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Esno, Tyler P.Trading with the Enemy: U.S. Economic Policies and the End of the Cold War
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, History (Arts and Sciences)
This dissertation argues that U.S. economic strategies and policies were effective means to wage the Cold War during its final years and conclude the conflict on terms favorable to the United States. Using recently declassified U.S. and British government documents, among other sources, this analysis reveals that actions in East-West economic relations undermined cooperative U.S.-Soviet relations in the 1970s, contributed to heightened tensions in the early 1980s, and helped renew the U.S.-Soviet dialogue in the late 1980s. Scholars have focused on the role arms control initiatives and political actions played in the end of the Cold War. Arms control agreements, however, failed to resolve the underlying ideological and geopolitical competition between the United States and the Soviet Union. Through economic statecraft, the United States strengthened Western security and moved beyond containment to aid the democratic revolutions in Eastern Europe, help settle U.S.-Soviet political differences, and encourage the transformation of the oppressive Soviet system. In effect, this analysis highlights the ways in which U.S. economic statecraft served as an instrument to promote national interests and peace. Between the 1970s and early 1990s, the Soviet Union intended to overcome its economic decline through deeper commercial relations with the West. But, the United States continually sought to block Soviet moves, fearing deeper East-West economic relations would enhance Soviet military potential and grant Moscow leverage over the Atlantic alliance. While working with its West European allies to strengthen the regulation of East-West trade and protect alliance security, the United States also attempted to place further pressure on the Soviet economy and punish Moscow for its aggressive international behavior. In the late 1980s, trade restrictions and limited economic engagement helped the United States negotiate with the Soviet Union from a position of strength, moving beyond the Cold War. Lastly, as the Soviet empire crumbled, economic instruments proved to be the West’s most powerful tool in ending the division of Europe, aiding the institutionalization of democratic, market-oriented systems in Eastern Europe, and encouraging Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to undertake deeper economic reforms.

Committee:

Chester Pach, PhD (Advisor); Paul Milazzo, PhD (Committee Member); Ingo Trauschweizer, PhD (Committee Member); James Mosher, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Economic History; Economics; European History; History; Military History; Modern History; Peace Studies; Russian History; World History

Keywords:

Reagan; Ronald Reagan; Cold War; economic sanctions; trade; economic defense; economic policies; end of the Cold War; Bush; George HW Bush; East-West trade; East-West economic relations; economic relations; Soviet Union; Russia; embargo; grain embargo;

Schneider, Leann GCapturing Otherness on Canvas: 16th - 18th century European Representation of Amerindians and Africans
MA, Kent State University, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis explores various methods of visual representation used to portray non-white Others by white European artists throughout the Age of Discovery and the dawn of colonialism. There are three major phases of visual representation of Others in European Renaissance and Baroque art. These will be examined and compared to suggest a visual manifestation of the shifting ideas of race throughout these centuries. The representation of black Africans in Europe and the New World, the court commissioned paintings of Albert Eckhout in Dutch Brazil, and lastly, the development of the casta genre in New Spain will be investigated in connection with a changing perception of race. When explored as a group, these representations of Others offer insight into the contemporary racial mindset and expand upon the understanding of the development of established races based on physical appearance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By following the introduction of the black African into the works of Renaissance painters, over the bridge of Albert Eckhout’s titillating Baroque works recording supposed ethnographic realities in Dutch Brazil, and ending in colonial Mexico with casta paintings, one can see European racial concepts forming, morphing, and leading to an almost explicitly visual understanding of race.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Studies; American Studies; Art History; Caribbean Studies; Comparative; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; European History; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; History; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Modern History; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; World History

Keywords:

Albert Eckhout; Otherness; colonialism; slavery; representation; race; race in art; european representation of otherness; others; non-western; brazil; portugal; art; art history; baroque art; renaissance art; medici; casta painting; casta; mexico; paint

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonOn the Wings of the Wind: The United States Air Force Security Service and Its Impact on Signals Intelligence in the Cold War
BA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The United States Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), created in 1948, was the first signals intelligence organization to be created post-World War II and played an integral role in Cold War intelligence gathering. Indeed, despite its relatively young age compared to its Army and Navy counterparts, the USAFSS soon became the premier agency for signals intelligence in the early Cold War and was responsible for hundreds of secret listening posts around the world. This thesis argues that the USAFSS was able to have such a large impact on the post-World War II intelligence community due to a high level of technological proficiency, dedication, and a close working relationship with the National Security Agency (NSA) after its establishment in 1952. Using oral history interviews and declassified government documents, this thesis explores how the USAFSS was established and how it grew to leave a lasting impact for both contemporary Cold War intelligence agencies and the modern incarnation of Air Force intelligence.

Committee:

Elizabeth Smith-Pryor, Ph.D (Advisor); Timothy Scarnecchia, Ph.D (Committee Member); Fred Endres, Ph.D (Committee Member); Leslie Heaphy, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Computer Science; Engineering; European History; History; Information Science; Information Technology; International Relations; Mass Communications; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Russian History; Science History; Technical Communication; Technology; World History

Keywords:

Air Force; United States Air Force; Security Service; National Security; Intelligence; Signals Intelligence; Cold War; Soviet Union; United States; Armed Forces; National Security Agency; NSA; USAFSS; Cold War History; History; United States Military;

Karim, Armin"My People, What Have I Done to You?": The Good Friday Popule meus Verses in Chant and Exegesis, c. 380–880
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Musicology
The Roman Catholic Good Friday liturgy includes a series of chants known today as the Improperia (“Reproaches”) beginning with the following text: Popule meus, quid feci tibi? aut in quo contristavi te? responde mihi. Quia eduxi te de terra Egypti, parasti crucem Salvatori tuo (“My people, what have I done to you, or in what have I grieved you? Answer me. Because I led you out of the land of Egypt, you prepared a cross for your Savior”). The earliest witness to the chants is a Carolingian liturgical book from around 880, but it is agreed among scholars that their history extends back farther than this. Employing comparative analysis of Biblical exegesis, chant texts, and chant melodies, this study suggests that the initial chant verse, Micah 6:3–4a plus a Christianizing addendum (“My people... you prepared...”), originated in northwestern Italy between the end of the 4th century and the end of the 7th century and carried associations of the Last Judgment, the Passion, and Christian works, penitence, and forgiveness. Although previous scholarship has sometimes pointed to the Reproaches as a key text of Christian anti-Jewish history, it is clear that the initial three verses, the Popule meus verses, originally held allegorical rather than literal meanings. The fact that there are several preserved Popule meus chants across various liturgical repertoires and, moreover, several sets of Popule meus verses in a smaller subset of these repertoires—in northern Italy, southern France, and the Spanish March—bespeaks the pre-Carolingian origins of the Popule meus verses and raises the question of why the verses appear in the Carolingian liturgy when they do. This study proposes that the Popule meus verses were incorporated into the Carolingian liturgy at the Abbey of Saint-Denis under the abbacy of Charles the Bald (867–77). In the Adoration of the Cross ceremony adopted from Rome, paired with the Greek Trisagion, and carrying Gallican melody and meaning, the Carolingian Popule meus verses would have been an ecumenical declaration, as they spread, of the expediency of the crucified Christ and a penitent people, even in the face of impending political disintegration.

Committee:

David Rothenberg (Advisor)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Art History; Bible; Biblical Studies; European History; History; Judaic Studies; Medieval History; Medieval Literature; Middle Ages; Middle Eastern History; Music; Near Eastern Studies; Religion; Religious History; Theology

Keywords:

Popule meus; Improperia; Reproaches; Trisagion; Good Friday; chant; liturgy; exegesis; Gregorian chant; Carolingian; Gallican; Ambrosian; Beneventan; Old Hispanic; Ambrose; Caesarius; Isidore of Seville; Charles the Bald; Eriugena; Hincmar of Rheims

McKinney, Cynthia Ann"El No Murio, El Se Multiplico!" Hugo Chávez : The Leadership and the Legacy on Race
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
“Chávez, Chávez, Chávez: Chávez no murio, se multiplico!” was the chant outside the National Assembly building after several days of mourning the death of the first President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. This study investigates the leadership of Hugo Chávez and his legacy on race as seen through the eyes and experiences of selected interviewees and his legacy on race. The interviewees were selected based on familiarity with the person and policies of the leadership of Hugo Chávez and his legacy on race. Unfortunately, not much has been written about this aspect of Hugo Chávez despite the myriad attempts to explain his popularity with the Venezuelan people up to the time of his death. It is expected that, as a result of this research, a clearer picture of Hugo Chávez will emerge. The resulting profile of Hugo Chávez focuses on him as a person of power as well as of color—of African and Indigenous descent—who was able to free himself from a colonial mindset (and its oftentimes accompanying internalized racism) and thereby gain the attention of oppressed peoples across the planet who sided with him as he used his power to challenge neoliberalism, the U.S. government, and those who wield power on neoliberalism’s behalf inside Venezuela. This research serves as important infrastructure for understanding Hugo’s race-conscious leadership in resistance to internalized racism and European domination. This dissertation is accompanied by an MP4 author introduction, a PDF Dissertation Supplement and 4 participant files : 1 MP3 audio and 3 MP4 videos. This Dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository & Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd .

Committee:

Al Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Dale Scott, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Jordan, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Black History; Black Studies; Caribbean Studies; Economic History; Economics; Ethnic Studies; European History; History; International Relations; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Native American Studies; Peace Studies; Political Science; Public Policy; World History

Keywords:

Hugo Chavez; Bolivarian Revolution; Venezuela; race; transformational leadership; parrhesia; petrocaribe; UNASUR; Africa South America Summit; Afro-Venezuelans; Carspecken methodology; racism; neoliberalism; colonialism; Eurocentrism; Haiti; political

Israelsen, Trevor L"Nothing remains stationary": Child Welfare and Health in Cincinnati's Episcopal Hospital for Children, 1884-1931
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2016, History
This thesis article explores the history of Cincinnati’s Episcopal Hospital for Children during the Progressive Era. The article describes an extended process of professionalization whereby the diocesan charity became a vanguard organization in the nascent specialization of pediatric medicine. This transformation was largely a cultural one. While the hospital’s annual reports maintained discursive continuity about its central mission, distinct interpretations of the concepts of child welfare and health by intra-organizational groups acted as the key drivers of organizational change. The Board of Lady Managers believed that the organization needed to provide holistic care, emotional security, and Christian salvation to poor children. In contrast, doctors from the hospital’s Medical Board emphasized the need for scientific healthcare practices and policies. Crises and conflict pitted the two groups against one another, ultimately resulting in the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital and Pediatric Research Foundation of the 1930s.

Committee:

Amanda McVety (Advisor); Elena Alberran (Committee Member); Steven Conn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Business Administration; Economic History; Entrepreneurship; Gender Studies; Health; Health Care; Health Care Management; History; Management; Modern History; Organization Theory; Public Health; Religious History; Science History; Social Work; Sociology; Spirituality; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

History of Medicine; institution; pediatrics; Cincinnati Childrens Hospital; child welfare; childrens hospital; orphanage; professionalization

Bartone, Christopher M.Royal Pains: Wilhelm II, Edward VII, and Anglo-German Relations, 1888-1910
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2012, History
The personal animosity between King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire is an overlooked factor in the dramatic shift in relations between the two countries during the years prior to World War I. Both men grew up in the shadow of Queen Victoria, and both had difficulties fitting into their expected roles within the family hierarchy. Edward was an unplanned child, and became the black sheep of the British Royal Family; he drank heavily and chased women. Wilhelm was caught between two worlds, English and German, and struggled to be accepted by both. One result of their common dilemma, and their vastly different responses to it, was a toxic mix of quick tempers and even quicker tongues that manifested when the men came together. This strained relationship, especially Wilhelm’s perception of it, played a direct role in the realignment of European alliances and the subsequent Anglo-German naval buildup. The foreign policies of both Germany and Great Britain during this period were colored by the personal relationship between the two monarchs and their perceptions of one another. Two key events were the death of Queen Victoria and the Russo-Japanese War. Victoria’s death marked a turning point in British foreign policy, as Edward favored France, England’s traditional enemy. The Russo-Japanese War altered the naval situation in the North Sea, forcing Britain to take measures to reestablish the balance.

Committee:

Shelley Baranowski, Dr. (Advisor); Stephen Harp, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; European History; European Studies; History; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Personal Relationships; Regional Studies; Russian History; World History

Keywords:

World War I; Wilhelm II; Edward VII; Naval Race; Tirpitz; Bismarck; Sir John Fisher; Russo-Japanese War; Queen Victoria; Boer War

Davenport, Jeremiah RyanFrom the Love Ball to RuPaul: The Mainstreaming of Drag in the 1990s
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Musicology
In the first half of the 1990s, Western popular culture experienced an infusion of drag. The success of Jenny Livingston’s seminal but highly problematic documentary of the Harlem Ballroom drag scene, Paris is Burning (1991), signaled an intrigue from popular and critical circles alike. The dance form “voguing,” born of the same Harlem Ballroom scene, appeared before and after the film’s release in music videos for Liz Torres, Taylor Dayne, Malcolm McLaren, and Queen Latifah. Madonna’s song “Vogue” and its accompanying video and live performances capitalized on the dance’s underground chic that had begun to bubble over into the mainstream. RuPaul’s “Supermodel (You Better Work)” and the clean and relatable image she created for herself around it soon after catapulted her from the Queen of Manhattan to legitimate stardom. In doing so, she and her team of collaborators turned her into a household name, musical performer, model, actress, and host of her own talk show. RuPaul’s rounding off of the edges of the drag queen image led drag characters to take center stage in the films Mrs. Doubtfire (Columbus 1993), The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (Elliot, 1994), To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar (Kidron, 1995), and The Birdcage (Nichols, 1996). Lady Bunny’s Wigstock festival also became a documentary focus in Wigstock (Shills, 1995) during the height of drag queen visibility in film. This dissertation traces the emergence of drag into the mainstream culture of the 1990s. I argue that three separate subcultures dramatically altered the aesthetics and aims of drag: Downtown New York new wave, Harlem House Ballroom, and London New Romantic. I explore how each of these artistic nightlife cultures incorporated drag and queer performance as well as the ways that each garnered increasing attention for drag from new audiences and media outlets. Susanne Bartsch’s role as a purveyor of drag to the worlds of fashion and art are also explored. Lastly, I examine the Hollywood films mentioned above and how drag and sexuality are treated in each, reflecting the approaches major studios, directors, and actors took in seeking a heterosexual audience for drag.

Committee:

Daniel Goldmark (Advisor); Georgia Cowart (Committee Member); Robert Spadoni (Committee Member); Francesca Brittan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History; Black History; Cultural Anthropology; Dance; Film Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; History; Latin American History; Modern History; Motion Pictures; Music; Performing Arts; Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

drag; drag queens; queer performance; Downtown New York; lgbtq; queer history; drag queen history; The Birdcage; Priscilla, Queen of the Desert; RuPaul; Madonna; Susanne Bartsch; Leigh Bowery; The Birdcage; Paris is Burning; performance art; Klaus Nomi;

Malone, Chad AllenA Socio-Historical Analysis of U.S. State Terrorism from 1948 to 2008
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2008, Sociology
This thesis is a critical examination of U.S. foreign intervention from 1948 to 2008. Using a comparative/historical analysis of seven cases – Iran, Guatemala, Indonesia, Chile, Nicaragua, Panama, and Iraq – this study finds patterns of U.S. state/state-sponsored terror and intervention. Using world-system theory and G. William Domhoff’s class-domination theory of power, this study explains how and why the U.S. government, the U.S. military, the CIA, and U.S. corporations participate in economically motivated terrorist acts to support the capitalist mode of production, U.S. investments, and access to markets and natural resources. Finally, this study reveals patterns (in addition to the use of terror) that the U.S. government follows while intervening in the affairs of foreign nations.

Committee:

Elias Nigem (Committee Chair); Dwight Haase (Committee Member); Marietta Morrissey (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Economics; European History; History; International Law; International Relations; Labor Economics; Latin American History; Middle Eastern History; Military History; Petroleum Production; Political Science; Social Research; Social Structure; Sociology

Keywords:

terrorism; U.S. state terrorism; elite theory; world-system theory; state-sponsored terrorism; CIA; U.S. military; U.S. foreign policy; assassinations; Arbenz; Mossadeq; Sukarno; Allende; Noriega; Hussein; U.S. intervention; 9/11; WTC; political terrorism

Poyraz, SerdarScience versus Religion: The Influence of European Materialism on Turkish Thought, 1860-1960
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History

My dissertation, entitled “Science versus Religion: The Influence of European Materialism on Turkish Thought, 1860-1960,” is a radical re-evaluation of the history of secularization in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey. I argue that European vulgar materialist ideas put forward by nineteenth-century intellectuals and scientists such as Ludwig Büchner (1824-1899), Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Jacob Moleschott (1822-1893) affected how Ottoman and Turkish intellectuals thought about religion and society, ultimately paving the way for the radical reforms of Kemal Atatürk and the strict secularism of the early Turkish Republic in the 1930s. In my dissertation, I challenge traditional scholarly accounts of Turkish modernization, notably those of Bernard Lewis and Niyazi Berkes, which portray the process as a Manichean struggle between modernity and tradition resulting in a linear process of secularization. On the basis of extensive research in modern Turkish, Ottoman Turkish and Persian sources, I demonstrate that the ideas of such leading westernizing and secularizing thinkers as Münif Pasha (1830-1910), Beşir Fuad (1852-1887) and Baha Tevfik (1884-1914) who were inspired by European materialism provoked spirited religious, philosophical and literary responses from such conservative anti-materialist thinkers as Şehbenderzade Ahmed Hilmi (1865-1914), Said Nursi (1873-1960) and Ahmed Hamdi Tanpınar (1901-1962).

Whereas the westernizers argued for the adoption of western modernity in toto, their critics made a crucial distinction between the “material” and “spiritual” sides of western modernity. Although the critics were eager to adopt the material side of western modernity, including not only the military and economic structures but also the political structures of Europe, they had serious reservations when it came to adopting European ethics and secular European attitudes toward religion. The result was two different and competing approaches to modernity in Turkish intellectual history, accompanied by great social tension, which continues to this day, between those who want to Europeanize entirely and those who want to modernize while preserving what they perceive as the “culturally authentic” spiritual core of their society.

Committee:

Carter V. Findley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jane Hathaway, PhD (Committee Member); Alan Beyerchen, PhD (Committee Member); Douglas A. Wolfe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; European History; History; Islamic Studies; Middle Eastern History; Middle Eastern Literature; Middle Eastern Studies; Near Eastern Studies; Religion; Religious History; Science Education; Science History; World History

Keywords:

Ottoman Empire; Turkey; Modernization; Westernization; Religion; Science; Said Nursi; Ahmed Hilmi; Tanpinar; Baha Tevfik; Munif Pasha; Besir Fuad

Miser, Martha FreymannThe Myth of Endless Accumulation: A Feminist Inquiry Into Globalization, Growth, and Social Change
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Leadership and Change
This theoretical dissertation examines the concept of growth and its core assumption—that the continual accumulation of wealth is both socially wise and ecologically sustainable. The study challenges and offers alternatives to the myth of endless accumulation, suggesting new directions for leadership and social change. The central question posed in this inquiry: Can we craft a more ethical form of capitalism? To answer this question, the study examines conventional and critical globalization studies; feminist scholarship on standpoint, political economy, and power; and the Enlightenment notions of progress and modernism, drawing on a number of works, including Aristotle on the three intelligences, Thomas Aquinas on human need and value, and Karl Marx on capitalism. From this broad disciplinary and historical perspective, a compelling narrative emerges, one that describes how the idea of growth has intersected with power and privilege to create an overarching global imperative that threatens the viability of our species and planet. The closing sections explore potential responses to that threat, introducing consciousness, wisdom, and caring to our understanding of growth, and emphasizing the importance of relational practice to effect real social and institutional change. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLINK ETD Center (www.ohiolink.edu/etd).

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Amanda Sinclair, PhD (Committee Member); Valentine Moghadam, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Economic History; Environmental Economics; Environmental Philosophy; Finance; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Management; Medieval History; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Organization Theory; Science History; Sustainability; Womens Studies

Keywords:

economic growth; capitalism; consumerism; wealth accumulation; consumption; prosperity; critical globalization studies; sustainability; leadership; privilege; power; phronesis; relational practice; feminist theory; gender; world systems theory; myth

Erenrich, Susan J.Rhythms of Rebellion: Artists Creating Dangerously for Social Change
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
On December 14, 1957, after winning the Nobel Prize for literature, Albert Camus challenged artists attending a lecture at the University of Uppsala in Sweden to create dangerously. Even though Camus never defined what he meant by his charge, throughout history, artists involved in movements of protest, resistance, and liberation have answered Camus’ call. Quite often, the consequences were costly, resulting in imprisonment, censorship, torture, and death. This dissertation examines the question of what it means to create dangerously by using Camus’ challenge to artists as a starting point. The study then turns its attention to two artists, Augusto Boal and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, who were detained, tortured, and imprisoned because they boldly defied the dominant power structure. Lastly, the research focuses on a group of front-line artists, the Mississippi Caravan of Music, involved in the contemporary struggle for civil rights in the United States. The individual artists and the artist group represented in the dissertation are from different parts of the globe and were involved in acts of rebellion, resistance, revolt, or revolution at varying points in history. Portraiture, a form of narrative inquiry, is the research method employed in the dissertation. The qualitative approach pioneered by Harvard scholar Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot “combines systematic, empirical description with aesthetic expression, blending art and science,humanistic sensibilities and scientific rigor” (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Davis, 1997, p. 3). The dissertation extrapolates concepts from the traditional literature and expands the boundaries to make room for a more integrated understanding of social change, art, and transformational leadership from the bottom up. Artists and artist groups who create dangerously is an area often overlooked in the field. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Stewart Burns, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Adult Education; African Americans; African History; African Literature; American History; American Studies; Black History; History; Latin American History; Literacy; Music; Sociology; Theater

Keywords:

social change; social justice; popular education; portraiture; qualitative; arts; creating dangerously; transformational leadership; history; activism; social movements; dissent; liberation; narrative; civic engagement; community organizing; rebellion

Moser, Heather SSilencing the Revelry: An Examination of the Moral Panic in 186 BCE and the Political Implications Accompanying the Persecution of the Bacchic Cult in the Roman Republic
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
The Bacchic cult became the target of mass persecution in 186 BCE. According to Livy, the cult permeated all societal boundaries, resulting in the Roman government condemning over seven thousand people. Of the seven thousand, more Bacchants suffered capital punishment than were thrown in jail. This thesis shows how this extreme and violent reaction can be sociologically categorized as a moral panic by using sociologist David Garland’s seven criteria of a moral panic. Highly influenced by Stanley Cohen, the creator of the term moral panic, the criteria of Garland are examined in detail to prove that the persecution of 186 was, indeed, a moral panic. In order to strengthen the argument and connection to moral panic studies, the Bacchic cult persecution is compared side-by-side with the witch hunts in Europe during the 14th-17th centuries. The criteria necessary for categorization as a moral panic are present in both violent reactions, even though they are centuries apart. That is, both persecutions involve concern, hostility, consensus, disproportionality, volatility, and a moral dimension that is symptomatic of a larger problem. For a moral panic to be set into motion, the conditions need to allow for the panic to engulf the general public, and 186 provided such an opportunity. The violent reaction toward Bacchants happened due to a hidden political agenda which included many factors: concern regarding foreign influences in Italy, shift of public support to newly victorious generals, changes in aristocracies throughout Italy due to Hannibal’s destruction a few years prior, evolution of the role of women, fracturing within the Senate, and a desire to expand political power to other areas within Italy. False accusations that preyed upon deep-seated fears of the foreign cult were hurled against the Bacchants, a group which provided the perfect scapegoat. By creating a moral panic, the Roman government was able to work the public into a frenzy so that it could justify the violent suppression of the cult, thereby reestablishing its dominance and addressing all political concerns that had arisen in the decades prior to 186.

Committee:

Jennifer Larson (Advisor); Radd Ehrman (Committee Member); Brian Harvey (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Ancient Languages; Archaeology; Classical Studies; European History; European Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Language; Law; Legal Studies; Political Science; Sociology; Theater; Theater History; World History

Keywords:

Bacchanalia; moral panic; sociology; classical studies; 186 BCE; Livy; senatus consultum; witch hunts; 14th-17th century Europe; Roman Senate; persecution; cult; female roles; suppression; post-Hannibal; Bacchus; violence; scandal; politics; Plautus; law

Ogden, Jenna NoelleThe Leprous Christ and the Christ-like Leper: The Leprous Body as an Intermediary to the Body of Christ in Late Medieval Art and Society
Master of Arts in History, Cleveland State University, 2011, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
I will argue that the leprous body was an intermediary to the body of Christ in the minds of late medieval viewers. They could utilize this accessible body as a tool to cultivate a closer relationship with Christ. I will explore imagery of Christ and lepers created in England, Flanders, France, Germany, and Italy from 1300 through 1500 to demonstrate my argument. I will compare representations of the Flagellation of Christ and Christ as the Man of Sorrows to images of Christ healing lepers in order to show that the leprous body could be understood as a substitute for the body of the Crucified. The visual similarities of spots on the skin and bent fragmented bodies establish the conflation of these two body types. I argue that the leprous body was like the stigmaticized body because both used physical pain to facilitate a closer relationship with Christ. An analysis of images of the Stigmatization of Saint Francis and those of lepers will show that late medieval viewers could imagine reenacting the Crucifixion themselves to gain access to the body of Christ. In addition, I will analyze imagery of the Raising of Lazarus, the Deposition of Christ, and the Pieta in order to argue that late medieval viewers could reenact the Pieta with the leprous body as well to cultivate an intimate relationship with Christ based on compassion. As a result, I will demonstrate that lepers were essential members of the late medieval community as opposed to outcasts because they offered a body onto which late medieval people could project their empathy for the Crucified on a daily basis.

Committee:

Marian Bleeke, PhD (Committee Chair); Kathy Curnow, PhD (Committee Member); Stella Singer, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Wertheimer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Criticism; Art History; European History; European Studies; Fine Arts; History; Medieval History; Medieval Literature; Middle Ages; Religious History; Spirituality

Keywords:

leper; leprosy; Christ; Saint Francis; Virgin Mary; compassion; Man of Sorrows; stigmata; wounds; Crucifixion; flagellation; stigmatization; deposition of Christ; Pieta; blood

North, NaomiFall Like a Man
Master of Fine Arts (MFA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Creative Writing/Poetry
This thesis explores Polish emigration through poetry from the present of the third generation in terms of loss of familial patriarchs, loss of the Polish language as an American monolingual English speaker, and loss of ethnic group identity. That is, this thesis explores what it means for a Polish American to be foreign to oneself. The speaker of these poems, in order to connect with an identity larger than herself, tries to regain a sense of Polish national identity by speaking to the dead patriarchs of her family and meditating on their deaths. By doing so, she attempts to make some kind of sense of her grief and of her life. This thesis utilizes formal restlessness and the themes of language, prayer, memory, dream, nature, drink, and work to connect the speaker with the unseen world that is now absent to her in the physical, visible world in which she dwells.

Committee:

Sharona Muir (Advisor); Larissa Szporluk Celli (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Bible; Bilingual Education; Dance; Earth; East European Studies; Ecology; Energy; English As A Second Language; Environmental Philosophy; Ethics; Ethnic Studies; European History; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Folklore; Foreign Language; Forestry; Gender; History; Holocaust Studies; Human Remains; Language; Language Arts; Literacy; Literature; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Modern Language; Modern Literature; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Peace Studies; Performing Arts; Personal Relationships; Personality; Regional Studies; Religion; Religious History; Slavic Literature; Slavic Studies; Spirituality; Theology; Therapy; Womens Studies; World History

Keywords:

poetry; poems; Polish; Poland; death; grief; ethnic identity; nature; bilingual poetry; elegy; patriarch; loss; contemporary poetry; solidarity movement; emigration; immigration; third-generation immigrant; Wigrance; Pittsburgh; working-class poetry

Burton, Zachary TServants to the Lender: The History of Faith-Based Business in Four Case Studies
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
Tyson, Chick-fil-A, Walmart, and Hobby Lobby's presence within the faith-based business community is mostly thanks to corporate lineages that reached well into the previous century. Tyson was founded in 1935, Chick-fil-A in 1946, Walmart in 1962, and Hobby Lobby in 1972, each undergoing various business model and philosophical shifts along with their executives' changing understanding of Christian faith. This thesis analyzes these businesses through a series of case studies, highlighting various uniting themes in their corporate narratives, exploring the ways they interact with their customers and the cultures in which they flourish, while noting that there is a discernible, yet-unexplored gap between faith-based business and workplace spirituality. Ultimately, this thesis concludes that faith-based businesses choose to identify as such as an expression of belief in a Christian supernatural deity's influence in their careers rather than as a way of garnering specific markets or making a profit.

Committee:

Scott Martin, Ph.D. (Advisor); Amilcar ChallĂș, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; American History; American Studies; Animals; Audiology; Bible; Biblical Studies; Business Administration; Business Community; Business Costs; Divinity; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Entrepreneurship; Finance; Food Science; History; Labor Economics; Labor Relations; Management; Marketing; Modern History; Religion; Religious History

Keywords:

faith-based business; christianity; consumer capitalism; consumer culture; capitalism; history; religious history; workplace spirituality; Tyson Foods; Hobby Lobby; Wal-Mart; Chick-fil-A; meat industry; retail; fast food; crafts; evangelicalism

Childs, David J.The Black Church and African American Education: The African Methodist Episcopal Church Educating for Liberation, 1816-1893
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2009, Educational Leadership

Many Americans in the nineteenth century argued for limited education for blacks –or no education at all for African Americans in the south. As a result, black churches took up the role and pushed for education as a means to liberate African Americans. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church stands as a good exemplar for a black denomination that explicitly expressed in their policies that they understood the connection of education to African American liberation. This study is a historical analysis of the AME Church’s advocacy of African American empowerment through education from 1816 to 1893. In the AME Church’s nineteenth century doctrinal statements and publications the leaders explicitly stated that education was a necessary component for black liberation. In this dissertation I argue that, although there were other organizations that pushed for African American education in the nineteenth century, the African Methodist Episcopal Church stood at the fore in advocating for education and connecting it to African American liberation. My primary question is: How did the AME Church connect their advocacy for black education to liberation for African Americans in the nineteenth century?

The dissertation will explore two aspects of liberation in the nineteenth century. During the first half of the nineteenth century–from the AME Church’s founding in 1816 through the end of the Civil war in 1865 –the Church worked toward a liberation that was focused on the abolition of slavery and overcoming racial oppression. In the latter half of the nineteenth century from 1865 to 1893 –with the death of Bishop Payne– the AME Church focused on a liberation that was geared toward the notions of uplift and self-agency within the black community, namely black social, economic, and political advancement.

The last chapter will examine how this historical analysis has implications for transforming African American education in present times. The text will examine the black church and its ability to empower the African American community through education, focusing on research that has been done on the role of the contemporary black church in African American education.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Giles, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Pestana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; African History; American History; American Literature; American Studies; Bible; Black History; Education; Education History; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; History; Literacy; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Philosophy

Keywords:

Black Church; African American history; Black history; Black education; African American education; Church history; theology; black spirituality; slavery; slave history; slave religion; Albert Raboteau; Cornel West; Michael Dantley; urban education

Schotter, GeoffreyA Peculiar Type of Democratic Unity: Carl J. Friedrich's Strange Schmittian Turn 0r How Friedrich Stopped Worrying and Learned to Decide on the Exception
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, History
Professor Joseph Bendersky claims that Harvard Political Scientist and German emigre Carl J. Freidrich's Weimar-era constitutional ideas were "Schmittian to their core" but that Friedrich's experience as a naturalized U.S. citizen led him to embrace American liberalism. This thesis argues to the contrary that Friedrich's Weimar-era thought lacked two essential axioms of Schmitt's philosophy: that democracy requires a people who are substantively homogeneous and that sovereignty even in a democracy can only genuinely be exercised by a single individual. Friedrich, however, played a crucial role in the New Deal reconfiguration of American liberalism by leading a movement among American social scientists during the 1930s and 40s toward playing a more direct role in policymaking. ironically, the liberal ideas of Friedrich's that emerged out of this reconfiguration and would persist for decades after World War II contained strong elements of both "core" Schmittian axioms.

Committee:

Kenneth Ledford, PhD (Committee Chair); Theodore Steinberg, PhD (Committee Member); Jonathan Entin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Behavioral Psychology; European History; European Studies; History; Law; Legal Studies; Modern History; Philosophy; Political Science; Public Administration; Sociology; World History

Keywords:

constitutionalism; the Weimar Republic; the New Deal; World War II; totalitarianism; comparative government; sovereignty; democracy; dictatorship; Carl Schmitt; Carl J. Friedrich

Hepworth, Nathan HenryFor God and Country: The Politicization of English Martyrology
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2011, History
English martyrology in the seventeenth century developed into a highly dynamic and flexible mode of writing which built on the foundation of Foxe’s Acts and Monuments, but innovated in response to new social and spiritual threats. Seventeenth-century martyrologists almost unilaterally addressed issues internal to England, rather than sharing Foxe’s pan-European scope. Specifically, the genre became a way for repressed faith communities in England to express their dissent from the Church of England, and for royalists to bolster the restored English monarchy. Over the century, the definition of a martyr loosened and, as the ideological underpinnings of martyrdom became watered down, the application of martyrological rhetoric broadened. Martyrology no longer offered only a spiritual discussion, but added a literary element applicable to a variety of social and political arguments.

Committee:

Carla Pestana, PhD (Advisor); Wietse de Boer, PhD (Committee Member); Renée Baernstein, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Bible; Biblical Studies; British and Irish Literature; Clergy; European History; European Studies; History; Literature; Modern History; Modern Literature; Religion; Religious History; Spirituality; Theology; World History

Keywords:

John Foxe; Martyr; martyrdom; martyrology; English literature; Restoration politics; Clement Cotton; Bauthumley; Tutchin; Eikon Basilike; persecution; Acts and Monuments; Billingsley; Clarke; Burrough; Hookes; Rigge; Winstanley; Phillips; Heath

Buchsbaum, Robert MichaelThe Surprising Role of Legal Traditions in the Rise of Abolitionism in Great Britain’s Development
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2014, History
The abolition of British slavery in the 19th century raises the question of how the British achieved antislavery against colonial opposition. While historical theories have focused on economic, political and religious factors, no account of abolition is complete without a thorough investigation of the history of evolving British legal traditions. This thesis analyzed a number of British homeland court cases and antislavery laws. English legal traditions established principles of freedom long before abolition in Britain, and then upheld them in respect to blacks on British soil in the 18th century. On the other hand, these traditions exposed a void in British homeland law on slavery that failed to provide any positive legal basis for freedom beyond its shores, forcing abolitionists into a long battle to build social and political pressures to create such positive laws. This was facilitated by a gradual expansion of Parliamentary authority to impose such antislavery laws.

Committee:

Christopher Oldstone-Moore, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kathryn Meyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Opolot Okia, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Literature; African Studies; American Studies; Black History; Black Studies; British and Irish Literature; Economics; European History; European Studies; History; International Law; Law; Legal Studies; Philosophy; Political Science; World History

Keywords:

Abolitionism; Great Britain; Parliamentary authority; Slavery; positive laws; antislavery; legal basis; Slave Trade; British soil; 18th Century Slavery; colonial opposition; abolition; Somerset; law; Anstey; Quakers; David Brion Davis; Drescher; Eric

Smyser, Katherine A.To Serve the Interests of the Empire? British Experiences with Zionism, 1917-1925
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, History (Arts and Sciences)
The Balfour Declaration of 1917 committed the British government to supporting the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, but it also represented key shifts in the empire as a whole in the wake of World War I. Political changes enacted after the war, such as the creation of the League of Nations and later the British Commonwealth, were mirrored by a shift in the rationale for Britain's imperial holdings and allowed Zionist supporters to institutionalize their ideology. Many in Whitehall believed that the Zionist program would aid in creating a stable Middle East friendly to British interests; policies originating from the Colonial Office often reflected this belief. These edicts did not always translate into viable policies on the ground in Palestine, however, as the High Commissioner had to reconcile them with complex regional tensions. British rule in Palestine underscores both the power and pitfalls of an ideologically-motivated grand strategy.

Committee:

John Brobst, PhD (Committee Chair); Patrick Barr-Melej, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Milazzo, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; Middle Eastern History; Modern History; World History

Keywords:

Balfour Declaration; British Empire-Interwar Grand Strategy; League of Nations; Palestine Mandate; Zionism; Colonial Office; Liberal Internationalism

House, Christina SusannaEugenio Pacelli: His Diplomacy Prior to His Pontificate and Its Lingering Results
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2011, German/History (dual)

The objective of this study is to analyze the controversy surrounding Pope Pius XII by looking specifically at the Reichskonkordat of 1933 and the papal encyclical Mit brennender Sorge of 1937. These documents show Pius XII’s tendency toward diplomacy with the German Reich even before he was elected as Pope in 1939.

This study evaluates several scholarly works on Pope Pius XII from the time he was still Pope until recent history. Chapter one focuses on these various schools of thought throughout the decades on Pius XII’s relationship with the Third Reich, including works from his critics, his defenders, and moderate historians. Chapters two and three are studies on the Reichskonkordat and Mit brennender Sorge; Pius XII, known as Eugenio Pacelli at the time, played a major role in bringing these documents to fruition.

Chapter one explains the three schools of thought on Pius XII’s relationship with the Nazis, and results in the conclusion that historians should adopt a moderate point of view on Pacelli until more information is available. Pacelli was a tremendously diplomatic pope, who believed that speaking out against the Nazi party would only result in further persecution of the Church, as well as the Jews and others facing the Nazi crimes against humanity. Pacelli believed that the Church would violate the terms of the Reichskonkordat of 1933 if he specifically mentioned Nazi atrocities, thereby breaching the treaty and losing all protections given the Catholic Church therein. He also stated that Mit brennender Sorge, released in 1937, had already clearly stated the Church’s criticism of the Third Reich, although it never mentioned the party by name.

This study has found that Pacelli’s involvement with the Reichskonkordat and Mit brennender Sorge affected his interaction with the Third Reich before and during World War II, and has led to the ensuing controversy which continues today. These documents are not normally thoroughly studied by historians, but they had a profound influence on Pius XII’s actions during his papacy.

Committee:

Beth Griech-Polelle, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Theodore Rippey, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Douglas Forsyth, PhD (Committee Member); Geoffrey Howes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; European Studies; History; Modern History; Religious History; World History

Keywords:

Pacelli; Pope; Pope Pius XII; Pius XII; Vatican; Church relations; Nazi Germany; World War II; Controversy; Reichskonkordat; Mit brennender Sorge

Margolis, Julie AnnaTetracycline Labeled Bone Content Analysis of Ancient Nubian Remains from Kulubnarti
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Anthropology
Armelagos and colleagues (2001) have hypothesized that beer is a conduit for in vivo tetracycline consumption by ancient Nubians. Streptomycetes bacteria has a high prevalence in Sudanese-Nubian soil (60 -70%) and secretes the antibiotic under harsh conditions such as fermentation. At the site of Kulubnarti, 21-S-46 cemetery (716 CE) skeletons likely represent a working underclass contemporaneous with the 21-R-2 cemetery (752 CE) containing the remains of a land-owning class. Interpretations of archaeological and osteological evidence suggest that poorer health and higher mortality occurred in the S population. To test whether an anticipated difference in tetracycline ingestion between S and R cemetery populations existed, the amount of tetracycline-labeled bone was quantified under ultra violet light using image analysis software. Amount of tetracycline labeling was expressed in terms of the total area of labeled bone tissue in square micrometers, number of labeled osteons, and number of grid intersections over labeled bone. No significant differences in percent tetracycline-labeled bone tissue, or percent labeled osteons was observed between cemeteries. These results suggest that tetracycline ingestion was similar for S and R group members, class differences were not mediating tetracycline ingestion, and both sub-groups had equal access to beer.

Committee:

Clark Larsen, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Sam Stout, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Douglas Crews, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Anatomy and Physiology; Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Archaeology; Biochemistry; Biology; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Epidemiology; Health; Histology; History; Human Remains; Medical Imaging; Medieval History; Microbiology; Molecular Biology; North African Studies; Nutrition; Pharmacology; Physical Anthropology; Social Structure; World History

Keywords:

tetracycline; Nubia; antibiotics; bioarchaeology; bone histology; Kulubnarti; paleopathology; class differences; Ancient Nubia; Nubian; Ancient Nubian; skeletal remains; bone; skeletal biology; image analysis

Soltz, Wendy FergussonUnheard Voices and Unseen Fights: Jews, Segregation, and Higher Education in the South, 1910–1964
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, History
Jewish involvement in civil rights for African Americans has often been shrouded in myth. Typical tropes declare that Jews built an alliance with African Americans based on a sense of common oppression but that Southern Jews stayed quiet concerning civil rights issues fearing antisemitic repercussion. This dissertation uses archival research and builds on past scholarly work to overturn these tropes and reveal the complex situation of Jews in the South who promoted higher education for African Americans. Jews interested in civil rights between 1910 and 1965 did not formally build an alliance with African Americans, and those who lived in the South were not quiet; however, they operated in different and unorganized ways compared to their coreligionists in the North. Southern college campuses provided a unique site for Jews to take part in the struggle for enabling African Americans to pursue higher education. By its very nature, the college campus fostered a liberal atmosphere but was surrounded by a landscape riddled with antisemitic, antiforeigner, and anti-Communist sentiments. Jews who chose to take part in this struggle in the South simultaneously questioned their own identity as both nonwhite and nonblack and also American (insider) and foreigner (outsider). This constant negotiation hindered their ability to make inroads, thus Jewish contributions in the South were neither obviously nor immediately successful.

Committee:

Robin Judd (Advisor); Steven Conn (Committee Member); Matthew Goldish (Committee Member); Isaac Weiner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Black History; Black Studies; Education History; Ethnic Studies; Higher Education; History; Judaic Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; School Administration; Secondary Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Jews; Blacks; African Americans; desegregation; segregation; integration; higher education; South; Tennessee; North Carolina; Alabama; Georgia; Emory; Duke; Black Mountain College; Fisk; Atlanta University; HBCU; Rosenwald; civil rights; Brown v Board

Bonus, Alexander EvanThe Metronomic Performance Practice: A History of Rhythm, Metronomes, and the Mechanization of Musicality
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Musicology

Through the analyses of treatises, scores, letters, and technologies spanning four centuries, this multidisciplinary history of rhythm charts the various, shifting meanings in musical time and movement as pedagogies and performance practices became increasingly influenced by clockwork machines—-and Johann Maelzel’s metronome most conspicuously—-over the course of the modern age. Depicting how “musical time” constitutes an ever-changing belief system in what “time” means, this study charts the ascendance of a new musical-temporal ontology brought about by Western performance-culture’s increasing reliance on metronomes.

This history explains how scientific methodologies and machines—-promoting metronomic time above all else—-were first actively applied to musicians and their performances in the latter decades of the nineteenth century. The influential work of modern scientists, pedagogues, and only later composers—-with their precision-oriented beliefs in metronomic time and rhythm—-eventually helped to create a new performance-practice tradition, a new musical culture in which mechanical objectivity became a prevailing aesthetic in the twentieth century. Highlighting the writings of philosophers such as Mersenne, Diderot, and Rousseau; musicians such as Quantz, Beethoven, and Stravinsky; scientists such as Wundt, Scripture, and Seashore; and pedagogues such as A. B. Marx, Christiani, and Jaques-Dalcroze, the narrative explicates how and why this temporal revision occurred, and what outcomes followed when scientific modes of metronomic action were imposed upon past, subjective musical practices.

As this history of musical time, metronomes, and musicality uncovers, the very meanings and cultural values underlying “rhythm” and “tempo” have palpably changed since the twentieth century due to a heretofore-unacknowledged paradigm shift: a metronomic turn in which the once-innate musical “beat” became both conceptually and audibly mechanized.

Committee:

Mary Davis, PhD (Committee Chair); Daniel Goldmark, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Bennett, D.Phil (Committee Member); Martha Woodmansee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Dance; Education History; European History; History; Music; Music Education; Philosophy; Robots; Science History; Technology

Keywords:

metronome; metronomic; rhythm; rhythmic; meter; tempo; time; movement; mouvement; pulse; tactus; rubato; performance practices; musicality; automaton; Maelzel; Beethoven; Dalcroze; Eurhythmics; pedagogy; gymnastics; Wundt; pendulum; chronography; beat

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