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Shade, Taylor JLa evolucion del neoliberalismo en Chile hasta 2015
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2016, Spanish
La politica exterior de los EEUU en America Latina influencio las reformas neoliberales que luego afectarian a Chile. Los EEUU remplazaron poco a poco a España como el poder imperial sobre America Latina mientras que sus colonias ganaban la independencia. A traves de los años, los EEUU invirtieron su tiempo, dinero y recursos en America Latina, mientras que su economia se beneficiaba. Aunque los EEUU enfrentaron desafios de gobiernos inestables, golpes de estado, guerras de guerrilla y adversarios, logro fortalecer su politica exterior con America Latina, incluyendo a Chile. Durante la Guerra Fria, Chile eligio a su primer presidente marxista lo que causo un aumento en tension entre los EEUU y Chile. Esto resulto en el golpe de estado por el regimen militar en 1973 hasta 1990. El objetivo principal del regimen era mejorar la economia chilena a traves de los Chicago Boys. Las reformas neoliberales respaldaban la privatizacion y abrian el mercado, mientras que aumentaba la desigualdad social y del ingreso. Cuando la democracia regreso en 1990, Pinochet mantuvo una influencia en la sociedad, mientras que el nuevo gobierno democratico sospechaba que un cambio en la politica economica interrumpiria la democracia. Las consecuencias de las reformas neoliberales en Chile estan representadas en su sociedad, su economia y su politica. U.S. foreign policy regarding Latin America has resulted in the adoption of harmful neoliberal reforms in Chile. The United States asserted hegemonic power over Latin America after Spain’s colonies gained their independence. Over the years, the United States invested time, money, and resources in Latin America, all of which ultimately benefitted the U.S. economy. Facing these challenges posed by unstable governments, coup d’etats, unconventional warfare, and adversaries, the United States fortified its foreign policy focus throughout Latin America, including Chile. During the Cold war, Chileans elected their first Marxist president thereby increasing tensions between Chile and the United States. These tensions ultimately resulted in the 1973 military overthrow and Pinochet dictatorship that endured until 1990. The main objective of the Augusto Pinochet regime was to improve the economy by introducing the country to the Chicago Boys and neoliberalism. The neoliberal reforms embraced privatization and the free market while increasing social and income inequality. Even after democracy was restored in 1990, Pinochet retained influence within the government. The new democratic leadership of the country was unable to substantially alter neoliberal economic policy. Today the consequences of Chile’s neoliberal experiment are manifest in society, economics and polity.

Committee:

Pradanos-Garcia Luis, Dr (Advisor); Jarrett Bromberg Shelly, Dr (Committee Member); Ziegler Melanie, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics; Environmental Justice; International Relations; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Military Studies; Native Americans; Political Science; World History

Keywords:

Neoliberalism; Chile; Pinochet; Operation Condor; School of the Americas; Allende; Bachelet; Mapuche; Democracy; Socialism; Imperialism; Neoliberalismo; Operacion condor; democracia; socialismo; imperialismo

Perkowski, Leon JCold War Credibility in the Shadow of Vietnam: Politics and Discourse of U.S. Troop Withdrawals from Korea, 1969-1979
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The strains and aftermath of the Vietnam War prompted U.S. presidents of the 1970s to be the first ones to contemplate a complete withdrawal of U.S. ground forces from South Korea. The ensuing debate forced American civilian and military leaders to confront a long-held traditional mindset about the importance of U.S. credibility and reputation that had been forged in the early Cold War. Scholars have long noted that this identifiable Cold War mindset consisted of apparent lessons from World War II about appeasement and key assumptions about the nature of the Soviet enemy and the broader Cold War conflict that encouraged a "fixation" on U.S. credibility. The presence and influence of this traditional mindset's "credibility" imperative in the post-Vietnam Cold War, however, has largely been ignored or discounted. The debate over withdrawing U.S. ground forces from South Korea in the 1970s occurred in the context of a relatively static conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which provides a unique, relatively unchanging backdrop against which to evaluate this neglected period of U.S. Cold War credibility concerns. Diachronic analysis of the troop withdrawal debate and decision making reveals important continuities and discontinuities in U.S. Cold War thinking, and highlights the ebb and flow of the influence of a persistent early Cold War mindset as it competed with other values and imperatives, especially fiscal responsibility and disentanglement, in the shadow of the Vietnam War. Using the debate as barometer of U.S. Cold War discourse, one finds that the post-Vietnam recession in the prominence of credibility concerns was modest and temporary, and that a traditional Cold War mindset and credibility fixation still exerted considerable influence on U.S. policymakers. It overarched the withdrawal debate and defined much of the conceptual space in which the debate could take place. As in other debates over national security in previous decades, the concept of credibility exerted particularly powerful influence on policy elites and senior U.S. military commanders, and sometimes unhelpfully distorted their decision making while providing enemies and allies opportunities to leverage exaggerated U.S. concerns about credibility to their advantage.

Committee:

Mary Ann Heiss (Advisor); Steven Hook (Committee Member); Kevin Adams (Committee Member); Clarence Wunderin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Peace Studies

Keywords:

Cold War; credibility; reputation; resolve; deterrence; Jimmy Carter; Richard Nixon; troop withdrawal; alliances

Gillespie, Shane MatthewCharacterizing Phase Noise for Beam Steering Devices
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2014, Electro-Optics
In this thesis we assemble a type of Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure the complex signal after passage through a device under test placed in one arm. The signal's phase is extracted from the complex signal dataset and is analyzed to study the phase noise added due to the device. We are studying a liquid crystal beam steering system, which is a combination of two optical devices; the first is a variable liquid crystal half-waveplate and the second is a liquid crystal phase grating. The variable liquid crystal waveplate is the active element that has voltages applied to achieve a specific birefringence, whereas the liquid crystal phase grating is a passive device. For the beam steering devices of interest the liquid crystal phase grating is passive and therefore unlikely to impart appreciable amounts of phase noise, so the focus of this research was on the potential phase noise due to variable liquid crystal waveplate. The phase noise using the variable liquid crystal waveplate is measured in three operational states: a non-energized off state, an energized state having zero-phase change,and an energized state with voltage set for a half-wave phase change. We examine the phase spectrum |Φ(ƒ)|2, obtained from the frequency analysis of the temporal phase. A comparison is made between the phase noise spectrums in several cases: pre-device insertion to a post-device insertion of the variable liquid crystal waveplate for the three different states. We examine the signal spectrum over frequencies spanning the range from 1 Hz to 107 Hz and tentatively conclude that the active devices add little additional noise to the system. Further data is needed to solidify this conclusion given the data being analyzed is from one data capture, and the system required readjustment between captures, and we observe a drift of the noise floor.

Committee:

Joseph Haus, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Paul McManamon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Tim Finegan (Committee Member); David Rabb (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Military Studies; Optics; Technology

Keywords:

phase noise; beam steering; liquid crystal polarization gratings; mach zehnder; interferometry; polarization IQ;

Bolzenius, Sandra M.The 1945 Black Wac Strike at Ft. Devens
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
In March 1945, a WAC (Women’s Army Corps) detachment of African Americans stationed at Ft. Devens, Massachusetts organized a strike action to protest discriminatory treatment in the Army. As a microcosm of military directives and black women’s assertions of their rights, the Ft. Devens strike provides a revealing context to explore connections between state policy and citizenship during World War II. This project investigates the manner in which state policies reflected and reinforced rigid distinctions between constructed categories of citizens, and it examines the attempts of African American women, who stood among the nation’s most marginalized persons, to assert their rights to full citizenship through military service. The purpose of this study is threefold: to investigate the Army’s determination to strictly segment its troops according to race and gender in addition to its customary rank divisions; to explore state policies during the war years from the vantage point of black women; and to recognize the agency, experiences, and resistance strategies of back women who enlisted in the WAC during its first years. The Ft. Devens incident showcases a little known, yet extraordinary event of the era that features the interaction between black enlisted women and the Army’s white elite in accordance with standard military protocol. This protocol demanded respect all who wore the uniform, albeit within a force segregated by gender, race, and rank. It is this conflict that gave rise to one of World War II’s most publicized courts-martial, the black Wac strike at Ft. Devens.

Committee:

Judy Wu (Advisor); Susan Hartmann (Committee Member); Tiyi Morris (Committee Member); Peter Mansoor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Black History; Black Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Military History; Military Studies; Public Policy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

WAC; WAAC; World War II; Fort Devens; strike; African American women; military; court- martial; intersectionality; culture of dissemblance; Fort Des Moines; Alice Young; Anna Morrison; Mary Green; Johnnie Murphy; WAAC; African American; public policy

Sowell, Patrick Wm.Maintaining US Preeminence in a Hazardous Commons: Developing National Security Space Strategy to Address the Strategic Environment
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences - Political Science

This thesis begins by considering the idea of operational space how states can approach it and the importance of policy and strategy. The United States has a long history of established space policy, stretching from the Carter administration to present day under the Obama administration. The Obama administration's recently published National Space Strategy in 2010 shares much in common with previous policies while taking into consideration developments in operational space. Following this latest policy from the Obama administration, the Department of Defense and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence published a subordinate National Security Space Strategy in 2011. This strategy outlines the strategic environment of space, characterizing it as congested, contested, and competitive, and executes the policy of the 2010 NSP through Strategic Approaches that consider the above characterization.

The author supplements the 2011 NSSS' description of the strategic environment of operational space with five characteristics: hazardous commons, mechanics, unpredictability, inaccessibility, and reach. In consideration of the author's characterization of the strategic environment, and in the interest of bringing about the conditions desired in operational space which apply to national security as enumerated by the 2010 NSP, the author offers recommendations for additional emphasis and action in four areas: situational awareness, norms, replenishment, and alternatives.

Committee:

Patrick Haney (Advisor); Laura Neack (Committee Member); Brad Hamant (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; International Law; International Relations; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Public Policy

Keywords:

national security; space; space strategy; space policy; hazardous commons; United States

Stasiuk, Davie D.Contestation of Place: Bear Butte and the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
The sacred American Indian mountain of Bear Butte, South Dakota is a contested place under threat from the biker themed campgrounds that facilitate the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. American Indian subjective identity is in a constant flux in response to the many influences of contemporary society. The economic forces at play in this particular region, in conjunction with the dominant political and social forces, including militarism, have placed an important American Indian spiritual place in jeopardy. This thesis outlines the importance of Bear Butte as a sacred place, and examines the processes of political persuasion that value the economic activities of the dominant group over the values of those who use the place for religious and healing activities. The recent neoliberalization, a continuation of centuries of disruptive colonial attitudes and practices, has manifested itself in the form of “militainment” at the campgrounds, transforming the place. This research critically examines elements of Edward Relph’s work on placelessness and authenticity, in regards to the perspective of the bikers who camp in the shadow of Bear Butte during the early weeks of August. Through a qualitative methods analysis based on interviews and observational and participatory field work, the research lends insight into the forces at work that are shaping Bear Butte. The work is filtered through an often personal perspective comprising an experiential examination of the conflict over place at Bear Butte.

Committee:

James Tyner, PhD (Advisor); Christopher Post, PhD (Committee Member); David Kaplan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography; Military Studies; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; Political Science; Religion; Social Research

Keywords:

Place; subjective identity; militarism; American Indian; Bear Butte; The Sturgis motorcycle rally.

Trettin, Ann FDistance Learning During Combat Deployment: A National Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Course Completion
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Higher Education
This study explored multiple factors related to the distance learning experiences of soldier-students who engaged in distance learning while deployed to a combat area. Data was gathered from 144 participants who completed an online questionnaire. Fifty-two factors potentially affecting the dependent variable of course completion were examined through a systems theory lens at the macro, mezzo, and micro levels. Nearly all factors found to have significant differences in those soldier-students who completed their distance learning course and those who did not complete their course were found in the higher education domain at the mezzo and micro levels. These factors included the Instructor behaviors of frequent contact and flexibility, student satisfaction, and program completion. In addition, half of this study’s participants reported experiencing role conflict as a result of their decision to study while deployed. The results of this study suggest the value of future research focused on role conflict, in both the higher education and military domains, for those soldier-students that simultaneously engage in distance learning and combat deployment.

Committee:

David Meabon (Committee Chair); Judy Lambert (Committee Member); Ronald Opp (Committee Member); Jennifer Reynolds (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Military Studies

Keywords:

military distance learning; unit cohesion; role conflict; persistence; systems theory; combat deployment; soldier-students

Szivak, Tunde K.Warfighter Adrenal Response to Extreme Military Stress
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Kinesiology
Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) school is a challenging military training course that is required for military members in high-risk professions. During SERE, servicemembers learn valuable survival skills and are put through a captivity experience. However, the effects of SERE training on physical performance remain undetermined. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the endocrine response and acute performance aspects in a group of warfighters undergoing SERE training. 20 men (Age: 25.3 ± 3.6 years; Height: 178.1 ± 6.1 cm; Weight: 83.7 ± 12.6 kg) who were members of the United States Navy and Marines took part in the study. Blood samples were obtained on three separate test days (T1: baseline assessment, T2: stress assessment; T3: recovery assessment) beginning at 18:00 hours. Blood was analyzed for plasma epinephrine (EPI), plasma norepinephrine (NOREPI), plasma dopamine (DOPA), total plasma catecholamines (TOTAL CATS), serum cortisol (C), serum testosterone (T), and plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY). Subjects also performed a vertical jump test and handgrip test at T1 and T2. As expected, stress hormone concentrations (EPI, NOREPI, DOPA, TOTAL CATS and C) were significantly elevated (p = 0.05) at T2 after the most stressful phase of the military training course. Testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced at T2, as was bodyweight. Unexpectedly, NPY concentrations were elevated at baseline (T1), did not increase at T2, but deceased sharply at T3. Physical fitness was found to have a significant influence on NOREPI concentrations (F(1,18) = 4.43, p = .050). This study was one of the first to document the physical performance responses to SERE training. The study revealed that despite the cumulative effects of sleep deprivation, food restriction and highly stressful training scenarios that resulted in significant increases in stress hormone concentrations and a significant decrease in body mass (5.2 ± 1.2 kg) over the course of SERE training, subjects were able to maintain performance on the vertical jump and handgrip test. This suggests that elevations in catecholamines during highly stressful training may offset the physical performance decline caused by cumulative stressors in a harsh training environment. Furthermore, more fit individuals may respond differentially under conditions of extreme stress, with quicker recovery of catecholamine responses to normal resting concentrations. This suggests that physical fitness may be an important factor contributing to resilience during stressful military training. In conclusion, this study revealed that although individuals with higher physical fitness had a differential catecholamine response, the SERE training course resulted in significant increases in stress hormone concentrations in all subjects regardless of physical fitness level.

Committee:

William Kraemer (Advisor); Carl Maresh (Committee Member); Jeff Volek (Committee Member); Brian Focht (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Endocrinology; Health Sciences; Military Studies

Keywords:

Military, adrenal, stress, survival

Glover, Courtney P.R.Servicewomen’s Experiences of Recovery in the Aftermath of War: A Qualitative Analysis
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2015, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Military women’s involvement and contributions to the Global War on Terror (GWOT) are unprecedented and, as such, servicewomen are returning home in numbers that far exceed prior conflicts (Street, Vogt, & Dutra, 2009). Addressing and supporting servicewomen’s postdeployment recovery needs—as similar or distinct from their male counterparts—requires a richer understanding of their lives. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) methodology, this study addressed the paucity of in-depth qualitative research devoted to exploring the recovery experiences of servicewomen in the aftermath of combat deployment. Nine servicewomen with GWOT combat deployments were interviewed on this topic using a semi-structured protocol designed to elicit reflection on their military and combat backgrounds, postdeployment experiences, and pathways to recovery. Data analysis revealed two levels of thematic analysis that depicted the following categories of servicewomen’s experiences: significant war-time accomplishments and stressors, immediate readjustment challenges and long-term effects of combat deployment, internal pathways and external influences of recovery, multilayered meanings of recovery, and future hopes for women in the service. An integrated conceptual model joining Harvey’s (2007) ecological perspective of communities and Herman’s (1992) phase-oriented model of trauma recovery offered a framework for interpreting the results of the study. In this framework, the servicewomen’s internal processes and social contextual influences of gender and postdeployment life were seen as inextricably linked and relevant to their recoveries from war. The clinical implications of the study and considerations for future research are discussed in light of these findings and the conceptual model.

Committee:

James Fauth, PhD (Committee Chair); Vince Pignatiello, PsyD (Committee Member); Elisabeth Parrott, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Military Studies

Keywords:

Global War on Terror; servicewomen; combat; postdeployment recovery; military veterans; women; females;

Ellerman, Diana DritaEffective Combat Leadership: How do Individual, Social, and Organizational Factors in the U.S. Army Reserve Cultivate Effective Women's Leadership in Dangerous Contexts?
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Leadership and Change
This research centered on the experiences of a dozen women who served in U.S. Army Reserve leadership positions. Although they served in dangerous contexts the Army had an exclusionary policy at the time that formally excluded the women from direct combat. The impetus for the research was Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta's announcement in January 2013 that the U.S. military would be eliminating the exclusionary policy. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into what individual, social, and organizational factors support women's effective leadership in dangerous contexts. The research utilized narrative inquiry in order to bring forth the essence of the lived experience of the women leaders. The research had two phases: phase one interviews, phase two panel discussion. In phase one, an unexpected outcome was that 75 % of interviewees discussed issues of gender bias and toxic leadership. In the second phase a panel of four military leaders (two men and two women who were not part of the first phase) offered validation for the interpretation and findings obtained from the interviews. The analysis of the interviews and panel discussion provided recommendations for individual, social, organizational, and cultural changes needed to correct dysfunctional gender and cultural biases and support women's leadership. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/, and OhioLINK ETD Center, http://etd.ohiolink.edu.

Committee:

Alan E. Guskin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Mitchell Kusy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patrick Sweeney, (Ret.) COL, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Marcy, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Military Studies; Women's Studies

Keywords:

combat; leader; military; US Army; women; female; Army Reserve; experience; danger; interviews; narrative; war; barriers; power; culture, dominate; leadership; individual; social; organization; respect; training; dignity; standard; mentor; trust

Lewis, James R.SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
LEWIS, JAMES R., Ph.D., December, 2015 Cultural Foundations in Education SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT (237 pp.) Dissertation Advisor: Natasha Levinson, Ph.D. Catalyzed by my observations as a U.S. Army Chaplain dealing suicide in the military across the past decade, in this study, I explore and more clearly conceptualize social processes of spiritual fitness and resilience formation in a context of plurality. Guiding questions include: Why do some become suicidal through suffering, while others experience “post-traumatic growth” instead? And if this capacity is a product of resilience, how is such a resilience formed? My research through this interdisciplinary study of literatures of spiritual and social formation through education, has identified three facets of this formation process, entailing 1) socially formed 2) frameworks of meaning 3) that become resilient habitus and habits of mind only through habitual practice, often requiring broad social support, as opposed to being the individual processes often thought. I argue that the integrated components of religious and civic formation, once central to resilience formation through American public education, are now largely ineffective, and have yet to be effectively replaced. It is that process of formation, cultivation and reinforcement of a core of spiritual fitness in resilience which the research of this dissertation is intended to explore and develop. Potential legal ramifications when the language of spiritual fitness is used by public institutions such as the U.S. Army, are also addressed. Army Chaplains have effectively fostered pluralistic models of resilience formation and reinforcement through religious support since before the birth of the United States, uniquely equipping Chaplains as resources for intentional spiritual fitness and resilience formation in the pluralistic context.

Committee:

Natasha Levinson (Advisor); McClelland Averil (Committee Member); Jeffrey Wattles (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Behavioral Sciences; Clergy; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Comparative; Continuing Education; Counseling Education; Curriculum Development; Education History; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; Ethics; Individual and Family Studies; Mental Health; Military Studies; Rehabilitation; Religion; Religious Education; Social Research; Spirituality

Keywords:

spiritual fitness, formation, Army suicide, secular age, social formation, spiritual formation, personal formation, socio-cultural change, Constantinian Christian culture, habits of mind, habitus, Chaplaincy, Army Chaplains, Army Chaplain histor

Hobbs, NicholasPsychological research and services in an Army Air Forces Convalescent Hospital
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1946, Psychology
none

Committee:

Sidney L. Pressey (Advisor)

Subjects:

Military Studies; Psychology

Alloy, Phillip CThe Role of Jewish Women as Primary Organizers of the Minsk Ghetto Resistance During the World War II German Occupation
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, History
It is a common belief the Jewish population of Europe did little to resist the genocide perpetrated by Nazi Germany. However, there were many instances of armed resistance in both city ghettos and concentration camps. The most well-known ghetto uprisings took place in Vilna, Lithuania, and Warsaw, Poland. In 1943 Jewish prisoners staged rebellions in Treblinka and Sobibor camps, destroying portions of the facilities and managing short-lived escapes. Due to lack of outside support, each of these actions—ghetto and concentration camp—was doomed from the initial stages, and none had any long term success. Still, these were not the only examples of wartime Jewish resistance. Starting shortly after the city of Minsk, Byelorussia, was occupied by German forces, a resistance organization arose from within the Jewish ghetto in that city. Until the fall of the Soviet Union, and access to archival documents and individuals living in that area, this aspect of wartime Jewish resistance had evidenced little study. More recently, access to post-Soviet information sources has allowed for a better understanding of the depth of the Minsk ghetto resistance. Of particular interest in the Minsk Jewish resistance is its apparent reliance upon women for major support within the organizational makeup and at the uppermost levels of the ghetto underground command structure. This paper will study the contribution of Jewish women to the Minsk ghetto resistance. Primary resource material has been obtained from first-person published accounts of the resistance, wartime archival material, and direct interviews with Jewish women and men active in the partisan and underground movement.

Committee:

Michael Jakobson, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

European History; European Studies; Gender Studies; History; Holocaust Studies; Judaic Studies; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Russian History; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Jewish resistance; womens history; Minsk; Belarus; World War II; WWII; partisans; ghetto; underground; Holocaust; Russia; Byelorussia; Jewish partisans; concentration camp; Nazi; Communist Party

Dranoff, Sarah E.From Trusteeship to Containment: American Involvement in Vietnam 1945-1950
BA, Oberlin College, 1983, History

The American involvement in Vietnam has motivated extensive scholarship and reflection from diverse segments of American society. The Vietnamese war for independence and the dynamics and nature of American intervention have been approached from the perspectives of many different disciplines and from all points on the political continuum. The majority of these works address, either directly or implicitly, the fundamental issue of how American involvement can be explained and understood.

The historiography of American involvement in Vietnam covers a wide range of interpretations of the impetus behind the initial commitment, the reasons for progressive escalation, and the rationales for why the United States didn't "win." Though categorizing these analyses runs the risk of oversimplification, in the interest of clarity they are classifiable in terms of the central imperatives behind intervention which they address. The salient issues these scholars bring to light can be further subdivided in that some are concerned with the motivations of intervention and others with the decision making process. The interpretations to be discussed herein base the fact or character of United States involvement on the imperatives of the balance of power, the capitalist system, American ideology, the bureaucratic establishment, domestic electoral politics, and the concept of credibility.

The balance of power approach bases American decision making toward Vietnam in pragmatism and traditional power politics. The proponents of this approach interpret American actions as the result of realistic consideration of the international situation and of the necessities of national security. This interpretation takes two main directions: one finds the motivation behind involvement in the need to maintain the balance of world power with the Soviet Union, and the other sees the maintenance of Western power on Asia as the determining factor.

Committee:

Gary Kornblith (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; History; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

Vietnam;American;international;power;

Fife, Kurt DU.S. Military in Communication with China: The Role of Chinese Language Training Programs in Shaping Future Capabilities
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, East Asian Languages and Literatures
The U.S.-China relationship is “the” most consequential bilateral relationship in the world. As the U.S. and China engage, even if both sides do not see eye-to-eye on all issues, it is extremely important to find areas of cooperation that are able to have a positive influence on the world. In its role as a superpower, the U.S. is constantly taking on problems that are global in nature, and there is an increasing need for China to play a greater role in addressing global issues. There is an undeniable element of asymmetry in the U.S.-China relationship where the Chinese seem to have the upper hand when it comes to trade, educational exchanges, and ultimately, the amount of information flow from one country to the other. This asymmetry can never be overcome by quantity. The only alternative is for the U.S. to focus on quality. This focus on quality will result in the need to develop individuals who are trained to understand, appreciate, and interact with Chinese counterparts at an advanced level. Constructive and stable military-to-military ties between our two countries is vital to our relationship’s success and could be the key to alleviating some of the asymmetry in the relationship. This means that the U.S. military needs the vision to develop many of its operators and leaders not only to possess “expertise” in their respective military career fields, but also to be able to function with “expertise” in Chinese language and culture while practicing their individual careers. The preponderance of our Chinese language-trained military members serve in the “intelligence community,” but there is a group of military members known as Foreign Area Officers (FAO) whose focus is developing language and cultural expertise that might ultimately aid in national security efforts through direct engagement with Chinese counterparts. The Department of Defense (DoD) wants these FAOs to function as our “experts” and to conduct the necessary face-to-face interactions with Chinese counterparts. Currently, the DoD focuses on a form of assessment created by the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, called the Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT). This test is used worldwide, throughout government agencies, and is the only official measurement for a member’s language proficiency in listening and reading. This project shows how the DLPT focuses on “proficiency” without the ability to capture what a member can “do” using the language. Ultimately the DLPT drives the foreign language program in the DoD since all goals, decisions, and projections are based upon DLPT results. This project draws heavily upon the author’s personal experiences and those of other military members, in order to make the case that the U.S. military needs to shift from “proficiency” to “expertise” with our FAO force in order to be truly effective. The concept of a “3rd space” is introduced and operating in the “3rd space” is recommended as the goal for our FAOs in the U.S. military. Furthermore, crucial to this concept is the fact that the ability to operate in the “3rd space” is evidence of “expertise” and that “domain” is the key concept for developing this “expertise.” Currently, FAO accession does not occur until the seven to twelve-year point in an officer’s career. This project aims to show that we not only lose the opportunity for the FAO to deliberately practice Chinese for the seven to twelve years prior to accession, but also lose the opportunity to utilize the officer during his/her approximate three and a half years training needed to become a FAO. The experiences of the author as an Air Force pilot, coupled with graduate studies and the research in this project, have created the concern for lack of an effective China FAO program. This project proposes a new concept for FAOs, involving a deliberate pipeline, a career-long language developmental focus, and the crucial concept of linking military specialties to the language. If implemented and managed properly, this course of action will be more cost-effective and will produce FAOs able to operate with language, regional expertise, and culture skills which have previously not been attained.

Committee:

Galal Walker (Advisor); Xiaobin Jian (Committee Member); Marjorie Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Foreign Language; Military Studies

Keywords:

language proficiency; expertise; domain specific; Foreign Area Officer; Defense Language Proficiency Test; US Military; Chinese language training; deliberate practice; 3rd Space

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonFighting for Air: Cold War Reorganization and the U.S. Air Force Security Service, 1945-1952
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis explores the early history of the U.S. Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), an early Cold War military communications intelligence (COMINT) agency established by the Air Force on October 20, 1948. Using bureaucracy theory, the study seeks to understand why the U.S. Air Force was motivated to create a separate COMINT capability at this point in time, how the capability would be organized, and what functions the organization was expected to provide. Drawing upon a number of declassified Air Force and Executive Branch documents, congressional testimony, official historical studies and oral history materials, this study argues that the Air Force developed the USAFSS to resist dependence upon other military intelligence efforts and that the organization successfully accomplished Air Force objectives for a separate, communications intelligence capability.

Committee:

Ann Heiss, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Information Technology; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Air Force; Cold War; intelligence; national security; military; post-World War II; communications intelligence; COMINT; USAFSS; NSA; National Security Agency; defense; United States; intelligence community; technology; reorganization; USAF; history;

Mooney, Ryan E.Guiding “Big Science:” Competing Agency of Scientists and Funding Organizations in American Cold War Research
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 2015, Department of History
This research project aims to evaluate the agency of scientists participating in American Cold War research initiatives funded by the government. The aim will be to weigh the internal direction of scientific programs versus the external pressures faced from patron organizations such as the Department of Defense. The project utilizes secondary sources supported by governmental documentation as well as written and oral accounts of scientific and technical personnel involved in select research efforts. The two initiatives examined were aerospace research and its eventual adaptation to the space program, as well as nuclear testing and the national laboratories which supported it. Sources strongly suggested significant internal direction on the part of rank-and-file laboratory and technical personnel and very little pressure to orient research toward defense-related activities, despite some cooperative overlap.

Committee:

Brian Bonhomme, PhD (Advisor); Donna DeBlasio, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Ayana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; American History; Military Studies; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

history of science;history of space program;history of nuclear testing;history of aerospace research

McCullough, Benjamin P.Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan: A Last Ditch Effort to Turn Around a Failing War
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2014, International and Comparative Politics
As the United States moved closer to ending its military involvement in Afghanistan by the end of 2014, intense debate on the relevance and success of the United States' counterinsurgency (COIN) strategy in the country continues. Many observers have been quick to declare the strategy a failure without fully analyzing the critical components of COIN doctrine that are necessary for a campaign to succeed, and the extent to which those components were in place in Afghanistan. This study examines the case of Afghanistan by determining whether the U.S.’s counterinsurgency strategy was successful in achieving the four main objectives identified by FM 3-24 as necessary for COIN’s success. This study also looks at whether or not the United States’ COIN strategy was successful in generating and maintaining the public support needed to carry out a prolonged counterinsurgency operation. By utilizing a mix of deductive logic based on contemporary COIN theory and currently available scholarly resources, government documents, and U.S. and ISAF military field reports, this study seeks to answer whether the counterinsurgency strategy devised by Generals David Petraeus and Stanley McChrystal was successful in achieving the four main objectives needed for the success of this strategy in Afghanistan.

Committee:

Pramod Kantha, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Vaughn Shannon, Ph.D (Committee Member); Donna Schlagheck, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; International Relations; Military Studies; Political Science

Keywords:

Counterinsurgency, Insurgency, Terrorism, Afghanistan, Taliban, FM 3-24, Petraeus, McChrystal, Afghan Government, Afghan National Security Forces

Barry, Steven ThomasBattle-scarred and Dirty: US Army Tactical Leadership in the Mediterranean Theater, 1942-1943
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
Throughout the North African and Sicilian campaigns of World War II, the battalion leadership exercised by United States regular army officers provided the essential component that contributed to battlefield success and combat effectiveness despite deficiencies in equipment, organization, mobilization, and inadequate operational leadership. Essentially, without the regular army battalion leaders, US units could not have functioned tactically early in the war. For both Operations TORCH and HUSKY, the US Army did not possess the leadership or staffs at the corps level to consistently coordinate combined arms maneuver with air and sea power. The battalion leadership brought discipline, maturity, experience, and the ability to translate common operational guidance into tactical reality. Many US officers shared the same “Old Army” skill sets in their early career. Across the Army in the 1930s, these officers developed familiarity with the systems and doctrine that would prove crucial in the combined arms operations of the Second World War. The battalion tactical leadership overcame lackluster operational and strategic guidance and other significant handicaps to execute the first Mediterranean Theater of Operations campaigns. Three sets of factors shaped this pivotal group of men. First, all of these officers were shaped by pre-war experiences. Professional military education, unit training exercises, and commissioning source formed the foundation of how the Army prepared these officers for leadership and combat. This group of officers shared many of the same personal factors that consistently provided sound leadership in North Africa and Sicily. While less tangible than institutional factors, the personal factors include bravery, calmness under fire, vigor, and common personality traits. Finally, the officers’ deft use of doctrine, assigned equipment, mission-oriented orders, and their ability to overcome operational limitations translated into tactical combat effectiveness. The analysis of these three categories above determined that these battalion-level professional officers were the critical cogs for early Allied success in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.

Committee:

Allan Millett, PhD (Advisor); John Guilmartin, PhD (Committee Member); John Brooke, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

combat effectiveness; battalion leadership; World War II; professional military education; North Africa; Sicily

Fong, Laura CFraming The Post-9/11 service member: How American newspapers frame the post-9/11 service member, ten years later
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication
A lot of research has examined news framing and the government's influence on how news is framed. However, there is no existing scholarly research on news framing and American military service members. This study focuses on how The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal frame the post-9/11 service members. A content analysis grounded in news framing theory will identify the frames that exist, examine the sources of the frames, and reveal other factors that influence the construction of these frames. The post-9/11 service member is one of the approximately 4 million Americans who enlisted in military service since 9/11 during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, collectively labeled the 'Global War on Terror.' The post-9/11 service member's war is different, his culture is different, and the media are different. Post-9/11 service members are diagnosed with mental health issues like Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numbers greater than those who served in other era. More journalists are embedded with troops in-country, and the post-9/11 service member is communicating from the battlefield to their families back home and social media via the Internet, which makes those who serve a subject of the news like never before.

Committee:

Danielle Coombs, PhD (Advisor); Gordon Murray, PhD (Committee Member); Jeffery Fruit (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; Journalism; Military Studies

Keywords:

news framing, Entman, post-911, soldier, veteran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Global War on Terror, PTSD,TBI, IED

Hunter, Jennifer J.Revealing Grace: The Lived Experiences of America's Post-9/11 Military Caregivers
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2017, Leadership and Change
This research focused on the lived experiences of fourteen military caregiving wives whose husbands were wounded, ill, or injured in a post-9/11 combat theater of war. All wives in this study had been vetted by and appointed to the Elizabeth Dole Military Caregiving Fellows Program and were either actively involved in the Fellowship or had become recent alumni of the two-year commitment at the time of this study. The purpose of this study was to provide a platform for their voices, understand their hopes, struggles, successes, and failures, and to give honor to their stories of military caregiving through the qualitative methodology of narrative inquiry. The stories as data were analyzed in two distinct ways. The first was using a plot analysis that exposed the story lines of the caregivers from the moment of their husbands’ final deployment home to the present day, ranging from three to 13 years post onset. Using eight plot line elements, the arc of the story lines revealed one continuous story that was consistent among all caregivers, yet highly nuanced and unique. Thematic analysis was conducted as the second way of looking at the data. Moving dynamically along the flow of the story line, topical themes and their subthemes deepened the understanding and sense making the caregivers expressed at each stage of their evolution, providing the thematic road map of each journey. It was within this roadmap that a holistic picture emerged of the wives’ journey through the emergent themes beginning with hope, to their own unraveling, to disillusionment with self, other, and the system, to the factors that eventually allowed them to turn toward a more empowered self, and finally, to the paradigm shift that ultimately allowed for transformative, inspired action. This dissertation is accompanied by the author’s MP4 video introduction. The electronic version of this dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLINK ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu

Committee:

Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Chair); Tony Lingham, PhD (Committee Member); Deborah Johnson Hayes, PsyD, LCSW, MPH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Families and Family Life; Mental Health; Military Studies; Psychology

Keywords:

military spouses; caregivers; PTSD; TBI; family members; polytrauma triad; secondary traumatic stress; veterans; narrative inquiry; lived experiences; Elizabeth Dole Foundation; Hidden Heroes; posttraumatic ; wives; brain injury

Doehne, Bryce ASupporting Student Veterans Utilizing Participatory Curriculum Development
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
An organizational level program utilizing Participatory Curriculum Development (PCD) (Taylor, 2003) is presented to assist postsecondary institutions with development, implementation, and evaluation of programs to support student veterans. Postsecondary institutions are provided with a “how to” program manual that includes literature-based core and supplemental programs, trauma-informed theory, and a methodological framework to implement programs. Practical program evaluation measures are offered to assist postsecondary institutions with evaluating the outcomes of their efforts to support student veterans. The electronic version of this dissertation is at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu

Committee:

Bill Heusler, Psy.D. (Committee Chair); Shana Hormann, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Peter Schmidt, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Mental Health; Military Studies; Organization Theory; Psychology

Keywords:

student veterans; support program; participatory curriculum development; military-connected students; program; military veterans; non-traditional students; program manual; innovative program; trauma-informed care; post-secondary institution

Childers, Rex A.Cold Warriors, Good Neighbors, Smart Power: U.S. Army, Berlin, 1961-1994
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, History
The end of the Cold War and the manner in which it was “won” by the Allied nations ignited debate over the utility of military power as a source of American leadership in the new unipolar world. A popular theme arose, that a new form of state power, soft power, had the capacity to achieve America’s interests as it prepared to enter the 21st century. The idea that expensive and dangerous technologies could be replaced by investments in peaceful means of influence, wielded by America’s foreign policy professionals to foster a new cooperative spirit in the world, was naturally attractive. The United States could be relieved of much of its global military presence and reduce its military’s intrusions upon foreign people and their cultures. This dissertation challenges the assumption that the impact of military stationing in the Cold War was limited to hard power. In the case of the U.S. Army in Berlin, the unit and its members practiced civic, social, cultural, and political behaviors that meet the criteria of the post-Cold War branded term, soft power. In their daily interactions with Berliners, they exercised the full spectrum of foreign policy smart power tools, as Cold Warrior defenders of West Berlin and in compliance with U.S. Army, Europe’s directive for all soldiers and their family members to act as Good Neighbors to the Germans in the city. The unit’s command designed institutional structures to enhance its ability to project power, and these networks became the basis for intentional actions to improve its Social Capital in the isolated city. In fact, these networks,controlled by the Army in Berlin, changed the dynamics of the occupied-occupier relationship and provided West Berlin’s civic leadership its first formal step toward balancing the relational power calculations with its lawful occupiers. As a policy history case study, it may be useful to the U.S. military as a fresh perspective on the spectrum of power behaviors evident in its own historical records. The usefulness of this study is subject to the recognition that the experience in West Berlin, while ultimately successful, occurred in a particular period and cultural context. For U.S. policymakers seeking a broader range of choices in a future scenario requiring a hard power capability on the ground while offering a path to a soft power component possibility, Army Berlin’s critical crisis assessments and long-term practices might be instructive. Policymakers who restrict their choices in the early estimation process based upon the limitations assumed in modern power theory may benefit from a broader understanding that does not exclude the force that necessarily absorbs much of the foreign policy budget. Under certain circumstances and in the proper context, the manpower, social, and cultural strength of the United States military, through its leaders, members, and dependents, has advanced the national interest effectively and without resorting to its hard power capabilities.

Committee:

Beth Griech-Polelle, PhD (Advisor); Marc Simon, PhD (Other); Bill Allison, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Brooks, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History

Keywords:

Allied Komandatura; Ambulance Plan; Berlin Brigade; Berlin Wall; bonding net;works; bridging networks; Checkpoint Charlie; Cold Warriors; Peter Fechter; Good Neighbors; hard power; smart power; social capital; soft power; trust; urban operations; USAREUR

Mills, Jeffrey P.No Path to Victory: MACV in Vietnam 1964-1968
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, History (Arts and Sciences)
The scholarship regarding US policy and military strategy in Vietnam is substantial, and by no means conclusive. To provide clear focus within the realms of national policy and military strategy, the analysis provided by this thesis is focused on the advice and actions taken by the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV), and its commander General William Westmoreland from 1964 to 1968. Within the actions of MACV, this thesis seeks to determine the contribution of MACV in the decision to escalate US involvement in the Vietnam War. This thesis analyzes the US Army’s doctrine, structure, and culture related to civil-military relations. Also, this thesis analyzes the military approach taken by MACV in fighting the Vietnam War at the operational level, and concludes with an analysis of a possible alternative to MACV’s military strategy in the form of the Combined Action Program (CAP). This thesis concludes that MACV’s operational approach was correct.

Committee:

Ingo Trauschweizer (Advisor); John Brobst (Committee Member); Chester Pach (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History

Keywords:

Vietnam; Westmoreland; counterinsurgency; pacification; CORDS; Combined Action Program; Combined Action Platoons; CAP; MTT; MALT; advising

Priyanimal, Karunanayake Dinidu`LABORS OF MEMORY’ AND 'GUERILLA-TYPES OF ATTRITION’ IN POST-WAR SRI LANKAN MEMORY CULTURE
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, English
Speaking of Sri Lanka’s civil war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, Ananda Abeysekara observes an authorization of a power dynamic between Buddhism, the state head, and the nation. The official end of the war on May 19, 2009 has reaffirmed this religionational power grid. Correspondingly, the religious fervor has become an indispensable ingredient in post-war memory culture. This thesis concentrates on state-sanctioned memory work and the ways in which it is resisted by artists who draw from memories of trauma. Using Sarath Weerasekara’s Gamani (2011), the thesis explores the “uses and abuses” of memory (Jelin) in the state–sponsored post–war cinema. It also examines how the hegemonic memory narrative is deconstructed, through a close reading of Sanjeewa Pushpakumara’s Flying Fish (2011). The thesis furthermore engages with the work of artists Thamotharapillai Sanaathanan and Bandu Manamperi, and shows how memories are merged with a quest for justice.

Committee:

Nalin Jayasena, Dr. (Committee Chair); Anita Mannur , Dr. (Committee Member); Yu-Fang Cho, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Cinematography; Comparative Literature; Military Studies; Performing Arts

Keywords:

militarism, post-war cinema, memory, resistance, justice

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