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Venezia, Shannon M.The Relationship Between Financial Aid and Graduation Rates for Rural Community College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Higher Education (Education)
This study was designed to examine the relationship between financial aid and graduation rates for rural community college students. The main purpose of this study is to help fill the large gap in research that currently exists about rural community college students, and, more specifically, financial aid and rural community college students. This study uses data collected for the 2004/2009 Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), as well as data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Two research questions focused on the descriptive statistics. Four additional questions used logistic regression for the findings. Two of these questions focused on all community college students, and two questions focused solely on rural community college students. All of the data for the six research questions were analyzed using STATA. The findings from this study are that there is a relationship between financial aid and graduation rates for both all community college students and rural community college students separately. Rural community college students showed the highest graduation rates through six-years for associate degree graduates, and rural community college students had the highest graduation rates through three- and six-years for associate degree and certificate graduates. In terms of financial aid, the Federal Unsubsidized Loan was found to be negatively related to graduation rates for both groups of students. The Pell Grant was found to have a positive association with graduation rates for rural community college students through three-years for associate degree and certificate graduates.

Committee:

Lijing Yang (Committee Chair); Michael Williford (Committee Member); David Horton (Committee Member); Hyun-Ju Oh (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Rural community colleges; financial aid; graduation rates

Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Dodd, David W.The Role of Information in the Decision-Making Processes of Chief Academic Officers and Chief Financial Officers at Liberal Arts Colleges
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Higher Education (Education)
Private liberal arts colleges are struggling and the number of these institutions is declining dramatically. Significant changes are underway that threaten these institutions and the form of education they provide. The more that can be known about the challenges confronting these institutions, as well as strategies effective in addressing them successfully, the greater the prospects are for sustaining liberal arts education. In this qualitative multi-case study, I investigated decision-making by chief academic officers and chief financial officers at four private liberal arts colleges. Findings revealed tensions dealing with mission, financial health, changes in the external environment, and other areas. Response mechanisms by the institutions to address these challenges were identified, as were characteristics of effective senior leaders. Ultimately, the morphing of liberal arts colleges into other types of institutions does not necessarily equate to the end of liberal arts education, nor the ability of these institutions to provide that education.

Committee:

Peter Mather, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Information Science

Keywords:

decision-making; case study; qualitative; higher education; liberal arts colleges; structured information; unstructured information; chief academic officer; chief financial officer

Mitova, Mariana A.Relationship Between Investments in Self and Post-Graduation Career Satisfaction Among Apparel and Textiles Majors
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
Rachel Vannatta Reinhart, Advisor The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore the relationship between investments that students make in themselves while enrolled in a higher education program and their post-graduation career satisfaction, and (2) to gather information about the importance apparel and textile professionals place on selected competencies identified by the International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA). Graduates (n=123) of an apparel and textiles (A&T) program at a four-year, public research institution were surveyed to examine which investments in self best predict post-graduation career satisfaction. The Survey of A&T Graduates’ Career Satisfaction consisted of 86 items measuring perceived importance and preparation of the ITAA meta-goals and competencies, career satisfaction, co-curricular activity involvement, on-the-job training, health and well-being, career competencies, and willingness to relocate. Multiple regression showed that Career Competencies and Health and Well-being best predicted participants’ post-graduation career satisfaction. Participants rated the Professional Development meta-goal; the Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal; and Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goal of highest importance. These same meta-goals received highest perceived preparation ratings. Lastly, ANOVA findings revealed that buyers, retail managers, marketing professionals and others indicated differences in perceptions of competencies and meta-goals. The buyers/merchandisers rated the Industry Processes and the Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goals of higher importance than retail managers. Retail managers perceived the Global Interdependence meta-goal as less important than marketing professionals did. The Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal was perceived more important by retail managers than “others” category did. Graduates’ career satisfaction differed mostly by Income levels. Those who reported earning lower salaries were overall less satisfied with their careers. Results suggest that current leaders of apparel and textile programs should enhance their curricula with pedagogy methods that facilitate learning of teamwork, leadership, clear communication, ethics, and social responsibilities. Internships and experiential learning are recommended to enhance the on-the-job training of students in A&T programs. In addition, all investments in self, with exception of Willingness to Relocate, are related to Career Satisfaction. Lastly, Post-graduation career satisfaction is best predicted by graduates’ Career Competencies and Health and Well-being.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Gregory Rich (Other); Barbara Frazier (Committee Member); Joyce Litten (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Home Economics; Home Economics Education; Mental Health

Keywords:

Higher Education; College; Well-being; Health; Students; Career Satisfaction; Apparel; Textiles; Internships; ITAA; Graduates; Professionals; On-the-job Training; Internships; Curriculum; HCT; Human Capital Theory; economic theory; assessment

Hottenstein, Kristi NA Qualitative Case Study on Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation at One Council on Undergraduate Research Institution.
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Higher Education
Regulations for research involving human subjects in higher education have long been a critical issue. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an IRB. Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the literature on the benefits of undergraduate research to students, faculty, and institutions, how human subject research public policy is being implemented at the undergraduate level was a significant gap in the literature. This qualitative single case study examined the human subject research policies and practices of a selective, Mid-western, Council on Undergraduate Research institution. The purpose of the study was to determine how this institution implemented human subject research public policy to benefit its students. This institution used a hybrid approach of public policy implementation that met federal requirements while capitalizing on the role local actors can play in the implementation process. This model resulted in a student friendly implementation emphasizing various learning outcomes and student mentoring. Although there is considerable research and public discussion on the negative aspects of IRBs, if approached in a manner that embraces student learning, the IRB experience can be an extremely beneficial aspect of the institution’s learning environment.

Committee:

David Meabon (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education Administration; Operations Research; Organization Theory; Social Research

Keywords:

IRB; institutional review board; CUR; council on undergraduate research; undergraduate research; UR; public policy; implementation; human subject research; implementation theory; hybrid theories; student mentoring; benefits of undergraduate research

oda, Kathryn IdellNutrient Composition of School Provided and Packed Lunches of Upper Elementary School Children
MS, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Health Sciences
The purpose of this study was to compare the nutrient composition of school provided lunches by the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and packed lunches of upper elementary school children (grades 3-5), males and females, and elementary schools of low and high percentages of free and reduced lunches. This study was a non- experimental, post-test, comparative design. Lunches (n=286) from two elementary schools in the same school district participated in the study. The high socioeconomic status (SES) school had 6% of their students on the free and reduced meal program, while the low SES school had 56% of their students on the free and reduced meal program. Nutrient composition of the lunches was measured using a digital photography method. The camera was placed at the same angle (19 cm) and distance (12 in) from the lunches on a tripod for consistency on all data collection days. Data was then analyzed by Food Processor 10.8.0 (2011) and SPSS software. A four-way ANOVA was used to compare each variable. There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between elementary schools, school provided and packed lunches, males and females, and grade levels. The results show there is a need for further research in NSLP nutrition guidelines, as well as financial guidelines.

Committee:

Natalie Caine-Bish (Advisor); Karen Gordon (Committee Member); Eun-Jeong Ha (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration; Nutrition

Keywords:

National School Lunch Program; Packed and Bought Lunch Composition; Socioeconomic Status; Elementary School Children; Photography Method

McPherson, Gary RynellFactors Affecting Student Retention At a Midsized Private University
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2016, College of Education
In this study, I identified institutional actions that reduce student attrition using a mixed-methods research design. The research question asked, “What multitheoretical retention levers can be identified to reduce student attrition at CVU?” A theoretical framework influenced by Braxton’s (2000) research on the complex problem of student departure guided the study. Quantitative data from a student satisfaction survey were used to develop and implement a qualitative protocol. A thematic analysis of phone interviews resulted in the generation of a number of institutional actions that are known to improve student retention. These included providing students with clear lines of communication about campus goals, values, policies, and procedures; communicating expectations related to academic policies and course requirements; and optimizing the advisor–student dynamic. The research findings demonstrated that multitheoretical retention levers can be identified using a mixed-methods design.

Committee:

Harold Wilson, PhD (Committee Chair); James Olive, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Linda Billman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

mixed methods; student attrition; student departure; student retention

Knapke, Jacqueline M.Improving Physician Research Training at the University of Cincinnati: A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Evaluation
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
This study was a mixed methods interpretive phenomenology with qualitative emphasis that evaluated the Master of Science program in Clinical and Translational Research (MSCTR) at the University of Cincinnati. The purpose of the study was to allow students to articulate their expectations, needs, and experiences in the MSCTR and to develop novel training methods and/or curriculum modifications to improve physician-scholar training. The sequential study design included document review and a group level assessment in phase I, followed by interviews, participant journal entries, and a survey in phase II. Group level assessment data were analyzed using group level assessment analysis, document review, interview, and journal entry data were analyzed using a modified seven stage hermeneutic analysis, and survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings suggest five major areas for improvement: curriculum, mentorship/relationships, program structure and organization, instructional methods, and ancillary student perspectives on MSCTR experiences. Concluding recommendations from these five patterns include: update the overall curriculum, improve statistical training, invest in online courses to make them better and continue to develop new coursework for online learning, consider more creative ways of integrating both online and in-person work into the curriculum, and create a more structured mentorship program within the MSCTR program.

Committee:

Lisa Vaughn, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Melinda Butsch-Kovacic, Ph.D. M.P.H. (Committee Member); Farrah Jacquez, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

program evaluation;CTSA;mixed methods;qualitative methods;curriculum development;graduate medical education

Hoag, Beth AOpposites or Perfect Partners: Student Affairs and Libraries in Collaboration to Advance Student Learning
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
As institutions become more learning-centered, there will be an increased need to collaborate across organizational boundaries. Partnerships between student affairs professionals and academic librarians are one such method to encourage and demonstrate a seamless learning environment on campus. This study utilized a case study methodology to explore how student affairs professionals and academic librarians collaborate to advance student learning. Augustana College, a small private, Midwestern institution was chosen as the site for this study, and 18 participants (8 librarians, 5 student affairs professionals, 4 members of senior administration, 1 other) comprised the participants. The Stage Model for Collaboration in Higher Education (Kezar & Lester, 2009) was used as the theoretical framework. The findings indicated that although student affairs professionals and academic librarians shared a common definition of student learning, the professions were operationally invisible to each other prior to the opening of a shared library/student union facility. This hybrid facility acted as a catalyst for collaboration between the two units, but was not a panacea. The lack of knowledge of each other’s profession was a barrier to increased collaboration and formal information-sharing initiatives and relationship-building measures were needed to increase collaboration. Evidence suggests that that by working together, academic librarians and student affairs professionals are better able to support students, while advancing departmental goals through programming, employment, and outreach initiatives. Librarians provide a bridge to faculty that may validate the student affairs mission on campus and pave the way for increased learning partnerships campus-wide. Similarly, student affairs professionals act as a bridge to the student body, which may enforce and enhance the relevance of libraries for today’s student. Additional implications for practice and research are included.

Committee:

Kenneth Borland, D.Ed. (Advisor); Maureen Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Coomes, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Sara Bushong, MLS (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Library Science

Keywords:

Student Affairs; Academic Libraries; Collaboration; Partnerships, Higher Education; Mental Models; College; University

Felix, Vivienne RThe Experiences of Refugee Students in United States Postsecondary Education
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the essence of the lived experience of six students from refugee backgrounds who have navigated postsecondary education in the United States. The researcher used phenomenology to explore and identify the essence of navigating postsecondary education in the U.S. as a refugee because of its focus on participants’ understanding of their lived experiences. The participants of this study represented a range of ages, ethnic and national backgrounds, and academic experiences. Each participant contributed to the full data collection process, which consisted of one journal entry and two semi-structured interviews. The interview sessions and journal entries allowed the researcher to generate biographical profiles for each participant and discover five key themes. Those themes were mobility and higher education; U.S. English language acquisition; negotiating a bicultural identity; connections to a community of national origin; and sources of support for persisting in higher education. The themes summarizing participants’ collective experiences highlight specific challenges encountered when navigating higher education in the U.S. In doing so, this study expands scholarly and practitioner understanding of the diversity of the U.S. postsecondary environment. However, further research is needed to deepen understanding of how colleges and universities can best support the needs of these students. Those findings shaped the recommendations for future scholarly research. Researchers must continue to clarify policies and practices pertaining to the postsecondary access of students born outside the United States, and especially those students who are from refugee backgrounds. The study concludes with suggestions for professional practice in higher education and student affairs.

Committee:

Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ellen Broido, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bruce Collet, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

higher education; refugees; students from refugee backgrounds; forced migration; incorporation theory; resilience; grit; self-efficacy; post-secondary education

Plessner, Von RoderickA Study of the Influence Undergraduate Experiences Have on Student Performance on the Graduate Management Admission Test
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Higher Education
Research into factors that contribute to student success have used undergraduate grade point average (GPA) as the dependent variable. However, undergraduate GPA is subject to grade inflation and to differences in institutional and program rigor. To provide a common benchmark across institutions and programs, this study used the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) composite score as the dependent variable. Astin’s Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model was used as the conceptual framework. Correlation analysis and a blocked form of stepwise regression were used to partial out the impact of 107 variables arrived at from the national Higher Education Research Institute’s Freshman and College Senior Surveys on the dependent variable—GMAT composite scores. In all, 10 variables were identified as having a significant influence on student performance on the GMAT, with Scholastic Assessment Test math and verbal scores and institutional Selectivity having the greatest influence. While prior studies have attempted to use a variety of standardized tests, previous research did not account for prior student academic abilities and other input characteristics to accurately assess the added value of other variables. This study offers new, useful information for educators and administrators in their goal of promoting academic excellence.

Committee:

Ronald Opp (Committee Chair); Snejana Slantcheva-Durst (Committee Member); Debra Gentry (Committee Member); Larry McDougle (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Graduate Management Admission Test; GMAT; Input-Environment-Outcome model; I-E-O; Correlation analysis and Blocked form of stepwise regression; data extracted from The Freshman Survey and College Senior Survey

Raveendran, Reetha PerananamgamLife of Purpose: Exploring the Role an Athletic Code of Conduct Plays in Shaping the Moral Courage of Student Athletes
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Leadership Studies
This qualitative study explores how an athletic code of conduct shaped the moral courage of student athletes in a Midwestern University. This study examined how eight student athletes, in a Division III institution, were motivated to engage in positive behaviors. It sought to understand how this selective group of student athletes perceived the three key concepts spelled out in the athletic code of conduct – sportsmanship, respect for others, and integrity – and how they were empowered to engage in acts of moral courage when on the field. Case study research design was used in general while giving special focus to portraiture. The concept of voice in portraiture was emphasized by preserving and listening to the student athletes’ responses while simultaneously listening for stories. The present study also focused on highlighting the positive aspects of a social system, i.e., athletics, and extracting the element of goodness unlike current research in the field. The conceptual framework of the two constructs – understanding the importance of the athletic code of conduct and how this code shapes the student athletes’ moral courage – is examined here by analyzing verbal and non-verbal interview responses of the participants and observations while being on-site. Participants’ reflective journals were used implicitly to understand the lives of these student athletes. Data revealed emergent themes which responded to the five research questions. Findings indicated that one of the most important factors that enabled and empowered them to act with moral courage was their personal values. When personal values aligned with those of an athletic code of conduct, it was only natural to stand up and do the right thing. Student athletes in this present study unanimously believed that the values of such athletic codes of conduct should be integrated into their lives through intentional education, application and reflection throughout their careers as student athletes. Senior student athletes had a more sophisticated sense of moral reasoning when compared to younger student athletes. This finding supports Kohlberg’s (1969) Theory of Moral Development where the level of moral reasoning becomes more complex and complicated with age and lived experiences. Coaches were credited for being both disseminators and advocates of the values of the athletic code of conduct. However, results also revealed that it was difficult to establish if the athletic code of conduct as a document had a direct influence on the moral courage of the participants. Themes generated from these data resulted in a number of recommendations for policy and practice in the realm of college athletics, as well as suggestions for future research. One such policy change was to investigate alternative models, both curricular and co-curricular, so that incoming freshmen are intentionally taught the values of the athletic code of conduct. Future research is needed to understand the influences of such codes of conduct on the moral courage of student athletes from different demographics such as first-generation college students, full scholarship athletes or those from varying socio-economic statuses.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor); Khani Begum (Committee Member); Christopher Frey (Committee Member); Sharon Showman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ethics; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Sports Management

Keywords:

student athletes; code of conduct; moral development; moral courage; higher education administrators; ethical infrastructures; athletic environment

Lindsay, Kristen ReneeSenior Student Affairs Officers' Perceptions Of Critical Professional Competencies
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Higher Education Administration
Literature describing the role of the senior student affairs officer (SSAO) is plentiful, but research studies describing the specific skills needed to successfully fulfill the role are fewer in quantity. Therefore, in order to better understand the skills needed to be a senior-level student affairs administrator, and how to acquire them, this study examined SSAOs' perceptions of the ACPA and NASPA joint competencies. The sample, comprised of SSAOs who hold ACPA membership, shared their perceptions, which were examined according to several variables including gender, ethnicity, professional experience, and institution characteristics. Findings indicated that a doctoral degree was particularly significant for developing the skills necessary to be a successful SSAO. Additionally, there were differences according to several of the variables, indicating the importance of different competencies at different types of institutions, although no clear-cut picture of specific competency importance emerged. The additional competencies suggested by the SSAOs who participated in the survey, although nearly all of them overlapped with the ACPA and NASPA joint competencies, provide reinforcement of skills important to SSAOs in today's higher education landscape. The findings provide a snapshot of the skills necessary for successful SSAOs, as well as implications for graduate preparation programs and future revisions of the ACPA and NASPA join competencies.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson, Dr. (Advisor); Steven Cady, Dr. (Committee Member); Michael Coomes, Dr. (Committee Member); Robert DeBard, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

ACPA and NASPA competencies; senior student affairs officers; student affairs competencies; SSAO; student affairs professionals; higher education competencies; senior-level student affairs administrator; student affairs skills; professional competencies

Rellinger, Brian AThe Diffusion of Smartphones and Tablets in Higher Education: A Comparison of Faculty and Student Perceptions and Uses.
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Leadership Studies
Individual access to mobile devices has increased dramatically in recent years, and faculty and students are beginning to use smartphones and tablets to support teaching and learning. This correlational study surveys faculty and students at a private, liberal arts university to better understand perceptions about the devices for use in an academic setting. Student and faculty responses are compared using adopter categories and innovation attributes developed by Rogers’ (2003) diffusion of innovations. Two survey instruments were developed for this study. The Faculty Smartphone and Tablet Diffusion of Innovations (FSTDIS) and Student Smartphone and Tablet Diffusion of Innovations (SSTDIS) were created based on a previous survey aimed at faculty adoption of a course management system. The surveys were sent to approximately 250 faculty members and between 1,700 and 1,900 students. Results from the surveys were used to address four research questions comparing faculty and students, as well as perceptions of the value of smartphones and tablets in higher education. Findings from this study can be used by university administrators to increase the adoption of mobile devices for academic purposes. Rogers’ (2003) diffusion of theory provides a framework for technology adoption in organizations.

Committee:

William Ingle (Advisor); Rachel Reinhart (Committee Member); Allison Goedde (Committee Member); Chris Wolverton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Technology

Keywords:

mobile technology; smartphones; tablets; liberal arts; higher education; diffusion of innovations; diffusion theory; digital divide; technology adoption;

Krah, Stephanie L.The Social Identity Development of White Students Who Attend Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Higher Education (Education)
In a time when higher education accountability is increasing, it is essential that institutions, no matter their mission and purpose, produce higher rates of retention, persistence and graduation. Funding remains a scarce resource; therefore, more institutions with lower success rates are being closely scrutinized. In that context, a debate continues concerning the relevance of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). HBCUs are not just "Black Colleges" only serving Black students, but institutions that have evolved into providing service students no matter their racial or cultural background. This research study employed qualitative inquiry as a means to examine the experiences of nine White students who attended two HBCUs in the Midwest: Central State University and Kentucky State University. As temporary minorities, these White students shared that their HBCU experience has provided a wonderful educational and social opportunity where they were able to receive one-on-one attention from their faculty members, engage closely with staff, and develop connections with their peers. Although these HBCUs do not offer programs specifically targeted for minority students, the participants felt that they mattered to their institution and that being temporary minorities allowed for them to gain personal racial understanding and deeper insight into race related issues. Findings from this study showed that the success rates of White students at these HBCUs exceeded those of overall student rates. However, it was noted that these students did not receive active outreach from these institutions. It was concluded that HBCUs must be inclusive in their recruitment practices in order to appeal to non-African American students. Students of all races may see HBCUs as possible college options if the institutions actively reach out to them. As HBCU relevance is being questioned, these institutions must take an active stance as to whether they will rest on an identity solely connected to the historic mission or if the institutional practices will evolve to meet current circumstances.

Committee:

Peter Mather (Committee Chair); Laura Harrison (Committee Member); Marybeth Gasman (Committee Member); Francis Godwyll (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

HBCUs; White Racial Identity Development; HBCU Relevance; Temporary Minority; Social Identity Development; Campus Environment; Race

Patton, Roxanna Jessica-DyanThe College Experiences of Transgender Students: Creating a Welcoming Environment on Campus
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2012, Educational Leadership
The number of transgender students on college campuses has been increasing throughout the United States (Schneider,2010). Transgender students face unique concerns in nearly every aspect of campus life. The purpose of this research was to examine the college experiences of transgender students and recommend best practices for making college campuses more welcoming for transgender students. This phenomenological study was conducted using open ended interview questions to collect qualitative data from three transgender students at a large four year public institution in the Midwest. Respondents identified unwelcoming messages in the following areas of campus life: student activities, health services, and through the dichotomization of gender on university forms. Nine recommendations for best practices in creating a welcoming campus environment for transgender students are included in the discussion section of this thesis.

Committee:

Suzanne Franco, EdD (Committee Chair); McGinley Sarah, MA (Committee Member); DuVivier Roxanne, PhD (Committee Member); Jill Lindsey, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Continuing Education; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Gender; Gender Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; School Administration; Secondary Education

Keywords:

trans; transgender; lgbt; glbt; student affairs; student services; gender; gender neutral; university; college; students; gender binary; gender fluid; gender nonconforming; transexual; higher education; student personnel; student activities; health care

O'Brien, Katherine FSuccess of Developmental Readers: An Examination of Factors Affecting Attrition and Institutional Practices Which Support Retention
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
Students who enter higher education requiring reading remediation have poor institutional persistence. This study examined the course success and first-year institutional persistence of six women enrolled in a developmental reading course at a regional campus of a state university. Data sets were comprised of classroom observation, review of academic records, and interviews with students and their instructor. Three of the women were successful in the course while three were not. The cross-participant analysis revealed five factors associated with student success and institutional persistence. Successful students had more frequent attendance and were more engaged with their professors outside of class than unsuccessful students. Those who were recent high school graduates were less likely to succeed than students who had a gap between high school and college. While adult responsibilities such as raising children impacted students’ progress, these factors did not affect success in developmental reading. Most notably, students who were successful in the course and persisted through the first year had support systems both off-campus and on-campus including a college employee.

Committee:

Alexa Sandmann (Advisor); William Bintz (Committee Member); Tricia Niesz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Literacy; Reading Instruction

Keywords:

persistence; attrition; student success; developmental education; remediation; developmental readers

Weinblatt, BrianAn Examination of Academic Decision-Making During Two University Mergers
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study examined decision-making processes during two university mergers, instances of major organizational change. Processes were evaluated in the context of traditional and modern academic decision-making models. A qualitative method of inquiry, designed as a multiple instrumental case study, entailed interviews with 6 participants at a pilot site, followed by 37 interviews and document analysis at two case study sites. Interview transcripts and documents were coded and analyzed, yielding a thematic evaluation.

Four major themes were found pertaining to the two mergers: avoidance of conflict, need for validation, momentum, and disconnect among views. The study found that more traditional models of decision-making were employed at one institution, while more modern models were used at the other. Both institutions exhibited administrative leadership utilizing tools to exert influence to effect the mergers. Conclusions included a highlight on American higher education institutions in transition from traditional to more modern approaches of decision-making, described as a “grey zone” between the models. Implications of the study included the necessity for modern higher education administrators to maintain a delicate balance between traditional and evolving modern approaches of higher education decision-making.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Chair); David Meabon, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald McGinnis, MD (Committee Member); Robert Yonker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

university decision-making; higher education decision-making; university mergers; higher education mergers; university consolidation; higher education consolidation

McLaughlin, Sean M.The Effects of Community Building Programs on Student Neighborhoods Adjoining the Urban University Campus
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
Student neighborhoods near urban university campuses are unique neighborhood settings. Social problems resulting from thousands of college aged students living in dense enclaves in neighborhoods near university campuses are numerous. Rioting, high crime, negative neighbor relations and poor living conditions are examples of the many problems of the student neighborhood. As universities develop and implement strategies to address the challenges of the campus proximal student neighborhood, research must guide those practices. This study examines the effects of a specific community building program sponsored by a large mid-western research university located in a large metropolitan setting on social outcomes in the densely populated student neighborhood adjacent to its campus. The community building program is designed by Student Life staff to strengthen social ties and community in the student neighborhood. Social disorganization theory and sociological approaches to the study of neighborhoods are used to theorize important exogenous and intervening independent variables relevant to the student neighborhood context. These independent variables include demographic structures such as race, gender, age and socioeconomic status along with intervening structures such as friendship density, network associations (university versus neighborhood) and participation in university sponsored programs to build community. Dependent variables include social ties, sense of community, perceptions of informal social control and neighborhood satisfaction. Regression analysis is used to determine the extent to which participation in university community building programs predicts the outcome variables. The study concludes that participation in university sponsored programs has effects on social ties and perception of informal social control in the student neighborhood. Gender and race were found to negatively predict social ties formation. The study also concludes that living in neighborhoods where community building programs take place, regardless of the amount of an individual’s participation, predicts sense of community. Neighborhood satisfaction is not predicted by demographic variables or participation in the university sponsored community building program. Results also indicate that when a student identifies as a resident of specific street, or as a member of the community at-large, they tend to have greater sense of community. The discussion offers propositions for higher education administrators who are tasked with creating policy and practical interventions aimed at addressing the unique challenges with which these neighborhoods confront the institution.

Committee:

Ada Demb, EdD (Advisor); Helen Marks, PhD (Committee Member); Lenard Baird, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

student neighborhood; higher education; town-gown; neighborhood; co-resident neighborhood; sense of community; neighborhood intervention; community building program; community building

Jordan, Tricia K.Sophomore Programs: Theory, Research, and Efficacy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this study was to explore how students perceive the efficacy of a program designed for second-year students. The study population consisted of 222 juniors at a medium-sized, public, Research I, Midwestern institution; the group was comprised of both program participants and non-participants. The survey instrument, the Sophomore Program Efficacy Questionnaire (SPEQ), was designed expressly for this study, and was administered in a web-based format to the population. SPEQ items were created using existing literature and theories related to the sophomore experience. The 70-item SPEQ has distinct sections that parallel to expected sophomore outcomes: 1) program awareness, 2) pre-success indicators, 3) program participation, 4) post-success indicators (motivation level, decision-making ability, identity development, academic success, and retention rate), and 5) program efficacy indicators. Demographic qualifiers were also analyzed and summarized to determine if any distinctions exist based on individual characteristics. Specifically, race/ethnicity, gender, residence, residency status, major status, and age were all collected from survey respondents. Aggregate results showed that there were few demographic distinctions to make, however, between the sub-groups (participants and non-participants), more interesting results were discovered. Quantitative data revealed that the SPEQ instrument fit the hypothesized theoretical framework underlying the design fairly well. Additionally, in almost every case related to post-success indicators, participants and non-participants reported gains in each category; they noted positive growth from the beginning of the sophomore year to the end. Also, non-participants reported higher gains in these same variables than their participant counterparts. Participants believed the sophomore programs were generally worthwhile and they would recommend them to their peers. Qualitative data showed that even those who did not interact with the programs believed them to be a worthwhile initiative. This study supports the notion that students can recognize personal growth in the second college year, regardless of participation in sophomore-specific programming. Therefore, continued research on the second-year experience should focus on helping all sophomores get the resources they need in a way that makes sense for them and for their institution.

Committee:

Ada Demb, PhD (Committee Chair); Leonard Baird, PhD (Committee Member); Dorinda Gallant, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

sophomores; second-year students; sophomore programs; program efficacy; students in transition; second-year programming; second-year programs

Russell, Elizabeth (Annie)Voices Unheard: Using Intersectionality to Understand Identity Among Sexually Marginalized Undergraduate Students of Color
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Higher Education Administration

This study used intersectionality as a framework and methodology to understand identity among sexually marginalized undergraduate college students of color. The research questions were as follows:

1. What are the experiences of QLGBTSGL (Queer, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Same Gender Loving) undergraduate students of color on a college campus? How do QLGBTSGL undergraduate students of color perceive their college experiences to be different from and similar to other students in college?

2. How do environmental factors (e.g., spiritual community, society, family, student organizations, and support groups) affect identity development for QLGBTSGL undergraduate students of color in college?

3. How do interpersonal relationships, such as those with friends, family, and romantic partners, influence identity development for QLGBTSGL undergraduate students of color in college?

4. How do QLGBTSGL undergraduate students of color make meaning of their identities? In what ways do identity consistency and coherence characterize their identity meaning-making?

The literature implied that while substantial research has been done in identity and identity development in student affairs, including in race, gender, sexuality, and environment, the intersections and interactions of those identities had been less explored in research, if at all. The findings produced three emerging themes related to the unheard voices of the population at hand: defining self; intersections and interactions of identities and social group memberships; and defining ethics, morals, and values. The conclusions and implications both confirm previous findings on identity and identity development, while also acknowledging new areas of knowledge, implications for practice, and suggestions for future research.

Committee:

Dafina Stewart, PhD (Committee Chair); Kimberly Coates (Committee Member); Ellen Broido (Committee Member); Patricia Kubow (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Hispanic Americans

Keywords:

Intersectionality; Queer; Lesbian; Gay; Bisexual; Transgender; Same Gender Loving; Students of Color; LGBT; GLBT; African Americans; Latino Americans

Fischer-Kinney, Julie A.Biracial/Multiracial Student Perceptions of Student Academic Support Services at a Predominantly White Public Institution
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study attempted to contribute to national research on biracial/multiracial students, a growing diverse population in higher education. A lack of literature exists on biracial/multiracial college students, particularly as it pertains to student academic success at predominantly white institutions (PWI). The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of biracial/multiracial college students regarding student academic support services at one PWI. In order to address barriers to student success, the voices of biracial/multiracial students are greatly needed by institutions to enhance and develop services, programs, policies, and procedures.

This phenomenological study used Padilla‘s Theoretical Framework for Modeling Student Success to understand the barriers to student success perceived by biracial/multiracial students at one PWI. The qualitative study employed triangulation through three phases of research. In phase one, a demographic study was used to identify students at the PWI who self-identify as biracial/multiracial. The demographic study responses also guided conversations in the second phase of research, focus group meetings. Phase two consisted of three focus groups comprised of 11 biracial/multiracial students. Phase three consisted of member checking within and between focus groups, and during data analysis, for clarification and agreement of findings. The culmination of the study was the creation of a Local Student Success Model (LSSM) for the PWI, a blueprint for biracial/multiracial student success consisting of recommended student and institutional actions.

The study found that focus group participants at the PWI were unaware of the location and function of some student academic support services. Participants believed that new student academic support services are needed, such as peer mentoring in the major, in addition to the evaluation and modification of existing student academic support services, such as faculty mentoring, to aid in biracial/multiracial student success.

Study participants (including demographic and focus group participants) at the PWI perceived there to be a total of over 15 barriers to student success. Financial and personal barriers were perceived to be the greatest barriers to biracial/multiracial student success. Focus group participants perceived 10 key barriers to success that fit into two major categories of barriers— institutional barriers and individual barriers. In order to overcome barriers to student success, focus group participants perceived that students must have knowledge in five key categories; must take action in two key categories; and recommended institutional actions in five key categories to ensure the student success of biracial/multiracial students.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Chair); Jamie Barlowe, PhD (Committee Member); Shanda Gore, EdD (Committee Member); Debra Gentry, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; African American Studies; Asian American Studies; Black Studies; Educational Leadership; Ethnic Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Hispanic American Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Native American Studies

Keywords:

biracial; multiracial; support services; predominantly white institution; student academic support services; student perceptions; student success; local student success model; triangulation; focus groups

Graham, KarenDevelopment and Validation of a Measure of Intention to Stay in Academia for Physician Assistant Faculty
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study attempted development and validation of a measure of “intention to stay in academia” for physician assistant (PA) faculty in order to determine if the construct could be measured in way that had both quantitative and qualitative meaning. Adopting both the methodologic framework of the Rasch model and the theoretical framework that “intention to stay in academia” is a complex psychological construct influenced by a wide range of individual and environmental variables, this investigation identified potential observable indicators of the construct and used them to develop a survey instrument. Evidence of multiple aspects of validity was sought throughout the investigation in order to make an evaluative judgment regarding the validity of the measure at the conclusion of the research.

The investigation was conducted in four phases. In Phase I, the construct of “intention to stay in academia” was conceptualized by means of a literature review and interviews of 15 experienced PA faculty. This phase resulted in a list of 79 potential observable indicators of the construct which were transformed into survey items in Phase II. In Phase III of the study, an instrument of 70 items was piloted to a convenience sample of 53 PA faculty. Following the pilot data analysis, a revised instrument was administered to all 1002 PA faculty in the U.S. in Phase IV, with a 49.3% response rate.

The measure of “intention to stay in academia” for PA faculty developed in this study demonstrated multiple types of validity evidence but was limited by the lack of an overall meaning to the item hierarchy and failure to meet the strict expectations of the Rasch model for unidimensionality. However, a subset of 19 items relating to a supportive academic environment produced a meaningful progression of types of indicators of “intention to stay in academia” and demonstrated characteristics of a linear measure. This subset included items dealing with relationships, autonomy, institutional support, and workload; inferences that higher education administrators and other stakeholders in PA education could make from the analysis of this subset of items were discussed. Although the cumulative evidence from this study allowed for concluding that measuring PA faculty “intention to stay in academia” was a realizable goal, the theoretical framework for the measure needs to be strengthened in order to guide future iterations of the instrument and validate a more meaningful and useful measure.

Committee:

Svetlana Beltyukova (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

physician assistant faculty; faculty retention; intention to stay; Rasch model

Christman, Heather ShookConnections between Leadership and Developmental Capacities in College Students
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2013, Educational Leadership
Colleges and universities have a unique opportunity to develop leaders capable of addressing the challenges of tomorrow. Critical components of such leadership include understanding oneself, being able to navigate challenges, work across difference, and understand and adopt multiple perspectives. The ability of higher education to support the development of leaders who can address challenges can have a major effect on the future of our country and our world. This longitudinal study explored connections between college student leadership and the developmental capacities necessary to engage in effective leadership. The study used the Social Change Model of Leadership (SCM) (Higher Education Research Institute, 1996) and Self-Authorship Theory (Baxter Magolda, 2001) as frameworks to explore connections between leadership and developmental capacities. I used data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education collected between 2006 and 2009 in this dissertation study. I analyzed four years of transcripts for 22 students who had high quantitative gains on the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale over a four-year period. The sample was diverse with just under half of the students identifying as students of color. I conducted the data analysis for each of the participants by: 1) coding for SCM leadership values; 2) analyzing development toward self authorship across four years; 3) and coding for patterns in development and SCM leadership value shifts across four-years. The results of this study demonstrated two major findings furthering our understanding of leadership using the SCM. The first finding highlighted the various stages students go through as they move toward effectively demonstrating SCM leadership. The second major finding was that development was connected to all of the SCM leadership values and increasing student developmental capacities is a necessary component of leadership development. This study produced major implications for those interested in promoting leadership development that guides the content and pedagogy of leadership development.

Committee:

Marcia Baxter Magolda, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kathleen Goodman, Dr. (Committee Member); Judith Rogers, Dr. (Committee Member); David Cowan, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Developmental Psychology; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

self authorship; self evolution; Social Change Model of Leadership Development; leadership development; adult development; college students; development; learning outcomes

Shafer, Cynthia TroutMuslim Women on the Catholic Campus: The Search for Identity, Community, and Understanding
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2012, Educational Leadership

American religious diversity has expanded since the 1960s when immigration law changed the geographical map of our immigrant pipeline from Europe to Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (Smith, 2002). This demographic change in immigration patterns has affected the population of students not only coming from abroad to study, but also from within the U.S. More Muslim American students are entering colleges in the U.S. than ever before and the number is expected to swell in coming years (Institute of International Education, 2011). American colleges and universities who face the challenge of integrating these new student cultures into their wider institutional cultures will only succeed in doing so by educating faculty and student affairs professionals about their new students. The purpose of this study was an attempt to understand the acculturation experience (Berry, 1997) of female Muslim students at two Catholic universities in the American Midwest. The underlying issue which informed this study was how Muslim women cope and learn in the context of an American, Catholic university.

A constructivist epistemology provided the framework for this phenomenological qualitative study, which attempted to discern the ways that Muslim female students adapt to life on the Catholic campus using a bi-dimensional model of acculturation. Eleven female Muslim students were interviewed several times each over the course of five months. The data were then analyzed according to Moustakas' (1994) methods for phenomenological analysis and Berry's (1997) bi-dimensional acculturation strategy scale (assimilation, integration, separation or marginalization).

Committee:

Carolyn Ridenour, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Jack Bauer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Lasley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michele Welkener, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Muslim; women; Catholic; acculturation; identity

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