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Shuster, GabrielaThe Management Of Feral Pig Socio-Ecological Systems In Far North Queensland, Australia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

The development of management programs for socio-ecological systems that include multiple stakeholders is a complex process and requires careful evaluation and planning. This is particularly a challenge in the presence of intractable conflict. The feral pig (Sus scrofa) in Australia is part of one such socio-ecological system. There is a large and heterogeneous group of stakeholders interested in pig management. Pigs have diverse effects on wildlife and plant ecology, economic, health, and social sectors.

This study used the feral pig management system as a vehicle to examine intractable conflict in socio-ecological systems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate: (a) stakeholder beliefs and values about pig management, (b) stakeholder socio-political relationships, and (c) how stakeholder relationships impact management practices. I used an action research approach that included the collection of oral histories, individual interviews, sociograms, participant observation, and a survey to investigate the socio-political relevance of pigs to hunters, growers, managers, government representatives, and traditional land owners in the Cassowary Coast Council of Far North Queensland. Data was collected between 2007-2009.

Despite differences in values and beliefs, I found that stakeholder groups all consider management outcomes resulting in pig control acceptable. There are multiple socio-political barriers that impede successful application of management strategies. These barriers include poor communication, competing stakeholder social structures, limited resources, and property access. Additionally, illusory barriers compound conflict and are tied to the influence of negative stereotypes on stakeholder behavior. The use by managers, of traditional management practices focusing on equilibrium resilience, conflicts with the more ecological resilience oriented practices of other stakeholders. The result is a division of the landscape that leads to poor management outcomes.

This study describes useful tools for the engagement of stakeholders. Frame analysis can clarify the values and positions of stakeholders and suggests strategies for reframing intractable conflicts. The evaluation of stakeholder social structures provides information about the social context of management issues. It is important to operationalize participation and determine the amount of participation desired by stakeholders throughout the research process. The electronic version of this dissertation is freely available in the open access OhioLINK ETD Center http://etd.ohiolink.edu.

Committee:

Beth A. Kaplin, PhD (Committee Chair); Tania Schusler, PhD (Committee Member); Diane Russell, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Animals; Communication; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Management; Natural Resource Management; Social Structure; Sociology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

socio-ecological systems; conflict; participation; resilience; frame analysis; adaptive management; stereotypes; action research; multiple stakeholders; community engagement; natural resources; management; social context; socio-politics; hunter; landscape

Hollen, Jennifer WindomBat diversity, activity, and habitat use in a mixed disturbance landscape
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Biological Sciences
Bat species face multiple threats. One such threat, white-nose syndrome (WNS) has drastically reduced many bat populations. Also, habitat loss and fragmentation often forces bats to concentrate in remnant natural areas, or utilize habitats that are not as suitable. Both of these threats, while threaten bats in a general sense, also affect species differentially. The Oak Openings Region of Northwest Ohio is a biodiversity hotspot with a landscape composed of remnant natural areas within a matrix of agriculture and urban areas. This area, which provides crucial summer foraging habitat, has experienced declines in bat activity, shifts in bat assemblages, and some in diversity, in recent years, especially since WNS introduction. To study bats in this diverse landscape, we sampled bats acoustically from May – August 2016. We sampled mobile transects along roads along with stationary sites within the Oak Openings Preserve within the region. We identified calls to species and ran analyses investigating total bat activity, species-specific activity and presence, and bat diversity compared to. We compared bats to environmental, vegetation, road, and landcover parameters. Our results show that certain parameters influence bats as a whole, while others only affect one or a few species. We found that savanna stationary sites had more species-specific activity and bat diversity than forested sites (Rank Sums, p<0.05). Parameters that affected most bat species most prevalently were temperature and forest cover, both reflecting positive relationships with total bat activity and diversity (Chi-square; Rank Sums, p<0.05). When looking at species specific relationships, we focused on the least active species, as they may be more in need of management than more active species. Parameters that most influenced our least active species were humidity and open/savanna vs. forested sampling areas. Humidity had positive relationships with the likelihood of presence of our rarer species, while habitat type relationships depended on species specific life history traits (Chi-Square; Rank Sums, p<0.05). Our research suggests managing for forest cover across the landscape for all native bats; however, encourages managers to consider heterogeneity by maintaining both dense and open forest stands, along with open areas to benefit certain species.

Committee:

Karen Root, PhD (Advisor); Kevin McCluney, PhD (Committee Member); Verner Bingman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Animals; Biology; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Natural Resource Management; Organismal Biology; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

bats; wildlife; conservation; management; diversity; Oak Openings Region; habitat; habitat use; disturbance; mixed disturbance; urban; residential; agriculture; edges; edge habitat; landscape; landscape ecology; ecology; wildlife biology

Brooks, Coree AdamVegetation Response and Use of Wooded Edges by Northern Bobwhites After Edge-Feathering Treatment in Southwestern Ohio
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Environment and Natural Resources
Clean farming practices and forest succession have contributed to population decline of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) across northern portions of their range. Intensively farmed landscapes lack early successional vegetation that provides protective cover near food sources. Earlier research indicated that population growth of northern bobwhites in southwestern Ohio is limited by lack of preferred early successional woody cover during the non-breeding season. I studied vegetation response to removal of large trees from wooded edges (here after edge-feathering) on private owned farmlands in Highland County Ohio. Ninety-nine areas ranging in length from 15 m to 91 m were treated during spring in 2012 and 2013. Vegetation structure and composition of feathered edges was measured before treatment and after 2 growing seasons and in late winter during 2012 – 2014. I used repeated measures analysis of variance to test for differences in vegetation structure and composition among study sites, edge aspects, feathered edge size classes, edge types, and basal area reduction. Basal area reduction differed between years, with a light reduction (29%) in 2012 and a heavy reduction (81%) in 2013. Horizontal, vertical, and ground cover differed among sample periods with the second fall having more vertical and horizontal cover than the first fall, and the first fall having more cover than the first winter. Basal area reduction, size, and sample periods were important predictors of cover measurements. Basal area reduction within woodlot edges or along linear features like fencerows was the most important variable that affected vegetation response to edge-feathering. Basal area reductions between 37 – 50% resulted in positive changes in protective cover for bobwhites after 1 growing season. Large edge treatments with heavy reduction in basal area resulted in net gains in protective cover between seasons, and provided the highest overall change in cover. I used radio-telemetry to determine bobwhite use of feathered edges, measured vegetation composition and structure at used points, and estimated home-ranges using the Fixed k LoCoH method. Locations from 24 unique coveys across 4 sites during the 2013 – 14 non-breeding season were used to compare vegetation structure and composition between feathered edges and covey use sites. Seven coveys were used to estimate home-ranges and to analyze use of feathered edges in relation to their placement within study sites. Mean home-range size was 4.6 ha and 5 total feathered edges fell within 95% local convex hull isopleths. Original placements of feathered edges were informed by previous research. Woodlots, mature fencerows, ditches, and other uncultivated areas were considered for treatment if they had previously experienced little to no use by bobwhite coveys. Edge-feathering successfully converted edges that were not previously used by bobwhites, into habitat that was used by radio-marked coveys during the non-breeding season. Future management of woodlots by edge-feathering should be considered by managers, because they produce habitat similar to what bobwhites use. Other cover types such as early successional herbaceous (nesting/brood rearing), and row crop (food) need to be considered and close to feathered edges to maximize use and benefit bobwhites.

Committee:

Robert Gates, Dr. (Advisor); Jeremy Bruskotter, Dr. (Committee Member); Thomas McConnell, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Forestry; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

Colinus virginianus, Northern Bobwhite, edge-feathering, feathered edge, successional, woodlot, cover, Fixed k LoCoH, home-range, Ohio, southwest, vegetation, non-breeding

Mutuku, Jennifer KalekyeEmerging Trends in Sustainability Practices at Airports: An Analysis of Awareness and Operational Changes at Commercial Service Airports in Northern Ohio
MTEC, Kent State University, 2012, College of Technology
This thesis involves an empirical case study carried out at four commercial service airports in Northern Ohio to explore emerging trends in sustainability practices. Although the growth of aviation related activities brings about significant expansion of aviation infrastructure, -which consequently create extensive benefits that include employment, business, trade, tourism and community prosperity and pride-, unfortunately there are associated adverse side effects. Some airport operations have been linked to waste products and water, noise and land pollution. These have prompted health and environmental concerns, thus bringing the idea of airport sustainability to the forefront. This empirical case study employed a survey questionnaire to explore how four commercial service airports in Northern Ohio responded to five areas addressing sustainability. Data analysis revealed that, policies and practices followed by these airports are largely driven by local, state and regional environmental regulations. The scale of the airport operations seem to be the determining factor on the extent and focus of the sustainability area, thus airports with more operations are under more strict rules and face extra sustainability challenges. Great responsibility rests on management to develop the appropriate strategies, maintain and safely operate the airport asset by aligning sustainability initiatives with the airport’s goals for better operational efficiency and improved customer relations. These findings are significant since the future development of commercial service airports, rests squarely on the success of sustainability initiatives and their effect on the natural environments, the economic and social well-being of local communities.

Committee:

I. Richmond Nettey, PhD (Committee Chair); John Duncan, PhD (Committee Member); Raj Chowdhury, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Environmental Health; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Natural Resource Management; Technology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

sustainability; sustainability initiatives; commercial service airport; environment; aviation; sustainability awareness

Haile, YohannesSustainable Value And Eco-Communal Management: Systemic Measures For The Outcome Of Renewable Energy Businesses In Developing, Emerging, And Developed Economies
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Management
The International Energy Agency (IEA) forecast of 2014 indicates a 37% energy demand increase in the next 25 years. To meet the forecasted energy demand increase and ameliorate ecological stress associated with meeting the demand, the increased deployment and effective operations of renewable energy projects and businesses are of paramount importance. This study sought to understand the factors impacting renewable energy businesses and identifies an integrative measure for the performance of these businesses in the context of developing, emerging, and developed economies. Our research data have revealed that the performance of renewable energy (RE) systems cannot be viewed or determined in isolation (contextual reduction) from the social system of the host community. Hence, the best way to understand its implications is using integrative approaches. Our research suggests well-developed and deployed eco-communal management practices, a type of innovative management, is the best way to create value proposition of RE businesses/projects into sustainable value. For developed economies the primary value path is from knowledge creation => eco-communal management => sustainable value, whereas, it is from connectedness => eco-communal management => sustainable value for emerging economies. In the context of emerging economies, the impact of knowledge creation on sustainable value is primarily indirect through hastening and affecting transformational changes, hence deploying effective transition engagements and instituting accurate methods to measure the efficacy of knowledge creation are imperative. In the context of developing economies knowledge creation and integrated vision frame the outcome of the RE business or project mediated by both eco-communal management and market creation. Our research further suggests the level of managerial authority bifurcates the translation of strategic objectives of businesses, and the relatedness of the key decision maker into sustainable value through its strategic management practices in emerging economies, while it does not have significance in developed economies. Our research makes theoretical, and practical contribution to the theory of innovation by discovering a novel type of management strategy, which is effective and instrumental in creating sustainable value from the initial conditions of integrated vision, knowledge creation, and connectedness.

Committee:

Roger Saillant, PhD (Committee Chair); Kathleen Buse, PhD (Committee Member); James Gaskin, PhD (Committee Member); Christopher Laszlo, PhD (Committee Member); Hokey Min, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Area Planning and Development; Asian Studies; Atmosphere; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Business Administration; Business Education; Climate Change; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Comparative; Conservation; Demographics; Design; Ecology; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Electrical Engineering; Energy; Engineering; Entrepreneurship; Environmental Economics; Environmental Education; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Management; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; European Studies; Experiments; Finance; Geography; Health; Health Sciences; Higher Education; History; Hydrologic Sciences; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; International Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Relations; Latin American Studies; Management; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mathematics; Mechanical Engineering; Meteorology; Natural Resource Management; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Personality; Political Science; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Religion; Social Structure; Spirituality; Statistics; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Sustainability; Systematic; Systems Design; Systems Science; Technology

Keywords:

Performance, nested complexity, connectedness, eco-communal management, transition engagement, technology and business model innovations, entrepreneurship, and sustainable value

Wikgren, Brooke C.A Report: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Intern and Assistant Scientist with the Marine GIS Research Group at the New England Aquarium
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
This report is an overview of my experience as a Marine Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Intern and Assistant Scientist with the Marine GIS Research Group, a component of the Research Department, at the New England Aquarium (NEAq) in Boston, MA from February 2010 through July 2010. The Marine GIS Research Group uses geospatial technology to answer research questions involving species-environmental relationships, human impacts, and species distributions, as well as tracking rehabilitated and released animals in the wild and analyzing potential conflicts in the marine environment in support of the NEAq’s mission, “To Present, Promote, and Protect the World of Water.” While with the Marine GIS Research Group, I created and maintained GIS databases for research projects, created cartographic products for publications, brochures, and WebPages, and used GIS and statistics to analyze geospatial data and answer research questions. This report summarizes my experience at the NEAq and the projects I worked on.

Committee:

Sandra Woy-Hazleton, PhD (Advisor); Mark Boardman, PhD (Committee Member); Robbyn Abbitt, M.S. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

GIS; geographic information systems; aquarium

Johnson, Patrick LyonMigratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Environment and Natural Resources
Songbirds use multiple stopover locations to rest and refuel for subsequent flights while migrating between breeding and non-breeding areas. Selection of high quality stopover habitat may allow migrants to minimize time and energy spent in migration and maximize fitness. Migrants should therefore attempt to select stopover habitat that affords them suitable safety, shelter, and food. A better understanding of habitat attributes that support high numbers of migrant landbirds during stopover is needed to develop conservation strategies for these species, many of which are in decline. I examined how migrant density during stopover in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) of Ohio was influenced by local- and broad-scale habitat variables, specifically: patch vegetation composition and structure, patch size and isolation, patch distance from the Lake Erie shoreline, patch distance from a river or stream, and wetland cover surrounding a patch. I used a generalized random tessellation stratified (GRTS) approach to select forested study sites within 22 km of the lakeshore along a 70 km stretch of shoreline between Toledo and Sandusky, Ohio, USA. Observers conducted over 800 point counts annually from mid-April through late May in 2011 and 2012 at a total of 135 locations. Point count data on Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata), Black-throated Green Warbler (S. virens), and a guild of transient wood warblers (Parulidae) were analyzed using the Dail and Madsen (2011) generalized hierarchical N-mixture model. This is an open-population model that simultaneously estimates parameters that influence the abundance and detection probability of study species. Detection probabilities for transient migrants varied by survey technician, wind speed, and survey time, highlighting the importance of accounting for detectability in bird migration studies. Broad-scale variables such as distance to the lakeshore, patch isolation, and wetland cover were generally better predictors of migrant abundance than proximity to a river or stream or patch area, and local-scale variables (habitat structure and vegetation). Densities for both study species were greatest in forest patches near the lakeshore. For the transient warbler guild, densities declined about 3.4% per km from the lakeshore. Density of the transient warbler guild was greater at sites that had more emergent aquatic midges (Chironomidae) in 2012, suggesting that midges could help explain the distribution and abundance of migrants in the WLEB. While densities of transient migrants were greater near the coast, inland forests often supported more transient migrants per patch than coastal forest patches. Conservation efforts in the region should seek to protect, create, restore (1) forested areas adjacent the lakeshore and (2) any forest within 0.5–10 km of the coast, with priority given to forests that are larger (>20 ha) and closer to the lakeshore and wetlands. Results from this study should be important in developing conservation plans for migratory songbirds and for guiding decisions regarding local habitat management and the placement of wind turbines within the landscape.

Committee:

Paul Rodewald, PhD (Advisor); Stephen Matthews, PhD (Advisor); Robert Gates, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

Avian migration; Stopover; Stopover ecology; Stopover habitat; Western Lake Erie Basin; Migration; Midges

Allen, DavisConservation Competition: Perspectives on Agricultural Drainage During the New Deal Era
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, History
The drainage of wetlands for agriculture has had a profound effect on the landscape of the United States. Increased federal involvement in the practice during the New Deal era forced conservationists within the government to engage with drainage policy in new ways. This paper explores these ideas by examining the conservation philosophies and goals of five different conservationists—Franklin D. Roosevelt, Hugh Hammond Bennett, Henry A. Wallace, Jay Norwood “Ding” Darling, and Aldo Leopold—who worked within the federal government during the period and took distinct approaches to drainage. This illuminates the differences in their conservation perspectives that are not always apparent and illustrates how what different figures actually sought to conserve was fundamentally different.

Committee:

Ted Steinberg (Advisor); Peter Shulman (Committee Member); David Hammack (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; American History; Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Studies; History; Land Use Planning; Modern History; Natural Resource Management; Sustainability; Water Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

environmental history; ecological history; wetland; swamp; marsh; agriculture; drainage; conservation; preservation; soil conservation; flood control; new deal; franklin d roosevelt; hugh hammond bennett; henry a wallace; jay ding darling; aldo leopold

Zehnder, Rebekah J.GIS-Based Model of Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Nesting Habitat in Indiana on a Landscape Scale
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2012, Environmental Sciences
After being extirpated from the state for nearly a century, Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are again nesting in Indiana. To effectively manage for an expanding Bald Eagle population and maintain the population’s viability, factors that drive nest site selection must be understood. This study seeks to determine the association of several geographic variables with Bald Eagle nest site selection in Indiana on a landscape scale, with the purpose of identifying areas ideal for Bald Eagle nest sites. Geographic variables related to proximity of water, land cover, and human activity were measured for nest sites and random sites via GIS analyses and used to developed a logistic regression model, which was applied across Indiana to identify areas likely to provide good nesting habitat for Bald Eagles. These include Tri-County Fish and Wildlife Area and Indiana Dunes, Pokagon, and Harmonie State Parks. This knowledge enables concentrated management efforts for Bald Eagle nesting.

Committee:

David Russell, PhD (Advisor); William Renwick, PhD (Committee Member); Robbyn Abbitt, GISP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Conservation; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Geographic Information Science; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

Bald Eagle; GIS; habitat model; habitat selection; geographic variables; logistic regression; Indiana

Ciccone, Brianne N.Modeling of Evaporative Losses in Industrial Pasteurization
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Water consumption within industrial pasteurization is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Process variables are explored to determine the single most influencing effect on water evaporation within vessels of diverse geometry. Designed experiments are developed to investigate a wide range of variable-parameter relationships. Evaporative losses are modeled and the potential opportunity of the system is revealed. A valuable application of this model is demonstrated for tunnel pasteurization at Summer Garden Food Manufacturing. As one of the most energy-intensive processes, the potential value in reducing resources within the food industry is incredible. By reducing water temperature within the pasteurization tunnel, a theoretical savings of 70% can be achieved.

Committee:

Darrell Wallace, PhD (Advisor); Martin Cala, PhD (Committee Member); Douglas Price, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Environmental Management; Industrial Engineering; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

water evaporation rate; water consumption; energy analysis; tunnel pasteurization; design of experiments; food industry; industrial engineering

Weber, Annalisa D.Rule-Adherence Within the Mountain Gorilla Tourism Industry
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
Mountain gorillas are a critically endangered primate species. Approximately 400 mountain gorillas live in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) in southwest Uganda. These animals are at the heart of an ecotourism industry that has incentivized their continued protection. However, gorillas’ close genetic relationship with humans means they are highly susceptible to human-borne diseases, to which the gorillas have no immunity. There are rules in place within the industry to help maintain the health of the gorillas, but there is evidence that these rules are not always followed. This project evaluated the rate of rule-adherence within the mountain gorilla tourism industry through the use of observational and survey-based data collected within BINP from May-August, 2014. Analysis of observational data revealed there was a high rate of rule-disregard within the park. Survey data revealed a lack of communication between park staff and tourists regarding park rules.

Committee:

Nancy Stevens (Advisor); Edna Wangui (Committee Member); Don Miles (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Animal Diseases; Animal Sciences; Animals; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Conservation; Education; Environmental Education; Environmental Health; Environmental Management; Health; Natural Resource Management; Physical Anthropology; Public Health; Public Health Education; Recreation; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Sustainability; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management; Zoology

Keywords:

ecotourism; mountain gorillas; gorillas; conservation; sustainability; primates; tourism; Uganda; disease; anthropozoonotic disease; human behavior

Burnett, Elizabeth AnneThe Influence of Farmer Stress and Hardiness on Adoption of Best Management Practices in the Maumee Watershed
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Environment and Natural Resources
Runoff from agricultural nutrient applications in the Maumee watershed is the most significant human factor leading to phosphorus loading and water quality issues in Lake Erie. The adoption of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) that address the amount, form, placement, and timing of nutrients could reduce runoff and result in cost savings for farmers, however recent research has shown that, depending on the practice, a quarter to a half of farmers in the Maumee watershed are choosing not to adopt these practices. The aim of this study was two-fold: to examine whether occupational stress in farmers influenced their intentions to adopt BMPs, and to examine whether occupational hardiness moderated the impact of stress on farmer’s intentions to adopt BMPs. Questionnaires were mailed out to corn and soybean farmers in the Maumee watershed of Ohio in March, 2014. Principal component analyses were used to form the Maumee Watershed Farm Stress Scale and the Farming-Related Hardiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that risk perception and beliefs about BMP effectiveness in reducing phosphorus runoff positively influenced farmer’s intentions to adopt BMPs, and that stress negatively influenced these intentions. As stress increased, farmer’s intentions to adopt BMPs decreased. Moderated regression analysis showed that high hardiness moderated stress’ influence on intentions to adopt BMPs. Specifically, when hardiness and stress were high, adoption was high, but when hardiness was low and stress was high, adoption was low.

Committee:

Robyn Wilson, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Agricultural Education; Agriculture; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Communication; Environmental Health; Environmental Management; Psychology; Social Psychology; Water Resource Management; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

BMPs; best management practices; farmers; stress; hardiness; risk perception; adoption of practices; conservation; water quality; phosphorus; farm management; farmer decision-making; Maumee watershed; Lake Erie

Villa Betancur, Jorge AndresCarbon Dynamics of Subtropical Wetland Communities in South Florida
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Environmental Science
Emission and uptake of greenhouse gases and the production and transport of dissolved organic matter in different wetland plant communities are key wetland functions determining two important ecosystem services, climate regulation and nutrient cycling. The objective of this dissertation was to study the variation of methane emissions, carbon sequestration and exports of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in wetland plant communities of a subtropical climate in south Florida. The plant communities selected for the study of methane emissions and carbon sequestration were located in a natural wetland landscape and corresponded to a gradient of inundation duration. Going from the wettest to the driest conditions, the communities were designated as: deep slough, bald cypress, wet prairie, pond cypress and hydric pine flatwood. Methane fluxes from the different communities did not show a discernible daily pattern, in contrast to a marked increase in seasonal emissions during inundation. Median and mean + standard error fluxes in g CH4-C.m-2.d-1 were higher in the deep slough (11 and 56.2 + 22.1), followed by the wet prairie (9.01 and 53.3 + 26.6), bald cypress (3.31 and 5.54 + 2.51) and pond cypress (1.49, 4.55 + 3.35) communities. The pine flatwood community acted as a net sink (0.0 and -1.22 + 0.81). Seasonality in methane emissions was positively correlated with the water levels, but not with soil temperature. However, longer inundation periods did not necessarily result in higher methane emissions. The mean carbon concentration from the surface to the depth of maximum 137Cs activity between communities was similar in the deep slough, bald and pond cypress (446, 405 and 369 g-C Kg -1, respectively). However, carbon sequestration rates (g-C.m-2.yr-1) were highest in the deep slough (104 + 14), followed by the pond cypress (60 + 9), bald cypress (30 + 2), wet prairie (24 + 1) and pine flatwood (15 + 1) communities, without an apparent relationship with the duration of the inundation period. Using the latest accepted global warming potentials of methane, it was concluded that the negative effects of contemporary methane emissions from these communities is offset by their long-term carbon sequestration. The study of (DOC) export was conducted at a mesocosm scale using outflow water from the Storm Treatment Area 1W (STA-1W) of the Everglades region. Treatments dominated by. Nymphaea sp./Eleocharis sp. and Najas sp./Chara sp. functioned as temporary sinks for DOC, but, otherwise, all treatments were net sources of dissolved organic carbon, suggesting the importance of autochthonous material from within the mesocosms in the export of carbon. A two-source carbon isotope mixing model was used to estimate the contribution from inflow water and biomass into the outflow’s dissolved organic carbon in each treatment. Dissolved organic carbon from biomass was relatively higher in treatments with emergent and floating vegetation (20 - 32 %) than in treatments containing submerged aquatic vegetation (<5 %). This suggests a faster turnover of the organic matter in treatments dominated by submerged aquatic vegetation and presumably a comparative lower contribution of dissolved organic nutrients exported to the outflow water.

Committee:

William J. Mitsch, Ph.D (Advisor); Gil Bohrer, Ph.D (Advisor); James Bauer, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jay Martin, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biogeochemistry; Climate Change; Ecology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Hydrology; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Wetlands; ecosystem services; carbon sequestration; methane emissions; dissolved organic carbon; climate regulation; nutrient cycling; subtropical wetlands; south Florida; cypress swamp; storm treatment areas; Everglades; hydroperiod

Myer, Mary GwynethCharacterizing the Decision Process of Land Managers when Managing for Endangered Species of Fire Dependent Ecosystems: The Case of the Kirtland’s warbler (Septophaga kirtlandii Baird)
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Environment and Natural Resources
While the Endangered Species Act is generally viewed as a strong tool for environmental conservation, concerns have been raised over its effectiveness at recovering listed species. While every listed species requires the development of a plan to recover population levels, it has been argued that management activities to recover listed species have resulted in an overemphasis on individual species with detrimental impacts to other ecosystem components. For example, management for the Kirtland’s warbler (Septophaga kirtlandii Baird), a neotropical bird with nesting grounds in the northern great lakes region, has led to questions regarding decreased biodiversity, homogenized landscapes, the displacement of rarer ecosystem types, and development of hazardous fire management conditions. Such potential conditions create a challenge for managers who are charged with preserving critical habitat for threatened and endangered species while also restoring ecosystem processes and conditions that may pose short-term risks to listed species. Drawing on the case of the Kirtland’s warbler, this project examines the factors that influence management decisions regarding the development and preservation of habitat, the use of fire as a management tool, and restoration of ecosystem integrity. Twenty-five management personnel from federal and state government agencies and other key stakeholders involved in Kirtland’s warbler recovery efforts participated in in-depth interviews where they were asked questions pertaining to Kirtland’s warbler and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) ecosystem or habitat management. Results were then coded to determine the legal, psychological, and social factors influencing management decisions. Results indicate legal mandates and policies as the largest factor influencing management. Risk aversion was also predominant in affecting management decisions. Collaboration and information exchange were also central to management decisions. Desired management strategies were also identified along with obstacles to their achievement. Recommendations to overcome these obstacles include: broadening the stakeholders involved in the management, including specialists of varying backgrounds; using alternative management demonstration sites for learning as well as for public education; the use of a structured decision making process to accurately assess management alternatives and their tradeoffs; the inclusion of more researchers in the management decisions; and to draw on further social science research to develop an informed understanding of the decision process and public stakeholders.

Committee:

Eric Toman (Advisor); Robyn Wilson (Committee Member); P. Charles Goebel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

decision making; land management; fire management; endangered species; kirtland's warbler; risk aversion; status quo

Drinkard, Maureen KatherineIMPACTS OF A FLOOD PULSING HYDROLOGY ON PLANTS AND INVERTEBRATES IN RIPARIAN WETLANDS
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
I tested the impacts of flood-pulsing on wetland invertebrates and plants along small streams in northeast Ohio. The Flood Pulse Concept (FPC) was developed in large rivers (e.g. Amazon, Danube, and Mississippi rivers). It describes the ecological impacts when rivers flood adjacent riparian habitats, which are a mosaic of permanent flooded wetlands, intermittently flooded wetlands, and terrestrial habitats. Flood-pulsing produces resource subsidies (e.g., water, nutrients, organic matter). Flooding also creates stresses (anoxia, desiccation, high levels of toxins, sediment erosion and deposition) in the wetlands. Floodplain biota are adapted to the predictable flood regime in large rivers. Furthermore, coarse woody debris (CWD) from fallen trees provides a microclimatic refugia for soil organisms in floodplains. As a result, biodiversity and production are usually higher in flood-pulsing wetlands than other wetland habitats. In my dissertation, I used wetland mesocosms at the on-campus Herrick Aquatic Ecology Research Facility (HAERF) to test how the short unpredictable floods in small streams affect wetland plants and invertebrates. I found that flood pulsing creates stresses that control plant community structure in the intermittently flooded zone. There was lower emergent plant diversity and plant cover in the flood-pulse treatment. However, aquatic invertebrates and plants in permanently flooded pools were not affected. I also sampled emerging insects in flood-plain wetlands at Mud Brook Preserve (MBP) and at HAERF. Insect communities were different in permanent pools and intermittently flooded zone at MBP showing that drawdowns are an important environmental factor. The permanent pools at HAERF and MBP were also different, suggesting that mesocosms did not simulate all natural environmental conditions. I tested the impact of CWD by testing naturally and artificially felled trees. Invertebrate communities were varied by region of the floodplain. However, there were few differences in sites with and without CWD suggesting that habitat conditions (soil moisture, temperature) structure soil invertebrate communities. While CWD had few short-term impacts it may be significant at a landscape scale. Overall, the unpredictable short floods in headwater wetlands create both benefits and stressors, but the net impact was negative. Therefore, some aspects of the Flood pulse concept are not applicable to headwater systems.

Committee:

Ferenc de Szalay (Committee Chair); Mark Kershner (Committee Member); Oscar Rocha (Committee Member); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biology; Entomology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Natural Resource Management; Plant Biology; Plant Sciences; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Flood pulsing; wetland; floodplain; riparian; aquatic invertebrate; coarse woody debris; insect emergence; zonation

Weiss, Shelby ASocial and Ecological Aspects of Managing Wildlife in Fire-dependent Forested Ecosystems
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2017, Environment and Natural Resources
Many species in North America are closely linked to natural disturbance processes and the habitat features created by them. As one such disturbance, wildland fire can create unique vegetation patterns on a forested landscape. Biological legacies, such as standing dead trees, dead and downed wood, and residual patches of live mature trees, can be important structures for maintaining stand-level biodiversity. Fire can also be an important tool for reducing hazardous fuels and maintaining an open condition in some ecosystems. Managing and restoring fire-dependent ecosystems can present unique challenges for managers. Two case studies are presented here, each addressing challenges to forest restoration efforts within fire-dependent ecosystems. The first examines standing dead trees that resulted from three different treatments in the Great Lakes region of North America. Standing dead trees, or snags, are unique features of ecosystems representing post-disturbance biological legacies. As such, the abundance, volume, size and distribution of snags can affect wildlife communities and stand-level biological diversity. While the importance of snags is widely recognized, factors influencing the use of snags by wildlife are less understood. Characteristics such as the wood properties of different tree species, local environmental conditions, and the proximate cause of tree death (insects, disease, senescence, wind, fire, etc.) can influence decomposition and subsequent use by wildlife. Building on previous research in eastern Upper Michigan, the objective of this study was to characterize the development of snag decay patterns in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lam.) and correlate these to different measures of use by woodpeckers (Picidae) and subcortical insects. In 2014, woodpecker excavations in snags were measured across three treatments (girdling, n=35; prescribed fire, n=35; and topping, n=35). The topping treatment took place in 2004, the prescribed fire took place in 2003, and the girdling treatment in 2007. Principal component analysis was used to examine the relationships between snag and decay characteristics, and past insect activity. An information theoretic approach to model selection was then used to rank potential predictors of woodpecker foraging activity and cavities. Overall, girdled snags had the lowest levels of past insect activity, particularly midway up the bole where the tree was originally girdled. Topped snags were softer, or more easily penetrable, than the other two treatments and had the highest levels of past insect use. The prescribed fire treatment had the greatest number of potential cavities and the greatest number of foraging excavations. The models predicting foraging activity suggested that treatment type was the most influential variable, while the models for predicting potential cavities suggested a combination of past foraging activity and snag diameter were most influential. These results may help inform potential snag treatment options when managing for biological legacies within pine forests of the Great Lakes region. The second case uses qualitative data from interviews with land managers to examine perceptions of management for an endangered species whose habitat requirements largely depend on frequent fire. Management of endangered species has been criticized as emphasizing conservation of individual species, while inadvertently diverting resources from or potentially running counter to more broad-based public land management objectives. Moreover, there is concern about the long-term prognosis for species that have met their recovery goals as reduced protections may result in fewer available resources and potentially less management attention for downlisted or de-listed species. Here we investigate the case of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Leuconotopicus borealis Vieillot) that was listed as endangered soon after the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973. Through semi-structured interviews with natural resource professionals in the Southeast Coastal Plain region (n=32), we examine manager perspectives on conserving the red-cockaded woodpecker, how their efforts align or conflict with other objectives, and what lessons might be learned from this case to inform others. In general, managers viewed red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management (e.g., thinning and burning pine stands) as compatible with their other resource management objectives, particularly longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration. In some contexts, however, managers found that specific guidelines dictating the amount of habitat to be set aside for foraging per red-cockaded woodpecker group was a barrier to implementing restoration actions. Managers expected that efforts to provide habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers would likely continue into the future regardless of the species’ conservation status. Managers also believed that more intensive strategies with a single species focus, such as using artificial inserts and translocation of individuals, would likely decrease over time. Overall, these perspectives suggest that one factor likely to contribute to the sustained recovery of an endangered species is the alignment of species recovery guidelines and objectives with broader ecosystem management or restoration objectives.

Committee:

Eric Toman, PhD (Advisor); Charles Goebel, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Herms, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Entomology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Forestry; Management; Social Research; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

forest ecology, snags, biological legacies, endangered species, wildlife management, red-cockaded woodpecker

Chmara-Huff, Fletcher PaulMarine Protected Areas and the Territorialization of the Oceans in the Exumas, Bahamas
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Geography
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular conservation strategy that seeks to protect oceans from over-exploitation of fisheries by setting aside large spaces as reserves. While they are similar to conservation areas on the land in design and implementation, little research has examined the ways that MPAs change the ocean into a contested political space. In contrast to the historical perspective of the ocean as a weakly territorialized space in which conservation can occur with little resistance, this dissertation examines MPAs as an object that needs to be examined through the concept of territoriality. The dissertation develops a theory of territorialization as practice to analyze the process of MPA formation in the Exumas Islands in the Bahamas. The Exumas are slated to have three no-take Marine Protected Areas as part of a wider plan to set aside twenty percent of the ocean in the Bahamas. Drawing on archival and field research such as interviews and participant observation, the central argument is that MPAs are territorializing objects, and that the ways in which they are deployed can offer political possibilities for either resistance or new expressions of state power. The dissertation first analyzes three existing approaches commonly used to explain and/or justify MPAs, but finds that these explanations are wanting. It then interrogates the ways in which policy actors in the Bahamas deploy specific spatial imaginaries that frame marine conservation. It shows that policy actors are dependent on logics of state territory and natural resource management that do not fully account for resource users. Finally, the dissertation turns to the fishers of the Exuma Cays, to record both their spatial imaginaries and the ways they relate to ocean conservation as it has been imposed in places they use for their livelihoods. It becomes clear that the people of the Exuma Cays are responding to the threat of MPAs in ways that resist the conventional logic of MPA design through a variety of tactics, including declarations of local identity tied to local oceans and practices, and actively transgressing conservation spaces in a territorial fashion. Yet rather than defending a pre-existing territory, what is occurring in Exuma is in response to conservation practice. New territorial claims are being made in response to the threats of withdrawal posed by MPAs, suggesting that territoriality, as a political practice, should be considered as a social factor in conservation efforts. Through examining the logics and spatial imaginaries of MPAs, this dissertation breaks new ground regarding conservation practice to show that setting aside tracts of the ocean as MPAs is not a simple solution to the problem of overfishing. In short, MPAs are not innocent conservation programs, but rather use specific logics to territorialize the ocean in ways that exclude local resource users while protecting the economic interests of the nation-state. These territorializations are then resisted through re-territorializations by stakeholders, who deploy different logics and spatial imaginaries. Through these re-territorializations, there is the potential for a libratory politics that can contribute to local self-governance and possibly change the politics of marine conservation.

Committee:

Becky Manfield, PhD (Advisor); Mathew Coleman, PhD (Committee Member); Kendra McSweeney, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Caribbean Studies; Cultural Resources Management; Environmental Justice; Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Geography; Natural Resource Management; Sustainability; Wildlife Conservation

Keywords:

Marine Protected Areas; MPA; Territoriality; Marine Conservation; Exumas; Bahamas

Hartung, Erik WalterAging bioretention cells: Do they still function to improve water quality?
MS, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces transports a variety of pollutants to freshwaters via urban drainage pathways. Bioretention cells are a stormwater control measure being widely adopted with the goal of receiving, infiltrating and improving quality of stormwater before it enters surface waters. However, there are uncertainties about the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic metals that accumulate and concerns about changes in hydrologic function of aging bioretention cells. This study sought to address those concerns using a survey of 26 parking lot bioretention cells in the greater Cleveland area, ranging in age from <1 to 7 years of service. Bioretention cells were found to accumulate Cu, Pb and Zn in their media through time, but the distribution of these toxic metal pollutants was homogenous with respect to depth and distance from the stormwater flowpath. The concentration of metals in bioretention cell media were well below EPA soil contamination thresholds. Bioretention cells were found to have reduced hydraulic conductivity as they age, but bioretention cells less than eight years old still met EPA standards for hydrologic function. Therefore, regular maintenance of bioretention cells may be needed to remove sediment and improve hydrologic function, but no remediation would be needed for toxic metals. It is expected that bioretention cells function to capture, infiltrate and remove pollutants from stormwater runoff, leading to water quality improvement downstream. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding active bioretention cells' ability to perform these functions over the long-term. This study aimed to elucidate the function of bioretention cells for removal of toxic metal pollutants (Cu, Pb and Zn) from runoff over 7 years of service time. This study also sought to address the effects road salt may have on bioretention's ability to filter or retain toxic metal pollutants from stormwater. Using leach columns constructed with media from 19 active bioretention cells ranging in age from <1 to seven years old, this study found that age is not a good predictor of bioretention cell functioning for metal removal. Bioretention cells were found to function well for removing low concentrations of metals from stormwater, but had reduced functioning for removal of high concentrations of metals. Bioretention cells' ability to remove metals from stormwater was found to be similar at different locations within the cells. Road salt was found to reduce the functioning of aged bioretention cells (7 years of service) for Pb and Zn removal from stormwater, but had no effect on functioning for Cu removal. Bioretention cells less than eight years in age were found to be able to reduce the concentration of metals in stormwater to concentrations below EPA thresholds for freshwater, but road salt may reduce bioretention's ability to reduce the concentration of Pb and Zn in stormwater.

Committee:

David Costello (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biogeochemistry; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Freshwater Ecology; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Land Use Planning; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Mierzwiak, Sara M.The Development of the Contaminant Exceedance Rating System (CERS) for Comparing Groundwater Contaminant Data
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2012, Geography

The typical approach to mapping groundwater contaminant plumes involves drawing plume contours out to each contaminant’s site-specific cleanup criterion. Cleanup criteria differ between contaminants, sites and U.S. states. For this reason, it is difficult to determine which monitoring wells, plumes and sites are most contaminated within a given area or region. For the same reason, it is also difficult to determine which individual contaminant is most concentrated within a single monitoring well.

The Contaminant Exceedance Rating System (CERS) was developed to address these issues by normalizing groundwater contaminant data against their site-specific cleanup criteria. Each contaminant’s laboratory analytical result is divided by its respective site-specific cleanup criterion and the result is a unitless ratio which is then compared against other CERS Values. The CERS Values are then ranked into a set of CERS Ranking Categories for data grouping purposes and ease of mapping.

The CERS was successfully implemented utilizing data from the Former Wurtsmith Air Force Base (WAFB) in Oscoda, Michigan (provided by the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment[AFCEE]). Basewide groundwater volatile organic compound (VOC) data from Summer/Fall 2009 was utilized. ESRI┬┐┬┐ ArcGIS Version 10.0 was used to map the resultant CERS Values, symbolized by their Ranking Categories. By implementing the CERS, the following were successfully determined for this data: the most concentrated contaminant in each sample, the most contaminated well(s) within each site, the most contaminated wells on the entire base, and the most contaminated plumes on the base.

It is recommended that the CERS be further implemented using additional temporal data from the Former WAFB. It is also recommended that the CERS be implemented using contaminant data from other Department of Defense (DoD) installations. The CERS could allow for comparison of maximum degree of contamination between entire installations, with the overall intent being to assist in the DoD-wide remedial funding prioritizing process. CERS Values could also be used to track remedial progress over time when implemented using temporal data. The CERS does not take into consideration such factors as toxicity or receptor analysis. This document serves as a manual for implementation of the CERS using contaminant data from other sites.

Committee:

Patrick Lawrence, PhD (Committee Chair); Peter Lindquist, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Beckwith, PG (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Environmental Economics; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Information Science; Information Systems; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

groundwater; contamination; monitoring wells; water; pollution; pollutants; ranking; categories; remediation; Department of Defense; Air Force; AFCEE; DoD; Wurtsmith Air Force Base; Air Force Base; GIS; Geographic Information Systems; ArcGIS; ESRI; VOC

Johnson, Julie I.Museums, Leadership, and Transfer: An Inquiry into Organizational Supports for Learning Leadership
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
Given the rapid changes that 21st century museums must manage, flexible thinking about leadership forms and purposes is needed. Today's complex leadership landscape necessitates that staff engage in enacting leadership with positional leaders. Limited empirical literature exists that describes how the next generation of museum leaders is being nurtured and developed. The purpose of this study was to: describe museum professionals' perceptions of leadership practices; investigate museums as sites of organizational and leadership learning; and consider the experiences of museum professionals who have participated in leader development programs. The study involved an on-line survey with 310 professionals working in U.S. museums and follow-up interviews with a subset of 13 survey participants. Bolman and Deal's (1990) Leadership Orientations Inventory (BDLO) was used to assess museum leadership practices; Marsick and Watkins (1999) 21-item version Dimensions of a Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ-A) was used to assess supports for learning in the museum. Findings based on bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis show a significant relationship between ratings for leadership effectiveness at the department and organization levels and scores on the BDLO and the DLOQ-A. While leadership effectiveness at both levels tended to be positive, over 60% of middle and non-managers did not perceive their museum’s leadership as mastering any of the BDLO Leadership Orientations Inventory frames. Statistically significant differences in the perception of museums as learning organizations were found with decreasing support from senior managers to middle managers to non-managers. With regard to learning leadership, findings indicate that the DLOQ-A Strategic Leadership for Learning dimension, Organization Support, and Peer Support are important for facilitating continued learning and application of new knowledge and skills derived from leader development programs. Finally, most leader development program participants indicated that they were immediately able to apply some skills learned; however sustaining incorporation of new knowledge was difficult. Implications for museum professionals, leader development program providers, museum studies programs, leadership and change, and future research are discussed. A digital introduction accompanies this dissertation. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Carol Baron, PhD (Committee Chair); Cynthia McCauley, PhD (Committee Member); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Claudine K. Brown, JD (Committee Member); Michelle C. Bligh, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Arts Management; Management; Museum Studies; Museums

Keywords:

Leadership; Leader Development; Leadership Development; Museums; Museum Leaders; Nonprofit; Transfer of Learning; Workplace Learning; Change; Dimensions of a Learning Organization Questionnaire; Leadership Orientations Instrument; Mixed-methods Research

Rodriguez-Palacios, AlexanderEcology and Epidemiology of Human Pathogen Clostridium difficile in Foods, Food Animals and Wildlife
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Veterinary Preventive Medicine

The world is experiencing an increase in illness and deaths associated with one of the most common nosocomial pathogens, Clostridium difficile. However, the sources of infection for people at risk, especially in the community which is also increasingly affected, are often unknown. In 2006 a study reported new hypervirulent and multidrug resistant epidemic C. difficile strains of relevance in human disease were present in livestock and retail meats highlighting the potential for foodborne transmission. The main goal of this PhD dissertation was to investigate and identify factors associated with C. difficile shedding in food animals, food contamination at harvest and its relation with wildlife and their environment with particular attention to inter/intra-species transmission and dissemination potential. Knowing how epidemic strains of bacteria disseminate among food animals and reach the food supply will help to identify strategies to mitigate the risk of food contamination and therefore transmissibility to humans.

By using observational, experimental and applied microbiological studies this dissertation documented: 1) the low prevalence of epidemic C. difficile in mature livestock at harvest, 2) the potential emergence of multidrug resistant strains that are unlikely to originate from food animal production systems, 3) fecal supershedding status relevant for infectious disease dynamics and environmental contamination, and 4) transient intestinal colonization and unaffected shedding dynamics despite enhanced use of antimicrobials in naturally infected cattle. Geographical clustering of captive white-tailed deer harboring emerging C. difficile PCR ribotype 078 was also documented. Nontoxigenic C. difficile strains, which can prevent the virulent effect of toxigenic strains, were unexpectedly prevalent in food animals at the time of harvest. Thermal studies with recovered spores conclusively documented the actual food safety risk highlighted in former publications, mechanistically showed that temperature affects cell division but not spore germination, and that hypervirulent strains are significantly favored with sublethal heating during cooking. Here it was also determined that wild birds are not clinically affected by human epidemic C. difficile strains and that dissemination at a regional scale is possible in anthropogenic and food animal ecosystems.

The identification of which food animal species and to what extent wild birds are active disseminators of emerging C. difficile strains is relevant to advance our ecological understanding of human diseases and to further develop strategies to reduce the risk of food contamination. These studies are expected to help increase global public and environmental health initiatives.

Committee:

Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Prof. (Advisor); Gireesh Rajashekara, Dr. (Committee Member); Wondwossen A. Gebreyes, Dr. (Committee Member); Song Liang, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Animal Diseases; Animals; Aquatic Sciences; Environmental Health; Food Science; Health; Limnology; Livestock; Microbiology; Occupational Health; Public Health; Public Policy; Veterinary Services; Water Resource Management; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

difficile; PCR ribotype 078; deer; wildlife; vegetables; meat; food; experimental infection; cattle; pigs; horses; poultry; wild birds; geese

Kozlowski, Michelle A.Environmental Justice in Appalachia: A Case Study of C8 Contamination in Little Hocking, Ohio
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Environmental justice addresses the inequitable distribution of environmental and human health risks that derive from air and water pollution. Appalachian residents of southeastern Ohio and western West Virginia who live along the Ohio River are subject to some of the most intense industrial and manufacturing pollution in the country. One such case includes DuPont’s Washington Works plant that has used perfluorooctanoic acid, or C8, as a manufacturing chemical since 1951 in order to make familiar consumer items such as Teflon and Gore-Tex products. Although DuPont officials were fully aware at least as early as 1984 that the public water supply that served the area (Little Hocking Water Association) was tainted with C8, the people who used this water were not notified until 2002. In order to evaluate this situation, it is important to ask whether the residents of the Little Hocking region consider C8 contamination in their water to be an environmental injustice, thereby expanding environmental justice in theory and practice to the context of rural, white populations living with environmental contamination. Twenty qualitative interviews have been conducted. I use their responses to argue that: 1) there is much debate surrounding the issue of finding a balance between employment and a safe and healthy environment; 2) it appears as though Little Hocking is experiencing localized harm, while other larger scale populations are gaining the perceived benefits of C8 products at a global or national scale; and 3) there is some controversy surrounding how Little Hocking residents perceive C8 contamination in their water. This case study is subsequently used to investigate the usefulness of applying the environmental justice framework to rural, white populations in Appalachia.

Committee:

Harold Perkins, PhD (Advisor); Geoffrey Buckley, PhD (Committee Member); Risa Whitson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Law; Environmental Management; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geography; Hydrology; Physical Geography; Sustainability; Toxicology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Environmental Justice; Rural; Environmental Contamination; Perfluorooctanoic Acid; C8; Human Health

Taylor, AstreaPhosphorus mass balance for hypertrophic Grand Lake St. Marys, Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2012, Earth and Environmental Sciences

A phosphorus (P) budget was created for Grand Lake St Marys (GLSM), a hypertrophic lake in Ohio with a highly agricultural watershed. Inputs totaled 71,200 ± 8,400 kg P, with tributaries contributing the majority of P inputs at 60,100 ± 4,500 kg P (84%). Other inputs included benthic flux at 9% (internal loading), point-source discharges into streams at 5%, and atmospheric deposition at 1%. Rainfall in 2011 was greater than average, which may affect results when comparing this P budget to years with average rainfall. Transport of P by two rivers draining GLSM was approximately three times greater than benthic deposition.

Addition of alum to remedy internal loading in GLSM did not appear to inhibit benthic flux of P. Residence time of 113 days suggests the ability of the system to decrease P concentrations in lake water if inputs are significantly decreased by the implementation of best land management practices.

Committee:

Chad R. Hammerschmidt, PhD (Advisor); Amy J. Burgin, PhD (Committee Member); Geraldine Nogaro, PhD (Committee Member); David Dominic, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Chemicals; Agriculture; Chemistry; Environmental Geology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Phosphorus p mass balance budget eutrophic hypertrophic hypereutrophic lake Ohio Grand Lake St. Saint Marys Mary's agriculture alum residence time benthic flux

Strausbaugh, Jerry RA Phenomenological Study of the Developmental Experience of Community Mental Health Directors in Ohio
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2013, College of Education
This dissertation is a study of the leadership development process of community mental health center (CMHC) executive directors in Ohio. CMHCs are tasked with providing services to individuals struggling with complex mental and emotional diagnoses. In Ohio these centers are nonprofit organizations that offer a multifaceted array of services paid for by a variety of third party funding sources. Many executive directors of Ohio CMHCs begin their careers as clinicians and must acquire the skills necessary to effectively lead their organization. In this study six Ohio CMHC executive directors who began their careers as clinicians were interviewed to discover the clinician-to-director developmental process. The data revealed two primary themes each with subthemes that describe the phenomenon experienced by the directors.

Committee:

Constance Savage, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); James Olive, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alinde Moore, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Business Administration; Developmental Psychology; Health Care Management; Management; Mental Health; Public Administration; Social Work

Keywords:

leadership development; community mental health leadership; adult development; adult learning; organizational leadership; public administration; phenomenology; business administration; authentic leadership; transformational leadership

Li, BoSupply Chain Inventory Management with Multiple Types of Customers: Motivated by Chinese Pharmaceutical Supply Chains among Others
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Manufacturing and Technology Management
The healthcare industry in both developed and developing economies is facing many challenges in reducing cost and improving service quality. The $860 billion global pharmaceutical industry is one of the most important components of the healthcare system and it plays a vital role in improving the performance of the healthcare system. The pharmaceutical supply chain is an important business component supporting the pharmaceutical industry. At this time, People's Republic of China is placing a great deal of emphasis on improving its pharmaceutical supply chain, thus opening up this research opportunity.

This research begins by studying the Chinese Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (PSC), through an in-depth analysis of a Chinese PSC member followed up by a survey of a few representative members through a questionnaire. Motivated by this initial study of the Chinese PSC and other similar supply chains, we address the inventory problems faced by such supply chains. The supply chains face multiple customer-types with different characteristics defined by price and demand. We investigate both single and multi-period models with different customer-types. In each case, we develop heuristics that find optimal or near optimal inventory strategies. We use computer simulation to investigate the effectiveness of the heuristics. We also develop some general recommendations for the managers of these supply chains.

Committee:

P.S. Sundararaghavan (Committee Co-Chair); Udayan Nandkeolyar (Committee Co-Chair); Jerzy Kamburowski (Committee Member); Yue Zhang (Committee Member); Donald Saftner (Committee Member); Matthew Franchetti (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Applied Mathematics; Asian Studies; Business Administration; Business Costs; Entrepreneurship; Geographic Information Science; Health Care Management; International Relations; Management; Marketing; Operations Research; Pharmaceuticals; Sustainability

Keywords:

Inventory management; Multiple types of customers; Seasonal demand; Continuous demand; Newsvendor; (Q,r) model; Dynamic pricing; Critical level; Optimization; Simulation; Heuristics; Chinese healthcare supply chain; Global supply chain

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