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Penn, Carlotta MThriving and Surviving: The Counternarratives of Black Women Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Teaching and Learning
Black women have a legacy of excellence as teachers, administrators, colleagues, and community members in the field of English language education. However, their expertise, perspectives, and voices continue to be underappreciated, under-researched, and therefore, too often unheard. Furthermore, given the ongoing impact of racism as a systemic force shaping U.S. society and the world, due to the global reach of U.S. culture and economy, Black women’s personal and professional lives are necessarily affected. More specifically, Black women are regularly stereotyped and regarded as intellectually, professionally, and aesthetically inferior to their White and male counterparts. Therefore, this dissertation highlights the experiences of Black women teachers of English to speakers of other languages as counternarratives that can “shatter complacency, challenge the dominant discourse on race, and further the struggle for racial reform” (Solorzano and Yosso, 2002, p. 32). Researchers have published important work on the experiences of teachers of color who are Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), and of Black women in education, but there is scant literature specifically centering the experiences of Black women in TESOL. Therefore, this dissertation attends to the following research questions: How do race, gender, and racism impact the personal and professional lives of Black women educators in TESOL? How can their counternarratives enrich the existing literature that examines relationships among race, gender, and racism for women of color, generally, and Black women educators, specifically? My research is grounded in Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Epistemology—intellectual traditions that definitively center Black and Black women ways of knowing and coming to know and understand the world, and that are unapologetically oriented toward racial equity and justice for all people. Critical race methodology guided my process of collecting, analyzing, and representing data. I conducted conversational interviews and Internet research during the data collection phase; I spoke with seven women over the course of five months and gathered writings from popular media sources, including Internet blogs, news articles, social media sites, and message boards. I use arts based methods and composite counterstory to analyze and represent the wisdom and experience that my participants shared. Findings indicate that: (a) Black women in TESOL experience gendered racism as a normal aspect of their professional and personal lives, domestically and abroad; (b) Black women in TESOL are highly qualified educators committed to professional excellence; and (c) Black women in TESOL enthusiastically engage in cross cultural work, travel, and lifestyles despite the challenges gendered racism presents.

Committee:

Carlotta Kinloch (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Education; English As A Second Language; Gender Studies; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

Black Women Educators; Critical Race Theory; TESOL; ESL; Counternarratives; Critical Race Methodology; English Language Education; Thriving and Surviving; African American Women Educators; Counterstories

Armitage, Madeline GracePlanning for Inclusion in Museum Education Practice: Preparing Docents and Museum Educators for English Language Learners
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Art Education
The population of English language learners in America's public school system is projected to continue to grow. This research presents a case study of the Columbus Museum of Art and its relationship with English language learners (ELLs). Interviews and surveys of CMA staff and docents, volunteer tour guides, highlight the current challenges and opportunities for ELL visitors. Diversity and inclusion are the foundation of CMA's social mission and this research seeks to suggest ideas for actively welcoming the ELL community of Columbus, including a resource for docents and CMA staff that outlines relevant and effective routines and strategies for engaging ELL visitors on tours and in programming.

Committee:

Joni Acuff (Advisor); Shari Savage (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education; Education; English As A Second Language; Multicultural Education; Museums

Keywords:

Inclusion in Museum Education Practice; English Language Learners; Docents and Museum Educators

Rose, Jared S.A Dissertation entitled Development and Validation of the Mental Health Professionals’ Attitude Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS Scale (MHP-PLHIV-AS)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Counselor Education and Supervision
Individuals infected and affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have distinctive mental and emotional health issues (Acuff et al., 1999; Badiee et al., 2012; Hult et al., 2007). This study sought to create an instrument that measures the attitude element of competency with the development of the Mental Health Professionals’ Attitude Towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (MHP-PLHIV-AS). After the MHP-PLHIV-AS’s creation by a Content Evaluation Panel of HIV/AIDS Experts, it was piloted for calibration with a sample of mental health professionals (n = 43), then administered to a larger sample for validation (n = 454). The newly designed MHP-PLHIV-AS was analyzed through a Rasch Measurement Model (RMM; Rasch, 1960, 1980). RMM diagnostics and analyses provides evidence to support a two-dimensional (societal and personal dimensions) measurement of the attitude towards PLHIV construct. The authors provide background, processes, and results of the study, and implications not only for the use of the MHP-PLHIV-AS, but also of attitude being a two-dimensional construct.

Committee:

John Laux (Committee Chair); Christine Fox (Committee Member); Christopher Roseman (Committee Member); Mojisola Tiamiyu (Committee Member); Caroline O'Hara (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Multicultural Education; Psychology; Public Health; Therapy

Keywords:

HIV; AIDS; people living with HIV-AIDS; PLHIV; attitude; competency; mental health; Rasch Measurement Model

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Al musaiteer, Suliman SalehThe Saudi students' experience in intercultural communication
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
The purpose of this study was to explore the Saudi students’ experience and perceptions about the intercultural communication with American people. In particular, it concentrated on the factors that encourage and discourage the Saudi students to communicate with host national people. The researcher utilized the semi-structured interview to collect the data from three Saudi male students. The theoretical framework employed in this study was the Anxiety-Uncertainty Management (AUM) theory (Gudykunst, 2005). Four themes and twelve subthemes were emerged from the data. The four main themes were: detecting mutual interests, identifying what attracts Americans to communicate with you, what encourages Saudi students to communicate with Americans, and what discourage Saudi students to communicate with Americans. Furthermore, several recommendations were presented to enhance the intercultural communication by the participants and the researcher.

Committee:

Li Huey-Li, Professor (Advisor)

Subjects:

Communication; Education; Higher Education; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

Intercultural communication, International Education

Appleman, Michael JEmerging Adulthood: The Pursuit of Higher Education
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
The introduction of this thesis project will provide an overview of emerging adulthood and the context of higher education in contemporary society. In chapter two, a conceptualization of emerging adulthood will be provided. Given the social psychological nature of emerging adulthood, chapter two will explain the influence of identity development and social factors on emerging adults. In chapter three, self-authorship will be discussed as a theory for considering how emerging adults make meaning of their experiences, progress toward mature thinking, and assume responsible roles in adult life. Next, chapter four will provide an analysis of the relationship between emerging adults and higher education. An emphasis in chapter four will be the Learning Partnerships Model which articulates the potential for higher education to foster the development of self-authorship. This will provide one example of the way higher education cultivates individuals, and the implications for emerging adults. Lastly, a conclusion follows in chapter five to discuss the intersections between emerging adulthood, self-authorship, and higher education, with an emphasis on the social and cultural implications of emerging adulthood as a newly theorized phase in the human lifespan.

Committee:

Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Advisor); Li Huey-Li, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Megan Moore-Gardner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Aging; Cognitive Psychology; Curriculum Development; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Individual and Family Studies; Multicultural Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

emerging adulthood; higher education; self-authorship; educational philosophy; social and cultural foundations; lifespan; student development; identity development; decision-making; possible selves; future-oriented thinking; student learning outcomes

Brown, Charles APerceptions of the value and uses of English among university English majors in Taiwan
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Policy and Leadership
In this research, I employed qualitative methods to understand the role of English in the lives of 50 university English majors and recent graduates in Taiwan. I especially drew upon ethnographic interviews to learn about the life histories of English learning for these individuals, supplementing this data with ethnographic observations and participant observations as an English teacher at two universities in southern Taiwan. The ways in which participants made meaning of experiences with English, established goals, and enacted choices related to English provided insights into the role of the individual within the social, political, ideological, and pedagogical terrain in which English is situated. This especially highlights language ideology and language power. This research documents the uses to which participants put English in the past and present as well as their goals for English use in the future. The foremost use of English for these participants was within contexts of formal education in which they derived a number of tangible benefits from their English competency. Outside of such settings and for those having already graduated from university, English appeared to be much less useful. Despite this, individuals in this study – especially those not having yet entered the workforce – evidenced an inflated sense of the value of English both in the world of work and in Taiwan society more broadly. Virtually all participants expressed criticism of English teaching as implemented in their day schools. They found these classes to be inadequate and even oppressive in nature due to the combination of heavy reliance on traditional teaching approaches and the focus on preparing for high-stakes high school and college entrance exams. They especially criticized the focus on declarative grammatical knowledge, rote vocabulary memorization, and formal literacy skills, viewing these as necessary but insufficient for the well-rounded language user. They perceived their own personal language deficits as rooted in these educational experiences. Although all had taken measures to supplement their formal day schooling, they still felt themselves to be weaker in oral language competencies and, especially, language use in less formal socially-situated negotiation of meaning. The sense among participants of the ideologies and regimes of power underwriting English do not parallel the critical stance of scholars who have questioned widely-held assumptions about the value and innocence of English as well as the central position of the native speaker as language model and as preferred language teacher. Instead, constructing the foreigner in specific phenotypic terms, participants viewed themselves against a foreigner standard with foreigner contact being seen both as a measure of self worth and as a means of remediation. While such beliefs reflect a utilitarian sensibility given the benefits accruing from alignment with the institutions and linguistic norms associated with the traditional English-speaking countries, they also underwrite the ongoing hegemony of the native speaker and these countries and institutions. Instilling a sense of the legitimacy of Taiwan English could disrupt the hegemony of native-speaker Englishes, empowering students and teachers and enhancing their well-being. Reducing the reliance upon high-stakes assessments would also yield important benefits.

Committee:

Antoinette Errante (Advisor); Jan Nespor (Committee Member); Richard Voithofer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; English As A Second Language; Foreign Language; Higher Education; Language; Linguistics; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Pacific Rim Studies; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Taiwan; Taiwan EFL; Taiwan ESL; Taiwan English education; Critical applied linguistics

Sharma, ManishaIndian Art Education and Teacher Identity as Deleuzo-Guattarian Assemblage: Narratives in a Postcolonial Globalization Context
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Art Education

This dissertation examines the idea that the identity of Indian artist educators and consequently Indian art education is an assemblage of socio-cultural and ideological experience and influence, and of disciplinary transgressions into pedagogical borderlands. The primary source for the concept of assemblage as employed in this study is the writing of Deleuze and Guattari.

I identify and analyze three assemblages of identity, namely: a) postcolonial self-consciousness, b) disciplinary organization, and c) social organization, to consider how art education might be approached ‘other’wise in theory and practice. This analysis is based on narratives of learning, teaching and ideology that emerge in engaging composite voices of urban Indian art educators on their practice, with articulations of policy and curriculum voices.

I employ a conceptual framework of ontological hybridity that folds Indian Vedanta philosophy onto concepts of Deleuze and Guattari, such as assemblage, rhizome, and space. I do so in context of developments in curriculum and pedagogy in art education on disciplinary and social levels. I place my dissertation within the discourse of postcolonial globalization theory, exploring the concept of ambivalence in relation to identity. I employ a methodology located in the borderlands of narrative inquiry and grounded theory.

Committee:

Kevin Tavin, PhD (Advisor); Sydney Walker, PhD (Committee Member); Christine Ballengee-Morris, PhD (Committee Member); Deborah Smith-Shank, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education; Education Philosophy; Multicultural Education; Pedagogy; South Asian Studies; Teacher Education

Keywords:

art education; teacher identity; Deleuze and Guattari; assemblage; hybridity; Vedanta; Indian art; hybrid ontology; postcolonial; globalization; composite narrative;

Vega, Desiree“With a Little Faith and Support, You Could Really Do Anything”: A Study of Urban Youth
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore the educational experiences and social relationships of urban youth. Twenty African American, Latino, and Biracial/Multiracial high school students comprised the sample. Further, the study critically examined students‘ perceived barriers to academic success, as well as those identified factors that enhanced their school experiences. The findings indicated that meaningful relationships with family and the Upward Bound program staff, and high aspirations influenced students‘ perceptions towards learning and achievement, whereas school policies, lack of school and community safety, and negative relationships with school personnel contributed to poor school experiences. Implications for educators (e.g., administrators, teachers, and school psychologists and school counselors) and parents are discussed.

Committee:

Antoinette Miranda (Advisor); James L. Moore, III (Advisor); Lilia Fernández (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Multicultural Education; Psychology

Keywords:

African American; Latino; Urban Education

Edwards, Alexander KyeiProfessional Citizenship and Otherness Leadership Development: Examining the Relationships among Meaning, Moral Reasoning, and Diversity Competencies of Graduate Students
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Leadership Studies

This dissertation explored the relationships among three variables: meaning, moral reasoning, and diversity competencies. The relationships were examined to attempt explaining two central themes: professional citizenship and otherness leadership. A sampling of graduate students from business and education colleges at a Midwestern public institution was surveyed online with the Otherness Development Survey. The survey instrument had 104 items in four parts. Part one addressed meaning in life (as in spirituality) with ten items; part two had six managerial-based scenarios with several subsections to measure moral reasoning; and part three had 15 items measuring universal diversity competencies. The last part was a demographic survey.

The results from the survey showed a low response rate, which imposed some limitations on the subsequent data analyses. The study limitations, including instrumentation and administration, are worth noting. However, the descriptive statistics and a limited inferential statistics yielded interesting results. Overall, the relationships among the main variables showed no statistical significance. But there were interesting relationships among the various subsections that were discussed. Practical applications of the present study focused on the discussions on such concepts as spirituality, morality, and diversity in both business and education. Importantly, the interrelationships of meaning, moral reasoning, and diversity competencies were discussed for pedagogical development in higher education. The interplay of these concepts was recommended for the creation of purpose, moral responsibilities, and altruism and constructive appreciation of otherness in a cultural heterogeneity among college graduates.

Finally, further recommendations were discussed for adulthood literature, pedagogical studies, and scholarship on professionalism and otherness leadership. In particular, it is recommended that curricula in business and education should be holistic, facilitate the processes of civic consciousness, and promote inclusiveness. The present study has set the agenda for further explorations and discussions on the two themes of professional citizenship and otherness leadership.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor); Steve Cady (Committee Member); Roger Colcord (Committee Member); Mary Ellen Edwards (Committee Member); Judith Zimmerman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Higher Education; Management; Multicultural Education; School Administration; Teacher Education

Keywords:

professional citizenship; otherness leadership; spirituality; meaning; moral reasoning; morality; diversity competencies; business; education; graduate students; adulthood

Fischer-Kinney, Julie A.Biracial/Multiracial Student Perceptions of Student Academic Support Services at a Predominantly White Public Institution
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study attempted to contribute to national research on biracial/multiracial students, a growing diverse population in higher education. A lack of literature exists on biracial/multiracial college students, particularly as it pertains to student academic success at predominantly white institutions (PWI). The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of biracial/multiracial college students regarding student academic support services at one PWI. In order to address barriers to student success, the voices of biracial/multiracial students are greatly needed by institutions to enhance and develop services, programs, policies, and procedures.

This phenomenological study used Padilla‘s Theoretical Framework for Modeling Student Success to understand the barriers to student success perceived by biracial/multiracial students at one PWI. The qualitative study employed triangulation through three phases of research. In phase one, a demographic study was used to identify students at the PWI who self-identify as biracial/multiracial. The demographic study responses also guided conversations in the second phase of research, focus group meetings. Phase two consisted of three focus groups comprised of 11 biracial/multiracial students. Phase three consisted of member checking within and between focus groups, and during data analysis, for clarification and agreement of findings. The culmination of the study was the creation of a Local Student Success Model (LSSM) for the PWI, a blueprint for biracial/multiracial student success consisting of recommended student and institutional actions.

The study found that focus group participants at the PWI were unaware of the location and function of some student academic support services. Participants believed that new student academic support services are needed, such as peer mentoring in the major, in addition to the evaluation and modification of existing student academic support services, such as faculty mentoring, to aid in biracial/multiracial student success.

Study participants (including demographic and focus group participants) at the PWI perceived there to be a total of over 15 barriers to student success. Financial and personal barriers were perceived to be the greatest barriers to biracial/multiracial student success. Focus group participants perceived 10 key barriers to success that fit into two major categories of barriers— institutional barriers and individual barriers. In order to overcome barriers to student success, focus group participants perceived that students must have knowledge in five key categories; must take action in two key categories; and recommended institutional actions in five key categories to ensure the student success of biracial/multiracial students.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Chair); Jamie Barlowe, PhD (Committee Member); Shanda Gore, EdD (Committee Member); Debra Gentry, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; African American Studies; Asian American Studies; Black Studies; Educational Leadership; Ethnic Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Hispanic American Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Native American Studies

Keywords:

biracial; multiracial; support services; predominantly white institution; student academic support services; student perceptions; student success; local student success model; triangulation; focus groups

Alexander, RasheedahExploring the Impact of the Economic Decline on the Literacy of Middle-Class Families in Three Regions of the United States
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2013, English
This thesis seeks to examine the relationship between literacy attainment and the current recession. The impact of the economy on the global labor force has unquestionably altered the lives of many families in all over the country. Literacy development has altered the social, economic, cultural, and political development of the middle-class families, and current economic realities have become a daily discusses on news outlets around the world. The downturn of this financial crisis is transforming the way working-class families gain access to critical pieces of knowledge and skills to safeguard their position on the literacy ladder. Since money plays a key role in accessing technology, tutors, books, and higher education a collapse or economic downturn can challenge any family’s social class, but it cripples the middle-class. In short, middle class families lives have been—and continue to be—transformed in immense ways as a result of the significant economic disparity, outflow of resources, and the desperate need answers to the social classes dilemma regarding literacy development. The intent of this study is to determine whether the elements of region, race, and place in the class sphere, age, or engagement play a rolel in maneuver through the economic downturn. Through interviews conducted on Facetime, Skype and in-person I chose three distinct families and examined how they negotiate the effect of this economic landscape on their lives and that of their communities. Using documented case studies I reveal that while the middle class' financial status is in economic upheaval, the literacy development of the children is pertinent for community engagement. In fact, literacy of middle class families preserves community literacy, engagement, and builds an infrastructure that enriches communities by example alone. Although, social, political and economic endeavors are weigh in when establishing the direct impact that the economy has on middle class families the more crucial impact however, is the economic impact on literacy development during a recession. Additionally, the roll parents take in ensuring that economics never impact engagement in the development of literacy in their families.

Committee:

Bryan Bardine, Ph.D. (Advisor); James Boehnlein, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Andrew Slade, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black Studies; Education; Education Philosophy; Gender Studies; Language; Literacy; Multicultural Education; Pedagogy; Social Research; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Economy; economics; recession; economic decline; literacy; achievement; attainment; families; family; literate; literacy development

Koo, Ah RanBeing and Becoming in the Space Between: Co-Created Visual Storying through Community-Based Participatory Action Research
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Arts Administration, Education and Policy
The main goal of this study was to expand understanding of a Korean-American community’s cultural identities through storytelling and artmaking, which was conceptualized as Visual Storying in this study. Ethnic minority students in the United States often experience confusion or conflict between American and their heritage cultures. This study sought to identify the experiences of a contemporary Korean-American community through learning and teaching Korean language, history, culture, and/or art. The conceptual framework of this study combined the three following research backgrounds: (1) critical multiculturalism; (2) narrative inquiry and arts-based research; and (3) community-based participatory action research. Understanding cultural identities of Korean-American students is a complex process that required multiple approaches. In order to examine social and political backgrounds as well as power relations of the students’ multicultural settings, this study applied a theoretical framework of critical multiculturalism to the settings. In addition, narrative inquiry and arts-based research were used as basic means of this study. Both practices were effective ways to convey thoughts, emotions, and experiences in approachable ways, which revealed unknown stories of a Korean-American community in multicultural settings. Lastly, this study utilized a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) approach. Exploring a cultural and social aspect required deep integrations and interactions with the community members to gain better understandings of the local context. Therefore, CBPAR was the main methodology in this study that explored the complexity of the Korean-American community’s cultural understandings through deep engagement in their local community. The Korean-American Community School of Central Ohio (KACSCO)’s students participated in this study via two classes, Advanced and Art & Craft classes. In the Advanced class, the students learned Korean language, history, and culture while in the Art & Craft class, they created visual images working with peers. Key school events and classroom activities were documented through participant observation with audio recordings, field notes, and photo documentation. Additional formal interviews were conducted with KACSCO’s parents and teachers, and informal interviews were held with students. Students’ written and visual works were collected, copied, and analyzed as main data. This study supported the Korean-American community members’ desire to teach/learn their cultural perspectives and express their feelings of being different while participating in collaborative learning and artmaking. It also opened conversations about unique experiences of a minority population, and brought out cultural aspects of a Korean-American community in the United States. Sharing stories and creating visual images with Korean-American students provided us with a better understanding of our multicultural society and a space for the youth to challenge notions of cultural differences.

Committee:

Karean Hutzel (Advisor); Shari Savage (Committee Member); Joni Acuff (Committee Member); Timothy San Pedro (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Art Education; Asian Studies; Ethnic Studies; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Visual Storying, Participatory Action Research, Critical Multiculturalism, Narrative Inquiry, Arts-Based Research, Culture, Identity, Diversity

Spanner Morrow, MinervaA Comparison of Approaches to Closing the Achievement Gap in Three Urban High Schools in Ohio.
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2017, College of Education
This dissertation addresses approaches to closing the achievement gap for urban public high schools. High school graduation rates have been increasing, both nationally and in Ohio; however, this is not the case for all students. The problem addressed in this research is that graduation rates of African-American and Hispanic students in Ohio were not increasing at the same rate as those of White students within the past decade. The literature review indicated that poverty was not always a predictor of lack of academic success. Through qualitative case study methodologies, this research explored how three urban public schools in Ohio made significant gains in improving the graduation rate of African-American and Hispanic students. Eighteen individuals were interviewed during the course of this study and their testimonies show that instructional strategies, academic interventions and building strong relationships with students were important in closing the achievement gap. The findings of this research include specific strategies and approaches that led to increased graduation rates. Additionally, this study provided participants, including African-American and Hispanic students, their parents, community leaders, and educators, an opportunity to voice their opinions and concerns, and make valuable recommendations on how to continue to improve the education of underperforming African-American and Hispanic students in Ohio. The personal experiences of the participants in this study may help other public school district educators in the nation serving similar ethnic groups, gain a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities to closing the achievement gap.

Committee:

Harold E. Wilson, PhD (Committee Chair); James Olive, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Judy Alston, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Educational Leadership; Hispanic Americans; Multicultural Education; Secondary Education

Keywords:

Achievement gap; graduation rate; African American students; Hispanic students; high school students; equity; diversity; inclusion; disparities; Critical Race Theory; academic achievement; Ohio public schools; Florida public schools; civil rights

Pitcher, DianaWhat do you want to be?: Teacher and parent perspectives on Latino/a middle school students' social interactions and academic success
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Cross-Cultural, International Education
This study takes a qualitative approach to address the central research question: How do teachers and parents make sense of Latino/a middle school students’ social interactions and their impact on their own perception of academic success? It is further guided by the following sub-questions: 1) How do parents and teachers see themselves as contributing to student/ school success? 2) How do parents and teachers define success differently? Four frameworks are employed to assist in addressing the research questions, including Bourdieu’s (1986) social and cultural capital frameworks, Stanton-Salazar’s (1995, 1997, 2001) school-centered social capital model, and Bell’s (1980) interest-convergence theory. These frameworks help explain the gap in access to certain opportunities, the power of institutional agents and peer groups, as well as the ways in which dominant culture can utilize minority culture skills for its own benefit. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted in one small city in Northwest Ohio, USA to learn more about teacher and parent perspectives on Latino/a students’ interactions and successes in school. Interview participants included middle school teachers, and English and Spanish speaking parents. Findings from this case study showed that, contrary to research discussed in the literature review, teachers work diligently to form individual relationships with their middle school students. Efforts are made to communicate and include parents in decisions regarding their children’s needs, and parents feel comfortable and respected by school staff. Recommendations and future research suggestions are provided in the discussion chapter to conclude the study.

Committee:

Christopher Frey, Dr. (Advisor); Margaret Zoller Booth, Dr. (Committee Member); Alberto González, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Families and Family Life; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

Latino students; Latina students; parents; teachers; academic success

Smith-Justice, Ella M.Foreign language teacher self-efficacy: A descriptive study of high school foreign language teachers in central Appalachia
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Teaching and Learning
This mixed-methods study explores the self-efficacy beliefs of foreign language teachers in central Appalachia, which encompasses eastern Kentucky, north-central Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, and southwestern West Virginia. The participants in this study are high school foreign language teachers in the region; 81 participants completed an anonymous online survey comprised of a demographics and background questionnaire and slightly modified versions of the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) and the Second/Foreign Language Teacher Efficacy Scale (Swanson, 2010a), while 11 of those participants went on to volunteer participation in semi-structured interviews with me about their language teaching experiences in central Appalachia. The questionnaire data revealed that the teachers in this sample are mostly female and primarily teach Spanish, with smaller percentages of French and German teachers. Most of the teachers in the sample are considered veteran teachers, with slightly fewer than half of the veteran respondents having taught between 10 and 19 years. The majority of the survey respondents teach in the state of Kentucky. The analysis of the collected quantitative and qualitative data produced five primary findings: 1) despite the many challenges that they face in their teaching contexts, this sample of central Appalachian foreign language teachers has a high level of self-efficacy for foreign language teaching, and they feel most confident about their efficacy for classroom management (TSES) and content knowledge (FLTES); 2) this sample of language teachers is positively impacted by membership in professional language teaching associations, receiving funding for participation in professional development activities, teaching a high number of students per day, being older in age, and perceiving that foreign language education is valued in their respective schools and states of employment; 3) the sample is negatively impacted by not participating in professional language teaching associations, not receiving funding for professional activities, teaching classes in content areas other than their target languages, and feeling as though foreign language education is not valued in their schools, local communities, and states of employment; 4) despite veteran teachers in the sample producing higher efficacy scores across the board than novice and intermediate language teachers for classroom management (TSES), instructional strategies (TSES), student engagement (TSES), facilitating language instruction (FLTES), and cultural instruction (FLTES), language teaching experience does not have a statistically significant effect on language teacher self-efficacy for this sample; and 5) language speaker status is statistically significant for this group of language teachers for teaching self-efficacy related to content knowledge and cultural instruction. In addition to these findings, I suggest that the unique geographic context of central Appalachia is impactful for language teacher self-efficacy in the region because its topography shapes the population that resides there as well as local attitudes toward global education, while the regional economy simultaneously emphasizes the need for foreign language education for economic diversification, as well as restricts the funds and resources that are available to bolster language instruction. Finally, recommendations for future scholarship are offered, as well as implications for initial language teacher preparation and continued education and learning.

Committee:

Alan Hirvela (Advisor); Terrell Morgan (Committee Member); Francis Troyan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Bilingual Education; Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Foreign Language; Higher Education; Language; Modern Language; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Secondary Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

language teaching; language teacher self-efficacy; rural; Appalachia

Pennock Arnold, Tiffany G.Expectations, Choices, and Lessons Learned: The Experience of Rural, Appalachian, Upward Bound Graduates
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Curriculum and Instruction (Education)
Students from the Appalachian region, even those who participate in federal TRIO programs such as Upward Bound, face barriers preventing them from succeeding in postsecondary education. High performing, college educated students leave their hometowns for more urban environments, resulting in rural brain drain, while students who did not finish college stay in the community. This study uses a phenomenological approach to explore rural Appalachian Upward Bound graduates’ experiences in high school and beyond to gain insight into what programs can do to assist student’s success in college, as well as foster desire to live in Appalachian communities. This population has been found to want personal, individualized experiences in college even at the higher price tag of small, private institutions. They felt Upward Bound was of great value in preparing them for college academically and socially, but would have liked education in life skills. Participants also lacked understanding and appreciation of their Appalachian culture. Those who completed college were unwilling to stay in their hometowns because of the lack of diversity and social opportunities. Those who did not finish college planned to stay in their home communities. Rural Appalachian Upward Bound programs and educators from the region should incorporate positive cultural assets into the curriculum of their programs and schools. Upward Bound Programs should strive to include more education in general life skills, so students are able to function independently away from home. Additionally, larger colleges and universities should seek to provide an individual experience for rural Appalachian students.

Committee:

Frans Doppen, Phd (Committee Chair); Geoff Buckley, Phd (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, Phd (Committee Member); Steve Scanlan, Phd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education; Multicultural Education; Regional Studies; Secondary Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Appalachia; TRIO; Rural; Brain Drain; Culture; College Transition; Low-income; First Generation college students; phenomenology; Upward Bound; high school

Seay, Nancy ParkerUrban African American Adolescents’ Transitions to Schools in White Suburbia: A Phenomenological Study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Educational Psychology
An unprecedented number of African American students are transferring from poor-performing schools in racially isolated urban communities to schools in predominantly White and more affluent suburban communities to receive a “good” education. However, upon entering White suburban schools many urban African American students struggle both socially and academically. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and describe the experiences of forty-eight African American adolescents who had transferred from schools in Detroit to schools in nearby predominantly White suburban communities. Focus groups were conducted in six different schools throughout two suburban Detroit school districts. Analyses from the six schools were combined to create a composite description of these young people’s transition experiences. Findings suggested that relationships with teachers and both in-group and out-group peers were essential features of these adolescents’ urban to suburban transition experiences. Phenomenological analyses revealed that what the participants experienced was very similar across schools, but how they experienced the transition varied. Using theories of inter-group contact and acculturation as interpretive lenses, study findings suggest that participants’ acculturation experiences could be quite fluid and sensitive to the reception context in their new schools. The study concluded with a discussion of implications for schools and future research directions.

Committee:

Revathy Kumar, PhD (Committee Chair); Edwards Mary Ellen , PhD (Committee Member); Hamer Lynne, PhD (Committee Member); Haughton Noela, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); McKether Willie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Educational Psychology; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

urban African American students, school transitions, acculturation, inter-group contact

Glass, Lindsey HeatherA Case Study of an International Baccalaureate School within an Urban School District-University Partnership
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
This research examines the relationship between the International Baccalaureate (IB) program and individual and institutional development as well as the potential of the IB program to increase students’ social capital. Drawing on a case study approach, research methods included semi-structured interviews with 21 educators; a focus group with students and a focus group with parents; and a review of archival material. Study findings suggest that educators found the learning curve challenging in opening and sustaining a school with the IB curriculum. Teachers reported tension between teaching the transdisciplinary IB content while also needing to attend to state standards on which their students would be tested. Educators and parents underscored the experience of uncertainty in terms of issues of staffing, space, and enrollment, often sources of anxiety and sometimes a source of engagement. The goals of the IB curriculum, combined with the opportunity and resources to shape the direction of a new urban school, appear to have sustained a high level of teacher motivation. Educator experience suggests the IB curriculum provides teachers with a platform to make significant, lasting change in the lives of their students due teachers’ feelings of professionalism, autonomy and willingness to challenge themselves for the betterment of the student body and the school itself. In an era of school accountability and national efforts to implement a common core of content standards, it is useful to study the growth and struggle encountered by key stakeholders as they participate in building a rich curriculum focused on the whole child and attentive to social, academic, physical, and civic development at its core. The study is significant in terms of its ability to offer insights in the development of future IB schools, particularly in urban settings.

Committee:

Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Justin Perry, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ronald Abate, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Adams, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Megan Hatch, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Higher Education; Multicultural Education; Teaching

Keywords:

International Baccalaureate; case study; university-district partnership; teacher narratives; teacher autonomy; social capital; whole child education; standardized testing; urban education; community engagement

Bunner, Kristen ElizabethA Global Snapshot of Sexual Health Education: Insights from International Students at BGSU
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Cross-Cultural, International Education
Research shows that many international students are coming into the United States from countries with high prevalence rates of sexually transmitted diseases, minimal sexual health knowledge, and pre-conceived notions surrounding sexual health. What results from this at colleges across the country is an unavoidable intersection of international students and sexuality, with many administrators of such institutions feeling uncertain or unwilling to include sexual health in their education model. Through my unequivocal belief that resources related to sexual health education are a crucial need on every college campus, for every population, I decided to focus specifically on international students. The overall purpose of this case study is three-fold: (a) to explore the differences in backgrounds in sexual health education and practices for a diverse cross-section of international students studying at BGSU, (b) to investigate whether there is a need for colleges to implement sexual health education for international students in the United States, and (c) to speculate what strategies/curricula could be implemented. Through 24 written, qualitative surveys and 13 follow-up interviews, I sought to answer two research questions, with the first being: From international students’ perspectives, how have their social, cultural, familial, and religious backgrounds and practices shaped their home country’s stance on sexual health and, subsequently, their own upbringing? My second research question is: From international students’ perspectives, what is their perception of the influence of American culture, their perception of access to sexual health information and education programs, level of interest in and preferred format of this kind of education? In an effort to answer these questions, I investigate five major themes in my research that serve as the core foundation of this thesis: (a) prior sexual health knowledge and educational accessibility; (b) cultural ideals about virginity, premarital sex, religion; (c) access to and understanding of sexual health information; (d) influence of American culture; and (e) insight into future sexual health education. Through the lens of these themes, overarching findings developed about my target population of international students at BGSU. The findings of my study, with correspondence to the original themes, include the following: (a) varying degrees of prior sexual health education; (b) strong beliefs about virginity, premarital sex, contraception, religion; (c) uncertainty towards accessing sexual health guidance; (d) mixed perceptions about the influence of American culture; and (e) conflicting preferences towards future sexual health education. Though the results of this study are not generalizable, they did achieve to investigate a specific target population, and give a voice to international students at BGSU. This data can and should be analyzed further, expanded on through deeper and different research angles, goals, and data collection methods, and ideally contribute to the development of sexual health education programs for international student populations in the U.S. Through this study, I determined that the sexual health needs of international students represent an inadequately examined field of research and a largely bypassed area of programming. I hope that my research can begin to improve that outlook, especially on the BGSU campus.

Committee:

Sherri Horner, Ph.D (Advisor); Christopher Frey, Ph.D (Committee Member); Mary Krueger, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Policy; Ethics; Families and Family Life; Gender; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Teaching; Womens Studies

Keywords:

sexual health; sexual health education; college sexual health; sexuality education; sexually transmitted diseases; birth control; risk behaviors; religious influence; schooling; international students; Bowling Green State University

Akl, AmiraMultimodal Expressions of Young Arab Muslim American Women
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
Arab American Muslim women often struggle to maintain conflicting identities. They feel pressure to perform the traditional roles of being a mild-mannered daughter, obedient wife, and strict mother (in that order); however, they are also often trying to remain true to their newer, less traditional, American(ized) identities as individuals, as sexually liberated, and as women of the workforce. In my dissertation, entitled, Multimodal Expressions of Young Arab Muslim American Women, and advised by Dr. Kristine Blair, I explore, through ethnographic and feminist methods, the personal struggles of Arab Muslim American women. Although they have many differences in age, academic interests, family backgrounds, and life experiences, they all struggle with barriers caused by binary oppositions that are imposed upon them by family members who uphold traditional, conservative Arab and/or Islamic cultural and religious values. Many use the Internet as a space to express these struggles. This study discusses identity, discrimination, sexuality, and gender, while it seeks to answer these questions: how do Arab American Muslim women perform femininity? How do they disrupt the patriarchal expectations of Arab Muslim womanhood in order to express personal and political desire and dissent in America? How does technology provide Arab Muslim American women with sites for resistance and exploration, and what modes of delivery ultimately contribute to their expressions? Drawing on my personal and academic experiences as an Arab American, a student, a teacher, a researcher, and a feminist, I give concrete examples that describe some of the specific cultural influences that hinder Arab American women in their development into/as responsible sexual beings, and I argue that Arab American women, especially those who have needs and desires beyond those expected of them in Arab and Islamic culture, are forced to choose between satisfying their individual desires and satisfying the expectations of their family and community. My dissertation explores the rhetorical choices Arab Muslim American women make to navigate this difficult space.

Committee:

Kristine Blair, PhD (Advisor); Sue Carter Wood, PhD (Committee Member); Ellen Berry, PhD (Committee Member); Madeline Duntley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Composition; Education; English As A Second Language; Ethnic Studies; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Higher Education; International Relations; Islamic Studies; Middle Eastern Studies; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Rhetoric; Sociology; Teaching; Womens Studies

Keywords:

digital; Arab; Muslim; visual; rhetoric; rhetorical; multimodal; expression; facebook; humor; meme; Arabish; language; code switching; language acquisition; composition; gender; discrimination; racism; technology; immigrant experience;

Harmon, MartinoThe Impact of Institutional Support Services, Policies, and Programs on the Completion and Graduation of African American Students Enrolled at Select Two-Year Colleges in Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Judith Herb College of Education
Two-year colleges are grappling with need to focus on student success outcomes driven by increasingly strict accountability standards implemented by state and federal government, while at the same time facing declining resources and increasing enrollments of diverse, underprepared students. According to the American Association of Community Colleges (2010), more than 40% of all African American students enrolled in postsecondary education are enrolled in two-year colleges. A review of the literature indicated that improving persistence and completion rates for African American students is a challenge that two-year colleges face. This study examined whether institutional support services, policies, and programs influenced the completion and graduation of African American students at select Ohio’s two-year colleges. The study examined (a) general institutional interventions, such as advising, mentoring, orientation programs and courses, tutoring, and departments or programs that specifically target African American or other underrepresented students, as well as (b) special programs or staffing configurations dedicated to supporting the needs of African American students. Two major gaps in the literature were addressed in this study: 1) the impact of interventions on African American completion and graduation enrolled at two-year colleges; and 2) the impact of interventions which specifically focus on the completion and graduation of African American students, e.g. Culture centers, Office of Minority Affairs, or Multicultural Centers. The researcher’s interest in this study is due to his work in the field of college student retention and student success as well as the desire to gain and share knowledge about the impact of specific interventions in promoting the success of African American college students enrolled at two-year colleges. The researcher’s working knowledge of the subject matter and familiarity with many of the two-year colleges in the population aided in completion of this study; however, to prevent bias, the researcher used the literature and the findings to guide his conclusions The research included an observational study in which institutional intervention data were collected using a questionnaire sent to chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) at 14 (61%) of Ohio’s 23 of two-year colleges with an enrollment consisting of a minimum of 5% African American students. The CSAOs were asked whether particular interventions were used at their institutions; if so, these CSAOs were also asked to rate the impact of the intervention on completion and graduation rates for African American students. The respondents were given the choice of rating the intervention as having “no impact,” “some impact,” or “high impact.” In addition to the survey, institutional data were collected from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) and analyzed to determine whether the predictor variables influenced the outcome variable, three-year completion and graduation rates of first-time, full-time African American students. A total of 52 variables, including institutional characteristics, student enrollment, and institutional interventions, were included in this study. The 13 institutional and student enrollment variables were determined based on the IPEDS website, and 39 institutional intervention variables were determined using the questionnaire. Two of the 13 institutional characteristics and student enrollment variables—(a) the percentage of African American students enrolled and (b) the percentage of African American students enrolled in remedial math and English classes—were found to be significant predictors of African American completion and graduation rates. A total of 16 of the 39 institutional intervention variables from the survey were rated by the CSAOs as having a high impact on completion and graduation rates. Although the results were not statistically significant, they do reflect relationships that may be of practical significance. The 16 intervention variables were grouped into the following categories for analysis: - Developmental education/at-risk student interventions - Early alert/warning systems - New-student orientation programs or courses for credit - Advising for first-year students (mandatory) - Mentorship programs - Special office or department which targets the needs of African American or underrepresented students Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the following variables were correlated with African American completion and graduation rates : (1) use of the early alert/warning system; (2) use of supplemental orientation program or course for African American, at-risk, or underrepresented students; (3) implementation of mentorship program for students in select academic programs; (4) implementation of mentorship program for at-risk, African American, or underrepresented students; and (5) use of peer mentors. A sixth institutional intervention (i.e., special office or department that provides programs or services targeting African American students) was included in the analysis due to the importance of that intervention to this study. Jenkins (2006) has emphasized the importance of interventions that target African American students by stating that “the clearest difference in high and low impact colleges is targeted support and specialized services for minority students” (p. 40). Although it was difficult to draw a meaningful quantitative conclusion from the findings related to the institutional interventions due to the small size of the sample in the study, the CSAO impact ratings provided information that supports the literature describing the importance of effective interventions in increasing completion and graduation rates for African American students enrolled at Ohio’s two-year colleges. The findings of this study provided opportunities for further research using a national population of two-year colleges that have a special office or department dedicated to serving the needs of African American students. This approach would ensure a sufficient sample size to make meaningful quantitative conclusions. Further research may also incorporate follow-up case studies focused on groups of CSAOs and administrators as well as student focus groups. This research provided a foundation for developing an understanding of specific institutional characteristics that serve as predictors of African American student completion and graduation rates and how impact ratings by key administrators can be used to guide research on the impact of those interventions on African American student completion and graduation rates. This study added to the scarce body of research that has examined the impact of institutional support services, policies, and programs on the completion and graduation rates of African American students enrolled at two-year colleges

Committee:

David Meabon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Donald White, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bettina Shuford, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Black Studies; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Higher Education Administration; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

African American completion and graduation; Black student; multicultural; diversity; two-year community college completion and graduation; impact of at-risk student institutional interventions; CSAOs; mentorship programs; Culture centers; student success

Kim, JuhiBetter Writers or Better Writing? A Qualitative Study of Second Language Writers' Experiences in a University Writing Center
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
This study explores L2 (second language) students' experience with the writing tutorial in a university writing center. University writing centers were initiated to provide writing instruction to L1 (first, native language) students and have since developed to enhance their writing ability for academic purposes. With the shift of the concept of literacy in the U.S, the focus of writing instruction in the writing center has moved from focusing on the rules of grammar and punctuation in order to “make better writing”, to a collaborative pedagogy aiming to “make better writers” (North, 1984). However, as international students are increasing in the American university, their concerns for writing in English as L2 writers seem to have some conflict between the writing center’s philosophy of writing instruction and the expectation that the international students have to fulfill their own needs to improve their writing ability. This study, in this light, was conducted to gain a better understanding of the work of writing centers with L2 students in terms of how the tutor and the L2 students interact with each other during the tutorial, focusing on issues and elements that inhibit the L2 students from improving their English writing ability. From the perspective of social constructionism, this study is framed by the notion of instruction as a conversational accomplishment, and learning in this view occurs as a social process mediated through interaction. With a particular focus on analyzing the talk and interaction transcribed form videoed tutorials and interviews with tutors and tutees, this study aims to examine the nature of L2 learners’ writing practices occurring in the one-to-one writing tutorials with the tutors and to provide a comprehensive vignette of experiences of L2 writers in the writing center. Nine issues that capture the dynamics of the international students’ interaction with Writing Center tutors emerged from the analysis of the corpus of data: six originate with the student as the tutee and the remaining three focus on issues that originate with the tutor. The nine issues are placed within three themes: language and culture, understanding of academic writing in English, and understanding the Writing Center’s pedagogy for instruction. The issues and themes identified from the findings suggest that there is a clear gap between the tutor and the tutee in their `Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)’ of writing instruction and neither the tutor nor the tutee are positioned to easily overcome the mismatch. The gap occurs from the different expectations of writing instruction from the tutor, supported by the writing center’s institutional history and philosophy and the student who comes to the Center with an established agenda based on their needs and judgments for their writing. This gap causes an inevitable tension between the quick-fix desire of the L2 clients and the long-term development philosophy of the L1 tutors. A key factor to fill the gap and to be satisfied with each other for the work of the tutorial seems to be the extent to which L2 writers are motivated to return to the writing center. When L2 learners can form an ongoing relationship with the tutor, instead of just having a one-time encounter, they may become better equipped to work with and not against the tutor. The tutor then can be positioned to understand the L2 learners’ backgrounds and needs, which could possibly result in a more productive interaction and collaboration for writing instruction. This shift can begin with a more flexible approach that makes allowances for L2 tutees to make their initial experience at a writing center positive in nature to create a suitable zone of proximal development within the tutorial. To summarize, this study was designed to seek an understanding of the nature of L2 writers; writing practices and their tutorial experiences in the university writing center. By identifying themes and issues from the analysis of the tutor-tutee interactions, interviews, and ethnographic data from the writing center, this study shed light on L2 learners’ tutorial experiences and contributed to the growing body of empirical studies of L2 writer’s writing practice in their talk-in-interaction during the one-to-one, face-to-face tutorials.

Committee:

Alan Hirvela (Advisor); Caroline Clark (Committee Member); David Bloome (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; English As A Second Language; Foreign Language; Language; Language Arts; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Rhetoric; School Administration; Teaching

Keywords:

Second Language Writing, Writing Center, Writing Tutorial, Writing Conference, International Student, L2 Learner, Writing Tutorial, Language and Interaction, Discourse Analysis, Conversation Analysis

Hoff, MeaganEthnic Identity and Accent: Exploring Phonological Acquisition for International Students from China
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Cross-Cultural, International Education
When we speak we communicate more than the sum of our words. Interlocutors give and interpret information including ethnic and cultural affiliations through those first syllables and sounds of an utterance. The goal of this research was to examine the interactions between ethnic identity constructs and degree of accent in English. Given that identity is a product of social labeling and self-identification, by linking identity and accentedness, this present study gives insight into the dynamics of cross-cultural communication. Participants consisted of 20 native Mandarin speakers recently arrived in the United States and enrolled in a Midwestern American university. This research is a quantitative investigation of the correlation between ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and phonological acquisition. Data was collected at the beginning and end of an academic term. The goal of this study was to explore whether ethnic identity and strength of accent correlate at initial measurement upon arrival to the United States and then three months later, to see if changes in pronunciation are predicted by ethnic identity. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that other-group orientation was the most significant predictor of accentedness upon arrival in the United States. Furthermore, repeated measures ANOVA results revealed a significant decrease in other-group orientation over the first semester, with no significant change in accent over the same time period. This means that there was a relationship between other-group orientation and strength of accent when participants arrived in the United States. The change in strength of accent was not significant, however there was a decrease in other-group orientation at the end of the first semester. This indicates that participants were less willing to interact with people from other ethnic groups. These results suggest that the social aspects of language learning, such as interactions with, and positive attitude towards other ethnic groups are important in the process of phonological acquisition. In addition, cultural adaptation strategies may impact learner's phonological acquisition. The present findings support a sociocultural approach to language learning that places value on the cultural context of the learning process.

Committee:

Sara Abercrombie, PhD (Advisor); Sheri Wells-Jensen, PhD (Committee Member); Hyeyoung Bang, PdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; English As A Second Language; Higher Education; Language; Multicultural Education; Sociolinguistics

Keywords:

Second language learning; sociolinguistics; ethnic identity; pronunciation; accent; phonology; acculturation; international; Chinese students

Gaebel, Mary KateAn Intersectionality Approach to Understanding Turkish Women’s Educational Attainment in Germany
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership

This dissertation has two main foci: first, on the experiences of Turkish women in the German educational system, and to what extent state policies, cultural pressures, and personal choice influence their decision to pursue higher education; second, how state policies, cultural artifacts and official documents can elucidate these women’s individual accounts. This dissertation is further framed by the following sub-questions: In what ways do women of Turkish descent employ both ‘Germanness’ and ‘Turkishness’ to successfully navigate the educational system and to resist educational and social marginalization? What tensions arise between these socially-constructed identities? To explore these questions, this dissertation employs both in-depth, semi-structured interviews with women of Turkish descent in Berlin and document and cultural artifact analysis.

Chapter 1 offers an overview of the discourse used to construct the Turkish female immigrant stereotype as unwilling and unable to integrate into German society, Chapter 2 is dedicated to using the current literature in the field to frame this discourse in an historical, social, and cultural context. Chapter 3 addresses the use of intersectionality as the methodological tool in this dissertation, the aim of which is to address identity as a dialogue between the individual and larger structures of power and that categories of identity, as processes constructed through power relations, hold both internal and external components. This chapter also highlights the ways in which intersectionality as a methodology informs the methods and frames the ways in which the resulting data is interpreted. Chapter 4 highlights the results of the dissertation research in the form of four emerging themes: the use and significance of language; laying claims to belonging; retrospective attitudes towards educational experiences; and gendered cultural identity. These themes, which emerged from the women’s individual interviews, are supported by relevant document and cultural sources. While Chapter 4 offers a cursory interpretation of the four emerging themes, Chapter 5 offers a deeper exploration of the ways in which these themes operate in tension with, and are co-constituted by, the official discourse. It speaks to the voids in the existing literature that were addressed in Chapter 2 and offers an explanation for the ways in which an intersectionality approach to understanding Turkish women’s educational experiences in Germany furthers the research on issues of immigration, educational policy, and gender in an educational context. I end by addressing the study’s limitations, implications for future research, including the ways in which this study can be extended to other German contexts and to international settings.

Committee:

Bryan Warnick, PhD (Advisor); Robert Lawson, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Sebnem Cilesiz, PhD (Committee Member); Binaya Subedi, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Educational Theory; European Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Multicultural Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Germany; education; female Turkish immigrants; Berlin; multicultural education

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