Search Results (1 - 25 of 100 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Tebbe, Hope MEvaluation of Indoor Air Quality in Four Nursing Home Facilities in Northwest Ohio
Master of Science in Occupational Health, University of Toledo, 2017, Occupational Health (Industrial Hygiene)
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is considered one of the top five environmental risks to the public’s health. Older adults are more vulnerable to health complications associated with indoor air contaminants because of their decreased immune system and age-associated health problems, as well as the fact that they spend up to 95 percent of their time indoors. Area air sampling was conducted in the nursing home section of four long term care facilities, three days at each facility (12 days total). Particle concentrations (PM2.5, PM10, Total Particulate matter (TPM), Ultrafine Particles (UFP), temperature, and humidity were measured. Two minute samples were collected during seven Sampling Sessions. Up to nine indoor locations were sampled, representing the various occupied spaces in each nursing home, along with an outside location for comparison. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by Facility demonstrated significant differences (p<0.001) in PM concentrations and UFP counts. One Facility had higher particulate concentrations at all Sampling Locations which may include contributions from geographic location, vehicular traffic, or resident clustering. ANOVA by Sampling Location demonstrated significant differences (p<0.001) in PM concentrations and UFP counts. In general, the highest UFP and PM concentrations were seen in the kitchen, satellite kitchen, and hair salon, especially at times when the staff and residents were active in these rooms. Significant differences were seen in UFP counts (Facilities 1 and 3) and PM2.5 (Facility 2) by Sampling Session. The highest concentrations were found for the Sampling Sessions in the mid-morning and mid-afternoon which were during peak times of activity for the residents. Although maximum temperature measurements exceeded ASHRAE winter guidelines, this may be appropriate for older residents who prefer a warmer temperature. While most median particle values were below ASHRAE guidelines, maximum values did exceed occasionally in the hair salon and kitchen at all facilities. Various indoor Sampling Location PM concentrations or UFP counts exceeded the outdoor levels at all four facilities. Although the median PM values did not exceed the ASHRAE standards it is unknown whether older adults may still experience significant health complications with these PM concentrations. In addition staff who spend extended amount of times in the kitchen and hair salon could be exposed to higher levels of PM. IAQ in hospitals and similar environments, such as nursing homes, may require a higher level of care because of the vulnerable population.

Committee:

April Ames, PhD, CIH (Committee Chair); Victoria Steiner, PhD (Committee Member); Akbar-Khanzadeh Farhang, PhD, CIH (Committee Member); Sheryl Milz, PhD, CIH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Alternative Medicine; Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Gerontology; Health; Health Care Management; Health Sciences; Medicine; Occupational Health; Occupational Safety; Public Health; Welfare

Keywords:

Particulate Matter; Nursing Homes; Elderly; Indoor Air Quality; PM; IAQ; ASHRAE; Air Quality; susceptible population; buildings; Aging

Fyffe, Deanna LynneMethods to Monitor Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms: A Fellowship with the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2017, Environmental Sciences
To fulfill the professional experience requirement for a Master of Environmental Science degree at Miami University, I completed a fellowship with the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR). My work involved investigating data trends of recent Lake Erie harmful algal blooms and potential monitoring methods. Data trends revealed monitoring stations closest to the mouth of the Maumee River had the highest average cyanobacteria concentrations. Bloom biomass distribution tended to favor the surface of the water column but was likely influenced by wind speed in 2016 and 2017. I also compared chlorophyll-a data from a CIGLR-owned bbe FluoroProbe to laboratory extraction data. The bbe FluoroProbe provided consistent results when used in the field and in the laboratory, but generally identified less chlorophyll-a than pigment extraction methods. Additionally, I performed field, laboratory, and analytical work to evaluate commercial in situ fluorometers. Due to proprietary reasons, the individual fluorometer data could not be presented in this report. I provided an example field deployment evaluation for the YSI EXO2 Multiparameter Sonde, a CIGLR-owned fluorometer that was used during the field tests for ancillary data. The EXO2 ultimately had low accuracy when compared to traditional laboratory methods, but both methods produced similar data trends.

Committee:

Suzanne Zazycki, JD (Advisor); Bartosz Grudzinski, PhD (Committee Member); Vanni Michael, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Freshwater Ecology; Microbiology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Lake Erie, Great Lakes, harmful algal bloom, HAB, water quality, in situ, fluorometer, cyanobacteria, biomass, microcystis, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, pigment, research, laboratory, EXO2, FluoroProbe, NOAA, GLERL, CIGLR, monitoring

Quinlan, Joshua MortimerReduce, Reuse, Recycle – Research: Sustainable Scene Design for a Production of Henrik Ibsen’s An Enemy Of The People
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Theatre

Theatre is a liminal environment between performers and a live audience, and between the past, present and future. Theatre practitioners often bring to life old scripts that have graced the stage many times while highlighting the relevance of key themes and motifs in relation to a modern audience. The work of playwright Henrik Ibsen is produced worldwide because of its modern subjects, despite having been written in the late nineteenth century.

Under the direction of Lesley Ferris, I designed the scenic environment for Rebecca Lenkiewicz’s version of Henrik Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People at The Ohio State University. I used a combination of sketches, digital modelling, and a physical white model to communicate my scenic design. By way of reducing, reusing, and recycling, I executed a sustainable scenic environment that complimented the themes of environmental awareness within the play without compromising the aesthetic of the design.

Committee:

Brad Steinmetz, M.F.A. (Advisor); Mary Tarantino, M.F.A (Committee Member); Lesley Ferris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architectural; Architecture; Art History; Design; Environmental Education; Environmental Health; Environmental Management; Environmental Studies; Fine Arts; Gender; Gender Studies; Performing Arts; Scandinavian Studies; Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Theatre; Design; Scene Design; Scene; Set Design; Set; Scenic Design; Scenic; Painting; Art; Scenic Art; Scene Painting; Scrim; Costume; Lighting; Sustainable; Green; Theater; Hammershoi; Henrik Ibsen; Enemy of The People; Production; Norway; Environment

Reece, Jason WilliamIn Pursuit of a Just Region: The Vision, Reality and Implications of the Sustainable Communities Initiative
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, City and Regional Planning
The planning field has a long history of intersecting with, contributing to and addressing issues of social, racial and geographic equity, from the late 19th century work of Jacob Riis and Jane Addams to contemporary movements such as progressive regionalism and environmental justice. Planning has had a conflicted history in engaging issues of equity and racial or social inclusion, with the profession at times being at the forefront of social justice issues, and at others acting as an accomplice in many of the most discriminatory urban policies in 20th century American history. While planning has often served the needs of marginalized groups, racial discrimination has been interwoven with various aspects of planning practice and policy throughout the 20th century. The model of sustainable development, which has become dominant in planning practice in the past two decades, presents a vision for balancing economic development, environmental protection and social equity, known as the three “e’s” of sustainable development. By the late 2000s the principles of sustainability have made their way into the thinking of many federal agencies. The Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Sustainable Communities’ Initiative (SCI), introduced by the Obama Administration, sought to take these principles and translate them to practice at a scale not previously attempted in the United States. HUD invested more than $200 million in seventy- four regions across the U.S. who received three- year regional sustainable development planning grants. The planning initiatives were intended to better coordinate housing and transportation while supporting more sustainable and equitable land use, infrastructure, and zoning decisions. SCI included a strong equity and fair housing mandate, introduced new equity planning and fair housing tools, and provided extensive support for equity planning in the program. My research examines the experience of forty- five regional planning grantees awarded SCI grants in 2010. This research is a formative program evaluation of the SCI. This research seeks to understand if the SCI’s effort to affirmatively further fair housing and support regional equity led to stronger equity outcomes in regional sustainability planning processes and plans. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach integrating plan evaluation and thematic analysis of documents, I find that equity planning efforts in the SCI fostered a stronger equity component to regional sustainability plans. For some regions, SCI was transformational in fostering new understandings and approaches to supporting equity planning, although the depth of the equity component of the planning process and plan recommendations varied substantially between grantees within the 2010 cohort of grantees. The SCI experience speaks to the potential benefits of stronger, more proactive federal support by HUD for equity planning. Despite this progress, serious concerns regarding the implementation of SCI linger. The communicative rational planning model of SCI has substantial shortcomings in implementing complex regional sustainability plans. I propose integration of the collective impact theory to address this shortcoming in existing theory and to foster more productive implementation of SCI plans.

Committee:

Jennifer Evans-Cowley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jill Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Rachel Kleit, PhD (Committee Member); Bernadette Hanlon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; Architecture; Area Planning and Development; Black Studies; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Studies; Ethnic Studies; Geography; Legal Studies; Native American Studies; Public Health; Public Policy; Sustainability; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

equity planning; advocacy planning; sustainable development; just city; fair housing; collective impact; HUD; sustainable communities initiative; regionalism; progressive planning; race; social justice; racial justice; communicative planning; engagement

Gao, XiaoqianEnvironmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Medicine: Molecular, Cellular and Biochemical Pharmacology
Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of exogenous compounds that may interfere with the functioning of endogenous systems and affect human health. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of most ubiquitous EDCs in the manufacturing industry as a plasticizing agent used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is well-documented that human exposure to BPA is extremely wide spread. It was demonstrated that BPA, at human-exposure relevant doses, rapidly promoted cardiac arrhythmias in female rat hearts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA’s pro-arrhythmic effects remain unclear. As a result of banning BPA’s use in various consumer products, bisphenol S (BPS) is increasingly used as a substitute agent for BPA. Human populations are reported to be widely exposed to BPS, but the biological activities and potential toxic effects of BPS are not well understood. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the cardiac impact of EDCs including BPA and BPS, with a focus on their cardiac arrhythmogenesis and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Of particular interest, was to elucidate the signaling cascades and protein targets underlying BPA’s rapid alteration of myocyte Ca2+ handling and promotion of arrhythmogenic-triggered activities in female rodent hearts; and to evaluate how BPS affects cardiac arrhythmogenesis in comparison to BPA. It was demonstrated that protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling pathways are the two major signaling pathways activated by BPA. In isolated female rat ventricular myocytes, BPA exposure rapidly increased phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptors by PKA but not by CAMKII. BPA exposure also rapidly increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban by CAMKII but not PKA. These two pathways are mediated by estrogen receptor ß but not estrogen receptor α and are shown to be localized. Functional analysis also showed that both PKA and CAMKII were necessary contributors to the arrhythmogenesis of BPA on cardiomyocytes. This study identified the unique signaling cascades of BPA in the heart, and elucidated its novel effects on key Ca2+ handling proteins. Also of interest is the cardiac impact of BPS, especially on the electrical aspect of the heart. It was shown that in female rat hearts, BPS rapidly increased heart rate and promoted ventricular arrhythmias under stress conditions. BPS increased arrhythmogenic-triggered activities in isolated female myocytes via alteration of Ca2+ handling, in particular by increasing spontaneous sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. BPS exposure increased phosphorylation of two key Ca2+ handling proteins, the ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. Additionally, the pro-arrhythmic effects of BPS were demonstrated to be female-specific, characterized by an inverted-U dose response curve. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the rapid cardiac arrhythmogenesis of BPS in female hearts, and contribute to the evaluation of the potential cardiac toxicity of BPS. Furthermore, the cardiac effects of probenecid were investigated. Collaboratively, it was shown that probenecid increased myocardial contractility using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo Langendorff perfused heart and isolated myocyte system. The inotropic effect is likely mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channels via enhanced sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

Committee:

Hongsheng Wang, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Terence Kirley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Steven Kleene, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jo El Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

endocrine disruptors;bisphenol a;bisphenol s;heart;rapid action;molecular mechanism

James, Kelley JImpact of Heat Exposure on Postural Balance of Firefighters
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Medicine: Industrial Hygiene (Environmental Health)
Objective: Measure the effect of physically demanding tasks performed under hot environment on postural balance characteristics of firefighters. Design: The study design is to evaluate the impact of heat stress on postural balance of firefighters during live burn training using wearable, wireless, multi-dimensional gyroscopes and accelerometers. Heat stress and physical exertion levels will be quantified using a wearable sensors system: “Bioharness,” and an FDA approved ingestible radio pill (CoreHQ). These wearable sensors will provide firefighters’ heart rate and core body temperature during live burn training. Collectively, these outcomes will be used to assess the physiological effects of heat stress on firefighters. Method: Twenty-six firefighters participated in live firefighting training (mean ± SD: age 36.0 years ± 5.2, weight 216 lbs ± 34, BMI 29.7 ± 4.2) while performing following tasks: search and rescue, hose advancement, and backup. Prior to heat exposure (PRE) and following each scenario (POST1, POST2, POST3), firefighters’ postural balance was assessed with a lightweight, wearable inertial sensor system quantifying time dependent changes in linear acceleration (LIN ACC) and angular velocity (AV) about three orthogonal axes [Anterior-Posterior (AP), Medial-Lateral (ML), and vertical (V)] during one foot balance tests for 30 seconds under eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The data obtained were processed by creating phase plane plots between AV and angular displacement (AD) as well as linear ACC and linear velocity (LIN VEL). The postural balance characteristics were quantified by the size (max excursions) of the phase plane plots, and set of stability metrics based on the root mean square (RMS) and variance of AD and AV, as well as the total sway area (SA) and sway length (SL) of each test. Perceived ratings of physical exertion (PE), thermal compensation(TS), and respiratory distress (RD) as well as core body temperature and heart rate metrics were also collected prior to and following each scenario. Results: Seven of the balance parameter mean values, for all firefighters, were found to significantly increase from baseline tests to POST3 tests (p < 0.05): RMS LIN VEL about ML axis, RMS AD about AP axis, LIN DSP along ML axis, Excursion of LIN VEL along ML axis, Excursion of AD about AP axis, SL LIN VEL versus ACC along V axis, and SA LIN VEL versus ACC along AP axis. There was no correlation between PE, TS, and RD perceived ratings and any balance parameter. Both core body temperature and heart rate values were positively correlated with PE, TS, and RD ratings, but were not correlated with any balance parameter. Conclusion: Significant increases in stability parameter, excursion, and RMS response about the ML and AP axis, associated with tasks performed in hot environments, suggest an increase in postural instability, larger postural sway and increased efforts to maintain balance. These increased postural instability outcomes may increase their risk of falling. Perceived exertion parameters did not correlate with any balance parameters, which suggests that a firefighter does not necessarily perceive postural instability, due to heat stress, leading to potential increased risk of falling.

Committee:

Amit Bhattacharya, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); J. Kim, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Marepalli Rao, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Firefighter;Heat Stress;Postural Balance;Live Burn;Stability Parameter;Heat Storage

Rosile, Paul AModeling Biotic and Abiotic Drivers of Public Health Risk from West Nile Virus in Ohio, 2002-2006
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Public Health
West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans causes systemic febrile illness, meningoencephalitis, and death. The WNV, a reemerging pathogen, found its way to New York City, United States of America (U.S.), from the Mediterranean region in Europe in 1999 causing a countrywide epizootic and epidemic by 2003, and by 2012, leaving a reported 37,088 total human cases, 16,196 neuroinvasive cases, 1474 deaths, with an average case fatality rate of 10% in its wake. From 2002-2006, Ohio reported 669 human cases, 487 neuroinvasive cases, and 47 deaths, 5536 WNV positive mosquito pools, and 1328 WNV total positive dead birds. This study used captured data from this time frame to address the gap in translational research between mosquito control theoreticians and practitioners for better understanding, preventing, and controlling WNV transmission hazards and risks to humans, by developing a practical predictive model to be used in their mosquito control programs. Time-delayed indices were constructed as time periods relative to the week mosquitoes were trapped (weeks before and during the trapping week) to reach this goal. Temperature (T), weekly cumulative precipitation (CP), and the Palmer Index (PDI) informed these indices that estimated the temporal position of phases of the mosquito life cycle and the ecological conditions necessary for the development within these phases in relation to the trapping week. Descriptive statistical tools were used to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of: 1) T, CP, and the PDI relative to documented WNV mosquito infection; and, 2) reported human WNV disease, WNV positive bird deaths, mosquito infection rates (IRs), and mosquito density (abundance), by week, year and Ohio County, and within the broader context of the U.S.. Regression analyses were performed using these same indices as predictor variables with mosquito IRs as the outcome to determine the biological and meteorological drivers underlying WNV infections in mosquitoes, and using mosquito IRs as the predictor variable with human WNV case onsets as the outcome. A mathematical model (MM) was developed, evaluated and calibrated at the state and county levels using independent datasets from different years, by integrating functions containing the statistically significant meteorological drivers of WNV disease transmission, which resulted from the regression analysis and literature parameter values, into differential equations in order to gain insight into the biological processes fundamental to increased WNV infection in mosquitoes. The public health implications of this study should be realized with continued research on connecting the descriptive, statistical and mathematical model outcomes to real-life applications of mosquito vector control. The knowledge gained from continuing this translational research at the county level should improve the predictive capacity of the modeling in order to cost-effectively reduce WNV transmission hazards and public health risks

Committee:

Michael Bisesi, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

West Nile Virus risk, descriptive models, statistical models, mathematical predictive models, translational to mosquito control practice

Leverington, Cheyanna LeighGIS and Spatial Database Expansion as a Means to Enhance Planning, Water Demand Projections and the Impacts of Climate Change: An Internship with the NYC Department of Environmental Protection and a NNEMS Fellowship with the US EPA
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2014, Environmental Sciences
This report details my internship experience with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) in the Bureau of Environmental Planning and Analyses (BEPA) and a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) Fellowship experience with the US EPA as a member of the GIS Team. At the NYCDEP my focus was to develop and analyze data, demographics, core infrastructure elements, wastewater, zoning data, land use and water consumption using GIS. The focus of my fellowship with the EPA was to expand the agency's enterprise spatial database by performing cross media analyses and acquiring missing data layers to support wetland protection, environmental compliance and environmental impacts due to climate change. My initial experiences with the internship and fellowship involved familiarizing myself with the subject matter and exploring the existing spatial databases and research tools. Along with learning municipal and federal environmental planning strategies, the majority of my time was spent on creating a map of properties within Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) drainage areas to facilitate impact analyses of new development and updating, enhancing, and expanding the EPA's spatial database. The map of properties within drainage areas was published by the city of New York in the City Environmental Quality Review (CEQR) Technical Manual and made available online to agencies and residents of New York City.

Committee:

Thomas Crist, PhD (Committee Chair); Suzanne Zazycki (Committee Member); Robbyn Abbitt (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Conservation; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Information Systems; Natural Resource Management

Keywords:

climate; water; sewer; new york city; combined sewer overflow; GIS, drainage

Galos, Dylan LouisDifferences Between Scientific Experts and Residents of a Community in Columbus, OH in Perceptions of Brownfield Sites and Their Effects on Health
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Public Health
Brownfield sites, defined by the U.S. EPA as "real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant," are a problem in many urban areas. In addition to potential chemical hazards, they pose other experiential and physical hazards to the communities in which they exist. This community-based participatory research study examined the differences between residents of Weinland Park, a community in Columbus, Ohio and experts in environmental science about their perceptions of hazards, health impacts, necessary actions and methods of seeking information as they pertain to brownfields. Results suggested a need for comprehensive risk communication to build a common language between these lay and expert populations. While residents knew there were contaminated sites in their neighborhood, many did not know the term brownfields. Experts showed a greater familiarity with chemical hazards than residents, but both groups had similar perceptions of experiential and physical hazards. Both groups suggested that poverty can increase a population's vulnerability to health effects from brownfield sites due to prolonged exposure to chemicals and delayed action. Experts outlined process-based methods of communication including a community-based method called "porch chats." Both groups identified a need for partnership between community and government entities to elicit effective action in brownfield redevelopment.

Committee:

John Crawford, PhD (Advisor); Randi Love, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Public Health

Keywords:

Brownfields; Risk Communication

Garimella, Venkata Naga RavikanthExhaust Emissions Analysis for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel and Biodiesel Garbage Trucks
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2010, Civil Engineering
The main objective of this experimental thesis is to study the exhaust emissions of in-use garbage trucks for different idling modes fuelled with alternate fuels. The emission concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, and NOX), and carbon dioxide were examined with respect to engine parameters such as fuel temperature, coolant temperature and percent fuel. A Testo350 XL portable emission monitoring instrument was used to collect second by second data for the pollutants. Performance of engine parameters was also monitored simultaneously using on-board diagnostic (OBD) software. The tail pipe emissions from Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) are compared with emissions from biodiesel blends. Hotter engines produced lower emissions compared to colder engines for all fuel blends and vehicle makes. Significant reductions in emission concentrations were observed due to the inspection and maintenance programs. The performance of biodiesel blends in reducing emission concentrations of pollutants across different vehicle makes was found to be inconsistent. A comprehensive study on various vehicle, fuel and operating parameters that effect the exhaust emission concentrations was conducted to find an alternative to ULSD.

Committee:

Ashok Kumar, PhD (Committee Chair); Brian Randolph, PhD (Committee Member); Dong-Shik Kim, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Automotive Engineering; Civil Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Experiments; Sustainability; Transportation; Urban Planning

Keywords:

biodiesel; ultra low sulfur diesel; diesel; emission; exhaust; garbage truck; portable emission; blends; Idle engine; Alternative fuels; fuel

Rosenblum, James SThe Relationships of Pathogenic Microbes, Chemical Parameters, and Biogas Production During Anaerobic Digestion of Manure-based Biosolids
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Public Health
Biosolids are biological wastes that primarily originate from animal manures, food wastes, crop residues, and wastewater treatment sludge. They are often treated through anaerobic digestion in order to produce a more stable product. This process simultaneously degrades the waste, reduces pathogens, generates a nutrient rich fertilizer, and produces alternative energy source in the form of biogas. Due to these benefits, anaerobic digestion is utilized globally, on both large and small scales. The majority of the anaerobic digestion literature focuses on large-scale digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, with minimal attention paid towards the performance of the more than 40 million small-scale digesters which frequently operate at psychrophilic temperatures. Therefore, this research aimed to assess anaerobic digestion and its efficiency in reducing pathogens and producing biogas at psychrophilic temperatures. This research also aimed to identify a predictive chemical indicator that is related with microbial levels. The later was pursued with the goal of identifying a particular chemical indicator that could act as a surrogate for microbial levels, thus identifying a rapid method by which to determine biosolids classification without microbial quantification. Results from chapter 2 indicated that anaerobic digestion at 10&#xb0;C and 20&#xb0;C, using various inoculum-to-substrate ratios, could reduce levels of indicator organisms; E. coli was reduced in all treatments, while Enterococci was decreased in only a few treatments. These reductions appear to be the result of changing environmental conditions, such as substrate limitation for E. coli, and increased volatile fatty acid (VFA) levels for Enterococci. Lower inoculum-to-substrate ratios resulted in higher average levels of indicator organisms, as well as less stable conditions, based on various chemical parameters. These included more acidic pH, higher VFA levels, and reduced biogas production. The study results suggests that inoculum-to-substrate ratios influence chemical parameters and the levels of indicator organisms during the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in batch reactors at psychrophilic temperatures. Results from chapter 3 showed that class B biosolids were generated from the eight lab-based digesters, according to the USEPA guidelines (<2x106/g Fecal Coliforms), regardless of loading rate or temperature. Reduced loading rates led to a more stable environment (decreasing VFAs, and increasing total inorganic carbonate) as well as lower levels of indicator organisms, but generated slightly less biogas. Overall, these results provide important data by which to improve the performance of small-scale psychrophilic digesters, specifically by reducing loading rates to prevent souring during winter months. Results from chapter 4 suggest an inverse relationship exists between levels of humic acid and both pathogenic and indicator organisms. The suggested inverse relationship between humic acid and microbes is further supported by comparison of the two temperatures (treatments), with the treatment conducted at 37&#xb0;C generating reduced levels of microbes and higher levels of humic acids when compared to the treatment conducted at 25&#xb0;C. This study also validated the use of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction methods to separate humic acid from the EPS of biosolids, and further demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical luminescence with an acidic Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G complex in quantifying extracted humic acids.

Committee:

Michael Bisesi (Advisor)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Engineering; Environmental Health; Public Health

Keywords:

anaerobic digestion; biosolids; psychrophilic; fecal indicators; waste management; biogas; pathogens; humic acid

Matheny, Erica M.A Survey of the Structural Determinants of Local Emergency Planning Committee Compliance and Proactivity: Towards an Applied Theory of Precaution in Emergency Management
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2012, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
Millions of factories, chemical facilities, and highways store or convey extremely hazardous substances (EHS) in proximity to populated residential and commercial areas. The proliferation of hazardous chemicals in manufacturing has led to thousands of facilities that store and utilize them throughout the United States. There is inherent risk to neighborhoods and populated areas located near facilities that use and store hazardous chemicals. Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) were created in 1987 as stakeholder based, primarily volunteer organizations that address hazardous chemical accident mitigation. In addition, LEPCs were mandated with the intent of engaging communities in the debate about hazardous materials. Public safety has also increased in salience in the United States in particular since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina devastation in New Orleans. More recently, the earthquakes in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, and most notably Japan have refocused efforts worldwide on examining policies and practices surrounding disaster management and response. This dissertation is an examination of compliance and proactivity in LEPCs and how use of limited resources influences these factors. A convenient sample of LEPCs in Ohio was surveyed to gather data for this causally probative study. LEPCs that are more compliant and proactive were expected to be in counties with larger, more urban populations that have more accident experience, and are expected to be in line with disaster management strategies that emphasize public involvement. The results of this study show a positive correlation between number of extremely hazardous substance facilities in a county and the compliance of that county’s LEPC. Other findings include limited emphasis on provision of information to the public. Emergency planning resources have been stretched further and further, with additional responsibilities of homeland security in addition to chemical safety tasks, and little to no additional funding. The researcher proposes LEPCs look more towards collaboration as a means of ensuring community security within their limited capacity. Collaboration has been noted amongst emergency planning agencies between LEPCs and County Emergency Management Agencies (EMAs), often in the form of shared staff or resources. Collaboration can lead to greater success for all involved parties. Future research also needs to be completed to re-conceptualize the idea of LEPC “proactivity” to better capture the diversity of LEPC activities that may fall under this umbrella. In particular, emphasis on precautionary or mitigation activities may be a better use of emergency managers’ limited resources. One of the most significant weaknesses of the current approach, in light of the original intent of LEPCs as stakeholder-inclusive entities, is access to information. As hazardous chemical information access has become more limited and restrictive, collaboration between involved parties and the public is also therefore limited. This may call for more proactive, creative solutions on the part of regulated industry to ensure emergency plans contain complete hazard information with proper security protocols maintained.

Committee:

William Bowen, PhD (Committee Chair); Wendy Kellogg, PhD (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Studies; Public Administration; Sustainability; Urban Planning

Keywords:

LEPC; Local Emergency Planning Committee; precaution, proactivity, risk, mitigation, EHS, extremely hazardous substances

Marion, Jason W.Protecting Public Health at Inland Ohio Beaches: Development of Recreational Water Quality Indicators Predictive of Microbial and Microcystin Exposure
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Public Health
Inland lakes are prone to contamination from a variety of sources within their watersheds. The changing environment can influence transport and fate of fecal indicators and may also influence the growth of harmful cyanobacteria, thereby occasionally creating health-related water quality concerns for recreational water users. To date, epidemiological and limnological studies pertaining to fecal indicators and harmful cyanobacteria have been limited with respect to inland U.S. lakes. The primary goals of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate illness risks associated with the fecal indicator E. coli, and (2) evaluate predictive tools potentially useful for the rapid prediction of E. coli densities and health-related concentrations of cyanotoxins in inland Ohio lakes. Through an epidemiological study and the collection of water quality data, predictive models for human illness and water quality advisories were developed. The relationship between water quality indicators and reported adverse health outcomes among users an inland Ohio beach were examined. Human health data collected via a prospective cohort study over 26 swimming days during the 2009 swimming season at East Fork Lake demonstrated that wading, playing or swimming in the water was found to be a significant risk factor for GI illness (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 3.2; CI = 1.1, 9.0). Among water users (n = 806), E. coli density was associated with elevated GI illness risk where the highest E. coli quartile was associated with an aOR of 7.0 (CI = 1.5, 32). Upon observing a significant illness association with E. coli densities among swimmers, the need for rapidly estimating E. coli densities was determined to have merit. Current approaches for quantifying E. coli densities rely on culture-based methods that require 18 or more hours to obtain a result. Using rapidly measured water quality parameters (e.g., total phosphorus, secchi depth, chlorophyll A), univariable models for rapidly estimating health-related E. coli densities were developed and considered for inland Ohio lakes using 182 beach water samples collected from seven Ohio lakes. Univariable logistic regression revealed that deviations in lake-specific water quality as measured by total phosphorus (p < 0.001), phycocyanin pigment (p = 0.018), and trophic state index (TSI) (p = 0.006) were predictive of E. coli levels exceeding recreational water quality criteria. Using the same samples, models were constructed for estimating cyanotoxin concentrations. Microcystin levels exceeding the 4 micrograms/L low risk threshold set by the World Health Organization were detected by ELISA in 48 of 182 (26.4%) samples. A multivariable logistic regression model using practical and real-time measures of in vivo phycocyanin and secchi depth was constructed to predict beach conditions exceeding the low risk threshold for microcystin. The model (p = 0.030) predicted microcystin levels >4 micrograms/L with acceptable discrimination as indicated by the area under the ROC curve (0.795). This study indicates a significant health risk for inland beach users and demonstrates the potential to predict health-related hazard levels using practical real-time measures are possible, enabling opportunities for interventions that protect public health.

Committee:

Timothy J. Buckley, PhD (Committee Chair); Jiyoung Lee, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Stanley Lemeshow, PhD (Committee Member); John R. Wilkins, III, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Epidemiology; Freshwater Ecology; Limnology; Public Health; Recreation

Keywords:

E. coli; fecal indicator; epidemiology; recreational water; microcystin; harmful algal bloom; cyanotoxin; phycocyanin; trophic state index; inland lakes; Ohio; gastrointestinal illness; beach water quality;

Rugless, Fedoria E.The Effects of Manganese Exposure on Neuromotor Performance in Children
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Medicine: Epidemiology (Environmental Health)

Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient needed by the human body to carry out multiple physiological processes. In excess, Mn can have negative neuromotor effects, similar to Parkinson’s disease, such as stooped posture, tremors, speech disturbances, slow and clumsy movements, difficulty with gait and balance and other deficits of neuromotor function. Children may be more susceptible to Mn toxicity due to increased tissue absorption, diminished excretory capacity and quicker uptake of greater amounts of Mn into their brain, as compared to adults. Many studies have demonstrated that abnormal neuromotor performance is one of the first indicators of neurological damage. Neuromotor performance measured by postural sway assessment can be used as a reliable indicator of disease pathology and progression.

A cross-sectional study was conducted on children ages 7-9 years old, residing in Washington and Guernsey Counties (Ohio), who were participating in a community-based participatory research study, the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES). Washington County was an optimum location to study Mn exposure as these children are exposed to elevated levels of Mn from a local ferromanganese refinery. There were 55 children in this sample, which is a subset of the CARES cohort. The lower exposed population (n=36) is located in Guernsey County, which is approximately 50 miles north from the testing site. The children were enrolled in this sub-study after their initial appointment with the CARES study. It was hypothesized that the children exposed to higher levels of Mn would have greater deficits in neuromotor performance, compared to children with lower levels of Mn exposure.

Environmental exposure to Mn was assessed in children residing near, compared to those living farther away from the ferromanganese refinery, as measured by ambient and modeled air Mn concentrations, residential distance from the refinery, and internal biomarkers of dose. The neuromotor performance was also evaluated of study participants residing near, compared to farther away from the refinery, using quantitative posturography techniques and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd Edition (BOT-2) short form.

Air monitoring stations (PM2.5) were placed in a central location in Washington and Guernsey Counties during the testing period. Samples from ambient air, as well as blood and hair were collected and analyzed for Mn concentration levels. Neuromotor performance was assessed using postural balance testing with a force platform system, along with the BOT-2. Data collection and statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate sway length and area compared to subject location and biological Mn concentration.

The average air Mn concentration over a two-year period in Marietta was 17.44ng/m¿¿¿¿ (14.13-20.76 ng/m¿¿¿¿). The ambient and modeled Mn air estimates, along with residential distance from the refinery correlated significantly with most of the postural balance testing conditions. A significant association was found between blood and hair Mn concentrations and postural sway length (p<0.04) and sway area (p<0.04). Participants from Marietta showed increased postural sway length (p=0.10) and sway area (p<0.06). Thus, biomarkers of Mn exposure at a level that was less than half the U.S. EPA RfC (50.00ng/m¿¿¿¿) was significantly associated with deficits in neuromotor performance.

Committee:

Erin Nicole Haynes, DrPH (Committee Chair); Amit Bhattacharya, PhD (Committee Member); Kim Dietrich, PhD (Committee Member); Fredy Revilla, MD (Committee Member); Paul Succop, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Manganese;Balance;Children;Neuromotor;;;

Seryak, Liesel M.Factors and Outcomes Associated with Bisphenol A Exposure in Women of Reproductive Age
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Public Health

Background. Considerable controversy and uncertainty surround the reproductive health threat from exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). This common chemical to which most humans are exposed has long been known to have estrogenic properties, but much more research is needed on the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy.

Objectives. To address this uncertainty, we investigated exposure to BPA and associations with birth outcomes with particular focus on the vulnerable subpopulation of low-income, African-American women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Methods. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population, examining relations between demographic and occupational factors and urinary BPA concentrations. Logistic regression was used to model the relation between current urinary BPA concentration and reproductive history. This secondary data analysis was complemented by a clinic-based primary data collection effort where we enrolled low-income African-American women in the first trimester of pregnancy (n=16) to compare urinary BPA concentrations to self-reported contact with potential sources of BPA and to assess feasibility of these methods for a future longitudinal study of prenatal BPA exposure and birth outcomes.

Results. Women of reproductive age in NHANES had increased odds of having delivered a low birth weight baby (3% per 10% increase in urinary BPA; p=0.046) and decreased odds of having delivered a high birth weight baby (5% per 10% increase in urinary BPA; p=0.02). History of ever being pregnant, ever giving birth to a live infant, ever experiencing a pregnancy loss, or ever having been diagnosed with gestational diabetes were not associated with BPA exposure (p≥.39). U.S. workers (male and female) employed in the "retail-food stores" industry had higher urinary BPA concentrations than workers in other industries (p=0.05).

With 11 of 16 samples above the limit of quantitation in our feasibility study, the geometric mean (GM) urinary BPA concentration was 0.46 μg/L (95% CI: 0.20, 1.1 μg/L), and the GM of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA was 0.35 μg/g (95% CI: 0.12, 1.0 μg/g). Contact with common potential sources of BPA exposure identified through the personal interviews was infrequent. We observed breakfast consumption prior to enrollment as the only factor associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA.

Conclusions. Taken together, these findings contribute to elucidating the potential risks that BPA exposure may pose for reproductive health and infant development. Our studies have indicated that birth weight may be adversely impacted by prenatal exposure to BPA. Furthermore, employment in the retail industry may contribute to increased exposure to BPA through dermal contact with receipts. Our feasibility study in first trimester, low-income African-American women helped refine methods for use in future studies of occupational and other BPA exposure sources and adverse effects on birth weight in this particularly vulnerable subpopulation.

Committee:

Timothy J. Buckley, PhD (Advisor); Courtney D. Lynch, PhD (Committee Member); Rebecca R. Andridge, PhD (Committee Member); John M. Crawford, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Epidemiology; Public Health

Keywords:

bisphenol a; bpa; reproductive health; birth outcomes; birth weight; occupational exposure; environmental exposure; NHANES; endocrine disruption

Warner, Blake MatthewTopical Black Raspberries and Strawberries Bioincorporated with Selenium Reduce Experimental Oral Cancer
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Public Health
Oral squamous cell carcinoma remains a significant public health threat in the developed and developing worlds. Poor survival and high rates of recurrence suggest a need for improved prevention, early detection, and treatment. One strategy to delay or prevent development or recurrence without harmful side effects is chemoprevention. Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic agents to reverse or suppress either the initiation or the progression to malignancy across the continuum of carcinogenesis. Epidemiological evidence suggests that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against cancer, specifically head and neck cancers including oral. Berries, such as black raspberries and strawberries are particularly promising due to their high concentration of bioactive phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential. We, and others, have demonstrated that black raspberries and strawberries are potent chemopreventive agents in vitro and in animal models such as: colon, esophageal, and oral. However, mechanisms driving these effects remain unclear. I used in vitro and an in vivo models of human oral cancer to study the chemopreventive effects of lyophilized black raspberries (LBR) and lyophilized strawberries (LS) with or without bioincorporated selenium (LS-Se). We investigated: i) topical application of LBR to prevent oral cancer development, in vivo; ii) topical application of LBR suppress proliferation and modulate gene expression in oral cancer and confirm the biological response of oral tumors to black raspberry application in human oral cancers; iii) dietary LS and LS-Se to reduce oral cancer when administered before, during, and after carcinogen application, or ii after the establishment of premalignant lesions; and iv) extracts of LBR and LS inhibit premalignant and malignant oral cancer cell growth and the associated mechanisms of action. Topical application of LBR prevented progression of premalignant lesions to malignancy. LBR application to naive tumors reduced expression of pro-survival/anti-apoptotic genes, increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes, suppressed proliferation rates, and decreased Birc5/Survivin protein. The effect of LBR extracts (LBR-E) on proliferation and cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and gene expression were quantified in vitro. LBR-E reduced the proliferation of premalignant and malignant cells partially through induction of apoptosis. We demonstrated gene expression changes that corroborate the anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effects demonstrated at the cellular level and in vivo. This is the first study to confirm that LBR-E block oral carcinogenesis is partially through induction of apoptosis, potentially through suppression of BIRC5/SURVIVIN signaling. Dietary LS and LS bioincorporated with selenium (LS-Se), when administered before, during, and after carcinogen exposure, reduced the multiplicity and incidence of tumors. Additive effects of Se were not demonstrated. When fed after the establishment of premalignant lesions, LS-Se but not LS significantly inhibited progression to malignancy. These effects were dissimilar to our previous study demonstrating LS chemoprevention in both bioassays. We attribute these differences to differences in cultivar. In vitro extract evaluation was inconclusive. These results positively support a translational role for LBR and potentially, LS, in future human oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials.

Committee:

Christopher Weghorst (Advisor); Amy Ferketich (Committee Member); Michael Pennell (Committee Member); John "Mac" Crawford (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Animal Sciences; Environmental Health; Epidemiology; Experiments; Health Sciences; Molecular Biology; Nutrition; Oncology; Public Health

Keywords:

Oral Cancer;Public Health;Chemoprevention;Cancer Chemoprevention;Strawberries;Black Raspberries;Selenium;Hamster Cheek Pouch;in vitro;in vivo;Gene Expression;qRT PCR;SURVIVIN

King, Samantha LThe Effect of Time of Expsoure to Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) on Thyroid Status and Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Sprague Dawley Rats
Master of Family and Consumer Sciences (MFCS), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Family and Consumer Sciences/food and Nutrition
Previous research has demonstrated that feeding pregnant rats a diet containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) modifies the thyroid status of offspring, and the behavioral development of those pups, as well as that of the dam. In the present study, a mixture of PCB 47 (noncoplanar) and 77 (coplanar) congeners were administered at a final dietary concentration of 25 mg/kg of diet, from gestational day 0 to postnatal day (PND) 30. Comparisons were made between pups from dams given normal diet (control) and those fed the diet described above (PCB), with regard to pups thyroid status (circulating T3 and T4 concentrations), and the rate of production of pups ultrasonic vocalizations (USV/min) as a measure of behavioral development on PND 3, 7, 15, 21 and 30. Overall, T4 was depressed across the examined age range, but this depression only became significant from PND 15 onward (46% of control on PND 15, 56% on PND 21, and 50% on PND 30). Circulating T3 was not significantly altered across the time period, but female pups displayed elevated T3 at 30 days of age (176% of controls). As has been reported by others, USV number per/min in the present steadily declined over the age range, with a significant decline from PND 7 to 21. On the other hand, USV emissions among PCB pups increased significantly from PND 3-7 (55%) to a level 218% that of the control group, and then markedly decreased by PND 21 (98%), rather than showing the gradual decline that occurred in control pups. These data may be related to previous reported PCB effects that have been illustrated during development. Previous investigators have found PCB to result in hearing deficits in rat pups. Although not measured in the present study, such depression of auditory acuity may result in an increase in USV number on emissions in an effort to communicate with the dam. The results also suggest that the pattern, timing, and severity of PCBs effects on thyroid hormones may be sex-dependent, and regardless of gender, the time period from PND 0 to PND 7 in rats could a critical time to correct the altered hypothyroid state.

Committee:

Julian Williford, Dr. (Advisor); Lee Meserve, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Endocrinology; Environmental Health; Nutrition; Public Health

Keywords:

polychlorinated biphenyl; usv; ultrasonic vocalization; thyroid hormone; pcb; thyroxine, triiodothyronine

Horodyski, Anne MCorrelation Between Heart Disease and the Hardness of Drinking Water
Master of Science in Environmental Science, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Geological & Environmental Sciences
This study investigates the possible correlation between heart disease mortality and the hardness of drinking water to determine if there are protective factors associated with hard water that may reduce heart disease. The study attempts to see if such a correlation can be found in the population that is supplied by 31 public water treatment plants spread across 17 counties in Ohio. The 31 public water treatment plants, which maintain a hardness with little variance from year to year, serve an estimated total 2,658,000 customers, about 25% of the total population of Ohio. Surface-water supplies 69% of the population, groundwater 30% and 1% is supplied by a mixture of surface-water and groundwater. The total hardness, expressed in mg/l CaCO3 , of the study area ranges from an annual average of 93 mg/l to 448 mg/l. To test for a correlation, total hardness data is acquired on the drinking water supplied by the water treatment plants and is compared to heart disease mortality data, for the year 2007, obtained from the Ohio Department of Health, Center for Public Health Statistics and Information. Analysis shows that a positive correlation of 0.427 exists, with changes in total water hardness accounting for 18.3% of the variance found in heart disease mortality rate. An age adjusted analysis, for individuals over 35 years of age also resulted in a positive correlation with total water hardness accounting for 15.4% of the variance in heart disease mortality. In order to eliminate possible confounding factors from the study, 16 additional examinations were done on the original data; all but three resulted in positive correlations.

Committee:

Isam Amin, Ph.D. (Advisor); Harry Bircher (Committee Member); Hans Tritico, Ph.D (Committee Member); Alan Jacobs, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Heart disease and drinking water; water hardness and heart disease; heart disease and water hardness in Ohio

Brooks, Donald R.Public Risk Communication Strategies: The Case of DuPont's Chemical Release and the Ohio Valley Water Supply
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
From the 1950s to the early 2000s, a potentially toxic chemical called “C8” was being released into the Ohio Valley water supply. E. I du Pont de Nemours and Company, more commonly known as DuPont (the company responsible for the chemical release) and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (the environmental regulatory agency) are challenged to communicate the health hazards of C8 to the public in the affected areas of the Ohio Valley. Previous research suggests that the level of outrage the public will experience depends on their perception of risk. Theories suggest that the level of hazard, risk reduction actions, coherence among communicators and engaging the public, influences public perception of risk. The purpose of this research is to examine the case of the C8 chemical release in the context of risk communication. Specifically, it focuses on evaluating if there are mixed messages between risk communicators of DuPont’s chemical release case in the Ohio Valley. The methods involve conducting a content analysis of materials from both DuPont and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) to identify similarities and differences and applying accepted risk communication principles to the messages. The evidence of the crisis communication strategies used in DuPont’s chemical release case is discussed in detail. The result suggests that there are some inconsistencies between DuPont and OEPA in this case.

Committee:

Michele Morrone (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Public risk communication

Cundiff, Stephen J.Screening Evaluation of Risk Assessment Tools that Assist in Exposure Assessment and Prioritization of Hazards in a Chemical Manufacturing Facility
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Medicine: Industrial Hygiene (Environmental Health)
Traditionally, industrial hygienists’ methods for identifying risks were limited and not systematic in nature. Industrial hygienists relied on their expertise and their judgment for identifying hazards, and for prioritizing risks in a workplace. Today, many tools are available to the risk assessor. Two experienced certified industrial hygienist’s (CIH) traveled to Monument Chemical to take part in a risk assessment study to determine if tools such as checklist and quantitative exposure assessments are beneficial in the identification of risk and the prioritization of chemical hazards. The CIH’s observed 25.7 percent of the same hazards while performing their walk through surveys of the areas. 74.3 percent of the hazards identified by one CIH was missed by the other. Categories were established to determine the difference in hazard identification. CIH 1 identified mostly piping systems, while CIH 2 identified mostly hazardous chemical exposures. The CIH’s rankings without using a risk assessment tool seemed to more closely resemble each other than the I.H. specialist’s rankings using a qualitative exposure assessment tool. Exposure sampling data from Monument was utilized as the metric for “true exposure”. A hazard index was calculated from this data to compare to expert judgment rankings. Without any statistical analysis it is hard to determine whether the CIH’s or the tool more closely resemble the ranking provided by the sampling data. However, differences in rank order were noted between the ranking tool and the expert judgments. This study demonstrates that having a checklist helps investigators remain cognizant of the details of a working area. However, if that checklist lacks certain hazard categories the investigator may not extend their surveillance outside of the checklist bounds. This study also demonstrates that using a quantitative tool to prioritize risks is systematic and consistent; however future research could include additional empirical sampling data to support more complete statistical results

Committee:

Glenn Talaska, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Thomas Lentz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Risk Assessment;Exposure Assessment;Hazard Checklist;Prioritization;Assessment Tool;Chemical Manufacturing

Gupta, MridulaCharacterization of Microbial Contaminants Associated with Floor Material Types
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Public Health
People spend a major part of their time indoors, including time spent at their workplace and residence. Indoor environmental quality plays a vital role contributing to human health and wellbeing. Part of the indoor environment is flooring. Although the type of flooring material has been regarded to be an influencing factor for indoor air quality, there is a dearth of studies comparing the contribution of several flooring types in environmental contamination. The primary goal of this dissertation was to compare the various floor materials and their potential contribution to fate of environmental microbial contaminants. To achieve this goal, studies were designed to determine: a) the most efficient surface sampling method to estimate microbiological composition; b) Survivability of S. aureus and spores of A. niger on five common floor materials; c) Survivability of soil microbes on two common floor materials. and d) Bacterial microbiome analysis of floor samples in three buildings. Comparison of three surface sampling methods on five floor materials found that the bulk-rinsate sampling method was the most sensitive and efficient method to quantify microbial contaminants from floor surfaces. The bulk-rinsate method uses the entire floor sample material and thus measures total biocontaminants associated with the floor surface. Five floor materials (commercial carpet, residential carpet, vinyl tile, wood, and porcelain tile) were inoculated with known bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Aspergillus niger) as well as composite of microbes (bacteria and fungi) extracted from soil for survivability studies. Carpets both residential and rubber backed commercial showed a decline in survivability of both S. aureus and spores of A. niger in the absence of nutrition. While in the presence of additional nutrient (simulated in-use) S. aureus showed growth on carpets. In addition, A. niger spores which completely disappeared without nutrition, was viable up to day 28 in the presence of nutrition. Hard surface floor materials -- vinyl, wood and porcelain-- had similar survivability patterns of both S. aureus and spores of A. niger. Both S. aureus and spores of A. niger had higher and longer survivability on vinyl in the presence of additional nutrient. This additional nutrient (Nutrient broth and 1XPBS) was a simulation for in-use condition and represents the potential of floor surfaces, especially if labile nutrient sources are present, to sustain microbial growth. Similar results were obtained with bacteria and fungi from soil inoculate. Soil bacteria on both carpets and floors survived for day 28. Microbiome analysis for bacterial composition of actual in use floor materials was carried out using surface samples from floors located in a human hospital, a veterinary hospital and an office. Culture independent next generation sequencing was performed to identify the bacterial composition. The bacterial composition of the carpets and vinyl floors did not differ statistically. Both floor samples had bacterial composition enriched with soil bacteria. Proteobateria was the major phylum on all the floors. The composition also did not differ between the three buildings. However, traffic patterns were found to be significant for the Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) level. Higher traffic area had higher OTUs as well as high number of antibiotic resistance gene (tetQ) copies per floor sample. The studies conducted to fulfill the requirements for this dissertation attempted to fill in the knowledge gap of survivability of bacteria and fungi on various environmental surfaces, such as floors. The survivability of clinically important bacteria and fungi for four weeks on floors may contribute significantly to environmental contribution Finally, as evident from the study, floors surfaces could be enriched with soil microbes containing pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance organisms which pose a significant public health risk.

Committee:

Michael Bisesi (Advisor); Jiyoung Lee (Committee Member); Mac Crawford (Committee Member); Judith Schwartzbaum (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Dussex, Dusten TThe Utilization of Fluorescent Products to Detect the Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase by Carbamates and Organophosphate Pesticides: The Groundwork For a New Assay
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Medicine: Industrial Hygiene (Environmental Health)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors such as organophosphate insecticides and carbamate insecticides have a severe effect on the human nervous system and other functions of the body. It is important to be able to quickly and accurately monitor water sources near agriculture for contamination by these pesticides. This thesis details the early stages of assay development for the detection of AChE inhibitors with a method that utilizes the formation of fluorescent products from the activity of the enzyme. AChE converts 2-naphthyl acetate to form 2-naphthol, a highly fluorescent product, which was detected via high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC/FS). The formation of this product is limited as the enzyme activity is inhibited. This inhibition is quantified through the quantification of 2-naphthol formed. Though statistical significance was not analyzed, inhibition percentages of 5.5-70.9% were found for levels of aldicarb, a carbamate pesticide and potent inhibitor of AChE, from 0.0165 to 3.3 ppm. This assay is within an order of magnitude of target sensitivity based on EPA drinking standards, and has room for improvement for sensitivity as well as precision.

Committee:

Mary Beth Genter, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Changchun Xie, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Detection;Organophosphates;Carbamates;Aldicarb;2-Naphthol;HPLC and Fluorescence Spectrometry

Piser, Gabriel AAppalachian Anthropocene: Conflict and Subject Formation in a Sacrifice Zone
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Comparative Studies
My dissertation, "Appalachian Anthropocene: Conflict and Subject Formation in a Sacrifice Zone" diagrams the dominant forces of historical subject formation to see how they shape contemporary responses to extraction-based development and environmental crises. My first chapter examines the new challenges posed by the Anthropocene and neoliberalism in Appalachia, and outlines the general analytical framework of material, conceptual, and affective systems used throughout the dissertation. In Chapter Two I show the violent rearrangement of these three systems as integral to dominant forms of subjectivity and resistance. I then present an overview of these forms of subjectivity before assembling a theory of oppositional subjectivity drawing from Marxism, decolonial, continental, and black philosophy, and queer theory. Chapter Three traces the boundary-making practices of settler colonialism as they shaped the settler-subject in Appalachia. I examine how dominant forces of subjectification emerged under colonialism, the harmful effects that persist, and their impact on contemporary responses to the land-use conflicts surrounding resource extraction and to environmental disasters like the 2014 Charleston Water Crisis. I conclude this chapter by arguing for a renewed attention to residues of settler colonialism in collective political responses to the context of the neoliberal Anthropocene. Chapter Four examines the unifying forces of white supremacy, nationalism, and capitalism as they shaped the citizen-subject over the two centuries following the War of Independence. In this chapter I examine the geopolitical production of the national territory of the United States and socio-political production of the national subject of the American Citizen. I then present oppositional responses to dominant American subjectivity in the writing of the militant Appalachian preacher and poet Don West. I show how he helps us to understand these discourses and more importantly, helps us to become subjects differently. In my conclusion I reflect on the era of Anthropocene neoliberalism and the new problems and opportunities it poses. Since the end of World War II, more than sixty years of rapid political, technological, social, and ecological changes have dramatically reshaped the context facing environmental scholars and Appalachian activists. Among other trends, the region faces the decline of the region's primary industrial sectors, population loss to coastal and urban regions, new resource extraction opportunities, accelerating inequality and absentee landownership, and changing racial and ethnic demographics. I show how these unique economic, environmental, and socio-political challenges provide rich opportunities for further scholarship on regional development, environmental justice, and related social movements.

Committee:

Eugene Holland (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Comparative Literature; Economic History; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Law; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Native American Studies; Philosophy; Regional Studies

Keywords:

political ecology; subject formation; subjectivity; Appalachia; affect; environmental studies; environmental history; development; resource extraction; water; energy; poetry; race; class; gender; Anthropocene; media studies

Moreno Torres, Karla IrazemaThe Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Infectious Disease Dynamics: A One Health Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Comparative and Veterinary Medicine
Surveillance for wildlife diseases is critical to our understanding of the emergence, transmission, persistence and control of infectious diseases at the interface of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife populations. Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite capable of infecting a wide range of canid and ungulate species. The importance of the disease relates to economic losses, mainly derived from endemic or epidemic abortions in cattle. In the United States, coyotes and dogs are believed to be the main definitive hosts and white-tailed deer and cows are the main intermediate hosts. Our overall aim was to better understand the wildlife-livestock interface of N. caninum in natural settings. First, we estimated the true prevalence of N. caninum in three ruminant species by using Bayesian inference. We identified and discussed differences between apparent and true prevalence (TP). Differences in TP for some species suggest differences in the epidemiology of N. caninum for these co-located populations. Second, we evaluated the environmental phase of N. caninum shed in wild canid scats. Results suggested that the role of this environmental phase in the transmission to ruminants is likely minor. Finally, we evaluated the role of host species heterogeneity in the epidemiology of N. caninum circulating in a community. We identified differences in the patterns of immunity, age structure, and maternal and/or fetal antibody duration in three intermediate (ruminant) host species. Also, we estimated the species-specific contributions to the persistence of this pathogen in a community. This research was approached from the One Health perspective and provided a better understanding of N. caninum dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface in an ecosystem.

Committee:

Rebecca Garabed (Advisor); Mark Moritz (Committee Member); Barbara Wolfe (Committee Member); William Saville (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animal Diseases; Applied Mathematics; Biology; Biostatistics; Computer Science; Conservation; Cultural Anthropology; Ecology; Environmental Health; Epidemiology; Geographic Information Science; Health Sciences; Livestock; Parasitology; Veterinary Services; Wildlife Conservation; Zoology

Keywords:

multi-host parasites; Neospora caninum; wildlife-livestock interface; infectious disease modeling; disease ecology; epidemiology; One-Health; community; human dimensions; prevalence; wildlife conservation; multidisciplinary; complexity; parasitology

Coombs, Kanistha CThe Indoor Environment of Green versus Non-Green Buildings
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Medicine: Industrial Hygiene (Environmental Health)
An increasing number of homes and office buildings are using green renovation principles to become energy-efficient. Green buildings use different strategies such as building materials that have low emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This is expected to reduce the levels of environmental contaminants as compared to those in non-green buildings. However, the tightness of green buildings could lead to lower air exchange rates and higher humidity levels indoors, if mechanical ventilation is deficient. Humidity is the key variable that governs the type and extent of fungal colonization in an indoor environment. Additionally, green building materials have a higher presence of organic and recycled matter as compared to traditional building materials, which could potentially cause changes in the diversity of indoor fungi. This could also lead to the proliferation of a higher burden of microorganisms in green building materials compared to traditional building materials. Green buildings are designed and constructed to have a minimal negative impact on the environment; however, the indoor environmental quality including the microbial diversity within these buildings has not been attested. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of the extent to which green-building features affect the indoor air quality and fungal community structure and burden when compared to non-green building features. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessments were conducted in 28 green and 14 non-green homes, by measuring concentrations of PM2.5, black carbon, sulfur, ultrafine particles and VOCs. This study revealed that black carbon concentrations decreased and formaldehyde concentrations increased immediately after green renovation. Both of these trends appeared to be attributable to opening of windows that decreased after renovation. Overall, the results indicated that occupants’ activities appeared to affect the indoor air quality more than the renovation status. The fungal community structure, from air and house dust (collected from bed and floor), was also studied from the same housing community. This study revealed statistically significant differences between green and non-green homes only at twelve-month assessments, suggesting the need for longer follow-ups. Additionally, the fungal growth on green and non-green building materials was investigated using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Both methods revealed that the fungal community structure is different between green and non-green building materials. In conclusion, this research indicates that to reduce potential indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and potentially improve health, careful selection of indoor building materials (taking into account their life cycle emissions) and modeling of the impact of reduced air exchange rates on IAQ are important for green building designs. Further, to provide a better assessment and comparison of the indoor air quality alongside the fungal diversity and richness, in green vs. non-green homes, a larger sample size and longer follow-up is recommended.

Committee:

Tiina Reponen, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brett James Green, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Stephen Joseph Vesper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ginger L. Chew, Sc.D. (Committee Member); Jaroslaw Meller, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health

Keywords:

Microbiome;Illumina;Green Housing;Green Building Materials;Next-Generation Sequencing

Next Page