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Swain, Brian SidneyEmpire of Hope and Tragedy: Jordanes and the Invention of Roman-Gothic History
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History
This dissertation explores the intersection of political and ethnic conflict during the emperor Justinian’s wars of reconquest through the figure and texts of Jordanes, the earliest barbarian voice to survive antiquity. Jordanes was ethnically Gothic - and yet he also claimed a Roman identity. Writing from Constantinople in 551, he penned two Latin histories on the Gothic and Roman pasts respectively. Crucially, Jordanes wrote while Goths and Romans clashed in the imperial war to reclaim the Italian homeland that had been under Gothic rule since 493. That a Roman Goth wrote about Goths while Rome was at war with Goths is significant and has no analogue in the ancient record. I argue that it was precisely this conflict which prompted Jordanes’ historical inquiry. Jordanes, though, has long been considered a mere copyist, and seldom treated as an historian with ideas of his own. And the few scholars who have treated Jordanes as an original author have dampened the significance of his Gothicness by arguing that barbarian ethnicities were evanescent and subsumed by the gravity of a Roman political identity. They hold that Jordanes was simply a Roman who can tell us only about Roman things, and supported the Roman emperor in his war against the Goths. In this study, I argue that Jordanes must be appreciated as both Roman and Gothic. His texts reveal an individual negotiating his own dual identity in reaction to the acute crisis of the Gothic War. It is my contention that through his praise for both Goths and Romans, and his incorporation of contrived Gothic origins into the fold of Roman history, Jordanes sought to establish an inextricably entwined Roman-Gothic destiny in order to reconcile the two warring peoples with whom he personally identified. This project examines how Jordanes’ multivalent identity informs his conception of both historic and contemporary relations between Goths and Romans, and thereby significantly enhances our ability to interpret Roman-Gothic cultural dynamics, while also advancing debates over barbarian ethnicity. Jordanes provides unparalleled insights into the complex processes that accompanied ethnic confluence and assimilation into the Roman order. This study is also the first to examine Jordanes and a chorus of other authors as interlocutors in an empire-wide polemical discourse on the nature of Gothic rule in Italy and the war that forever halted imperial ambition to reconquer the west. Importantly, at the moment when the emperor Justinian was calling for the extermination of the `tyrannical, barbarian’ Goths, Jordanes published a counter-narrative which praised the Goths, challenged the stereotype of Gothic barbarism, and criticized the emperor’s war of aggression. He calls for the establishment of a modus vivendi between Goths and Romans – a desire clearly reflective of his own imbricated sense of self.

Committee:

Timothy Gregory (Committee Co-Chair); Kristina Sessa (Committee Co-Chair); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; Medieval History; Medieval Literature

Keywords:

Jordanes; Getica; Romana; Goth; Gothic; Gothic identity; Gothic ethnicity; Gothic War; sixth century; barbarian; barbarian history; barbarian identity; barbarian ethnicity; Justinian

Morton, Amanda S.Unconventional Weapons, Siege Warfare, and the Hoplite Ideal
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, History

This paper examines the introduction of unconventional siege tactics, namely the use of chemical and biological weapons, during the Peloponnesian War in an effort to add to an existing body of work on conventional and unconventional tactics in Greek hoplite warfare. The thesis argues that the characteristics of siege warfare in the mid-fifth century exist in opposition to traditional definitions of Greek hoplite warfare and should be integrated into the ongoing discussion on warfare in the fifth century. Additionally, this paper suggests that these unconventional characteristics have precedents that can be found in the military history of the greater Mediterranean region and in Greek literature dating back to Homer.

Over the course of the Peloponnesian War, the use of siege warfare in Greece expanded dramatically, as Greek armies combined this knowledge and developed new siege techniques that differed from earlier Greek uses of blockade tactics, utilizing fire, poisonous gasses and new types of siege machinery that would eventually lead to a Hellenistic period characterized by inventive and expedient developments in siege warfare.

Committee:

Gregory Anderson, PhD (Advisor); Nathan Rosenstein, PhD (Committee Member); Timothy Gregory, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; History

Keywords:

Peloponnesian War; Greek warfare; Greece; siege

Post, Kaeleigh ANo Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement
Master of Sacred Theology (S.T.M.), Trinity Lutheran Seminary, 2014, History-Theology-Society Division
"No Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement" looks at the role of violence in the discussion of the atonement. This is accomplished by first examining a number of well-known atonement theories including Anselm's substitutionary theory, Abelard's moral exemplar, ransom theory, and Christus Victor for their connection to violence. Then, three less well-known theories such as Julian of Norwich's theory, Patrick Cheng's theosis theory, and womanist theories are looked at in light of their connection to violence. Finally, a proposed theory of atonement, which attempts to be as low-violence as possible, is presented. Throughout the thesis, the topics of what is violence and why a nonviolent atonement theory is needed are addressed.

Committee:

Joy Schroeder, PhD (Advisor); Cheryl Peterson, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Bible; Biblical Studies; Classical Studies; Divinity; Gender; History; Medieval History; Middle Ages; Religion; Religious History; Theology

Keywords:

Atonement; Abelard; Anselm; Womanist Theology; Sin; Queer Theology; Violence; Aulen; Christus Victor; Romans; Ransom Theory; Theosis

Luckenbill, Katie M.Cavalry in Xenophon
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2015, Humanities
Recent scholarship concerning Xenophon’s works has focused on his ideas of leadership. A very few, if any, scholars have examined his portrayal of the cavalry and the cavalry commander. With so many of Xenophon’s writings involving cavalry, it is possible to draw a comparison between Xenophon’s idealized portrayals of cavalry operations in the Cyropaedia and Cavalry Commander, and his historical accounts of the cavalry, especially with regards to its training and effectiveness in battle. In comparing these works, their similarities and differences, a cohesive portrait of Xenophon’s ideal cavalry and its commander emerges.

Committee:

Bruce Laforse, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rebecca Edwards, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeannette Marchand, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Classical Studies; History

Keywords:

cavalry, Xenophon, 4th century BC, Cyrus the Younger, Cyrus the Great, Cyropaedia, Anabasis, Art of Horsemanship, Cavalry Commander, hippeis, Hellenica

Masters, David MichaelWhat Lies Within or Beneath
MFA, Kent State University, 2013, College of the Arts / School of Art
What Lies Within or Beneath is a reference to the nature of memory; how it is absorbed into the places one inhabits, and then recalled through signifiers. My work is both an exploration of these signifiers, which create a metaphorical representation of a dwelling, and a dialogue about the construction of a painting. Because of this, the process I utilize must reflect the individuality of each dwelling, and my understanding that drawing, painting, and three-dimensional collage are all equally important constructed components. In my thesis work, I combine various materials to construct visual metaphors of specific dwelling places.

Committee:

Darice Polo, M.F.A. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Architectural; Fine Arts

Keywords:

Painting, Assemblage, Sculpture

Workman, Terry W.PALEOWETLANDS AND FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY OF QUEBRADA MANI: RECONSTRUCTING PALEO-ENVIRONMENTS AND HUMAN OCCUPATION IN THE NORTHERN ATACAMA DESERT
Master of Science, Miami University, 2012, Geology & Environmental Earth Science
Quebrada Mani is a hyper-arid watershed in the southernmost Pampa del Tamarugal region of the Atacama Desert, Chile. Surficial geologic mapping and dating of a 4.3 km segment of Quebrada Mani was initiated to reconstruct past environments associated with a Paleoindian (ca. 12.8-11.6ka) and an early/late Formative (ca 2.5 to 0.7ka) archaeological site. Four distinct stratigraphic units were identified adjacent to the archaeological sites. Late Pleistocene paleowetland deposits comprise Unit B1 (ca. 17,600-16,800 BP) whereas Unit B3 (ca. 11,170-9,450 BP) has sedimentology indicative of fluvial over-bank deposits. Units B1 and B3 are separated by an unconformity and correspond with two regional pluvial phases, the Tauca and Coipasa, of the Central Andean Pluvial Event. Stream aggradation likely associated with more pluvial conditions occurred at 2,500-2,040 (D1); 1,615–1,350 and 1,050–680 (D2) cal yr BP, corresponding with evidence for early/late Formative human habitation. Past climate change likely facilitated the settlement of the Atacama by early hunter-gatherers and early/late Formative agriculturalists along fluvial drainages in an otherwise barren landscape.

Committee:

Jason Rech, PhD (Advisor); Ellen Currano, PhD (Committee Member); Jonathan Levy, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Cultural Anthropology; Geology; Geomorphology; Native Americans; Paleoclimate Science

Keywords:

Paleoclimate; archaeology; geomorphology; paleowetland; Atacama desert; Paleoindian

Granitz, NicholasHeracles and the Foundings of Sparta and Rome
Bachelor of Arts, Ashland University, 2011, History/Political Science
This thesis finds that both the Spartans and the Romans consciously adopted Heracles as a model for their societies. This adoption is seen both through their historical actions and, especially, in their founding myths, which identify the city's founders with Heracles. Although the argument relies on previous scholarly work interpreting the character of Heracles, several connections, especially those in the Sparta chapter, are original arguments for Heracles' relevance in founding mythology. A close analysis of the Twelve Labors of Heracles is the foundation for my arguments. The analysis of Sparta relies on the works of Tyrtaeus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Plutarch. The analysis of Rome relies on the works of Fabius Pictor, Virgil, Livy, and Plutarch. Secondary sources were also important, especially the writings of G. Karl Galinsky, whose work is influential throughout the thesis.

Committee:

Edith Foster, PhD (Advisor); Christopher Burkett, PhD (Committee Member); Joshua Levithan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Classical Studies; History

Keywords:

Heracles; Hercules; Sparta; Rome; founding mythology; founder

Fechik, Jennifer RInteraction in the Symposion: An Experiential Approach to Attic Black-Figured Eye Cups
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Art/Art History
Archaic Greek ceramic kylixes with painted eye motifs are commonly known as eye cups, and date to 535-500 BCE. Due to the strikingly noticeable eye motifs on their outer surfaces, these cups are traditionally analyzed almost exclusively by interpreting their painted imagery. Such an approach does not, however, yield a complete understanding of the ways these objects functioned, appeared, and influenced the all-male drinking parties of the Archaic Greek symposion. This paper presents a new evaluation of eye cups by utilizing an experiential approach to reconstruct ancient experiences with these objects. Utilizing viewer response theory, affect theory, and object agency theory, three case studies focusing on the interactions between the ancient user and object are explored. The first eye cup features naval imagery on the exterior and a Gorgon on the interior; in this case, the eye cup compelled the user to take on a heroic role to lead in a naval battle and also conquer the Gorgon. The second eye cup features various mythological figures on the exterior with also a Gorgon on the interior. In this case study, the represented figures are generic mythological beings and allow the viewer(s) an open interpretation so that the cup could become an active participant in performance by possessing the characteristics of a theatrical mask. The eye cup analyzed in the final case study references sexual connotations on the exterior, with a plain interior. Creating a complete reconstruction of the interaction in the third case study finds a cyclical connection between object and the original context, the symposion, as well as creating levels of power based on the object one drank from. Through this experiential approach, I have found that eye cups were multi-functional contributors to the ancient Greek symposion and these ancient interactions are still accessible to modern scholars.

Committee:

Stephanie Langin-Hooper, PhD (Advisor); Andrew Hershberger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Art History; Classical Studies; Fine Arts; History

Keywords:

symposion; symposium; art; art history; greek; ancient art; interaction; experiential; affect; agency; object agency; ceramics; pottery; classics

VanDerPuy, Peter Joel"Uis Ingens Aeris Alieni": Agriculture and Debt in the Early Roman Republic, c. 450-287 BC
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, History
All analyses of the Early Roman Republic identify the problem of debt as a major issue underpinning the political unrest that characterized Roman society in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Yet both ancient and modern narratives have often tended to yield single-faceted conceptions of debt that focus primarily on legal categorizations which often examine the overall problem from its endpoint. We are lacking when it comes to constructing a thoughtful picture of what agrarian debt, particularly its origins, actually looked like in functional terms during this period. Since debt represented a volatile precondition for agitation and reform in the Roman community during this period, this study explores its practical origin, qualities, and function in an agricultural community. This dissertation develops and employs a heuristic model of agriculture, what we term “peasant domestic economy,” in order to determine the factors contributing to the generation and inception debt, the characteristics of its maintenance, and its overall function in economic contexts. The model of agriculture developed in this work demonstrates the variety, sophistication, and overall complexity of peasant domestic economy, the small farm, and its relation to the environment. The causes of agrarian debt were correspondingly complex and arose from a large variety of factors. Questions of life cycles and birth and marriage patterns help inform our analysis and add intricacy to the question of how debt was generated in agricultural communities. A thorough analysis of the early Roman law code of the Twelve Tables (c. 450 BC) complements our heuristic model of agriculture by illuminating the thought-world of the Roman farming community and highlighting the logics of mutual dependence and cooperation that coexisted alongside those of competition and a need to regulate scarce resources. The dissertation demonstrates that debt interactions, from low-level borrowing and cooperation between neighbors, to forms of dependency with deep asymmetries of status, were inherently written into the fabric of agriculture and the early Roman community in its process of survival. During the fifth century, the Roman community was characterized by a pre-coinage economy and a low level of state development, both of which encouraged the production of a societal fabric marked by self-help groups or dependency networks in which debt played out as a relational process of service, subordination, and reciprocity. This work demonstrates that over the course of the fourth century in particular, a new civic fabric emerged which reoriented members of the community towards a state-center as citizens, taxpayers, and legionary soldiers, imposing new burdens and transforming the character of debt from a relational process to a calculated transaction involving principal balances and interest rates. Overall the dissertation provides three major contributions: 1) a thoughtful critique of the ways that both ancient and modern narratives have described debt in early Rome, 2) a heuristic model of agriculture and the thought-world of the ancient peasant that demonstrates the complexity and relational character of debt in an agrarian community, and 3) an agricultural, economic, and environmental lens for the study of the process of state-formation in the Roman community from c. 450-287 BC.

Committee:

Nathan Rosenstein, Dr. (Advisor); Gregory Tim, Dr. (Committee Member); Anderson Greg, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; History

Keywords:

Roman Republic; agriculture; debt

Byler, DorvanFlee from the Worship of Idols: Becoming Christian in Roman Corinth
BA, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis discusses what it meant to become a Christian in first century Roman Corinth for Corinthians from Jewish, Roman, Greek, or Egyptian religious backgrounds. Because the first generation of Christian converts came directly from other religious constructs, these religious constructs were strongly influential in the development of early Christianity in Corinth. Evidence for this influence can be seen in the Apostle Paul's letters to the Corinthians, where the presence of argumentation indicates that some of the Christians disagreed with Paul on various topics, many of which were related to contemporary Corinthian religious practices. As the early Christians distinguished themselves from the Diaspora Jewish communities in which they originated and actively pursued Gentile converts, the fusion of believers with differing religious backgrounds caused uncertainty and conflict over acceptable beliefs and practices within Christian communities, such as the need for Jewish rites of circumcision and dietary restrictions or the freedom of believers to continue interacting with idols. By discussing Paul's Corinthian letters alongside other ancient sources and archaeological evidence, this thesis shows how the religious diversity in first century Corinth influenced the Christian community, demonstrating that Christianity was not formed in a vacuum but in conversation with contemporary religious constructs.

Committee:

Lindsay Starkey, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Ancient History; History; Religion; Religious History

Keywords:

Roman Corinth; Corinth; first century; Christianity; Early Christianity; Diaspora Judaism; pagans; paganism; Apostle Paul; 1 Corinthians; 2 Corinthians; development of Christianity; idols; food offered to idols; Idol worship

Margolis, Julie AnnaTetracycline Labeled Bone Content Analysis of Ancient Nubian Remains from Kulubnarti
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Anthropology
Armelagos and colleagues (2001) have hypothesized that beer is a conduit for in vivo tetracycline consumption by ancient Nubians. Streptomycetes bacteria has a high prevalence in Sudanese-Nubian soil (60 -70%) and secretes the antibiotic under harsh conditions such as fermentation. At the site of Kulubnarti, 21-S-46 cemetery (716 CE) skeletons likely represent a working underclass contemporaneous with the 21-R-2 cemetery (752 CE) containing the remains of a land-owning class. Interpretations of archaeological and osteological evidence suggest that poorer health and higher mortality occurred in the S population. To test whether an anticipated difference in tetracycline ingestion between S and R cemetery populations existed, the amount of tetracycline-labeled bone was quantified under ultra violet light using image analysis software. Amount of tetracycline labeling was expressed in terms of the total area of labeled bone tissue in square micrometers, number of labeled osteons, and number of grid intersections over labeled bone. No significant differences in percent tetracycline-labeled bone tissue, or percent labeled osteons was observed between cemeteries. These results suggest that tetracycline ingestion was similar for S and R group members, class differences were not mediating tetracycline ingestion, and both sub-groups had equal access to beer.

Committee:

Clark Larsen, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Sam Stout, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Douglas Crews, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Anatomy and Physiology; Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Biochemistry; Biology; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Epidemiology; Health; Histology; History; Human Remains; Medical Imaging; Medieval History; Microbiology; Molecular Biology; North African Studies; Nutrition; Pharmacology; Physical Anthropology; Social Structure; World History

Keywords:

tetracycline; Nubia; antibiotics; bioarchaeology; bone histology; Kulubnarti; paleopathology; class differences; Ancient Nubia; Nubian; Ancient Nubian; skeletal remains; bone; skeletal biology; image analysis

Sears, Joshua M.“His Hand Is Stretched Out—Who Will Turn it Back?”: Intercession within the Twelve Prophets
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Near Eastern Languages and Cultures

This paper explores the phenomenon of prophetic intercession as it appears within the Twelve Prophets of the Hebrew Bible, Hosea through Malachi. I begin by defining the term intercession as I will use it in this paper, essentially a prayer someone offers on behalf of another in an attempt to have God act positively toward the latter. I include in my discussion intercessory prayers offered by both prophetic and non-prophetic figures, but my discussion will concentrate on the prophets simply because they as a group intercede most frequently. Within each book of the Twelve I determine 1) if intercession occurs in some form, and 2) if intercession occurs, what are the forms, functions, and results of the intercession as portrayed in that book, and how do these relate to examples elsewhere in the Bible. I have limited my study to the Twelve because, with the exception of Amos, intercessory activity within the Twelve is often glossed over or ignored in studies on intercession; most of the attention goes to more famous examples such as Moses, Samuel, and Jeremiah. My hope is to fill this void by shining the spotlight directly on these smaller texts.

Over the course of this study we find that Amos contains the clearest examples of intercessory prayer; Habakkuk contains some petitions that, while vague, demonstrate an intercessory character; Joel contains examples of intercession by both prophet and priests; Zechariah contains an unusual intercessory plea by an angel; Hosea and Micah contain passages that are not clearly intercession although some have called them such; and the remaining books contain no discernible examples of intercession. In these latter cases I discuss why the absence is either expected or surprising.

Intercession can be a complicated topic because it incorporates—and sometimes challenges our assumptions about—topics ranging from prayer to prophets, deity to human agency. This paper seeks to understand what the Twelve have to offer to this ancient and fascinating discussion.

Committee:

Samuel Meier, PhD (Advisor); Daniel Frank, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Bible; Biblical Studies; Religion; World History

Keywords:

intercession; prophets; prayer; Hebrew Bible; intercessor; intercessory; Minor Prophets; Twelve Prophets

Niese, Derrick A.PELTASTS AND JAVELINEERS IN CLASSICAL GREEK WARFARE: ROLES, TACTICS, AND FIGHTING METHODS
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2012, Humanities
The purpose of this paper is to explore the developing roles, tactics, and fighting methods of javelin-armed soldiers in classical Greek warfare. The chronological scope of the paper will be broad, incorporating early evidence from the eighth century B.C.E. but focusing on the fifth and fourth centuries. Throughout the thesis I will argue that javelineers and especially peltasts earned an increasingly prominent role in Greek warfare due to several interrelated factors: constant warfare occurring on increasing and unprecedented scale; professionalization of military leadership; growing frequency of large-scale campaigns waged on diverse terrain; and an overall increase in the use of mercenary infantrymen in warfare. The expanded use of the javelin soldier was part of a general development of combined arms tactics used by Greek commanders during the Peloponnesian War, the Expedition of Cyrus, and the various wars waged among the poleis during the early fourth century. Also taking place during this time was a trend toward specialization among leaders of javelin troops; this paper will highlight some of the accomplishments of peltasts and javelineers under such leadership in order to illustrate their potential effectiveness against hoplites and other arms in various contexts.

Committee:

Bruce Laforse, PhD (Advisor); Jeannette Marchand, PhD (Committee Member); Rebecca Edwards, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Classical Studies; History; Military History

Keywords:

peltast; javelineer; light troops; Iphikrates; Peloponnesian War; Expedition of Cyrus; Xenophon; Thucydides; Greek warfare

Wright, Mark BThe Liber Amicus: Studies in Horace Sermones I
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Greek and Latin
This dissertation offers a reading of Horace's first book of Satires that takes account of the moral content within to offer a more fulfilling reading--one that acknowledges the genius of Horace's aesthetic principles and achievement but that pays attention to the stated function of Horace's satiric text: moral and ethical improvement. My analysis of the pragmatics of Horace's libellus reveals a program of moral (self)-pedagogy, where Horace, his audience and even today's modern reader, can learn from the mistakes and foibles of others by using them as exempla, by careful self-reflection of one's own mistakes and the use of oneself as an exempla, and the moral correction and education that friends can offer one another freely through sodality and conversation. In this way Horace is able to reconcile the ideas of friendship and the nominally invective and critical discourse of satire. Rather than an analysis of old Horatian moral saws like the aurea mediocritas or "nothing in excess", my analysis reveals a moral process at work, one that is ever active, that acknowledges that everyone has imperfections and works to strive for moral improvement. In my first chapter I situate my work into two contexts--first the modern critical apparatus of scholarship on Horace's satires and secondly within the intellectual and historical currents of Horace's own time, particularly with attention to the important contemporary discussion of friendship offered by Cicero's Laelius de Amicitia. Next I start with the most overtly moralizing texts in the libellus, the first three so called "diatribe" satires and show how they set up issues and themes in the rest of the poetic book. In chapter 2 I give a detailed reading of satire 1.4, widely acknowledged as the first open program satire amongst Horace's poems. I show how Horace gives us an ethical program that uses and interacts with several important Roman institutions--the mos maiorum and the paternal education it entails in Roman tradition, satire and friendship. In chapter 3 I turn to the subsequent two satires, 1.5 and 1.6. I use 1.5 to demonstrate the different kinds of friendship Horace imagines in his poetic world--literary friendship, friendship towards oneself and courtier friendship. In 1.6 I show how Horace can maintain a truly equal and free friendship with Maecenas, showing how Horace's criticism of Maecenas own snobbery (in this case against Horace's father), demonstrates that Horace, at least in one important way, portrayed his friendship with Maecenas as one of equals rather than courtier and patron. In chapter 4 I turn to satire 1.7, a short counterblast ending in a pun. While a poem focused on odium would seem strange in a book about amicitia, I show how 1.7 forms a potent counter example to the discussions of friendship and ethics in the previous poems. Finally in my concluding chapter, I show how the last two poems fit into Horace's ethical program.

Committee:

William Batstone (Advisor)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; Literature

Connor, Matthew M.“Baptism on Behalf of the Dead”: 1 Corinthians 15:29 in its Hellenistic Context
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, Religion
This thesis analyzes 1 Corinthians 15:29 – a reference to “Baptism on behalf of the dead” – as an ancient Mediterranean ritual conducted on behalf of the dead. Scholars have been unable to reach a consensus regarding what Paul was referring to in this passage, with many commentators rejecting the most simple and obvious reading of the text. This paper analyzes the text and translation of 15:29, as well as the history of its interpretation before turning to the category of rituals on behalf of the dead in the ancient world. With a cultural predisposition toward ritual interaction between the living and the dead established in the ancient Mediterranean world, vicarious baptism in Corinth is approached using hybridity theory, which acknowledges the religious creativity of the Corinthians, standing in the contact zone between Paul’s Jesus cult and this longstanding Greek tradition of ritual actions performed on behalf of the dead.

Committee:

James Hanges, PhD (Committee Chair); Deborah Lyons, PhD (Committee Member); Elizabeth Wilson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Bible; Classical Studies; Religion; Religious History

Keywords:

1 Corinthians 15:29; baptism; hybridity; Corinth; the dead; baptism on behalf of the dead; baptism in Corinth

Martin, Maria A.Underestimated Influences: North Africa in Classical Antiquity
Master of Liberal Studies, University of Toledo, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences
The influence of indigenous people upon the Roman economy and spread of their Empire in North Africa has been underestimated in many sources that were written in the colonial period. This thesis aims to join the dialogue of the growing secondary bibliography on Roman North Africa which focuses more on the agency of the natives than on the colonizers. The significant effect and contribution of these indigenous people is exhibited through analyzing the interaction between them and the Romans in select and pivotal instances throughout the period from 218 B.C.-44 A.D. During this time the Romans were able to secure their empire, acquire much land and resources, and enrich their economy through alliances with North African monarchs.

Committee:

Carter Wilson (Committee Chair); Diane Britton (Committee Member); Michael Jakobson (Committee Member); Lawrence Anderson-Huang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African History; African Studies; Ancient History; Black History; Black Studies; History

Keywords:

Ancient North Africa;Influence of African people; Roman North Africa; Africa in Greek and Roman times; Numidia; Mauretania; Cleopatra Selene

Patton, Paul EPeople, Places, and Plants: An Appraisal of Subsistence, Technology and Sedentism in the Eastern Woodlands
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Anthropology
The transition from foraging to farming has cross-culturally been associated with major changes in human technology, settlement patterns and social organization. This research project tests these relationships among prehistoric human populations inhabiting the Eastern Woodlands by considering how increasing reliance on cultivated foods during the Holocene led to economic circumstances in which investment in the specialization of plant-food processing tools was beneficial. It further identifies that tool investment benefits were only adaptive when seasonally strategic mobility had decreased to such a degree that tool carrying costs were offset by expanded tool use-life. Using the Model of Technological Investment, grounded in neo-Darwinian theory and Human Behavioral Ecology, this study uses quantitative and qualitative archaeological data to 1. Provide a general survey of the changes in human botanical diet from the Hocking Valley, Ohio, for the Late Archaic through Middle Woodland Periods, 2. Determine the relative correlation between investments in food processing technology and the incorporation of cultivated foods into the prehistoric Woodlands diet, and 3. Establish the seasonal occupation at each of the sampled sites in order to determine different degrees of sedentariness and residential stability throughout the temporal periods surveyed. A variety of archaeological methods were utilized in this study, including macro-archaeobotanical analysis, pottery and ground stone macrocharacteristic analysis, and analyses of settlement and feature data from habitation sites The results of these analyses indicate that 1. Relatively high levels of investment in the construction of food-processing technology only occurred after population mobility decreased to such a degree that allowed for an extended use-life of an individual tool, 2. Middle Woodland populations in the Hocking Valley were essentially residentially stable farmers, and 3. The relationship between plant domestication, technological innovation, and sedentariness was co-evolutionary.

Committee:

Kristen Gremillion, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Julie Field, Ph.D (Committee Member); Elliot Abrams, Ph.D (Committee Member); Robert Cook, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Agriculture; Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Botany; Economic Theory; Environmental Economics; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Food Science; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; Paleobotany

Keywords:

Pottery; archaeobotany; hocking valley; ohio; archaeology; adena; hopewell; eastern woodlands; woodlands; horticulture; domestication; technological investment; tech investment model; mobility; ceramics

White, Patricia J.Reconstructing Ancient and Modern Land Use Decisions in the Copan Valley, Honduras: A GIS Landscape Archaeology Perspective
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
This thesis is an analysis of land use patterns in the Copan Valley, Honduras. It is a comparative, GIS-based analysis of the archaeological/population site data of the ancient Copan Maya population (A.D. 250-1300) and the 1978 modern Copan Valley population. These two populations were compared to ascertain the resilience of the Valley’s ecosystem over time. Time series data from the ancient Maya was combined with mean center and standard distances tests on both populations and these were overlain onto slope and aspect data to determine how both populations utilized similar landscapes. Results demonstrate that the ancient Mayan utilization of the valley was nonresilient, and unsustainable, while the 1978 population was also non resilient, and only currently sustainable due to outside markets.

Committee:

AnnCorinne Freter-Abrams (Committee Chair); Elliot Abrams (Committee Member); Dorothy Sack (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Agriculture; Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Cultural Anthropology; Demography; Ecology; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Sustainability

Keywords:

GIS; Landscape Archaeology; Migration and population movements; Land Use; Ancient Maya; Chorti Maya; Copan, Honduras; Resilience; Sustainability; Tropical Deforestation

Kruse, Marion WoodrowThe Politics of Roman Memory in the Age of Justinian
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Greek and Latin
This dissertation explores the use of Roman historical memory from the late fifth century through the middle of the sixth century AD. The collapse of Roman government in the western Roman empire in the late fifth century inspired a crisis of identity and political messaging in the eastern Roman empire of the same period. I argue that the Romans of the eastern empire, in particular those who lived in Constantinople and worked in or around the imperial administration, responded to the challenge posed by the loss of Rome by rewriting the history of the Roman empire. The new historical narratives that arose during this period were initially concerned with Roman identity and fixated on urban space (in particular the cities of Rome and Constantinople) and Roman mythistory. By the sixth century, however, the debate over Roman history had begun to infuse all levels of Roman political discourse and became a major component of the emperor Justinian’s imperial messaging and propaganda, especially in his Novels. The imperial history proposed by the Novels was aggressivley challenged by other writers of the period, creating a clear historical and political conflict over the role and import of Roman history as a model or justification for Roman politics in the sixth century. This dissertation examines the parameters of and conflicts between these new histories in order to demonstrate the existence of a coherent intellectual movement whose central concern was influencing the normative narrative of Roman history in the sixth century.

Committee:

Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Chair); Benjamin Acosta-Hughes (Committee Member); Nathan Rosenstein (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; History; Medieval History; Medieval Literature; Middle Ages

Dorsten, Sara EPriest of Wisdom: A Historical Novel Studying Ancient Greek Culture through Creative Writing
Honors Theses, Ohio Dominican University, 2015, Honors Theses
Priest of Wisdom presents the workings of the Ancient Greek culture in such a way as to make relatable a culture so far removed from our own. This novel is set in the Heroic Age, a fictitious age that the Ancient Greeks considered as filled with incredible creatures and the gods worked personally in the lives of men. To base the fiction in fact, I conducted research on archaeology, architecture, literature, art, and more, focusing on Greece from the 1400s-800s BCE, but included elements from their mythology to create the fantastic aura of the Heroic Age. The characters and situations are formed to bring to light the most culturally important aspects of Ancient Greece, including their religion, mythology, athletics, funeral practices, lifestyle, worldview, etc. Even though the novel is based on ancient times, its message is still relevant today as the characters are also faced with common issues such as faith, doubt, values, friendship, death, grief, and depression.

Committee:

Jeremy Glazier (Advisor); Matthew Ponesse, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Classical Studies; European History; European Studies; Folklore; History; Literature; Religious History

Keywords:

Ancient Greece; Creative Writing; Historical Fiction; Heroic Age; Greek Mythology; Epic; Fantasy; Science Fiction

Flores, Samuel OrtencioThe Roles of Solon in Plato’s Dialogues
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Greek and Latin
This dissertation is a study of Plato’s use and adaptation of an earlier model and tradition of wisdom based on the thought and legacy of the sixth-century archon, legislator, and poet Solon. Solon is cited and/or quoted thirty-four times in Plato’s dialogues, and alluded to many more times. My study shows that these references and allusions have deeper meaning when contextualized within the reception of Solon in the classical period. For Plato, Solon is a rhetorically powerful figure in advancing the relatively new practice of philosophy in Athens. While Solon himself did not adequately establish justice in the city, his legacy provided a model upon which Platonic philosophy could improve. Chapter One surveys the passing references to Solon in the dialogues as an introduction to my chapters on the dialogues in which Solon is a very prominent figure, Timaeus-Critias, Republic, and Laws. Chapter Two examines Critias’ use of his ancestor Solon to establish his own philosophic credentials. Chapter Three suggests that Socrates re-appropriates the aims and themes of Solon’s political poetry for Socratic philosophy. Chapter Four suggests that Solon provides a legislative model which Plato reconstructs in the Laws for the philosopher to supplant the role of legislator in Greek thought. The Athenian Stranger orients legislation towards virtue. I conclude that figure of Solon provides a basis for Plato to redirect the aims of politics towards philosophy and cultivation of virtue in the soul.

Committee:

Bruce Heiden (Advisor); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member); Richard Fletcher (Committee Member); Greg Anderson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Classical Studies; Philosophy

Keywords:

Plato; Solon; ancient philosophy; classics

Lysaght, Veronica LKnotted Numbers, Mnemonics, and Narratives: Khipu Scholarship and the Search for the “Khipu Code” throughout the Twentieth and Twenty First Century
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2016, History
My thesis explores the works of European and North American khipu scholars (mainly anthropologists) from 1912 until 2010. I analyze how they incorporated aspects of their own culture and values into their interpretations of Inca khipus’ structure and functions. As Incas did not leave behind a written language or even clear non-written descriptions of their khipus, khipu scholars interpreted khipus’ purposes with a limited base of Inca perspectives. Thus, every work of khipu literature that I study reflects both elements of Inca culture and the author’s own cultural perspectives as a twentieth or twenty-first century academic. I show how each work is indicative of modern cultural views on writing, as well as academic movements and broader social trends that were prominent during the author’s time.

Committee:

Charles Beatty-Medina (Committee Chair); Padilla Roberto (Committee Member); Kim Nielsen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Cultural Anthropology; History; Language; Latin American History; Modern History

Keywords:

Khipus; Khipu; Quipu; Quipus; Andean History; Western Scholarship; Inca; Peru; South America; Lo Andino; anthropological literature; Inca History; Spanish colonialism; postcolonial khipus; precolonial khipus; Latin America

Buck, Sharon Maria The Growing Divide: Understanding Emergent Social Inequality in San Pedro de Atacama, Chile during the Middle Horizon through Bioarchaeology
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Anthropology
The Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000) in the San Pedro de Atacama region is characterized by intensified agricultural practices, expanded trade with the Tiwanaku polity and other regional centers, and increased social complexity and inequality. However, it is not clear whether and how influences exerted by the Tiwanaku might have driven the emergence of social inequality. While there is consensus that Tiwanaku influence is associated with a period of general improvement in biological aspects of quality of life, the relationship between this improvement and local social stratification is only recently being explored. Here, I hypothesize that resource access varied according to affiliation with Tiwanaku. Therefore, the prevalence of different biological markers of diet, nutrition, and body use would vary according to individual associations with foreign material culture. A sample of 532 individuals is generated from seven Middle Horizon local cemeteries. Analysis of mortuary goods was used to determine degree of affiliation with foreign cultures. Skeletal trauma, carious lesions, abscesses, and antemortem tooth loss were used as physiological stress markers and cranial vault modification was used to indicate patterns of social identity. Individuals associated with Tiwanaku grave objects have better oral health, which suggests that social inequality played a role in distribution of benefits associated with Tiwanaku influence. Advantages as a result of this association are possibly related to cultural buffers protecting individuals from poor oral health and/or providing preferential access to valuable resources.

Committee:

Mark Hubbe (Committee Co-Chair); Clark Spencer Larsen (Committee Co-Chair); Deanna Grimstead (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Archaeology

Keywords:

San Pedro de Atacama; Tiwanaku; bioarchaeology; status; health

Moore, Cathie AEternal Gaze: Third Intermediate Period Non-Royal Female Egyptian Coffins
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Art/Art History
Ancient Egypt has long fascinated the world with its art and architecture. People are most intrigued by the pyramids, tomb paintings, and mummies. The works that are usually studied came from the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Other than Egyptologists, most people are unaware of the time periods that fell between these great kingdoms. Early scholars named them the Intermediate Periods; they were times of de-unification between Upper and Lower Egypt, a politically chaotic state. They were thought of as times that did not produce great artworks, so until the last few decades these periods were not often studied. This thesis uses three case studies to recreate the journey of a coffin belonging to three separate Third Intermediate Period non-royal women. The first case study covers the mummification process, the commissioning and decoration of a coffin set and the process involved in readying the coffin set for the funeral procession. The second case study analyzes the journey of the visible outer coffin during the funeral procession from the embalmment house to the tomb. The third case study continues the journey a Third Intermediate Period coffin set would experience by examining what happens with the coffin set as it lay in the tomb. Through the lens of Gaze Theory and Object Agency Theory this thesis examines Third Intermediate Period non-royal female Egyptian coffins and explored their social origin of interchangeability (between object and subject). The Agency of these coffins supported and made possible social interactions and relationships. The Gaze of the coffins presented in this thesis was one of desire, a non-sexualized desire. It demanded complex relationships; trust that it would protect and carry the deceased into the afterlife, assurance that in could be the double of the deceased, belief that it was a conduit between the dead and the living. These coffins helped to structure the ancient Egyptian’s perceptions; constraining or releasing ideas and emotions in ways that drew together the social, cosmic, and emotional links to the living and the dead in an ever changing relationship between past and present.

Committee:

Stephanie Langin-Hooper, PhD. (Advisor); Rebecca Skinner Green, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Archaeology; Art History

Keywords:

ART HISTORY; COFFINS; GAZE THEORY; OBJECT AGENCY THEORY; THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD; EGYPT; FEMALE; ANCIENT ART; ARCHAEOLOGY; FUNERARY ART

Zirkle, DexterThe Development of the Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine: A Comparative Analysis Among Hominids and African Apes
MA, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
The anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) is a consequential trait of interest in the study of hominid evolution by virtue of its role in being one of many traits often used to predict the locomotor condition of fossil taxa as well as the developmental differences that exist between humans and our closest living relatives. Descriptions of the AIIS in fossil taxa have recently been discussed in specimens such as Australopithecus sediba (1.95-1.78 mya), Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya), and Oreopithecus bambolii (7-9mya), to name a few. In order to fully appreciate the AIIS as an informative anatomical character and its relevance to possible locomotor condition in other taxa, it is essential to understand it in Homo sapiens. Here, we examined the developmental process and morphology of the AIIS in hominids and its corresponding area in African apes as well as relative iliac isthmus breadth. We posit that the exuberant growth required to achieve the unique mediolateral expansion of the hominid iliac isthmus is ultimately responsible for the emergence of its novel apophysis, the AIIS. Furthermore, we propose that relative isthmus breadth can be reasonably used to determine the presence/absence of a true AIIS in extinct taxa for which there are no appropriate subadult specimens.

Committee:

Owen Lovejoy (Advisor)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology; Ancient History; Animals; Archaeology; Biology; Biomechanics; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Comparative; Developmental Biology; Endocrinology; Evolution and Development; Forensic Anthropology; Forensic Osteology; Genetics; Health Sciences; Morphology; Paleontology; Physical Anthropology; Radiology; Sports Medicine; Surgery; Zoology

Keywords:

pelvis;ilium;iliac isthmus;anterior inferior iliac spine;AIIS; anterior spine;hominid;Ardi;Ardipithecus;Oreopithecus;Pan;Gorilla;Pongo;secondary ossification;Lucy;Lovejoy;Zirkle;development;morphology;ape;bipedal;anatomy;evolution; apophysis;growth

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