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Kosstrin, Hannah JoyHonest Bodies: Jewishness, Radicalism, and Modernism in Anna Sokolow's Choreography from 1927-1961
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Dance Studies

This dissertation investigates Jewishness, radicalism, and modernism, and the interplay and connections among these ideas, in selected dances by Anna Sokolow (1910-2000) between 1927-1961. As an American choreographer of Russian Jewish heritage known for her leftist leadership and socially conscious dances, whose early work was highly representational of working-class and Jewish identity, Sokolow could have been labeled as “ethnic” low art. Instead, she came to be embraced by influential mainstream dance critics, such as John Martin, Walter Terry, Louis Horst, and Doris Hering. I ask how Sokolow’s work came to be regarded as “modernist,” thus transcending racial and class markers to become “American” in the 1950s, and I analyze the change over time in how her work was regarded. I examine Sokolow’s work within the historical arc of 20th-century concert dance while using it as a point of departure for important discussions in 20th- and 21st-century dance, Jewish, and gender studies.

I show that all of Sokolow’s work—not solely those dances labeled Jewish by critics and historians—was informed by her heritage, and is, in effect, Jewish. I argue that Sokolow intended to respond to the political zeitgeist through her choreography; her Jewishness and her politics were contingent upon one another. Finally, I demonstrate how the development of Sokolow’s choreographic aesthetic and the change in the way U.S. critics reviewed her work in the 1930s-1960s, from being integral to the workers movement, to making dances with overtly Jewish themes during the Holocaust, to reflecting postwar alienation, to directly addressing the Holocaust’s atrocities during the Cold War, reflects the assimilation of her generation of Jews into American society.

I frame this study within discourses of radicalism, modernism, Jewishness, race, gender, representation and the body, identity politics, and performativity. I use these ideas as lenses through which to conduct a textual analysis of Sokolow’s dances through movement description and Laban Movement Analysis, and a consideration of the work within a wider cultural and historical context. Sources include photographs, film, live performances, Labanotation scores, critical reviews from the mainstream, leftist, and Jewish/Yiddish presses, in the United States, Mexico, and Israel, and dancers’ recollections, through interviews, of their experiences performing the work. Additional archival sources include correspondence, clippings, and performance programs. Sokolow’s actions in Mexico City and Israel fed the international Jewish and radical currents integral to her work and representation; as such, the geographical foci for this study are the U.S. (primarily New York and Boston), Mexico City, and Israel.

Implications of this study include fitting Sokolow, her work for social change, and her Jewish identity into the changing American socio-political landscape. The study not only illuminates an historical moment connecting social politics, American Judaism, and the arts, but it brings to light many aspects of Sokolow’s life and work that have yet to receive critical attention. Sokolow portrayed her political ideals, which were intertwined with her Jewish identity and modernist aesthetic, in her work that both reflected and reacted to the time in which she made it.

Committee:

Karen Eliot, PhD (Advisor); Candace Feck, PhD (Committee Member); Donna Guy, PhD (Committee Member); Sheila Marion, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Dance; Gender Studies; Holocaust Studies; Judaic Studies; Latin American History

Keywords:

Anna Sokolow; modern dance; Martha Graham; Jewishness; Jewish dance; modernism; Workers Dance League; New Dance League; Mexican modern dance; postrevolutionary Mexico; Holocaust; assimilation; "ethnic" dance; Cold War; Israeli modern dance; gender

Watson, Kelly Lea“I Laid my Hands on a Gorgeous Cannibal Woman”: Anthropophagy in the Imperial Imagination, 1492 – 1763
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, American Culture Studies/History

This dissertation examines European writings about cannibalism in North America from 1492 until 1763, uncovering insights into the establishment and maintenance of imperial power. It contributes to existing scholarship about cannibalism, empire, gender history, and the history of sexuality. Imperial power depended upon the assertion of European superiority and the assumption of Indian inferiority, and the discourse of cannibalism played a key role in the establishment of these hierarchical determinations. Because imperial expansion always involved the conquering of bodies in addition to land and resources, it is imperative to acknowledge and scrutinize the way that conquered bodies were gendered. Cannibalism is an embodied act, and an investigation of the discourse of anthropophagy illuminates the development of early modern ideas about savagery, civilization, gender, and sexuality.

Situated at the crossroads of history and cultural studies, this dissertation employs discourse analysis in order to reveal new insights into historical documents and to re-center gender in the study of the discourse of cannibalism. This comparative project traces the discourse of cannibalism in the context of Caribbean exploration, the Spanish empire in Mexico, the French empire in Canada, and the English empire in Atlantic North America, in order to develop an understanding of the ways in which the discourse of cannibalism changed across empires, time-periods, and geographic locations. This project compensates for the lack of scholarly attention that has been afforded to the study of cannibalism in North America. Ultimately, it uncovers some of the ways in which the discourse of cannibalism reinforced, created, and shaped developing ideas about gender and empire.

Committee:

Andrew Schocket (Committee Chair); Amilcar Challu (Committee Member); Susana Peña (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Canadian History; History; Latin American History; Native Americans; Womens Studies

Keywords:

cannibalism; imperialism; gender history; feminist history; North America; history of sexuality; conquest; Christopher Columbus; Amerigo Vespucci; Hernan Cortes; Jesuits; captivity narratives

Malone, Chad AllenA Socio-Historical Analysis of U.S. State Terrorism from 1948 to 2008
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2008, Sociology
This thesis is a critical examination of U.S. foreign intervention from 1948 to 2008. Using a comparative/historical analysis of seven cases – Iran, Guatemala, Indonesia, Chile, Nicaragua, Panama, and Iraq – this study finds patterns of U.S. state/state-sponsored terror and intervention. Using world-system theory and G. William Domhoff’s class-domination theory of power, this study explains how and why the U.S. government, the U.S. military, the CIA, and U.S. corporations participate in economically motivated terrorist acts to support the capitalist mode of production, U.S. investments, and access to markets and natural resources. Finally, this study reveals patterns (in addition to the use of terror) that the U.S. government follows while intervening in the affairs of foreign nations.

Committee:

Elias Nigem (Committee Chair); Dwight Haase (Committee Member); Marietta Morrissey (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Economics; European History; History; International Law; International Relations; Labor Economics; Latin American History; Middle Eastern History; Military History; Petroleum Production; Political Science; Social Research; Social Structure; Sociology

Keywords:

terrorism; U.S. state terrorism; elite theory; world-system theory; state-sponsored terrorism; CIA; U.S. military; U.S. foreign policy; assassinations; Arbenz; Mossadeq; Sukarno; Allende; Noriega; Hussein; U.S. intervention; 9/11; WTC; political terrorism

Troester, Patrick T"Direful Vengeance": A U.S.-Mexican War Massacre and the Culture of Collective Violence in Nineteenth-Century North America
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2014, History
Traditional military and political histories have tended to dominate historical scholarship on the U.S.-Mexican War. Despite a few notable recent publications, the input of social and cultural historians has been extremely limited. Several scholars over the last three decades—notably Robert Johannsen, Paul Foos, and Amy Greenberg—have drawn attention to the prevalence of non-sanctioned violence outside of organized combat during the war. These incidents ranged from petty theft and vandalism to rape, murder, and occasional mass killings. Scholars have offered some speculation on the social and cultural forces driving these acts, but they remain a peripheral and largely unexplored element of the war’s history. Politicians, veterans, and the American press fiercely debated the truth and significance of non-sanctioned violence and directly contested its popular memory. This thesis presents an in-depth case study of perhaps the best-documented incident of non-sanctioned violence during the war: the killing of a group of unarmed Mexican civilians by American volunteers near the Mexican city of Saltillo in 1847. Using theory on collective memory, the study traces the rapid proliferation of multiple versions of the massacre, analyzing the ways in which various authors represented and understood it. It also connects the killings to broader historical trends in the United States—most notably collective social violence, Indian warfare, and the myth of the frontier—to show this incident as the extension of older cultures of violence.

Committee:

Lesley Gordon, Dr. (Advisor); Kevin Adams, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Latin American History; Military History

Keywords:

US-Mexican War; Mexican War; Mexican-American War; Agua Nueva; Catana; massacre; violence; collective; memory; cultural history; representation; masculinity; atrocity; non-sanctioned violence; 1847; John Wool; Archibald Yell

Spahr, Thomas W.Occupying for Peace, The U.S. Army in Mexico, 1846-1848
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
This dissertation examines the United States‘ execution of the military occupation of Mexico during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). It argues that the occupation was successful and played an important role in achieving the American strategic objectives. The occupation succeeded because (a) President James K. Polk and his military commanders formulated a sound and flexible strategy, (b) a relatively competent corps of professional army officers executed that strategy, and (c) the United States Army maintained consistent military superiority over the Mexicans throughout the conflict. This dissertation examines the military occupation in terms of the American management of the Mexican population down to the city level, and the American reaction to Mexican resistance after the conventional army was defeated and driven from different parts of the country. The Americans were successful during the occupation because they applied an artful blend of conciliation toward the population, calibrated coercion, and co-option of much of the Catholic clergy and Mexican elite. The American victories on the conventional battlefield and conciliation of the population did not in themselves convince the Mexicans to cease resistance. The Army eventually succeeded by transitioning to a more punitive policy, targeting those who resisted or abetted resistance, particularly the elite, and by demonstrating to the Mexicans that they were committed to continuing the occupation indefinitely. Throughout the occupation the Americans demonstrated a flexible strategy that exploited social and racial fault lines in Mexican society. This dissertation does not ignore the faults of the American army in Mexico, often undisciplined and driven by its perception of racial superiority over its adversary. The army committed many atrocities against the Mexican population, and in other circumstances these acts might have undermined the overall effort. Yet the faults of the United States Army did not undermine the occupation because of aggressive efforts by the American leadership to control its troops, the consistent American ability to defeat the Mexicans in battle, and Mexico‘s own inability to unite against the foreign invader. Mexico‘s isolation from external support further hindered its attempts to resist. While misconduct and racism did not undermine the U.S. effort, they did contribute to a legacy of antipathy between the neighboring states. Finally, while the American military occupation succeeded in achieving the U.S. strategic objectives, it left Mexico frail and vulnerable to invasion by other foreign powers.

Committee:

Mark Grimsley, Ph.D (Committee Chair); John Guilmartin, Ph.D (Committee Member); Kenneth Andrien, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Randolph Roth, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; International Relations; Latin American History; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

Mexican War; military occupation; occupation; counterinsurgency; guerrilla warfare; wartime president; Winfield Scott; John Wool; Zachary Taylor

Jacobs, Matthew D.A “Psychological Offensive”: United States Public Diplomacy, Revolutionary Cuba, and the Contest for Latin American Hearts and Minds during the 1960s
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, History (Arts and Sciences)
In January 1959 Fidel Castro took power in Cuba and soon proved to be a perplexing opponent for the United States. The island nation did not have to commit soldiers or weaponry to advance its revolutionary agenda in Latin America. The ideas and romanticism associated with the Cuban Revolution were enough to foster anti-U.S. and pro-Cuban sentiment in the region. Historian Thomas Wright wrote that the Cuban Revolution “embodied the aspirations and captured the imagination of Latin America’s masses as no other political movement had ever done.” Castro declared during the “Second Declaration of Havana” in 1962 that “it is the duty of every revolutionary to make the revolution. In America and the world, it is known that the revolution will be victorious, but it is improper revolutionary behavior to sit at one’s doorstep waiting for the corpse of imperialism to pass by.” For U.S. policymakers, confronting Castro and his revolutionary agenda became a top priority during the 1960s. Adolf Berle, a veteran U.S. foreign policymaker with experience dating back to the Franklin Roosevelt administration, headed John Kennedy’s task force on Latin America and offered the president counsel on how best to confront the growing unrest in the region. While Berle noted the positive effects that a focus on democracy, economic development, and social reform could have, he also called on the administration to launch a “psychological offensive.” In an attempt to co-opt the energies of the Cuban revolution and impede Fidel Castro’s influence in Latin America, the United States waged an extensive public diplomacy campaign against the revolutionary fervor emanating from Havana. This international history, based on research in the United States, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba, tells the story of Washington’s attempt to discredit the Cuban Revolution, while simultaneously cultivating public opinion in Latin America during the 1960s. Central to U.S. efforts at conducting public diplomacy was the United States Information Agency (USIA). While it contained the word information in its title, that should not confuse readers. The agency engaged in both information and propaganda campaigns. Information is used to educate or to inform, while propaganda is utilized to persuade or manipulate. Throughout its existence, the USIA did both. Historian Nicholas Cull offers a good and concise definition of agency efforts as “an international actor’s attempt to manage the international environment through engagement with a foreign public.” Such actions can encompass different dimensions of U.S. government interactions with local populations, including student exchanges, publications sponsored by the United States, cultural events at U.S. binational centers, television programs, and radio broadcasts. In attempting to sway Latin American opinions of Fidel Castro, the United States could not focus solely on government to government relations; policymakers had to seek out non-state actors in the region. Washington sought to reach particular segments of Latin American society. These included intellectuals, journalists, teachers, students, and peasants. Ultimately, scholars should recognize the centrality of propaganda in U.S.-Latin American relations during the 1960s. It became an essential component of Washington’s approach, equal to, if not greater than, developmental aid and military assistance. Furthermore, this study seeks to recast how historians view post-1945 inter-American relations. A close examination of U.S. public diplomacy in Latin America during the 1960s calls into question just how historians should study the “Cold War” in the region. Local tensions, exacerbated by the Cuban Revolution, most clearly help explain the course of post-1945 U.S.-Latin American relations. In essence, the battle waged by the United States in Latin America during the 1960s, more often than not, was not tied to the larger “Global Cold War” where both U.S. and Soviet interventionism ruled the day. Rather than thinking globally, historians studying the political and social dimensions of Latin America’s long 20th century need to look locally.

Committee:

Chester Pach (Committee Chair); Kenneth Osgood (Committee Member); Patrick Barr-Melej (Committee Member); Kevin Mattson (Committee Member); Brad Jokisch (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; International Relations; Latin American History

Keywords:

Public Diplomacy; United States-Latin American Relations; Fidel Castro; Cuban Revolution; Latin American history; US foreign policy; John Kennedy; Lyndon Johnson; propaganda; psychological warfare; United States Information Agency; Alliance for Progres

Istomina, JuliaProperty, Mobility, and Epistemology in U.S. Women of Color Detective Fiction
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, English
This project explores how U.S. women of color detective fiction novels interpret and revise methods for obtaining and transmitting knowledge while operating within political and economic climates that discipline and occlude oppositional narratives, historiographies, and identifications. U.S. women of color detective fiction emerged in the early 1990s during a time when institutions began to incorporate historically marginalized perspectives, but also when American and transnational corporate initiatives sought to stigmatize and profit from poor women of color. The novels featured in this project make use of a genre that is invested in creating exceptionally intelligent and capable detectives who seek to identify and correct social injustice. In the process, these novels employ historiographic epistemologies that are typically elided in Anglo-European philosophical and narrative productions. Historiographic epistemologies are theories concerning the encoding and transmission of knowledge that also serve as mediations regarding the composition of history, testimony, and narrative. Through the use of historiographic epistemologies, U.S. women of color detective fiction novels reveal the creative and narrative-building aspects of logical reasoning employed by detective fiction and rationalist discourse more broadly. Moving from the local with Barbara Neely's Blanche on the Lam, to the transnational with Lucha Corpi's Black Widow's Wardrobe and Alicia Gaspar de Alba's Desert Blood: The Juarez Murders, to the global with Charlotte Carter's Coq au Vin and Lupe Solano's Havana Nights, this project identifies connections and distinctions among these texts that in turn enable a more nuanced understanding of how precarity is constituted through the pervasive, implicit division between domestic (white) space and public (surveillanced) space. In their use of a genre that reflects institutional and social structural alignments and in their employment of non-European epistemologies such as second sight, jazz, conocimiento, spiritual mestizaje, and public motherhood, the novels featured in this project also emphasize the fact that categories of difference are dynamic and that the uniqueness of each individual experience within the U.S. matrix of institutional and social power creates unique modes of resistance. As a result, the larger critical contribution of this project is its identification of connections between place-based, decolonial, and global womanist theories of subjecthood and space that test the predictability of the gender-race-class intersectional lens of analysis.

Committee:

Linda Mizejewski (Committee Chair); Lynn Itagaki (Advisor); Theresa Delgadillo (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American History; American Literature; American Studies; Asian American Studies; Black Studies; Caribbean Literature; Caribbean Studies; Comparative Literature; Epistemology; Ethnic Studies; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; Hispanic American Studies; Latin American History; Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Native American Studies; Performing Arts; Womens Studies

Keywords:

US women of color literature; US multiethnic detective fiction; US feminist detective fiction; feminist epistemology; hardboiled character; testimony; border studies; diaspora; domestic mystery

Newman, Esther S.Sojourners, Spies and Citizens: The Interned Latin American Japanese Civilians during World War II
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 2008, Department of History

More than two thousand Japanese Latin Americans, seized abroad, shipped to the United States, and interned without charge, moved through a vast prison system that also held nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II. Fear and racism produced internment policies that conflated enemy nation with enemy race, making proof of guilt or innocence irrelevant. However, race-based imprisonment also intensified feelings of Japanese nationalism, strengthened ethnic identity and influenced resistance behavior among the detained. This study examines prisoner memoirs, interviews, government documents, and published reports to support these positions.

Little is known about the individual experiences of the Japanese Latin American prisoners. Yoshitaro Amano's memoir, Waga Toraware No Ki (The Journal of My Incarceration), published in Japan in 1943 but never before translated to English, adds to a very limited literature from the Japanese alien detainee perspective that is accessible to western scholars. Amano, captured in Panama at the on December 7, 1941, chronicled his experiences of capture, internment, and repatriation along with opinions about the war and the differences between Americans and the Japanese. Peruvian immigrant Seiichi Higashide's memoir, Adios To Tears, published in 1993 and an interview of Peruvian citizen Art Shibayama contained in a 2003 documentary expose Peru's role in capturing ethnic Japanese and its subsequent denial of repatriation. Together, the experiences of these men, a suspected spy, a sojourner merchant and a second generation citizen of Peru offer eyewitness accounts of this relatively obscure segment of Japanese internees.

Committee:

Martha Pallante, PhD (Committee Chair); G. Mehera Gerardo, PhD (Committee Member); Helene Sinnreich, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Latin American History

Keywords:

Japanese internment; Latin American internment; civilian detainees; prisoner exchange ship Gripsholm

Smith, William S.Send in the...Scholars?: The History of the Fulbright Program from 1961-1970
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2011, History
This study examines the creation and implementation of the 1961 Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the Fulbright program as it was implemented as part of U.S. foreign policy from 1961-1970. It looks at the ways in which educational exchanges were used in U.S. foreign policy to meet Cold War pressures and restore the U.S. image abroad, and investigates the means in which short- term political goals disrupted policies that required time to fully develop. Throughout the 1960s, there were many attempts to reorganize and coordinate educational and cultural activities, but the different views on the purpose of these activities kept at bay any type of effort to consolidate them into one Bureau. I argue that policymaker’s inability to come to a solid consensus on the purpose for educational and cultural exchange stunted the development of the Fulbright program and significantly contributed to its large budget reduction in 1970. Overall, this is the historical account of a period when the U.S. took multi-faceted approaches to public diplomacy and went to great lengths to branch out with international person-to- person exchanges.

Committee:

Amilcar Challu, PhD (Committee Chair); Stephen Ortiz, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Vibha Bhalla, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; American History; American Studies; Education; Education History; Education Policy; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; History; International Relations; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Political Science

Keywords:

Fulbright;Fulbright program;history;educational and cultural exchange;Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs;USIA;United States Information Agency;Public Diplomacy;Kennedy era;1961 Fulbright-Hays Act;

Erenrich, Susan J.Rhythms of Rebellion: Artists Creating Dangerously for Social Change
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
On December 14, 1957, after winning the Nobel Prize for literature, Albert Camus challenged artists attending a lecture at the University of Uppsala in Sweden to create dangerously. Even though Camus never defined what he meant by his charge, throughout history, artists involved in movements of protest, resistance, and liberation have answered Camus’ call. Quite often, the consequences were costly, resulting in imprisonment, censorship, torture, and death. This dissertation examines the question of what it means to create dangerously by using Camus’ challenge to artists as a starting point. The study then turns its attention to two artists, Augusto Boal and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, who were detained, tortured, and imprisoned because they boldly defied the dominant power structure. Lastly, the research focuses on a group of front-line artists, the Mississippi Caravan of Music, involved in the contemporary struggle for civil rights in the United States. The individual artists and the artist group represented in the dissertation are from different parts of the globe and were involved in acts of rebellion, resistance, revolt, or revolution at varying points in history. Portraiture, a form of narrative inquiry, is the research method employed in the dissertation. The qualitative approach pioneered by Harvard scholar Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot “combines systematic, empirical description with aesthetic expression, blending art and science,humanistic sensibilities and scientific rigor” (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997, p. 3). The dissertation extrapolates concepts from the traditional literature and expands the boundaries to make room for a more integrated understanding of social change, art, and transformational leadership from the bottom up. Artists and artist groups who create dangerously is an area often overlooked in the field. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Stewart Burns, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; African Americans; African History; African Literature; American History; American Studies; Black History; History; Latin American History; Literacy; Music; Sociology; Theater

Keywords:

social change; social justice; popular education; portraiture; qualitative; arts; creating dangerously; transformational leadership; history; activism; social movements; dissent; liberation; narrative; civic engagement; community organizing; rebellion

Manos, Peter JohnJoseph Plumb Martin and the American Imagination
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2011, History

The personal narrative of ordinary Continental Army private Joseph Plumb Martin has long provided corroborating evidence for battlefield accounts of the American Revolution and has never been out of print, albeit usually in abridged form, since its discovery in the mid-twentieth century. Yet, the memoir was written in 1830, fifty years after the events Martin narrated. Its romantic literary style, its populist sensibility, its racism, its empiricism, all reflect nineteenth-century values. The memoir has value in epitomizing the solidification of American nationalism and the populist rhetoric that became associated with it.

Chapter one attempts to understand Martin’s rhetoric in terms of the literary influences on his writing, which include some works of the nineteenth century, but most from earlier times. Particularly evident is a modeling of behavior and outlook on the popular “Jonathan” character emerging from the works of post-Revolutionary American playwright Royall Tyler and others coupled with the romantic low-born outdoorsmen protagonists of nineteenth century rural poet Robert Bloomfield.

Chapter two argues that Martin’s populism and distrust of authority which positions him in the Jacksonian era, had experiential roots in his years of service during the Revolution, particularly with regard to the relationship between the rank and file and their commanders: a contractual, negotiated environment based on competency and personal liberty.

Chapter three demonstrates the racism that influenced Martin’s narrative and which stemmed from a growing antagonism between white and African-American laborers in the nineteenth century which rationalized white supremacy through the concept of competence.

Chapter four discusses Martin’s and by extension the early republic’s view of the practice of medicine in context of competence and the rise of anti-intellectual empiricism in the creation of knowledge, with a focus on the medical advances of Martin’s lifetime.

Chapter five presents a behavioral view of a Revolutionary War veteran who has imposed a nineteenth century populist sensibility on the meaning behind his service in the Continental Army. This is a dramatic recreation of Martin’s testimony before county officials in petition for a veteran’s pension offered in 1828.

It is hoped that this work will help create an understanding of how certain anti-authoritarian individualistic ideas realized in the early nineteenth century acted upon interpretations of the meaning behind the American War of Independence and American nationalism, a meaning that has colored our understanding of the nation’s founding and has influenced ideas of what it means to be an American.

Committee:

Elizabeth Mancke, Dr. (Advisor); Walter Hixson, Dr. (Advisor); Kevin Kern, Dr. (Committee Member); Kevin Adams, Dr. (Committee Member); Patrick Chura, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

Joseph Plumb Martin; Continental Army; American Revolution; Nationalism; One Man Play; Historical Play; Early Republic; Common Militia; Minuteman; Yorktown; Sapper; Miner; Patriot; Colonial Racism; Jacksonian Democracy; American History

Pelanda, Brian Lee“For The General Diffusion Of Knowledge”: Foundations of American Copyright Ideology, 1783-1790
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2008, History

This study attempts to fill a gap in the historiography on the formation of American copyright law by exploring the specific historical nature of print culture in the late eighteenth-century which directly influenced copyright’s development. Those who campaigned for copyright protection espoused its broad nationalistic implications in the wake of a socially and politically disruptive revolution, and its eventual legislative design recognized a distinct tension between private interests and the public sphere as it embodied the pervasive republican values of the early national period. This examination seeks to clarify how the conceptual architecture of copyright was initially framed in the United States in order to more insightfully and constructively address the question of the continued utility of its function established by historical precedent.

The first chapter of this study argues that the earliest calls for copyright legislation in the United States immediately after the Revolution were inextricably intertwined with the efforts to construct a distinctly American national identity. As the dictates of print-capitalism were quickly becoming institutionalized, prominent copyright advocates argued that copyright was necessary both to protect the indigenous American authorial class and their labors from the widespread practice of literary piracy and to encourage others to participate in the craft of authorship. They argued provocatively – and successfully – that copyright laws would indeed serve as declarations of cultural independence from Britain, and would help establish America’s cultural parity with the greatest powers in the world. Whereas colonial printmen played the most critical role in shaping American identity throughout the 1760s and 1770s by producing a deluge of literature in opposition to parliamentary imperial policies, I argue that the calls for copyright laws in the post-revolutionary period were an attempt by American intellectual writers to establish their own measure of cultural control over what was a largely unregulated printing industry.

The second chapter of this study demonstrates how eighteenth-century Enlightenment ideals and republican ideology significantly influenced how contemporaries expected the explicit limitedness of copyright terms to function. Through an examination of the concurrent development of learned societies and proposals for publicly funded education systems, I argue that a significant aspect of American political culture was a passion for the “diffusion of knowledge.” As contemporaries understood printed literature to be integral in the production and consumption of knowledge, such understandings strongly influenced the expectations and design of copyright. Additionally, the prevailing ideology of republicanism established a delicate balance between personal and public interests, which ultimately expected the republican citizen to act first and foremost for the benefit of society as a whole. Hence, copyright’s explicit limitedness exhibited the tension inherent in republican ideology: it granted authors only temporary monopolistic control over the publication of their creations so that they could sustain themselves in their labors, so that when the copyright term on a work expired it entered the public domain, from which anyone could freely access, manipulate, or republish it. Explicitly limited terms were not some arbitrary legislative decision, but rather a byproduct of the contemporary fixation on diffusing knowledge through print as extensively as possible among the American populace.

Committee:

Elizabeth Mancke, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; American Literature; American Studies; Education History; History; Law

Keywords:

copyright law; noah webster; joel barlow; john trumbull; copyright; intellectual property; intellectual property law; imagined communities; early american culture; american copyright law; diffusion of knowledge; republicanism; free culture

Dutridge-Corp, Elizabeth AnneReconciling the Past: H.R. 121 and the Japanese Textbook Controversy
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, History
The Japanese history textbook controversy emerged as an international affair in 1982. The controversy, which focuses primarily on conservative textbooks, concerns itself with events and issues from Japan's World War II past. The "comfort women" issue is one such topic which protestors argue fail to be recognized in textbooks, thus sparking debate over whether Japan has been able to recognize its responsibility for its past deeds. On 30 July 2007, the U.S. House of Representatives passed House Resolution 121 (H.R.121), a non-binding resolution calling upon the Government of Japan to “formally acknowledge, apologize, and accept historical responsibility” for the Imperial Armed Forces' involvement in the “enslavement and trafficking” of “comfort women” during the Pacific War/World War II. Representative Michael Honda, a Democratic Congressman from the Fifteenth District of California, was the sponsor of this resolution. Supporting him and this resolution were 167 congressmen who were in favor of a formal apology from then Prime Minister of Japan, Shinzō Abe. But with World War II and the U.S. Occupation of Japan more than sixty years in the past, why, in 2007, was the U.S. calling for an “unambiguous” apology? H.R. 121, and the resolutions that came before it, were an American response to the “memory problem” in Japan concerning its war responsibility and apologies. While H.R. 121 was initiated over a matter of human rights, this thesis will argue that H.R. 121 serves as a formal U.S. demand for an apology from the Government of Japan for its wartime past, citing recent history textbooks as proof that Japan has yet to offer such an apology.

Committee:

Dr. Walter Grunden, PhD (Advisor); Dr. David Haus, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Education; Education History; History; International Relations; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

textbook controversy; United States; Japan; history textbooks; H.R. 121; comfort women

Woitkowitz, JohnArctic Sovereignty and the Cold War: Canada-U.S. Relations and the Establishment of the DEW Line
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, History
This thesis analyzes how Arctic sovereignty issues shaped Canada’s negotiations with the United States about the establishment of the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line) in the Canadian Arctic during the 1950s. Against the backdrop of Cold War tensions, Ottawa and Washington agreed to install a chain of radar stations along North America’s Arctic border—mostly through Canadian territory—in an attempt to detect and deter potential Soviet nuclear attacks crossing the North pole. The asymmetric nature of Canada-U.S. relations and Ottawa’s consequent dependence upon U.S. defense stewardship, however, conflicted with Canadians’ view of their country’s recent national emancipation from its colonial relationship with Great Britain. During World War II, Ottawa’s experience with Canadian-American Northern defense cooperation had been mixed as a result of U.S. construction and operation of defense installations perceived to infringe upon Canada’s sovereignty. Whereas these wartime irritations informed Ottawa’s position throughout the DEW Line negotiations, the Canadian North carried significance beyond the strategic-military rationale of the Cold War. Canada’s Arctic served as a key element in the cultural construction of a Canadian national identity, in turn influencing how Ottawa conceived of the implications of a large American presence along Canada’s Northern frontier. This study demonstrates how sovereignty concerns shaped Ottawa’s course of action during the DEW Line negotiations, ensuring Canadian ownership and jurisdiction. By bringing the Cold War dimension, the Canadian sovereignty debate, and the broader cultural forces into conversation with each other, this thesis argues that the interplay of these aspects in context of asymmetric Canada-U.S. relations is key to a thorough understanding of Ottawa’s position towards Washington during the DEW Line negotiations.

Committee:

Robert J. McMahon, PhD (Advisor); Robert J. McMahon, PhD (Advisor); Paula Baker, PhD (Committee Member); Peter L. Hahn, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Canadian History; History; International Relations

Keywords:

arctic; sovereignty; cold war; canada; united states; dew line; distant early warning; canada-us relations

Fechner, Holly BAmerican Women's Intellectual History in the Revolutionary and New Republican Era: Charting a Shift in Feminist Theory
BA, Oberlin College, 1985, History

This paper is a study of American women's intellectual history in the period 1770-1815. My aim is to develop a coherent conception of women's moral point of view as it is presented in prescriptive literature, political tracts, and women's own writing. Because of the nature of my goal, I will attempt to glean women's ideas out of the extant primary source material of this period. As the aim of this study implies the existence of a prescribed point of view which women were to share, I will use numerous examples from the genre of prescriptive literature.

Unlike our world of today in which men and women are generally considered more alike than different, men and women of the late eighteenth century were thought to be different and complementary. I will use arguments about women's and men's education and economic lives to demonstrate the existence of large discrepancies between their roles in the last half of the eighteenth century in addition to the large differences which the authors of prescriptive literature described.

My basic premise is that women's and men's intellectual and moral points of view were shaped by their daily lives and by society's expectations of them, and, therefore, by their own expectations of themselves. I do not claim to be able to address the question of a male point of view. It is a fact, especially in these years of revolution and change,that men's lives were much more varied than women's lives. Because the sphere of women's role was more narrowly defined, it is possible to discover within this sphere outlines of a prescribed and coherent woman moral point of view. Further, I will address the question of the division between what women were instructed to think and feel and what they actually felt and thought.

Committee:

Geoffrey Blodgett (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Gender Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women;intellect;feminist;American;

Smith, Timothy ToddFrontier of Freedom: Berlin in American Cold War Discourse from the Airlift to Kennedy
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Comparative Studies
This thesis attempts to locate the role of Berlin in American discourse during the height of the Cold War using a theoretical model based on the discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. It analyzes the historical background of the American investment in Berlin from wartime negotiations through Kennedy's Berlin visit in 1963, and it draws on official and media representations in order to develop a sense of how Berlin, its people and its events were represented to the American people at the time. Discourse theory is then explained and its key terms illustrated with reference to the role of Berlin within American Cold War discourse. Finally, I argue that Berlin helped to fix the meaning of key terms such as "freedom," "democracy" and "anticommunism," thereby contributing to the coherence of American Cold War discourse and the subject positions it produced.

Committee:

Eugene Holland, PhD (Advisor); Philip Armstrong, PhD (Committee Member); Alan Beyerchen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; History; International Relations; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Berlin; Discourse Theory; Laclau; Cold War; Cold War Discourse

Feshami, Kevan A.“That Blood is Real Because I Just Can’t Fake It”: Conceptualizing, Contextualizing, Marketing, and Delivering Gore in Herschell Gordon Lewis’s Blood Feast
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2010, American Culture Studies/Popular Culture
In 1963 exploitation filmmaker Herschell Gordon Lewis released Blood Feast, a movie that showcases violence. Widely regarded as the progenitor of the gore genre and as the film that opened the door to depictions of graphic violence in American cinema, Blood Feast occupies interesting positions in the history of American genres and the American film industry. This project endeavors to explore and elaborate on these generic, historical, and industrial positions. To do so, it first clarifies the generic terms “exploitation” and “gore” through an examination of the literature produced on the two terms. It then provides a historical overview of the changes in the filmic marketplace during the 1950s and 60s that enabled the profitable production, distribution, and exhibition of the first gore film. The advertising materials used to promote the film are also analyzed in order to provide insights into the ways that Blood Feast and its graphically violent content were sold to the public. Finally, Blood Feast is examined on a textual level via an approach grounded in formal film analysis that discusses the use of color and performance in the film. Ultimately, the common thread that emerges from these analyses is one of the importance of differentiation to Blood Feast on both a textual and extra-textual level. Lewis’s effective efforts at differentiation ultimately were a major factor in both Blood Feast’s immediate financial success and its enduring cultural legacy.

Committee:

Maisha Wester, Ph. D. (Committee Chair); Cynthia Baron, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Marketing

Keywords:

Herschell Gordon Lewis; Blood Feast; gore; splatter; exploitation; horror

Lippert, Ellen J.George Ohr in His Nineteenth Century Context: The Mad Potter Reconsidered
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2008, Art History

George Ohr (1856-1917) was regarded as an eccentric in his lifetime but has emerged as a major figure in American art since the discovery, in 1965, of thousands of examples of his work. Since that date research on Ohr has increased exponentially as has his cult figure status. Scholars and collectors alike are attracted to his manipulated and deformed pots as much as to his eccentric personality and legendary rediscovery. As a result Ohr has come to be canonized as a prophetic and mythical figure untouched by late nineteenth century societal and cultural concerns of both Biloxi, Mississippi and the United States.

Ohr's career (1880-1908) was coincident with the last quarter of the nineteenth century, which was a time of cultural, social and spiritual upheaval. This dissertation examines specific issues of this time period with which Ohr would have been involved.

In response to the development of new forms of advertising and visual display some artists created personas which would attract attention to their work. James McNeill Whistler and Elbert Hubbard are apt examples. Ohr also adopted this strategy and portrayed himself as an eccentric, uneducated, and uncultivated potter. Ohr's persona was specifically fashioned to establish himself as a Southern character in order to appeal to his dominant Northern client base.

Also in response to a changing economy which had enabled individuals to claim vast accumulations of wealth over a short period of time, Ohr seemed to have embraced the notion of socialism and the importance of the individual. Ohr was particular attracted to this humanitarian side of socialism. Related to this idea is the somewhat subversive empowerment of the grotesque popularized by the Symbolists and such writers as J.K. Huysmans and Oscar Wilde. Ohr's highly individualized pots, I assert, are abstractions of abject nature. His forms, of which he proclaimed there were "no two alike," appear to ooze and melt with glazes that suggest bodily fluids, disease and decay.

After studying the ways in which Ohr related to specific issues of his nineteenth-century milieu, this dissertation uses these conclusions to provide a new interpretation of Ohr's art. Rather than viewing his works as purely formalist, his pots become expressions of his sensitivity to underlying tensions of late nineteenth and early twentieth century culture. His art explored very similar, essentially parallel themes to those of his life: the divide between crude craft and "real art," between the salable commercial commodity and the priceless work of art, between the common or low-class and the refined, between the ugly and deformed (or even the obscene) and the beautiful.

Committee:

Henry Adams (Advisor); Martha Woodmansee (Committee Member); Charles Burroughs (Committee Member); Edward Olszewski (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Art History

Keywords:

George Ohr; Biloxi; Mad Potter; Gilded Age

Shevlin, Casey GA System with Parts and Players: The American Lynch Mob in John Steinbeck's Labor Trilogy
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2013, English-Literature
Of the numerous articles and books published on John Steinbeck’s work, not many of them give much thought to the presence of lynching, just as the many articles and books published on lynching seldom consider the ways in which 1930s California factors into the American lynching narrative. I propose that an examination of race and lynching in Steinbeck’s migrant worker trilogy—In Dubious Battle (1936), Of Mice and Men (1937), The Grapes of Wrath (1939)—can help illuminate the racial significance of his work and inform our reading of both his migrant series and cultural definitions of race and lynching. Steinbeck’s decision to invoke the racially-charge term—“lynch”—in each of these three landmark novels suggests that the brutal cultural phenomenon is more closely tied to his work and to 1930s California than the grand lynching narrative would let on. This thesis will suggest that lynching actually pervades Steinbeck’s late 1930s work. It is my contention that a latent, easily over-looked consideration of lynching and race underlies John Steinbeck’s labor trilogy.

Committee:

Patrick Chura, Dr. (Advisor); Julie Drew, Dr. (Committee Member); Hillary Nunn, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Literature; American Studies; Black History; Gender; History; Literature

Moore, Kevin LLighting Up the Darkness: Electrification in Ohio, 1879-1945
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, History
This thesis argues that electrification in Ohio, which spread from cities to the countryside, required a strong impetus from the Federal Government to reach its ultimate fulfillment. The author attempts to address a lacuna in the scholarship of electrification by providing an original work on the history of electrification in Ohio. This thesis makes use of a “case study” approach to examine the topic in a three-stage analytical framework: urban electrification in Cleveland to address the changes in public perception regarding power and the resulting municipal reform; the transition of Toledo's interurban railways from primarily traction companies to electrical power companies to illustrate the expansion of electrical access beyond the municipality making the issue a state concern; and restriction of Ohio’s utility holding companies and the electrification of Miami and Shelby Counties by the Rural Electrification Administration to examine how firm federal policies succeeded where state and local intervention could not. The case is made here using a synthesis of existing literature on electrification and archival research. The present work concludes that the earliest attempts to expand electrification were made by private enterprise, but private efforts were most successful in cities where higher population densities guaranteed higher profits. Government actions on the part of municipal and state institutions tried to further electrification beyond the areas serviced by private utilities, but they lacked the resources and authority of the federal government.

Committee:

Walter E. Grunden, PhD (Advisor); Rebecca Mancuso, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Energy; History; Modern History; Science History; Technology

Keywords:

Ohio electrification; U.S. electrification; rural electrification in Ohio; Rural Electrification Administration; Ohio interurbans; Tom L. Johnson; US power policy; Ohio Progressive Era; interurbans; Ohio utilities; rural electric cooperatives; modern Ohio

Wollet, Benjamin W.Switching Tracks: The Place of Railroads in an Era of Economic and Environmental Reform, 1966-80
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, History (Arts and Sciences)
To stave off the collapse of the feeble and bankrupt U.S. railroad industry in the 1970s, federal policymakers enacted major regulatory reforms. The creation of Amtrak and Conrail, significant rehabilitation projects, and an overhaul of transportation laws enabled the railroads to pare down their lines and retool their businesses. Each of these rapid developments in economic and business policy also reshaped natural and built landscapes. Using congressional and executive documents and secondary materials, this thesis shows how environmental regulations, historical preservation, and public awareness of ecology and resource scarcity informed the process of railroad reform. The environmental impact statement redefined how federal bureaucrats approached railroad infrastructure projects and line abandonment, while new pollution rules and energy-efficiency programs affected the rails’ biggest customers, like coal and manufacturing. Two important trends in postwar domestic policy—new social regulation and economic deregulation—intersected to jumpstart U.S. railroading in the 1970s.

Committee:

Paul Milazzo, PhD (Advisor); Geoff Buckley, PhD (Committee Member); Katherine Jellison, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Modern History; Transportation

Keywords:

railroad regulation; new social regulation; environmental law; landscape change

Diaz, Jose Oscar“To Make the Best of Our Hard Lot”: Prisoners, Captivity, and the Civil War
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, History
This dissertation examines the captivity of the American soldier during the American Civil War (1861–1865). The plethora of fine works that exist about the experiences of Civil War captives have focused their attention on the harshness of prison life, the resulting casualties, and the need to assign blame. This dissertation takes another approach. Instead, it examines how prisoners of war in both the North and South adapted and made the best of a restrictive and harsh environment. The study shows that prison life, in despite of its trauma and suffering, included the rudiments of an American community. This dissertation also examines the positive aspects of the prison experience. Many captives accepted the reality of the circumstances and set out to make the best of their situation. They used their values to engineer a culture of captivity that made imprisonment endurable and survival possible. The adoption of this culture among Civil War prisoners of war is hardly surprising. The Civil War generation came to war equipped with habits and traditions that made captivity sustainable. These traits did not disappear when the combat soldier relinquished his weapon and commenced the journey into captivity. If anything, the stressful nature of imprisonment pushed these habits underground briefly, forcing the prisoners to reshape them in original ways. Thus, this work interprets captivity as a transforming experience.

Committee:

Joan Cashin (Committee Chair); Warren VanTine (Committee Member); C. Mark Grimsley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

Union; Confederate; Prison system; Civil War; Prisoners; Soldiers; United States

Wallace, Ben F.C.Fighting Back Against the Cold War: The American Committee on East-West Accord and the Retreat from Détente
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, History (Arts and Sciences)
This work traces the history of the American Committee on East-West Accord and its efforts to promote policies to reduce tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s. This organization of elite Americans attempted to demonstrate that there was support for policies of U.S.-Soviet accommodation and sought to discredit its opponents, especially the Committee on the Present Danger. This work argues that the Committee, although largely failing to achieve its goals, illustrates the wide-reaching nature of the debate on U.S.-Soviet relations during this period, and also demonstrates the enduring elements of the U.S.-Soviet détente of the early 1970s.

Committee:

Chester Pach, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Mattson, PhD (Committee Member); Ingo Trauschweizer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Political Science

Keywords:

American Committe on East-West Accord; Committee on the Present Danger; detente; cold war; Kennan, George; Nitze, Paul; Reagan, Ronald; Carter, Jimmy; SALT; SALT II; Jackson-Vanik amendment; nuclear freeze;

Selby, Shawn M.Congress, Culture and Capitalism: Congressional Hearings into Cultural Regulation, 1953-1967
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, History (Arts and Sciences)
This dissertation describes the series of investigations and hearings into cultural regulation that took place before the U.S. congress between 1953 and 1967. Beginning with Senate inquiries into juvenile delinquency and ending with the creation of the public broadcasting system in 1967, the dissertation argues that lawmakers and witnesses repeatedly emphasized internal industry oversight and the power of competition within the culture industry to regulate cultural products like comic books, movies and television. Public television was seen as a solution to the problem that met the demands lawmakers had placed upon their investigations. Existing works tending to focus on matters of quality or social science overlook the economic and regulatory aspects of congress's activities.

Committee:

Kevin Mattson, PhD (Advisor); Paul Milazzo, PhD (Committee Member); Katherine Jellison, PhD (Committee Member); Barry Tadlock, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History

Keywords:

congressional hearings; cultural regulation; popular culture; culture industry

Duffy, RyanTrouble along the Border: The Transformation of the U.S.-Mexican Border during the Nineteenth Century
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, History
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the transformation of U.S.-Mexican relations throughout the nineteenth century and its impact on the border during the administrations of James K. Polk and Rutherford B. Hayes. This transformation is exemplified by the movement away from hostile interactions during Polk's presidency to the cooperative nature that arose between Hayes and, then President of Mexico, Porfirio Diaz. In addition, another aim was to place the importance of the public sphere in framing the policy making of the United States and Mexican governments. The thesis focused upon the research surrounding Polk, Hayes, and their interactions with Mexico during their terms as president. The secondary materials were supplemented with corresponding primary source material from the presidents as well as their close advisors such as newspaper articles, correspondences, and speeches from both the United States and Mexico. The conclusion of the work demonstrates that the transformation in the border, first, the United States to become the dominant power on the continent, ending its rivalry with Mexico. Second, the ability of Porfirio Diaz to bring some stability to the Mexican political structure that permitted him to work in conjunction with the United States to control the border in exchange for recognition. Third, the increase in economic ties of the United States and Mexico that made war an unprofitable and dangerous outcome for both countries. Last, the difference in the president's personalities, Polk being ambitious, while Hayes following a cautious policy, as well as the fading of American expansionism and the concept of "manifest destiny."

Committee:

Amilcar Challu, Dr. (Advisor); Scott Martin, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca Mancuso, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Latin American History

Keywords:

Rutherford Birchard Hayes; James Knox Polk; Porfirio Diaz; railroads; United States-Mexican border; Texas; Mexican-American War; William Maxwell Evarts; California; United States Presidents

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