Search Results (1 - 25 of 874 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Geise, GregoryApplication of Geographical Information Systems to Determine Human Population Impact on Water Resources of Yellow Springs, Ohio, and the Use of LiDAR Intensities in Land Use Classification
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2016, Earth and Environmental Sciences
The purposes of the following studies were to investigate natural and human influences on several spatial and temporal aspects of a local and regional environment. The decreasing discharge rate of the ground water supplied Yellow Spring may be caused by the increase in population of the nearby Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Periodic measurements of Yellow Spring’s discharge rate compared to changes in the town’s population showed an inverse relationship, where spring discharge declined as population grew. A sharp decrease in discharge occurred during a period when the spring’s facade was modified and an airport was built partially overlying the spring’s recharge area. These events are believed to have had a greater impact on spring discharge rate than changing population because discharge rate remained relatively constant after its sharp decline, while population began to decline. Aquifer volume change was determined by calculating the volume difference between decadal average water tables that were modeled with ArcMap from water well depth to water measurements and LiDAR elevation data. Counterintuitively, aquifer volume generally increased with population then fell sharply as the population gradually decreased. A slight increase in aquifer volume after withdrawal wells were installed suggests that human consumption had little impact on aquifer volume. When compared to the average Palmer Hydrological Drought Index, aquifer volume generally lowered during dry periods, and rose during wet periods. Minor variations in climate can greatly impact aquifer volume because precipitation only needed to have decreased by 0.26 percent over a 40 year period to account for the lowest calculated aquifer volume. Determining the composition and spatial extent of land uses through land use classification increases our understanding of processes that are harmful to the environment. Because of LiDAR’s high spatial resolution, the ability to classify marginally rural land uses of Greene County, Ohio with LiDAR intensity data was assessed to improve the accuracy of land uses previously classified from lower resolution satellite images. Trends in frequency distributions of intensity values extracted from sample sites of six major land uses reveal that LiDAR, measuring in the near-infrared (1064 nm), is spectrally insufficient to distinguish between land use elements (grass, trees, pavement, buildings, etc.), where each intensity value identifies between 3 and 6 land use elements. Land use elements with the same intensity values can be distinguished when remotely sensed data of other wavelengths are added to create spectral variation. The ability to classify land uses with LiDAR intensity data is further reduced by its poor temporal resolution and large file size. LiDAR surveys are typically conducted in early spring when trees are leafless to allow for ground elevation measurements in forested areas. LiDAR .las files are large because of its high spatial resolution, and require significant computing resources to process.

Committee:

Doyle Watts, Ph.D. (Advisor); Songlin Cheng, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Abinash Agrawal, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Geography; Hydrology; Information Systems; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

GIS; LiDAR intensity; LiDAR elevation; water resources; land use classification;

Phillips, Melissa Catherine KoekaLightning and hurricane safety knowledge and the effects of education modes on elementary school children
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Natural hazard education research has received minimal attention. Researchers in the area of natural hazards have focused primarily on database management and safety recommendations. Best practices for natural hazard education and their modes have been overlooked. Current research has postulated that natural hazard education may be more efficacious when delivered to school children since school children disseminate the information to family and friends. Research on the most effective method to educate school children or the general public on natural hazards has seen very little attention, except for a recent lightning safety survey, which illustrated the need for further research, especially regarding school children. This study surveyed school children’s safety knowledge in the state of Ohio on two types of natural hazards with variable exposure rates, hurricanes and lightning. Following the survey, three education modes were administered: video, workbook, and presentation. Post-mode and delayed post-mode surveys followed. The results answer numerous study questions regarding sources of hazard information in school children, the current knowledge of lightning and hurricane safety, the most effective mode for natural hazard education and retention, and lightning safety education of school children versus college students. School children receive the majority of their natural hazard safety information at school. The current knowledge of lightning and hurricane safety in school children is encouraging. Education modes affect the efficacy of lightning and hurricane safety knowledge learning and retention in school children. Presentation was the best mode for educating school children about lightning safety and lightning safety education retention. The best mode for hurricane safety education, learning retention, and best mode for natural hazards safety learning and retention was not determined. Gender disparities exist in current knowledge, which were seen at college age.

Committee:

Thomas Schmidlin, Ph.D. (Advisor); Scott Sheridan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jacqueline Curtis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kathleen Sherman-Morris, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jocelyn Folk, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography; Meteorology; Physical Geography; Science Education

Keywords:

natural hazards; natural disasters, lightning, hurricane, natural disaster education, natural hazard education, lightning education, hurricane education, elementary school children education

Korte, David MThree Dimensional Analysis of a Proglacial Clastic Dyke Network Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Skeidararsandur, Iceland
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Researchers have studied the subglacial and proglacial impacts of glacial outburst floods through observation and measurements during flooding events and through analysis of the landscape and sediments after flooding events. While both erosion and sediment deposition dynamics have been studied extensively (eg. Sharp, 1985; Rijsdijk et al., 1999; Van Der Meer, 1999; Overgaard and Jakobsen, 2001; Glasser et al., 2003; Russell et al., 2006;); the routing and effects of pressurized groundwater during glacial outburst flooding are currently poorly understood. The objectives of this research are; 1) to test whether or not Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can can effectively image nearly vertical subsurface sedimentary structures thought to result from hydrofracturing of consolidated and confined glacial outwash sediments; 2) to determine if these subsurface sedimentary structures are in fact derived from pressurized groundwater. The site of this study is on western Skeidararsandur, Iceland, near the Sula river. Skeidararsandur is the largest glacial outwash plain on Earth encompassing an area of approximately 1300 km2 (Klimek, 1973). Because it is subject to frequent glacial outburst floods (Roberts et al., 2002) it makes an excellent laboratory to study glacial outwash structures. There are many surface ridges that have been interpreted as groundwater escape structures and correlated to previous outburst floods (Russell et al., 2006; Munro-Stasiuk et al., 2009). In addition, clastic dykes appear to represent groundwater escape pathways through the sands and gravels of the sandur (Munro-Stasiuk et al., 2009). GPR was able to detect steeply dipping clastic dykes and direction of flow at the study site. In addition, GPR can detect sinuous subsurface linear geologic features using proper scan orientation. The results of this study will lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of pressurized groundwater escape mechanisms resulting from sudden glacial outburst flooding. They will also help determine how pressurized groundwater moves through, interacts with, and responds to the sedimentary environment. Understanding how pressurized groundwater behaves will allow us to design better abutments, foundations, cores, and liners capable of withstanding immense stress. GPR gives us a non-destructive and inexpensive method that can be used to a depth of several meters for surface scans and as deep as needed in bore hole scans.

Committee:

Mandy Munro-Stasiuk (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography; Geology; Geomorphology; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

GPR; ground penetrating radar; clastic dyke

Shears, Andrew B.Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans: Discursive Spaces of Safety and Resulting Environmental Injustice
PHD, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
On August 29, 2005, a large tropical cyclone, named Hurricane Katrina, made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Despite following a track that mostly missed New Orleans, Katrina drowned this city by causing the failure of a protective levee infrastructure that surrounded population portions of the metropolitan area. In this majority African-American city, with a large number of impoverished people, Katrina caused over 900 deaths, tens of thousands of injuries, and left hundreds of thousands of residents displaced. However, the injustices of Katrina can be traced to the founding of New Orleans in 1718, when various government entities worked to alter the city's hazardous natural environment to promote development, beginning with French prison labor in the colony's earliest days, maintaining through a period of Spanish rule, and continuing to contemporary times under the administration of the United States. Indeed, the various infrastructural improvements serve as a discourse of safety, promoting capitalist development and residential settlement of a risky place. By the time Katrina struck, most of these residents, who took these discourses of safety very seriously, were generally of socioeconomically oppressed classes and least able to endure the consequences of that discourse's broken promise.

Committee:

James Tyner, PhD (Advisor); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, PhD (Committee Member); Scott Sheridan, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Schwartz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Area Planning and Development; Civil Engineering; Earth; Environmental Economics; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Justice; Environmental Studies; Geography; History; Land Use Planning; Modern History; Physical Geography; Pol

Keywords:

infrastructure; Hurricane Katrina; New Orleans; levees; flooding; environmental justice; hurricane; urban; mitigation; natural hazards; disaster

Gathongo, Njoroge IkonyeValidating Local Interpretations of Land Cover Changes at Mt. Kasigau, Kenya
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2012, Geography
Landscape spatial and temporal changes are of critical importance in resource conservation. This study examined how the integration of remote sensing, geographical information systems, and local knowledge contributes toward understanding land cover changes in Jora and Makwasinyi villages at Mt. Kasigau, Kenya. Two research questions were asked. 1) How can local mapping contribute to the interpretation of historical and current land cover images? 2) How and why has land cover changed? Between June and July 2011, I carried out local mapping sessions, group discussions, and transect walks with focus groups of men and women in the villages. Current and past land cover types drawn on the participatory maps were overlayed onto a 2010 KOMPSAT-2 image. Residents described the emergence of woody plants at the historical mountain farms and loss of vegetation across the bushland. Whilst human activities posed a threat to the bushland, the montane forest was protected.

Committee:

Kimberly Medley, PhD (Advisor); John Maingi, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Mary Henry, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Conservation; Cultural Resources Management; Environmental Studies; Forestry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Land Use Planning; Natural Resource Management; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

East Africa; GIScience; landscape; participatory research; Landcover changes; Landuse; Kenya; Participatory mapping; Participatory GIS; Mount Kasigau

Reinemann, Scott AHolocene Climate and Environmental Change in the Great Basin of the Western United States: A Paleolimnological Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Geography
In this dissertation, I have completed a research project that focused on reconstructing past climate and environmental conditions in the Great Basin of the western United States. This research project incorporates four discrete but interrelated studies. (1) The geochemistry of lake sediments was used to identify anthropogenic factors influencing aquatic ecosystems of sub-alpine lakes in the western United States during the past century. Sediment cores were recovered from six high elevation lakes in the central Great Basin of the United States. Mercury (Hg) flux varied among lakes but all exhibited increasing fluxes during the mid-20th century and declining fluxes during the late 20th century. Peak Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (SCP) flux for all lakes occurred at approximately 1970, after which SCP flux was greatly reduced. Atmospheric deposition is the primary source of Hg and anthropogenically produced SCPs to these pristine high elevation lakes during the late 20th century. (2) Chironomids are used to develop centennial length temperature reconstructions for six sub-alpine and alpine lakes in the central Great Basin of the United States. Chironomid-inferred temperature estimates indicate that four of the six lakes were characterized by above average air temperatures during the post-AD 1980 interval and below average temperatures during the early 20th century. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that sub-alpine and alpine lakes in the western United States have been, and are increasingly being affected by anthropogenic climate change in the early 21st century. (3) A sediment core representing the past two millennia was recovered from Stella Lake in the Snake Range of the central Great Basin in Nevada. The core was analyzed for sub-fossil chironomids and sediment organic content. The chironomid-based mean July air temperature (MJAT) reconstruction suggests that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), was characterized by MJAT elevated 1.0°C above the subsequent Little Ice Age (LIA), but likely not as warm as recent conditions. The Stella Lake record provides evidence that elevated summer temperature contributed to the increased aridity that characterized the western United States during the MCA. (4) Lake sediment cores spanning roughly the last 7,000 years were recovered from four small sub-alpine and alpine lakes located in central Great Basin of the United States. Reconstructions of MJAT were developed for each of the study sites using a chironomid-based inference model for MJAT (two-component Weighted Averaging-Partial Least Squares (WA-PLS)). The elevated temperature that characterizes the mid-Holocene at Stella Lake is surpassed only during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and in the post-AD 1800 interval. The reconstructions for the sites located in the northern portion of the study transect are characterized by greater variability, likely reflecting the influence of both radiative forcing and catchment-specific conditions.

Committee:

Bryan Mark, PhD (Advisor); David Porinchu, PhD (Advisor); Ellen Mosley-Thompson, PhD (Committee Member); Alvaro Montenegro, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmospheric Sciences; Geography; Paleoclimate Science; Paleoecology; Physical Geography

Keywords:

Lake; Sediment; Mercury; Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles; Deposition; Nevada, Great Basin, Subalpine; Medieval Climate Anomaly; Little Ice Age; paleoclimate; chironomids; midges; temperature;

Hernandez Ayala, Jose J.Spatial and Temporal Changes in Precipitation in Puerto Rico from 1956-2010
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2012, Geography-Geographic Information Sciences
In this study annual, seasonal and monthly series for total precipitation are analyzed to find increasing or decreasing trends in rainfall over space and time in Puerto Rico from 1956 to 2010. The precipitation series were observed at forty meteorological stations scattered over the island of Puerto Rico. The groups of series were selected for their spatial and temporal representativeness. In order to detect possible trends in precipitation over the island, the Mann-Kendall test was applied to the annual, seasonal and monthly series. This test is non-parametric and thus, has the advantage of being insensitive to the true (unknown) form of the distribution involved. The Mann-Kendall statistical test results of this research have shown that statistically significant increasing and decreasing trends occurred on some locations in the island of Puerto Rico from 1956-2010. The spatial and temporal distribution of the trends vary from increasing trends in the southwest, central and northeast regions for the annual series and dry season months to decreasing trends for the early wet season months mainly in the western area of the island. The results show that increasing trends occurred in the months of January, March, April, September and October mainly in the southwest and northeast and decreasing trends dominated in the months of May, July, August, November and December mainly in the west.

Committee:

Linda Barrett, Dr. (Advisor); Thomas Schmidlin, Dr. (Advisor); John Szabo, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmospheric Sciences; Climate Change; Geography; Physical Geography

Keywords:

Puerto Rico; Precipitation; Climate; Rainfall; Geography

Conley, Gary D.Examining the Cover and Composition of the Successional Vegetation Mosaic of Pre-SMCRA Mined Landscapes in Southeast Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
This research examined 10 similar surface coal mines in southeast Ohio to assess the factors broadly influencing the cover and composition of the successional vegetation mosaic. Transects were surveyed on opposing north- and south-facing aspects within each mine to comprehensively characterize the vegetative community. Statistical analysis strongly indicated that measures of vegetation cover were almost exclusively associated with edaphic properties such as soil pH and electrical conductivity. In clear contrast, species richness and the composition of the vegetative community were influenced primarily by physical landform features and the size and shape of mine extents. While some features of surface mines may act as barriers to the dispersal of native species, the element of distance is the primary limitation to natural succession. Areas furthest from the functional edge seem to be more readily occupied by non-native species once conditions improve, representing a missed opportunity for native establishment and may act as a barrier to future establishment of natives. These results may begin to simplify issues for understanding the long-term recovery of mine lands, in terms of the goals of reclamation and restoration. Furthermore, it highlights the need for incorporating more ecologically-based objectives and practices into landscape planning and management.

Committee:

James Dyer, PhD (Advisor); Geoffrey Buckley, PhD (Committee Member); Timothy Anderson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biogeochemistry; Conservation; Earth; Ecology; Energy; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Geology; Environmental Science; Forestry; Geobiology; Geochemistry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Geological; Geology; Geomorphology; Geophysical; Land Use Planning; Mining; Mining Engineering; Natural Resource Management; Physical Geography; Plant Sciences; Remote Sensing; Soil Sciences; Sustainability

Keywords:

Landscape ecology; mining; natural succession; reclamation; species dispersal

Wilson, Phillip J.Surface Mining in Van Buren County, Iowa: History and Consequences
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Surface mining of agricultural lands in Iowa began shortly after fundamental changes in farm policies, which occurred under the New Deal. This research examines how changes in farm policy and the volatile farm economy may have influenced farmers in Van Buren County to surface mine their land. This research was conducted by collecting archival data and conducting supplemental semi structured interviews. Although a direct link could not be found between changes in farm policy and the surface mining of agricultural lands, there does appear to be a correlation. The unpredictability of the farm economy encouraged farmers to seek other sources of income from their property. The consequences of these land use decisions are still visible on the landscape today.

Committee:

Geoffrey Buckley (Committee Co-Chair); Timothy Anderson (Committee Member); Brad Jokisch (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Agriculture; American History; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science; Geography; History; Mining; Natural Resource Management; Physical Geography; Soil Sciences

Keywords:

Strip mining; coal; Van Buren County; farm policy; Agricultural Adjustment Acts; Great Depression

DeWalt, Heather A.Evaluating 25 Years of Environmental Change Using a Combined Remote Sensing Earth Trends Modeling Approach: A Northern California Case Study
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Mountain glaciers are an important resource for monitoring how regions are being affected by global environmental changes because their advance and retreat are influenced by fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. Using Mt. Shasta in northern California as the study area, this thesis employed a time-series approach to remote sensing image analysis coupled with a Markov-based procedure to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to define the environmental trajectories active in the region and project those trends into the future. This experimental approach was applied to a series of yearly images from 1985 to 2010 to examine the long-term implications of environmental change and then the trends were projected forward in varying increments to 2110. The long-term change signal showed that El Nino cycles strongly influenced regional land cover patterns and controlled glacial advance and retreat. When this pattern was projected into the future, two scenarios were observed: 1) growth if El Nino cycles strengthen or 2) recession if El Nino cycles weaken.

Committee:

James Lein (Advisor); Dr. Dorothy Sack (Committee Member); Dr. Gaurav Sinha (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geography; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

long sequence time series; remote sensing; principal components analysis; Markov; Mt. Shasta; environmental change

Kirk, JohnathanHydroclimatic Variability and Contributing Mechanisms during the Early 21st Century Drought in the Colorado River Basin
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Mountain snowmelt-sourced watersheds across the western United States, such as the Colorado River Basin (CRB), commonly experience high interannual streamflow variability. In recent years, the CRB has experienced unprecedented drought conditions, further complicating water supply prediction and management during a period of rapid population growth and economic expansion in the region. Consequently, the need for increasingly accurate and timely water supply forecasts is critical for sustainable water management decision making. In an effort to explore forecasting improvements by quantifying the relationships between hydroclimatic variables and streamflow, a basin-wide synoptic climatology of the “early 21st century drought” reveals that warm and dry atmospheric circulation patterns have become increasingly common during the spring months each year, resulting in diminished annual reservoir inflow and net declines in storage. Among the basin headwaters, large precipitation events (LPEs) are shown to be significant predictors of basin streamflow and are linked to midtropospheric trough patterns, which advect moisture into the CRB, primarily from the tropical Pacific. These atmospheric conditions have become less common during the drought; therefore, LPEs have become rarer and drier, resulting in decreased total annual streamflow and earlier snowmelt observed throughout the basin. As reliable forecast skill continues to extend in lead time, efforts to improve water supply forecasting resources should emphasize the roles of prevailing synoptic patterns, LPEs, and storm event moisture sources, as predictors of total annual streamflow.

Committee:

Thomas Schmidlin, Ph.D. (Advisor); Scott Sheridan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); V. Kelly Turner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anne Jefferson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joseph Ortiz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Hydrology; Meteorology; Physical Geography; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Hydroclimatology; Synoptic Climatology; Climate Variability; Drought; Hydrology; Colorado River

Ballinger, Thomas J.A Synoptic Climatological Assessment of the Relationship between Arctic Sea Ice Variability and Climate Anomalies over North America
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
The Arctic climate has rapidly changed over the last several decades, especially across the western Arctic Ocean where dramatic alterations to the end-of-summer sea ice extent and autumn freeze-up have been observed. While the spatiotemporal patterns of sea ice variability are well-documented by modern satellite instrumentation, the regional atmospheric causes and subsequent consequences of sea ice changes over this portion of the Arctic remain unclear. This dissertation research utilizes synoptic climatological techniques to evaluate the aforementioned sea ice-climate interactions in the western Arctic and high latitude North America since 1979. Separate atmospheric pattern classifications comprised of daily mean, gridded, sea level pressure and 1000-500 hPa thickness data are developed and associated with the western Arctic September sea ice minima and the timing of continuous autumn freeze-up. Data from a weather typing scheme known as the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) is also employed to holistically evaluate near-surface temperature and moisture changes during the autumn and winter months, as indicated by the anomalous occurrences of the dominant SSC weather types (Dry Polar (DP) and Moist Polar (MP)) within those months, throughout the terrestrial North American Arctic that coincide with western Arctic sea ice freeze-up variability. Results suggest that recent summer increases in Beaufort Sea High pressure patterns, especially during June, play a significant, dynamic role in both the multidecadal and interannual end-of-summer ice extent losses and freeze-up delays witnessed in the region. The general persistence of ice cover formation later into autumn also parallels a transition of DP to MP weather types across much of Alaska and Yukon Territory during autumn and winter months over time. Future work will explore connections between sea ice cover variability, large-scale atmospheric circulation, and surface weather conditions across the Northern Hemisphere high and middle latitudes.

Committee:

Scott Sheridan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Thomas Schmidlin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joseph Ortiz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Geography; Physical Geography

Keywords:

Arctic Sea Ice, Western Arctic, Climate Variability and Change, Synoptic Climatology

Ristow, Walter WThe Geography of Egypt
Master of Arts, Oberlin College, 1933, Geography

The purpose of this thesis is to describe the physical landscape, to portray the character of the people, and to interpret the influence of the natural environment upon the life of a country which since the earliest times has been based principally upon one industry; the agricultural "Land of Egypt."

Committee:

George Hubbard (Advisor); Fred Foreman (Advisor); Reuel Frost (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography; Physical Geography

Keywords:

Egypt;geography;agriculture;environment;

Phillips, Melissa Catherine KoekaThe Current Status of Lightning Safety Knowledge and the Effects of Lightning Education Modes on College Students
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography

Lightning is a natural hazard occurring frequently within the United States causing injury, damage, and death. To avoid this hazard, citizens need to self mitigate their risk by taking action. To determine if citizens have the tools to mitigate their risk, the level of lightning safety knowledge must be known. No studies have previously explored the status of lightning safety knowledge. Lightning safety information is readily available throughout the country in many forms; however different modes of educating about lightning have never been tested for level of efficacy. Therefore, we are unaware if citizens understand their risk, have the knowledge to mitigate their risk, or if current safety programs are effectively educating citizens.

This study distributed surveys to college students in three states with variable risk, Florida, Ohio, and Colorado. Following the pre-mode survey, students were shown videos, given brochures, or both with lightning safety information. A follow-up survey was then distributed. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data. This study provides a current status of lightning safety knowledge, discusses the most misunderstood areas of lightning safety, analyzes the relationship between past deaths and current knowledge as well as variable risk and the presence of lightning safety education programs, explores several lightning education modes as well as the role of gender, and finally, determines vulnerabilities for the study areas.

Committee:

Thomas Schmidlin (Advisor); Scott Sheridan (Committee Member); Rebecca Parylak (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmosphere; Atmospheric Sciences; Educational Psychology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Geography; Physical Geography

Keywords:

lightning; hazards; disasters; lightning safety; lightning safety education

Lee, Cameron CThe Development of a Gridded Weather Typing Classification Scheme
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
Since their development in the 1990s, gridded reanalysis data sets have proven quite useful for a broad range of synoptic climatological analyses, especially those utilizing a map pattern classification approach. However, their use in broad-scale, surface weather typing classifications and applications have not yet been explored. This research details the development of such a gridded weather typing classification (GWTC) scheme using North American Regional Reanalysis data for 1979-2010 for the continental United States. Utilizing eight-times daily observations of temperature, dew point, pressure, cloud cover, u-wind and v-wind components, the GWTC categorizes the daily surface weather of 2,070 locations into one of 11 discrete weather types, nine core types and two transitional types, that remain consistent throughout the domain. Due to the use of an automated deseasonalized z-score initial typing procedure, the character of each type is both geographically and seasonally relative, allowing each core weather type to occur at every location, at any time of the year. Diagnostic statistics reveal a high degree of spatial cohesion among the weather types classified at neighboring locations, along with an effective partitioning of the climate variability of individual locations (via a Variability Skill Score metric) into these 11 weather types. Daily maps of the spatial distribution of GWTC weather types across the United States correspond well to traditional surface weather maps, and comparisons of the GWTC with the Spatial Synoptic Classification are also favorable. While the potential future utility of the classification is expected to be primarily for the resultant calendars of daily weather types at specific locations, the automation of the methodology allows the classification to be easily repeatable, and therefore, easily transportable to other locations, atmospheric levels, and data sets (including output from gridded general circulation models). Further, the enhanced spatial resolution of the GWTC may also allow for new applications of surface weather typing classifications in mountainous and rural areas not well represented by airport weather stations.

Committee:

Scott Sheridan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Thomas Schmidlin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mandy Munro-Stasiuk, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Davis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmosphere; Atmospheric Sciences; Climate Change; Environmental Science; Geography; Meteorology; Physical Geography

Keywords:

synoptic climatology; climate classification; climate; climatology; weather types; GWTC; reanalysis; air mass

Hoffman, Rebecca LynnTo the Southwest Corner: Tornado Myths and Socio-Demographic Vulnerability
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geography
The origins of modern common tornado myths can be traced back as far as the late nineteenth century. Since 1950, forecasting technology has evolved quickly and efficiently; in 1950 tornadoes came with little to no warning, and presently people can be warned as much as 24 hours in advance of an impending storm. However, the year 2011 produced the third largest death toll on record. Educating the public is a daunting task when information is constantly changing, especially when the public has pre-conceived notions which may stem from tornado myths. This study focused on the socio-demographic factors behind these myths in an effort to become aware of which parts of the population need to be re-educated on safety practices. Surveys were sent to random home addresses in four U.S. metropolitan areas. The results from a series of chi-square tests revealed associations between gender and the belief that tornadoes are less likely to strike cities or near bodies of water. The tests also revealed association between gender and the perceived regions in which people believe tornadoes occur most often. Finally, the tests revealed association between location of residence and the perceived regions in which people believe tornadoes occur. While these were significant results, it is difficult to target re-education by gender and location alone. It can be concluded that the general public would benefit greatly from re-education in a manner which not only reaches the masses, but from a method in which they are able to easily retain the information.

Committee:

Thomas Schmidlin, PhD (Advisor); Scott Sheridan, PhD (Committee Member); Emariana Taylor, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmospheric Sciences; Behavioral Sciences; Geography; Physical Geography; Sociology

Keywords:

Tornadoes; Myths; Environmental perception; Awareness; Preparedness; Hazards; Tornado safety

Wehrmann, Zachary M.An Analysis of Planform Changes of the Upper Hocking River, Southeastern Ohio, 1939-2013
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Channel planform change of the Hocking River was documented over 75 years between Sugar Grove and Athens, Ohio, to determine whether any significant changes were associated with major human activities or selected physiographic variables in the watershed. Channel planform change was mapped by acquiring and analyzing aerial photographs and digitizing the channel in GIS. Planform variables of sinuosity, width, asymmetry, and channel migration were calculated. Of the studied human and environmental variables, human-induced changes through the advent of transportation infrastructure, specifically US Route 33, and channelization to mitigate property damage within the floodplain were the leading causes of significant planimetric change of the upper Hocking River over the 75-year span. Significant changes in sinuosity, width, and channel migration occurred directly in the modified reaches as well as the reach immediately downstream from a modification. Historic floods triggering meander cut-offs was the second most important variable affecting planimetric change. Finally, the percent change in riparian vegetation was shown to have a moderately negative correlation with percent change in channel width, while a correlation between percent change in riparian vegetation and rate of change in channel position was not found. Overall, while the upper Hocking River displayed natural planimetric variability over the study interval, the greatest impacts, both directly and indirectly, upon channel planform were associated with human modifications.

Committee:

Dorothy Sack (Advisor); James Dyer (Committee Member); Timothy Anderson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Earth; Geography; Geomorphology; Physical Geography; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

geomorphology; rivers; meandering; channel planform; GIS; riparian vegetation; channelization; flood events

Baker, Scott EdwardPower Distribution and Probabilistic Forecasting of Economic Loss and Fatalities due to Hurricanes, Earthquakes, Tornadoes, and Floods in the United States
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2016, Earth and Environmental Sciences
Traditionally, the size of natural disaster events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods is measured in terms of wind speed (m/sec), energy released (ergs), or discharge (m3/sec). Economic loss and fatalities from natural disasters result from the intersection of the human infrastructure and population with the natural event. This study investigates the size versus cumulative number distribution of individual natural disaster events in the United States. Economic losses are adjusted for inflation to 2014 United States Dollars (USD). The cumulative number divided by the time over which the data ranges is the basis for making probabilistic forecasts in terms of the Number of Events Greater Than a Given Size Per Year and it’s inverse, Return Period. Such forecasts are of interest to insurers/re-insurers, meteorologists, seismologists, government planners, and response agencies. Plots of size versus cumulative number distributions per year for economic loss and fatalities are well fit by power scaling functions of the form P(x) = Cx-ß; where, P(x) is the cumulative number of events per year with size equal to and greater than size x (or probability of occurrence), C is a constant which measures the activity level, x is the event size, and ß is the scaling exponent. Power distributions have a property referred to as self-similar or scale free, so that any sample of the distribution at any scale is statistically identical to the whole distribution. Economic loss and fatalities due to hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods are well fit by power functions over one to five orders of magnitude in size. Economic losses for hurricanes and tornadoes have greater scaling exponents, ß = 1.1 and 0.9 respectively, whereas earthquakes and floods have smaller scaling exponents, ß = 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. The value of the scaling exponent determines the petitioning of losses between larger and smaller sized events. All of the data sets exhibit a roll-off for smaller economic loss events. The roll-off below a certain size is attributed to either under estimating the economic losses or to a transition away from a power function below which the cumulative number is independent of size. Fatalities for tornadoes and floods have greater scaling exponents, ß = 1.5 and 1.7 respectively, whereas hurricanes and earthquakes have smaller scaling exponents, ß = 0.4 and 0.7 respectively.

Committee:

Christopher Barton, Ph.D. (Advisor); Sarah Tebbens, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mateen Rizki, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmosphere; Atmospheric Sciences; Climate Change; Earth; Environmental Science; Geography; Hydrology; Mathematics; Physical Geography; Urban Planning

Keywords:

atmospheric sciences;climate change;earth;environmental science;geography;hydrology;mathematics;physical geography;urban planning;atmosphere

Howe, George MGeographic Interpretation of Land Use in Lorain County, Ohio
Master of Arts, Oberlin College, 1948, Geography

Geographic study aims at systematic description and interpretation of the interrelationship of organic and inorganic things on the face of the earth. The geographer analyzes land use patterns in the attempt to understand the intimate relationship existing between man and the geographic environment. The number of people that a given amount of land will support, and hence the manner in which this population uses that land, is a function of the resources of the area and the culture of the men making up the population. Basically, resources of the land are its geographic elements of soil, climate, physiography, and vegetation; by culture is implied the economic, political, and social institutions by which men govern their activities. The land use patterns resulting from the alteration of the natural environment by men, conditioned by these geographic and cultural influences, constitute part of cultural geography.

Constant effort is made toward more and more detailed description and interpretation of the landscape, which involves decreasing the size of the unit studied. The characteristics of Lorain County land use have been described briefly when use regions of North America or of the state of Ohio have been analyzed. In this thesis, Lorain County is the unit of study, subdivisions being made within the county limits.

The general land use characteristics of Lorain County are typical of most of the counties of northern Ohio which border on Lake Erie. In this respect the dominance of the influence of geographic factors is clear, for in many ways these factors are similar in the lake-border region. Cultural influences account for the minor variations.

To accomplish a detailed graphic description of Lorain County land use (the accompanying Plates) it was necessary to construct the maps from interpretation of aerial photographs. A somewhat more detailed analysis could have been made if the uses could have been mapped in the field, but the area to be covered was much too large for such procedures.

Committee:

R.B. Frost (Advisor); Irene Moke (Other)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Agronomy; Geography; Geology; Physical Geography

Keywords:

land use;geographic;soil;climate;physiography;vegetation;culture;economic; political;social institutions;Lorain County;Ohio

Wheelock-Davis, Emily JElevation Changes in Greenland over Two Decades from Cross-Platform LIDAR Analysis
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Geodetic Science and Surveying
NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) are two airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that retrieve information about surface elevation and roughness. Both altimeters have been flown in Greenland to measure changes in ice sheet surface elevation through time. ATM surveys in the region have been conducted nearly every year since 1993, with extended, annual coverage by ATM and LVIS since 2009 during Operation IceBridge (OIB). These recent surveys provided repeat coverage of many older, previously unrepeated, ATM flight lines. Combined, these datasets offer a unique multi-decadal record of ice sheet change. The different beam trajectory technologies on each system require a specific methodology to compare coincident data between the systems. Here, a general slope-fit regression analysis is applied to difference overlapping ATM and LVIS data. This method is validated using overlapping field data over ice-free terrain. Examination is made of the spatial and temporal distribution of ice sheet surface elevation changes since 1993 revealed by cross-platform analysis.

Committee:

Ian Howat (Advisor); Michael Durand (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Earth; Environmental Science; Geography; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

Greenland; remote sensing; lidar; laser altimeter; ATM; LVIS; Operation IceBridge; elevation change; ice sheets

Wigmore, Oliver HenryAssessing Spatiotemporal Variability in Glacial Watershed Hydrology: Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Field Hydrology, Cordillera Blanca, Peru.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Geography
The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca Peru are rapidly retreating as a result of climate change, altering the timing, quantity and quality of water available to downstream users. Changes in water availability have serious implications for ecosystems, human livelihoods and regional economies. This dissertation investigates spatiotemporal changes in the glacier hydrologic system of the Cordillera Blanca Peru. It includes three major components. First, I develop multispectral unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and kite platforms capable of operating at over 5000m in mountain regions. Secondly, I deploy these platforms to investigate processes of glacier change and surface/subsurface hydrology within the glacial valleys of the Cordillera Blanca. Finally, I integrate UAV datasets with traditional field hydrology to improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability in soil moisture and its role in moderating groundwater storage within the Cordillera Blanca. I designed and deployed UAVs on multiple missions at over 5000masl in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. After describing the UAV design in Chapter 2, this dissertation reports on results of four studies that utilise the UAV to address research questions within the region. Chapter 3 comprehensively assesses the accuracy of photogrammetrically derived structure from motion (SfM) digital elevation models (DEMs), by quantitatively and qualitatively comparing the data against surveyed GPS positions and LiDAR DEMs. Finding that accuracy is as good if not superior to low density LiDAR, with the high density SfM point clouds retaining unique surface details. Chapter 4 investigates the dynamics of glacier change over the debris covered Llaca glacier. I document the importance of debris cover and surface features such as ice cliffs in controlling melt rates. Average glacier downwasting is 0.75m over one year but is highly heterogeneous. Ice cliff horizontal recession rates of up to 25m annual were measured illustrating the importance of debris thickness and ice exposure to the evolution of these systems. Only limited horizontal retreat of the glacier tongue was recorded, indicating that simple measurements of changes in aerial extent are inadequate for understanding actual changes in glacier ice quantity. In Chapter 5 I investigate spatial variability in surface soil moisture. By collecting multispectral (visible, near infrared and thermal infrared) imagery and using the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) I generate 50cm pixel resolution estimates of soil moisture for two proglacial wetland/meadow study sites. Surface soil moisture is found to vary markedly over short distances and is negatively impacted by grazing practices. Through inspection of the multispectral UAV imagery I was able to identify surface and subsurface hydrologic pathways including groundwater springs from airborne thermal imagery. Finally in Chapter 6 I integrate the UAV findings with field instrumentation. I investigate spatiotemporal variability in soil moisture and groundwater table storage within the meadows and wetlands of the Cordillera Blanca. Key findings from the three study sites were the high rates of evapotranspiration, and the limited role of water stored in the groundwater table, and as soil moisture, in buffering dry season stream flow. However, the peatland soils were found to have very low bulk densities (~0.15g/cm3), and a high water storage capacity. Reaching 80-90% volumetric water content at saturation. Thus meadow and wetland systems in the Cordillera Blanca may still play an important role in reducing runoff and increasing groundwater recharge during the wet season, which is an important source of dry season stream flow. My results show that UAVs are an ideal method for studying heterogeneous landscapes at high resolution, and are thus highly suited for small scale studies within mountain regions. This dissertation provides a double faceted scientific contribution of both methodological and technological advances in the ways in which UAV's can be used in earth science and high mountain research as well as empirical knowledge regarding the regional hydrology of the Cordillera Blanca and more generally the tropical Andes. Through its focus on water availability this research has important implications for rural livelihoods and long-term hydrologic, energy, economic and development planning in Peru. This research also contributes to the growing field of UAV applications by pushing the engineering boundaries of this technology, opening up a range of future scientific opportunities in other areas.

Committee:

Bryan Mark, PhD (Advisor); Darla Munroe, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Durand, PhD (Committee Member); Liu Desheng, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography; Geomorphology; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing; Robotics; Soil Sciences; Technology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Peru; glaciers; uav; uas; drone; unmanned aerial vehicle; mapping; soil moisture; Andes; hydrology; Cordillera Blanca; remote sensing; structure from motion; tvdi; mountains; water resources; global climate change; glaciology;

Patrick, Nathan AEvaluating Near Surface Lapse Rates Over Complex Terrain Using an Embedded Micro-Logger Sensor Network in Great Basin National Park
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Atmospheric Sciences
The Great Basin National Park (GBNP) embedded sensor network (ESN) consisting of Lascar micro-loggers was established in 2006 to characterize near surface temperature and humidity. With respect to micro-logger networks, based on available literature, GBNP's ESN contains the densest deployment of micro-loggers (currently 15) above 3000 m in North America for a limited local area. Primary purposes were to assess local climate conditions, evaluate how climate may be changing and support other research projects with meteorological data. In this work, surface temperature lapse rates and surface specific humidity lapse rates were calculated and analyzed on three different time scales (annual, seasonal and monthly) using linear regression. Furthermore, the ESN was subdivided into different geographic subsets which encompass different elevation ranges and landcover types. Results indicated a calculated study-wide (2006 - 2012) mean annual temperature lapse rate, -6.0°C km-1, compared favorably to the common environmental lapse rate (ELR) value of -6.5°C km-1. However, surface temperature lapse rates varied considerably for different geographic subsets and time scales. Mean monthly temperature lapse rates for the entire study area varied from -3.8°C km-1 in January to -7.3°C km-1 in June. Additional variability was introduced when elevation zones were considered. For locations below 3000 m (all QC data), the mean monthly temperature lapse rate ranged from -3.6°C km-1 in January to -9.1°C km-1 in August. Perhaps more significant, in May and summer (JJA) surface lapse rates below 3000 m became quite steep. Here, surface lapse rates exceeded -9.0°C km-1 and approached the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Above 3000 m, surface mean monthly temperature lapse rates were more compressed ranging from -4.5°C km-1 in May to -7.3°C km-1 in September. Throughout summer, mean monthly temperature lapse rate differences between high elevations (> 3000 m) and low elevations (< 3000 m) exceeded 3.0°C km-1. Reduced differences occurred in other months but lower elevations continued to have steeper mean monthly temperature lapse rates. These results indicated using a common ELR (-6.5°C km-1) to interpolate surface temperatures will introduce bias and error for processes using sub-annual resolution. Another objective of this study was assessing Lascar sensor drift by completing a relative sensor calibration and drift study. This was done by comparing 13 brand new un-deployed Lascars with other meteorological instruments and then deploying them alongside existing Lascars in a dual deployment configuration at 10 locations within the ESN. Results indicated overall drift was not a problem during the one year comparison. Some locations did exhibit characteristics of minor drift but the impact was negligible. Finally, near surface temperature lapse rates above 3000 m were compared to free air equivalent lapse rates derived from using nearby radiosonde data. The hypothesis tested was the upper portions of GBNP behave like the free air and terrestrial processes have a minimal impact on the temperature structure of the surface. Results suggested that outside the summit of Wheeler Peak, the upper elevations of GBNP did not behave like the free air and surface temperatures were a result of terrestrial processes interacting with the atmosphere.

Committee:

Bryan Mark (Advisor); Jialin Lin (Committee Member); Michael Durand (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Atmospheric Sciences; Environmental Science; Geography; Geophysical; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Meteorology; Physical Geography; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Lapse Rates; Great Basin; Micro-Logger; Micro Logger; lascar; Specific Humidity; Surface Temperatures; Complex Terrain; mountain geography; National Park; Hydrology; Dry Adiabatic; Saturated Adiabatic; Environmental Lapse Rate; Free Air; Calibration

La Frenierre, Jeff DavidAssessing the Hydrologic Implications of Glacier Recession and the Potential for Water Resources Vulnerability at Volcan Chimborazo, Ecuador
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Geography
Climate change will impact hydrological systems worldwide, and human societies will face increasing water resource vulnerabilities as a result. One key concern is the potential downstream impact of glacier recession in the world’s tropical and temperate mountains. For communities at the foot of Ecuador’s ice-capped volcanoes, glacial meltwater is a potentially important component of irrigation supply, and residents observe the region’s rapidly retreating glaciers with mounting concern. In this dissertation, I present results from a uniquely integrative study examining the relationships among glacier retreat, hydrological change and water resource insecurity at Volcan Chimborazo. Combining remote sensing analyses, direct hydrological measurements, climate data analyses, and detailed household surveys, I report on the recent rate of glacier shrinkage, the role of glacial meltwater in the local hydrological system, the increasing insufficiency of water entering local irrigation systems, and the livelihood adaptations made necessary by increasing water stress. Results show that while Chimborazo lost 21% ± 9% of its glacier area between 1986 and 2013, each of Chimborazo’s glacierized watersheds is a groundwater-dominated system. Even in the upper Rio Mocha, the only catchment where glacier meltwater is a regular component of surface runoff, glaciers generally directly contribute only ~5% of total discharge. There are indications of strong linkages between glacier meltwater and groundwater discharge, however, and this merits further investigation. Still, water stress is a prominent factor driving widespread local perceptions of reduced socio-economic well-being in recent decades. While instrumental records document a local warming trend of 0.11°C per decade since 1986, they do not indicate a shift in local precipitation patterns. However, local farmers are nearly unanimous in their perception that precipitation has decreased, and the spatial patterns of glacier change potentially support this observation. The impacts of these changes have been felt by nearly all people in the region, though their severity is differentiated across households and is highly spatially heterogeneous. While non-irrigators have been impacted the most, irrigators at lower elevation areas, where the climate is drier and soils are less productive, are also being forced to make considerable adaptations to their livelihood activities. Considering irrigation’s traditional role as sufficient insurance against the natural hydrological variability characteristic of this region, this indicates that climate change is already exceeding local coping capacities and that agrarian livelihoods are highly vulnerable to future changes.

Committee:

Bryan Mark (Advisor); Michael Durand (Committee Member); W. Berry Lyons (Committee Member); Kendra McSweeney (Committee Member); Ellen Mosley-Thompson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Geography; Hydrology; Latin American Studies; Physical Geography; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Ecuador; Chimborazo; climate change; glaciers; water resources; livelihood vulnerability; irrigation; glacier inventory; glacier change; hydrology

Lawlor, Sarah E.Using Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for the detection of the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii in southwestern Ohio forests
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2011, Geography
Lonicera maackii, an understory invasive shrub, has an extended leaf phenology that can be detected with remote sensing in the fall when the canopy is leafless and the shrub’s leaves are still green. The purpose of this research was to compare how accurately image data from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensor vs. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) identify L. maackii. Point intercept sampling was used to quantify L. maackii in 20 woodlots in two counties in southwestern Ohio. Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVIs) were applied to both images for each plot. Field estimated percent cover was regressed on values for each SVI per image to determine the best predictor of L. maackii cover. Cover of L. maackii was better explained by Landsat TM regressions than ALI. TM image results suggest that the ALI image was acquired too late seasonally to accurately detect the invasive shrub. The analysis did not clearly assess ALI for this research.

Committee:

Mary Henry, PhD (Advisor); David Gorchov, PhD (Committee Member); Jerry Green, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geographic Information Science; Geography; Physical Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

Advanced Land Imager; Landsat Thematic Mapper; Lonicera maackii, invasive species

Kozlowski, Michelle A.Environmental Justice in Appalachia: A Case Study of C8 Contamination in Little Hocking, Ohio
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Environmental justice addresses the inequitable distribution of environmental and human health risks that derive from air and water pollution. Appalachian residents of southeastern Ohio and western West Virginia who live along the Ohio River are subject to some of the most intense industrial and manufacturing pollution in the country. One such case includes DuPont’s Washington Works plant that has used perfluorooctanoic acid, or C8, as a manufacturing chemical since 1951 in order to make familiar consumer items such as Teflon and Gore-Tex products. Although DuPont officials were fully aware at least as early as 1984 that the public water supply that served the area (Little Hocking Water Association) was tainted with C8, the people who used this water were not notified until 2002. In order to evaluate this situation, it is important to ask whether the residents of the Little Hocking region consider C8 contamination in their water to be an environmental injustice, thereby expanding environmental justice in theory and practice to the context of rural, white populations living with environmental contamination. Twenty qualitative interviews have been conducted. I use their responses to argue that: 1) there is much debate surrounding the issue of finding a balance between employment and a safe and healthy environment; 2) it appears as though Little Hocking is experiencing localized harm, while other larger scale populations are gaining the perceived benefits of C8 products at a global or national scale; and 3) there is some controversy surrounding how Little Hocking residents perceive C8 contamination in their water. This case study is subsequently used to investigate the usefulness of applying the environmental justice framework to rural, white populations in Appalachia.

Committee:

Harold Perkins, PhD (Advisor); Geoffrey Buckley, PhD (Committee Member); Risa Whitson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Law; Environmental Management; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geography; Hydrology; Physical Geography; Sustainability; Toxicology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Environmental Justice; Rural; Environmental Contamination; Perfluorooctanoic Acid; C8; Human Health

Next Page