Animals; Nutrition

Keywords:

calf;calves;coconut oil;milk replacer

Karnik, KetakiAccuracy of Computed Tomography in Determining Lesion Size in Canine Osteosarcoma of the Appendicular Skeleton
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Comparative and Veterinary Medicine
Multidetector contrast enhanced computed tomography with acquisition of 0.625 mm thick axial transverse images was used to measure the extent of appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) in 10 dogs. The measured length of tumor based on CT was compared to the true length of tumor using histopathology. There was good correlation of the true length of OSA compared to the length of intramedullary/endosteal abnormalities on CT with a mean overestimation of 1.8% (SD = 15%). There was poor correlation of the true length of OSA compared to the length of periosteal proliferation on CT with a mean overestimation of 9.7% (SD = 30.3%). There was poor correlation of the true length of OSA compared to the length of abnormal contrast enhancement by 9.6% (SD = 34.8%). The measured extent of intramedullary/endosteal abnormalities using sub-millimeter thick axial transverse acquisition of images with multidetector CT should be of value in assessing patient candidacy and surgical margins for limb spare surgery. It may also be useful for evaluating response to therapy in dogs that receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy when surgery is not performed.

Committee:

E Green, DVM (Advisor); Steven Weisbrode, DVM (Committee Member); Cheryl London, DVM (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Diseases; Animal Sciences; Animals; Medical Imaging; Medicine; Veterinary Services

Keywords:

CT; computed tomography; OSA; osteosarcoma; multidetector; appendicular; canine; dog; neoplasia; bone

Jacobs, Teri A.Putting the Wild Back into Wilderness: GIS Analysis of the Daniel Boone National Forest for Potential Red Wolf Reintroduction
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Geography

The red wolf (Canis rufus) is a keystone species because of its important ecological role as a top predator. Its restoration to historic ranges may help to promote ecosystem integrity, balance, diversity and health. However, as already outlined in the 2007 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Red Wolf Recovery Progress Report, at least two additional reintroduction sites within the species’ historic ranges are still required to support viable populations of red wolves. This thesis research aimed to contribute to the Red Wolf Species Survival Plan by identifying and evaluating potential sites within the Daniel Boone National Forest in eastern Kentucky for the reestablishment of red wolves.

In previous wolf habitat prediction models, road density served as the criteria for suitability. Researchers calculated simple road densities; however, the logistic regression models thus derived did not accurately predict wolf occupation. Roads with higher traffic volumes and areas with greater road densities should, in theory, pose greater risks to wolf mortality, and simple road density may not be an adequate measure to such purpose. This research, therefore, ranked roads by mortality risk and utilized kernel density estimation in Geographic Information Systems as a means to weight the road density and to predict suitable wolf habitat. This method may provide a better picture of the spatial reality of road influence. By using the red wolf habitat suitability model based on the rank class and kernel density estimation, nine potential restoration sites were predicted; whereas the suitability model based only on the simple density function failed to predict any sites. However, the results of this research are not final. The human and coyote factors remain unknown, and validation of the model is impractical due to the lack of data and time constraints. Yet, efforts such as field verification have been made in an attempt to validate the model. If data are available, follow-up studies in North Carolina may be a feasible measure to further test the model.

Committee:

Susanna Tong, PhD (Committee Chair); Changjoo Kim, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Matter, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography

Keywords:

red wolf (Canis rufus); keystone species; habitat suitability model; kernel density estimation; geographic information systems (GIS); Daniel Boone National Forest

Shuster, GabrielaThe Management Of Feral Pig Socio-Ecological Systems In Far North Queensland, Australia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

The development of management programs for socio-ecological systems that include multiple stakeholders is a complex process and requires careful evaluation and planning. This is particularly a challenge in the presence of intractable conflict. The feral pig (Sus scrofa) in Australia is part of one such socio-ecological system. There is a large and heterogeneous group of stakeholders interested in pig management. Pigs have diverse effects on wildlife and plant ecology, economic, health, and social sectors.

This study used the feral pig management system as a vehicle to examine intractable conflict in socio-ecological systems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate: (a) stakeholder beliefs and values about pig management, (b) stakeholder socio-political relationships, and (c) how stakeholder relationships impact management practices. I used an action research approach that included the collection of oral histories, individual interviews, sociograms, participant observation, and a survey to investigate the socio-political relevance of pigs to hunters, growers, managers, government representatives, and traditional land owners in the Cassowary Coast Council of Far North Queensland. Data was collected between 2007-2009.

Despite differences in values and beliefs, I found that stakeholder groups all consider management outcomes resulting in pig control acceptable. There are multiple socio-political barriers that impede successful application of management strategies. These barriers include poor communication, competing stakeholder social structures, limited resources, and property access. Additionally, illusory barriers compound conflict and are tied to the influence of negative stereotypes on stakeholder behavior. The use by managers, of traditional management practices focusing on equilibrium resilience, conflicts with the more ecological resilience oriented practices of other stakeholders. The result is a division of the landscape that leads to poor management outcomes.

This study describes useful tools for the engagement of stakeholders. Frame analysis can clarify the values and positions of stakeholders and suggests strategies for reframing intractable conflicts. The evaluation of stakeholder social structures provides information about the social context of management issues. It is important to operationalize participation and determine the amount of participation desired by stakeholders throughout the research process. The electronic version of this dissertation is freely available in the open access OhioLINK ETD Center http://etd.ohiolink.edu.

Committee:

Beth A. Kaplin, PhD (Committee Chair); Tania Schusler, PhD (Committee Member); Diane Russell, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Animals; Communication; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Management; Natural Resource Management; Social Structure; Sociology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

socio-ecological systems; conflict; participation; resilience; frame analysis; adaptive management; stereotypes; action research; multiple stakeholders; community engagement; natural resources; management; social context; socio-politics; hunter; landscape

Martin, Kirsten HopeThe Transition Zone: Impact of Riverbanks on Emergent Dragonfly Nymphs. Implications for Riverbank Restoration and Management
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
The use of riprap in the restoration and stabilization of riverine landscapes is an issue of concern for many ecologists. While current methods of bank stabilization, especially those involving the placement of rocks (riprap) along the waterline, are effective in controlling erosion their presence changes habitat components (slope, substrate composition, near-shore river velocity) at the river-land interface. The additional impacts of river current, water temperature, soil composition, slope, and water level fluctuation, may further imperil emerging nymphs. The purpose of this research is to document the effects of riprap, location (upriver or downriver of hydroelectric intake/outtake facilities), water level fluctuation, river velocity, air temperature, water temperature, substrate temperature, and soil composition on the distance traveled to eclosure site by G. vastus and S. spiniceps, and the density of S. spiniceps, G. vastus, N. yamaskanensis, D. spinosus, O. rupinsulensis, M. illinoiensis, and E. priniceps. Knowledge of the conservation status of these species is fairly limited, although S. spiniceps (threatened), G. vastus (species of special concern), and N. yamaskanensis (species of special concern) are all currently listed on the Massachusetts Endangered Species list. Species density was determined through exuviae collection, and emergence distance was recorded from the edge of the waterline to the site of attached exuviae. Results of the study indicate that nymphal response to the observed abiotic features varies both with location and species. The presence of riprap had no significant effect on densities of S. spiniceps, G. vastus, N. yamaskanensis, D. spinosus, O. rupinsulensis, M. illinoiensis, and E. priniceps, but did significantly reduce the distance traveled from the waterline by both G. vastus and S. spiniceps.

Committee:

James Jordan, PhD (Committee Chair); Charles Curtin, PhD. (Committee Member); Mike Sutherland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Ecology; Entomology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

dragonfly ecology; restoration ecology; riprap; riverbanks

Zito, Stephanie DanielleDevelopmental Expression of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Brain of Microtus ochrogaster
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2009, Biology
There are two primary nuclear estrogen receptors (ER) subtypes, α and β. While there is a large body of research on the role of ERα in regulating social behavior and in expression within the CNS there is significantly less known about ERβ. This is due in part to the fact that the existence of ERα has been known for much longer and in part to the difficulty in visualizing ERβ. Primary antibodies developed for labeling ERβ have had limited success in rats and mice and none have worked in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Here for the first time we characterize the expression of ERβ-immunoreactivity (IR), using immunocytochemistry, in the brains of prairie voles. ERβ-IR was compared in juveniles, 21-days of age, and in adult males and females, 60 days of age. Results indicate several major findings. First, unlike ERα expression, ERβ expression is not sexually dimorphic, with males and females expressing similar patterns in the brain. Second, ERβ express an adult pattern by day 21 as there were no age dependent effects on distribution. Finally, ERβ in the prairie vole may not be as wide spread as reported in rats and mice. High levels of ERβ-IR were observed in several regions/nuclei within the medial pre-optic area, ventrolateral pre-optic nuclei and in the hypothalamus, especially the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. The visualization of ERβ in prairie voles is important as the socially monogamous prairie vole functions as a human relevant model system for studying the expression of social behavior and social deficit disorders and ER is known to play a role in the expression of social behavior. Future studies will now be able to determine the effect of treatments on the expression and/or development of ERβ in this highly social species.

Committee:

Bruce Cushing, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology

Keywords:

estrogen receptor beta; prairie vole; behavior

Bilancini, AnneThe Most Delicate Parts: Stories
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2013, English
The Most Delicate Parts is a collection of stories in which the fantastic collides with everyday life. Oksana Baiul becomes a swan in the skating rink. An ancient king haunts a bachelor's downstairs bathroom. And a girl automaton enters a beauty pageant. The collection is especially interested in creating images that recall the strangeness of fairy tales and magical realism. This attention to image creation often serves as an alternative method of gaining access into a character's carefully guarded interior, perhaps the strangest space within these stories.

Committee:

Margaret Luongo (Committee Chair); Joseph Bates (Committee Member); Erin Edwards (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Animals; Robots

Keywords:

fairy tales, magical realism, fictive biography

Vreedzaam, Arioene UncasThe Feeding and Behavioral Ecology of Black Spider Monkey Subgroups (Ateles paniscus paniscus) in the Context of Illegal Artisinal Goldmining Activities in the Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname
MA, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
The Brownsberg Nature Park(BNP) in Suriname is home to eight monkey species: Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Alouatta seniculus. Pithecia pithecia, Cebus olivaceus, Chiropotes satanas (sagulatus), and Ateles paniscus. Several studies have undertaken the task to better study the feeding and behavioral ecology of these species within the park. However, studies on the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus) have been absent. As part of my thesis, I decided to conduct a baseline feeding and behavioral ecology study of this species during the period May 2008 to July 2008. In addition, I developed a field method for determining mercury levels (in parts per million = ppm) in fecal and urine samples of wild monkeys. Since the park is under enormous pressure from illegal gold mining activities, I decided to collect baseline data on potential exposure of wild monkeys to mercury in the environment. I also collected samples from monkeys at the zoo in Paramaribo and monkeys born in captivity at Hiram College in Ohio. I collected data on the frequency of feeding, resting, and traveling by black spider monkey subgroups every 10 minutes during all day follows. Feeding ecology data consisted of identifying fruits eaten by these subgroups. For the mercury analysis I used the OSUMEX LTD. home testing kit. Results from the behavioral data show the following frequencies of activities for the entire study period: 32% feeding, 43% resting, and 25% traveling. The feeding data further justifies spider monkeys as ripe fruit frugivores: 76% of food items consisted of ripe fruit, while 22% consisted of leaves, and 2% was comprised of flowers. The mercury testing results from the Brownsberg and zoo populations ranged between 0.025 ppm to 0.1 ppm (toxic level = 0.8 ppm). The Hiram College monkeys all displayed levels at 0.000 ppm. The results from the mercury analyses indicate that 1) wild monkeys in the vicinity of gold mining activities may not be under the same threat as humans, with regards to mercury exposure through food, and 2) that wild monkeys are still relatively exposed to mercury in the environment whether it be natural or anthropogenic.

Committee:

Marilyn Norconk, Phd. (Advisor); Richard Meindl, Phd. (Committee Member); Christopher Vinyard, Phd. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Botany; Conservation; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science; Toxicology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

feeding ecology; behavioral ecology; Brownsberg; Suriname; black spider monkey; Ateles paniscus; small scale gold mining; methylmercury

Pavlik, Stacey C.Estimating the Impact of House Sparrows on Eastern Bluebird Reproductive Success Across an Urban Gradient
Master of Science in Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Biological Sciences
Non-indigenous species are widely reported to compromise the population growth of native species, but quantitative estimates of this are often lacking. As a result, management recommendations for non-native species are frequently rooted in subjective speculation and thus have poor predictive power. The House Sparrow (HOSP) was introduced into New York, NY from Europe in 1851 and has since expanded its range to encompass all of North America, where it usurps nests of native cavity-nesting birds, frequently destroying eggs, and killing nestlings and adults. This two-year study investigated habitat effects as well as the impact and management of HOSPs on the reproductive success in Northeast Ohio of the Eastern Bluebird (EABL), a native species whose population is managed via artificial nest box placement and maintenance. To do so, I attempted to found rural and urban EABL populations to assess whether the expected high number of discarded HOSP nests from artificial nest boxes in urban areas was sufficient to facilitate EABL nesting success. I found EABL fledgling number was two-fold higher in rural compared to urban areas, but nesting success (at least one chick fledged per nest attempt) was marginally higher in the latter. Despite reduced EABL nesting success by HOSPs, this habitat difference appears to not be primarily driven by HOSP abundance and suggests nest predation rates on EABLs may be higher in rural areas. Point count estimates of HOSP abundance were positively correlated with the number of HOSP nests I discarded from nest boxes and negatively correlated with distance from buildings offering HOSPs a stable food source. These data, including the effects of House Wrens, were integrated in a GIS-based hazard model to predict EABL nesting success across an urban-rural landscape. Key factors affecting the founding and subsequent success of EABL populations across habitats will provide managers with science-based practices to best augment populations at local and regional scales.

Committee:

Ian Renne, PhD (Advisor); Thomas Diggins, PhD (Committee Member); Dawna Cerney, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Eastern bluebird; reproductive success; predictive map

Next Page