Search Results (1 - 25 of 443 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Tebbe, Hope MEvaluation of Indoor Air Quality in Four Nursing Home Facilities in Northwest Ohio
Master of Science in Occupational Health, University of Toledo, 2017, Occupational Health (Industrial Hygiene)
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is considered one of the top five environmental risks to the public’s health. Older adults are more vulnerable to health complications associated with indoor air contaminants because of their decreased immune system and age-associated health problems, as well as the fact that they spend up to 95 percent of their time indoors. Area air sampling was conducted in the nursing home section of four long term care facilities, three days at each facility (12 days total). Particle concentrations (PM2.5, PM10, Total Particulate matter (TPM), Ultrafine Particles (UFP), temperature, and humidity were measured. Two minute samples were collected during seven Sampling Sessions. Up to nine indoor locations were sampled, representing the various occupied spaces in each nursing home, along with an outside location for comparison. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) by Facility demonstrated significant differences (p<0.001) in PM concentrations and UFP counts. One Facility had higher particulate concentrations at all Sampling Locations which may include contributions from geographic location, vehicular traffic, or resident clustering. ANOVA by Sampling Location demonstrated significant differences (p<0.001) in PM concentrations and UFP counts. In general, the highest UFP and PM concentrations were seen in the kitchen, satellite kitchen, and hair salon, especially at times when the staff and residents were active in these rooms. Significant differences were seen in UFP counts (Facilities 1 and 3) and PM2.5 (Facility 2) by Sampling Session. The highest concentrations were found for the Sampling Sessions in the mid-morning and mid-afternoon which were during peak times of activity for the residents. Although maximum temperature measurements exceeded ASHRAE winter guidelines, this may be appropriate for older residents who prefer a warmer temperature. While most median particle values were below ASHRAE guidelines, maximum values did exceed occasionally in the hair salon and kitchen at all facilities. Various indoor Sampling Location PM concentrations or UFP counts exceeded the outdoor levels at all four facilities. Although the median PM values did not exceed the ASHRAE standards it is unknown whether older adults may still experience significant health complications with these PM concentrations. In addition staff who spend extended amount of times in the kitchen and hair salon could be exposed to higher levels of PM. IAQ in hospitals and similar environments, such as nursing homes, may require a higher level of care because of the vulnerable population.

Committee:

April Ames, PhD, CIH (Committee Chair); Victoria Steiner, PhD (Committee Member); Akbar-Khanzadeh Farhang, PhD, CIH (Committee Member); Sheryl Milz, PhD, CIH (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Alternative Medicine; Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Gerontology; Health; Health Care Management; Health Sciences; Medicine; Occupational Health; Occupational Safety; Public Health; Welfare

Keywords:

Particulate Matter; Nursing Homes; Elderly; Indoor Air Quality; PM; IAQ; ASHRAE; Air Quality; susceptible population; buildings; Aging

Mohammed, Alahmad SuleimanElectrochemical and Electroflotation Processes for Milk Waste Water Treatment
Doctor of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2017, Washkewicz College of Engineering
The dairy industry generates abundant milk waste waters characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations that can be very harmful to the environment, if left untreated. Electrocoagulation (EC) has been in use for waste water treatment. The treatment application uses aluminum electrodes and iron or the combined hybrid Al/Fe electrodes. Milk waste water contains high concentration organic pollutants and the main constituents of those organics are carbohydrates, proteins and fats, originating from the milk. The process of separating the flocculated sludge from waste water that has been treated using the electrocoagulation process can be accomplished by the flotation processes. The electroflotation technology is effective in removing colloidal particles, oil, grease, as well as organic pollutants from waste water. This study uses electrochemical and electroflotation treatment of milk waste water by means of an aluminum electrode with specific parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, turbidity, transmittance, and temperature. Even though the electrochemical and electroflotation treatment processes have been around for some time, it has not been thoroughly studied. This study is going to highlight the importance of this technique as a pre-treatment method of milk waste water and its contribution to the reduction of pollutants in the milk processing industry. Furthermore, the process of electroflotation and electrochemical flotation continuously prove to be effective in remediation of varieties of pollutants of different chemical compositions and have the ability to achieve a very high treatment efficiency.

Committee:

Yung-Tse Hung, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Walter Kocher , Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lili Dong, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chung-Yi Suen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Saili Shao, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Electrochemical, electroflotation and electrocoagulation;Total organic carbon;Chemical oxygen demand; Biochemical oxygen demand ;Transmittance;Turbidity and pH

Dhungel, HariInvestigating the Temporal and Spatial Variability of Flow and Salinity Levels in an Ungaged Watershed for Ecological Benefits:A Case Study of the Mentor Marsh Watershed
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2018, Department of Civil/Environmental and Chemical Engineering
The Mentor marsh was the first declared a National Natural Landmark in 1966 and became a nature preserve in 1971 in the State of Ohio. Despite being affected by salt pollution and other physical challenges, it still has a tremendous economic value, and will rise if it is restored. The Marsh was specifically dominated by catastrophic salt pollution due to the development of different human and industrial activities, especially between the late 1950’s and late 1970’s. The water salinity of the marsh varied from oligosaline (500 to 5,000) mg/L to hypersaline (above 40,000 mg/L) during that period. Salinity is a crucial environmental problem in the Mentor Marsh leading to profound consequences in wetland plants and aquatic habitats; including the rapid development of Phragmites australis in the downstream marshland. These Phragmites australis were very vulnerable to capture fire. While several studies were conducted in the past in the Mentor marsh, hydrologic investigation of the watershed has not been conducted yet, due to the lack of monitoring stations and long-term data records. Since the Mentor marsh watershed is a small ungaged watershed, and data is only being collected for a short duration, the prediction of flow with limited data invites certain degree of uncertainty. Therefore, monitoring stations were established in two small tributaries of Blackbrook Creek and Marsh Creek, for real time data recording of flow stage, water conductivity, water temperature, and atmospheric pressure in hourly mode using Levelogger and Barologger data logging devices. Similarly, the creek cross-section, water velocity and water stage were recorded intermittently with direct field observation to develop a rating curve and generate the continuous streamflow data. The hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was developed using climate data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land cover and soil data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The model was calibrated on the monthly scale with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error (R2 ) of 0.87, and Percentage bias (PBIAS) of -2.9% using the observed data from Blackbrook monitoring station from the period of November 2016 to August 2017. Similarly, it was validated with NSE (0.78), R2 (0.87) and PBIAS (-13%), respectively, using the observed data records from the period of September 2017 to March 2018. The total monthly salinity loading from Blackbrook Creek was in the range of 10.23 ton to 163.98 ton, whereas it was in the range of 65.63 ton to 2028.13 ton in Marsh Creek. The median monthly salinity loading in Blackbrook Creek and Marsh Creek were 55 ton and 329 ton, respectively. The analysis showed that the Marsh creek had higher salinity loading than that of Blackbrook creek during direct field bservation. This was mainly because of the relatively large size of Marsh Creek catchment compared to Blackbrook Creek. However, the salinity concentration was higher in Blackbrook Creek compared to the Marsh Creek except in the month of winter and early spring seasons. The salinity loading was linearly correlated with streamflow in daily (R2 = 0.72) and monthly scale (R2= 0.83) in Blackbrook Creek. Similarly, the daily and monthly R2 of streamflow with salinity in Marsh Creek was 0.86 and 0.76, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation of salinity loadings with simulated streamflow from the SWAT model was utilized to generate the salinity loadings in streamflow events of various years at historical period. The monthly simulated salinity loading in Blackbrook and Marsh Creek in the historical period (2000-2016) illustrated that Marsh Creek contributed more than 10 times higher salinity loading than that of Blackbrook Creek. Similarly, the results showed that Blackbrook and Marsh Creek had higher median salinity loading in spring season. The salinity loading simultaneously decreased in summer and fall in both creeks and vice versa in winter season, most likely due to road salt application. The result also showed that wet years such as 2008 and 2011, experienced higher salinity loading in both creeks. Likewise, the analysis showed that annual median salinity loading in a historical period of 2000 to 2016 from Blackbrook and Marsh Creek were 620 ton and 8334 ton salt load respectively, which contributed to downstream marsh.

Committee:

Suresh Sharma, PhD (Advisor); Tony Vercellino, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Kimosop, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Creek, Phragmites, Salinity, Marsh, SWAT, Levelogger, Barolloger, Mentor Marsh Watershed

Pamula, Abhiram Siva PrasadAdsorption and microfiltration processes to treat dye and coffee wastewater.
Master of Science in Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2018, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Wastewater from coffee processing industry creates high biological and chemical oxygen demand in the surface water. In addition to coffee wastewater from coffee industry, dyes from textile industry enter surface water affecting water quality in terms of transmissivity of light. Adsorption is an economical wastewater treatment process to remove color from dye and coffee wastewater. In the current thesis, adsorption using low-cost adsorbents like peanut hull and onion peel are used to treat combined dye and coffee wastewater. Three representative dyes including acid black 48, disperse yellow 3, crystal violet certified with processed coffee is used in preparing batch adsorption samples. Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, absorbance and transmittance of the wastewater samples are measured. After adsorbents reach adsorption capacity, the suspended solids are removed using Whatman 41 microfilters. To understand the change in organic carbon before and after treatment in the wastewater, NPOC (Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon) is compared using Shimadzu TOC analyzer. This thesis focuses on the two-stage treatment process of adsorption and microfiltration in a binary mixture of dye and coffee wastewater. Increasing Adsorbent dosage in the representative wastewater samples gives us the idea of optimum dosage required in the treatment process. The comparative study of adsorbent dosage with transmittance and NPOC gives us an understanding of the efficiency of low-cost adsorbents when compared to Powdered Activated Carbon.

Committee:

Yung-Tse Hung (Advisor); Walter Kocher (Committee Member); Lili Dong (Committee Member); Chung-Yi Suen (Committee Member); Howard Paul (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Adsorption, Micro-filtration, Non-purgeable Organic Carbon, Dye and coffee wastewater, Total Suspended Solids

Fathi, Ariya RezaBarium Solidification/Stabilization of Legacy Fly Ash
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2018, Civil Engineering
A legacy fly ash pile in Ashtabula county has 20,000 – 30,000 cubic yards of material and contains barium and other various heavy metals. The concentrations of barium in the fly ash are below Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) for soil, but if the barium leached out it would pose a threat to human health. Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of the ash was investigated with concrete and sulfate. After physical/chemical characterization, the fly ash was identified as class F fly ash, meaning it has no self-stabilizing/cementing characteristics, and had barium concentrations ranging from 0-1,500 mg/kg. Fly ash was used as a replacement for either cement or fine aggregate at 10-50%. Cement replacement did not achieve a compressive strength above 3,000 psi when using a 6,500 psi concrete mixture when cement to waste ratios exceeded 20% replacement. When fine aggregate replacement was investigated, fine aggregate to waste ratios up to 40% was effective at achieving above 3,000 psi concrete. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the barium present was already in the insoluble barium sulfate form. Therefore, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and accelerated leaching procedure were used to access the potential for barium to leach form the ash and from the concrete mixtures. Barium concentrations never exceeded the U.S. EPA drinking water maximum contaminated level (MCL) for 2 mg/L. Concrete made with ash spiked with 1,500 mg/kg had increased barium leached but still below the primary drinking standard with the highest concentration being 1.79 ± 0.44 mg/L. Therefore, the ash can be handled as solid waste if no beneficial use can be identified.

Committee:

Stephen Duirk (Advisor); Christopher Miller (Committee Member); David Roke (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Saba, BeenishSimultaneous Biotreatment and Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bioelectrochemical devices that allow the harvesting of electricity generated during anaerobic respiration of selected bacterial species. This technology shows promise in both wastewater treatment and sustainable bioenergy conversion applications. Bacterial respiration occurs in the anaerobic anode compartment of the MFC, and is electrochemically coupled with electron acceptors in the MFC's aerobic cathode compartment. This dissertation addresses a variety of MFC applications and includes a comprehensive summary of the published results of bacterio-algal MFCs. This review summarizes not only successful published results of bacterio-algal fuel cells but also highlights critical operational parameters and their effect on power generation and output efficiency. Power generation and desalination performance of microbial desalination cells (MDCs) were compared using two different catholytes; (1) Nanochloropsis salina, a marine algae and (2) potassium ferricyanide in chapter three. Anodic biofilms and current generation during biofilm growth were examined using single chambered MFCs submersed in algal catholyte. As part of the dissertation research study, we conducted experiments to explore the role of graphite anodes in the decolorization of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) azo dye and Reactive Blue 4 (RBL4) anthraquinone dye coupled with voltage generation in MFCs. Desalination efficiencies were 45%, 79%, and 46% when the algae were used as catholyte and 46%, 73%, and 16% when KFe(CN)6 was used as the ii catholyte at (35, 17.5, and 8.25 g/L of NaCl) respective salt concentrations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging showed that the depth of the bacterial biofilm on the anode was about 65 µm. There were more viable bacteria on the biofilm surface and near the biofilm-electrolyte interface as compared to those closer to the anode surface. RB5 dye was more than 90% decolorized in 120, 165, and 225 min at 50, 100 and 200 mg L-1 dye concentrations, respectively. RBL4 at 50 and 100 mg L-1 took 225 and 300 min to decolorize, while 200 mg L-1 RBL4 dye was not decolorized at all. The reason may be substrate inhibition of the reductase enzyme or the selective transfer of electrons to the anode and not the dye. The results successfully demonstrated that the marine algae assisted biocatholyte can be used for efficient desalination in MDCs, but generates lower power as compared to the chemical catholyte. Biofilm growth on the anode creates a conductive layer, which can help overcome mass transport limitations in MFCs. Higher external resistance favors faster decolorization, and the reductive cleavage is faster with azo dyes than anthraquinone dyes.

Committee:

Ann Christy, Dr. (Advisor); Anne Co, Dr. (Committee Member); Zhontang Yu, Dr. (Committee Member); Olli Tuovinen, Dr. (Committee Member); Rafiq Islam, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Energy; Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Power generation, microbial fuel cells, microbes

Chari, Pooja SurendraAnaerobic Co-Digestion of Food waste and Primary Sludge
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Engineering and Applied Science: Environmental Engineering
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process that converts organic matter into biogas and digestate. Advantages of AD are that it controls the production of greenhouse gases and produces a by-product that can be used as a fertilizer. The digestion of organic waste, eg., food waste with wastewater solids, is considered to be a low-cost and commercially flexible approach to generate renewable energy that can be used for heat, power, electricity or biomethane. To improve biogas production for food waste (FW), AD with addition of a co-substrate is gaining importance. In this study, food waste was obtained from a campus cafeteria, while primary sludge (PS) and anaerobic digester inoculum was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Fairfield, OH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most important parameters that affect anaerobic co-digestion of FW and PS with the ultimate goal of optimizing CH&sub4; gas production. Secondarily, a pilot-scale anaerobic digester was operated to assess the performance of a larger scale system in conjunction with an algal growth reactor that utilized CO&sub2; in the biogas as a carbon source. The optimum FW to PS ratio for generating the maximum CH&sub4; production was investigated by conducting Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests. The studies were conducted in two parts: (1) A pilot-scale study that consisted of a 200-gallon plastic tank was loaded with FW and PS. The digestate was sampled thrice weekly and analyzed for pH, total⁄volatile suspended solids (TSS⁄VSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Carbon-Nitrogen ratio (C:N), NH&sub3;-N and alkalinity, and (2) Bench-scale experiments using 100 mL serum bottles to determine the optimal FW to PS ratio for maximum CH&sub4; production. The samples were analyzed for TSS, VSS, pH, COD and NH&sub3;-N on specific sampling days. Gas production and composition (CH&sub4;, CO&sub2;, O&sub2;, N&sub2;) were also measured in all experiments. The biogas obtained from pilot-scale reactor had a CH&sub4; composition of up to 75% as compared to industry values of 60-65%. Bench-scale studies were extremely useful in understanding the FW to PS ratio required for maximizing CH&sub4; production. The optimum food waste to primary sludge ratio on a VSS basis was in the range of 25-33%..

Committee:

Drew McAvoy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Timothy Keener, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Kupferle, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Anaerobic codigestion;food waste;primary sludge

Hartung, Erik WalterAging bioretention cells: Do they still function to improve water quality?
MS, Kent State University, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Biological Sciences
Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces transports a variety of pollutants to freshwaters via urban drainage pathways. Bioretention cells are a stormwater control measure being widely adopted with the goal of receiving, infiltrating and improving quality of stormwater before it enters surface waters. However, there are uncertainties about the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic metals that accumulate and concerns about changes in hydrologic function of aging bioretention cells. This study sought to address those concerns using a survey of 26 parking lot bioretention cells in the greater Cleveland area, ranging in age from <1 to 7 years of service. Bioretention cells were found to accumulate Cu, Pb and Zn in their media through time, but the distribution of these toxic metal pollutants was homogenous with respect to depth and distance from the stormwater flowpath. The concentration of metals in bioretention cell media were well below EPA soil contamination thresholds. Bioretention cells were found to have reduced hydraulic conductivity as they age, but bioretention cells less than eight years old still met EPA standards for hydrologic function. Therefore, regular maintenance of bioretention cells may be needed to remove sediment and improve hydrologic function, but no remediation would be needed for toxic metals. It is expected that bioretention cells function to capture, infiltrate and remove pollutants from stormwater runoff, leading to water quality improvement downstream. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding active bioretention cells' ability to perform these functions over the long-term. This study aimed to elucidate the function of bioretention cells for removal of toxic metal pollutants (Cu, Pb and Zn) from runoff over 7 years of service time. This study also sought to address the effects road salt may have on bioretention's ability to filter or retain toxic metal pollutants from stormwater. Using leach columns constructed with media from 19 active bioretention cells ranging in age from <1 to seven years old, this study found that age is not a good predictor of bioretention cell functioning for metal removal. Bioretention cells were found to function well for removing low concentrations of metals from stormwater, but had reduced functioning for removal of high concentrations of metals. Bioretention cells' ability to remove metals from stormwater was found to be similar at different locations within the cells. Road salt was found to reduce the functioning of aged bioretention cells (7 years of service) for Pb and Zn removal from stormwater, but had no effect on functioning for Cu removal. Bioretention cells less than eight years in age were found to be able to reduce the concentration of metals in stormwater to concentrations below EPA thresholds for freshwater, but road salt may reduce bioretention's ability to reduce the concentration of Pb and Zn in stormwater.

Committee:

David Costello (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aquatic Sciences; Biogeochemistry; Biology; Ecology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Freshwater Ecology; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Land Use Planning; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Wagner, ChristopherRegression Model to Project and Mitigate Vehicular Emissions in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2017, Renewable and Clean Energy
The purpose of this study is to generate a regression model tying the vehicular emissions in Cochabamba, Bolivia to input factors including the current state of the public fleet, city population, weather, and GDP. The finished model and the process to generate it can act as a tool to project future emissions in the city, accounting for the aforementioned input factors. It can also be used to estimate the drop in city pollution levels in a scenario where the public transportation fleet is partially replaced by non-emitting, electric vehicles. The main pollutant focused on in this study is particulate matter (PM10), but data also exists for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The model generation process explained in the study could be applied to these pollutants as well. The regression model is generated using the open source software, R. Its final form utilizes a random forest regression model, but neural net, gradient boosting, and support vector machine models were also explored.

Committee:

Robert Brecha, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Andrew Chiasson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Malcolm Daniels, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Random Forest Model; Vehicular Fleet; Cochabamba, Bolivia; Vehicle Emissions; Predictive Ensemble Model

Apostel, AnnaRe-evaluating the Development of Phosphorus Loading Restrictions: Maumee River Case Study
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2016, Civil Engineering
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), as established by section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, have been the metric utilized for the assessment and monitoring of the water quality within watersheds. However, with limited gauge stations on the majority of water bodies throughout the United States, determining waterbody impairment has come to rely on hydrological models. This research analyzes the limitations of the TMDL framework and the limitations of the current state-of-the-science models in the context of the use of adequate datasets as well as the appropriateness of both the models and the imposed regulations to capture the proper processes propagating NPS pollution in the context of the reemergence of Lake Erie algal blooms. The Maumee River basin has been documented as the number one contributing source of nutrients responsible for algal blooms in Lake Erie’s Western Basin. This relationship has seen higher discharge values being correlated to increased algal bloom severity. Three analyses were completed. The first of these was an assessment of potential variability among datasets in order to look at the appropriateness of certain frequencies and lengths and to identify where potential sources of error may exist. Secondly, the impacts of chronic and acute loading were examined in order to solidify the understanding of the impacts of spring storm events and establish a context for a process-based evaluation of loading. Finally, a ratio analysis was performed on the chronic and acute loading components of discharge and loads from the Maumee River to evaluate the effectiveness of the SWAT model to capture the appropriate transport processes the watershed exhibits. The spring events were reaffirmed as the primary indicator of the strength of late summer algal blooms in Lake Erie’s Western Basin, establishing the importance of acute transport events and surface transport mechanisms in this region. Here, March flows correlated with blooms at an R2 of 0.72 with the late summer blooms. Evaluated against SWAT model output, SWAT data showed a shift towards chronic with a March ratio shift from 0.62 base/storm for the observed data to 0.95 for the SWAT modeled data. This shift towards baseflow transport processes indicate issues associated with appropriate parameterization in during the calibration and validation process.

Committee:

Gajan Sivand, PhD (Advisor); Gil Bohrer, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Durand, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Maumee River; Lake Erie; Phosphorus; Algal Blooms; Equifinaility; TMDLs

Neupane, KamalBacterial Inhibition in Waste-Water/Fracking Water Using Copper Ion Solution
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Civil/Environmental and Chemical Engineering
Natural gas serves as a major energy supply in United States. Hydraulic fracturing is the process of extraction of unconventional natural gas from the tight sandstones, and shale's bed. Hydraulic fracturing uses fracking fluid which consists of large volumes of fresh water, proppants (e.g. Sand), slicking agents, and antimicrobial solutions. These flow back water carries a large amount of bacteria which are responsible for the biofilm formation that can eventually clog the fissures (source) and inhibit gas extraction during down-hole production. Numerous toxic chemicals are used as biocides to eliminate the biofilm. These biocides are toxic and can deteriorate the subsurface environment. There has been exploration of alternative products for viable bacterial control but none are without any human health and/or environmental impacts. To replace these biocides, the potential use of copper solution was examined as a safer alternative to traditional biocides. Copper ions or copper compounds have been used to inhibit bacteria in many forms like solid and, liquids for centuries. Copper solutions can impede the bacterial growth while reducing the harm to the environment. This research was mainly focused on two objectives: i) to test the effectiveness of copper solution against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and ii) to explore the efficacy of copper ion solution as comparison to flow back biocide solutions.

The bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used to represent gram negative and gram positive cells. The Staphylococcus epidermis is an aerobic bacteria present in some fracking wells which can also be experimented on in the culture. The experiment was performed using 30mL copper ion solution (250ppm Cu+2) and equivalent volume of flow back water, which were added to bacteria cultured vials at 4-6 hours to investigate the ability to inhibit bacterial strains. The growth with copper treatment was impeded for approximately 12 hours for gram negative bacteria and approximately 8-10 hours for gram positive bacteria. However, flow back water was found to inhibit all bacteria growth for up to 48-56 hours as concluded using both turbidity and viable cells count test results. To mimic the flow back water antimicrobial properties, copper ion solution may need to be added at 10-12 hours interval to replace the toxic chemicals used in fracturing fluids. It is not clear what chemicals, concentrations of the chemicals or the cost of the chemical are used in flow back water. Future studies should investigate and optimize the cost and economic viability of the copper solution. Copper and its compound are considered to be benign to the environment and they can also be toxic to deleterious bacteria, this property of copper would not only help fracking industries to remove biofilm problem but also help to preserve the subsurface environment.

Committee:

Anthony Vercellino, PhD (Committee Chair); Felicia Armstrong, PhD (Committee Member); Suresh Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering; Civil Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

hydraulic fracturing; biofilms; flowback; copper solution; turbidity; viable cell count; bacterial inhibition

Dietrich, Anthony ThomasEstimation of stormwater runoff mitigation in Lucas County, Ohio using SWMM modeling and GIS analysis
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2015, Civil Engineering
Increases in impervious surface, a direct result of urbanization, have resulted in the impairment of the natural water cycle. The transition from pervious vegetated cover to impervious pavement and building cover results in greater surface runoff generation and decreased groundwater recharge. The increase in runoff volumes results in greater pollutant delivery to receiving streams and disrupts the natural stream hydrology. The frequency of high intensity precipitation events is increasing due to global climate change, exacerbating the effects of urban runoff on the water system. The water quantity and quality impairments associated with urban stormwater runoff can be mitigated using bioretention LID controls. The overarching objective of this project was to assist in the development of a cohesive and coordinated plan for implementation of green stormwater strategies in Toledo - Lucas County. In this study, a combination of SWMM5 modeling and GIS analyses were used to identify candidate properties for bioretention, in three urban land use types, throughout Lucas County, Ohio. The GIS analysis using soil, land-use and parcel data identified 7,159 bioretention candidate parcels in vacant residential, multi-family residential and commercial properties. SWMM5 modeling results applied to the identified parcels estimated a potential total volume reduction of over four billion liters per year, generated over 1140 treated urban hectares. The results of the study support current bioretention design standards and note the benefit of the utilization of bioretention in some Hydrologic Soil Group D soils. This work supports future studies utilizing similar methodology to plan and prioritize LID control implementation and to estimate large scale pollutant removal performance.

Committee:

Cyndee Gruden, Dr. (Advisor); Defne Apul, Dr. (Committee Member); Richard Becker, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Geography; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Green Stormwater Infrastructure; GSI; Low Impact Development; LID; SWMM model; GIS analysis; Bioretention; runoff; stormwater

Jacklitch, Carl JonathanA Geotechnical Investigation of the 2013 Fatal Rockfall in Rockville, Utah
MS, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Geology
In December, 2013, a rockfall occurred in the town of Rockville, Utah, where an estimated 2700 tons (2450 tonnes) of rock detached from a 400 ft (122 m) slope and fell on a house, resulting in two fatalities. The primary objectives of this study were to assess the hazard potential of the east-west trending, south-facing, slope throughout the town to identify the sections that pose the highest hazard potential of causing injury or property damage and to identify the modes of slope failure in order to suggest potential remedial measures. The hazard potential was assessed through detailed field and laboratory investigations of four sites along the slope. Field investigations included mapping discontinuities, establishing site stratigraphy, and measuring slope geometry. Laboratory investigations included determining the dry density, slake durability index, and friction angle of rock samples. A stereonet analysis, using the DIPS software, determined the principle joint sets for use in the kinematic analysis. The maximum rollout distances for various block sizes were determined for each of the study sites, using the RocFall software. Results of the kinematic analysis and field observations indicate that wedge, plane, and toppling failures are possible within the Shinarump Conglomerate member of the Chinle Formation and the Upper Red member of the Moenkopi Formation along the entire slope. Based on the results of kinematic analysis, frequency of freeze-thaw cycles during the winter months, role of differential weathering in promoting slope failures, slope height, slope angle, and the proximity to the slope of the homes throughout the town, a rockfall hazard map was generated to demonstrate that the western portion of the town faces the highest hazard from potential rockfalls. Rollout distances, determined from rockfall simulations, were used to determine the maximum extent of the hazard zone. The current hazard map, developed by the Utah Geological Survey, tends to be more conservative than the hazard map generated from this study. The most effective remedial measure, in terms of cost and feasibility, is avoiding building close to hazardous slopes. Other possible remedial measures may include rock bolts for the larger rock blocks along with a drapery mesh on the slopes, or the extremely careful removal of loose rock blocks along with a drapery mesh to retain smaller rock blocks. If no actions are taken to remediate the slope, the potential for large rockfalls, causing damage and possible injury or fatality, will continue to exist.

Committee:

Abdul Shakoor, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Holm, Dr. (Committee Member); David Hacker, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Geology; Geological; Geology

Keywords:

rockfall; fatal rockfall; rockville; rockville utah; geotechnical; geotechnical investigation; 2013 rockfall; rockfall thesis; carl jacklitch; rockfall hazard map; rockfall hazard; kent state university thesis; rockfall hazard

Woodworth, AshleyIntegration of Regulatory Requirements for the Creation of a Remediation Tool at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Environmental Engineering
The main objective of this project was to create a tool that incorporates regulatory requirements from RCRA, a custom agreement modeled after CERCLA, and CERCLA into one cohesive plan that would serve as a model for DOE site remediation projects subject to meeting the complex requirements of these multiple regulations. The remediation of at and below grade structures and soils at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) served as a case study to demonstrate the specifics of the process and act as a template for other projects. The history of the PORTS site and regulatory documentation (also called “remediation drivers”) are discussed. The project resulted in creation of an Integrated Remedial Design Plan (IRDP) with crosswalk tools to view how a single submittal of an IRDP complies with regulations and requirements. It is anticipated that products of this project will at minimum be used as a blueprint for below grade remediation of each remediation area of the PORTS site for the next 10-20 years. It is also possible that other sites with RCRA/CERCLA integration issues will employ the developed model

Committee:

Margaret Kupferle, Ph.D. P.E. (Committee Chair); Marc Jewett, M.S. (Committee Member); Frank Miller, B.S. (Committee Member); George Sorial, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

remediation drivers

Akinyi, Caroline JThermal degradation (pyrolysis) and chemical digestion of carbon nanotube polymer composites
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Engineering and Applied Science: Environmental Engineering
Thermal degradation products generated during pyrolysis of carbon nanotube-poly (bisphenol A) carbonate and carbon nanotube-polyamide 6 composites were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds formed during TGA of carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and their respective neat polymers were compared to assess the impact of the addition of CNTs to the polymer matrices on their thermal degradation processes. Results show that the PC-CNT composite resulted in higher concentrations of bisphenol A per milligram of sample at all temperatures studied (500-900°C) compared to the neat polymer. On the contrary, caprolactam concentrations per milligram of sample from the pyrolysis of polyamide 6 were higher than those observed from the polyamide 6-carbon nanotube composite. Kinetic parameters were computed using ASTM 1641-07 (Standard Test Method for Decomposition Kinetics by Thermogravimetry). This method is based on the assumption that the reaction obeys first order kinetics. The average kinetic parameters for the polycarbonate and its CNT composite are: activation energy, E=150±7kJ/mol, pre-exponential constant, A=9.74±12.9x108 min-1 and E=124±1kJ/mol, A=5.44±2.35 x 107 min-1 respectively. The average kinetic parameters for the polyamide 6 and its CNT composite are: E=169±8kJ/mol, A=5.27±4.87 x 1011 min-1 and E=175±7kJ/mol, A=1.73±1.23 x 1012. This is in agreement with experimental results from pyrolysis. Also as part of this research, a mild, microwave-assisted acid digestion method for CNT composites was investigated. The objective was to selectively digest the polymer matrix while leaving the nanotubes intact for quantification. Dust generated during abrasive operations (cutting, sanding, drilling) on CNT composites may expose workers to polymer particles containing CNTs. Worker exposure to the embedded CNTs can be assessed by collecting an air (or surface) sample of the dust and selectively digesting the polymer in order to quantify the nanotubes. Quantification can be performed by thermal-optical analysis for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), with EC being a measure of CNT mass. The OC-EC thermal profiles for the CNTs before and after digestion were unaltered. However, based on the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results, the mild digestion method investigated, while successfully digesting the polymer and leaving the CNTs in solution, physically altered the CNTs.

Committee:

Mingming Lu, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Eileen Birch, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Timothy Keener, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Carbon Nanotubes;Mild digestion;Polycarbonate;Polyamide 6;Thermogravimetry;OC EC

Asapu, SunithaAn Investigation of Low Biofouling Copper-charged Membranes
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Chemical Engineering
Water is essential for the survival of life on Earth, but pollutants in water can cause dangerous diseases and fatalities. The need for purified water has been increasing with increasing world population; however,, natural sources of water such as rivers, lakes and streams, are progressively falling shorter and shorter of meeting water needs. The provision of clean, drinkable water to people is a key factor for the development of novel and alternative water purification technologies, such as membrane separations. Nanofiltration (NF) is a membrane separations technology that purifies water from lower quality sources, such as brackish water, seawater and wastewater. During the filtration of such sources, materials that are rejected by the membrane may accumulate on the surface of the membrane to foul it. Such materials include organic and inorganic matter, colloids, salts and microorganisms. The former four can often be controlled via pretreatment; however, the accumulation of microorganisms is more problematic to membranes. Biofouling is the accumulation and growth of microorganisms on the surface of membranes and on feed spacers. After attachment, microorganisms excrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which form a matrix around the organism’s outer surface as biofilm. These biofilms are detrimental and result in irreversible membrane fouling. Copper and silver ions inactivate the bacterial cells and prevent the DNA replication in microbial cells. Previous studies using copper-charged feed spacers have shown the ability of copper to control biofouling without a significant amount of copper leaching from copper-charged polypropylene (PP) feed spacers during crossflow filtration. Also, filtration using unmodified speed facers experienced almost 70% flux decline, while filtration using copper-charged feed spacers displayed only 25% flux decline. These intriguing results led to the hypothesis that the polymer chemistry could be extrapolated to produce membranes with increased biofouling resistance. The goal of this project was to develop low-biofouling nanofiltration cellulose acetate (CA) membranes through functionalization with metal chelating ligands charged with biocidal metal ions, i.e. copper ions. To this end, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), an epoxy, was used to attach a chelating agent, iminodiacetic acid (IDA) to facilitate the charging of copper to the membrane surface. Both CA and CA-GMA membranes were cast using the phase-inversion method. The CA-GMA membranes were then charged with copper ions to make them low biofouling. Pore size distribution analysis of CA and copper charged membranes were conducted using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG). CA and copper-charged membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), contact angle to measure hydrophilicity changes, and using scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS to monitor copper leaching. Permeation experiments were conducted with distilled (DI) water, protein solutions, and synthetic brackish water containing microorganisms. The DI water permeation of the copper-charged membranes was initially lower than the CA membranes. The membranes were then subjected to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lipase filtration. The copper-charged membranes showed higher pure water flux values for both proteins as compared to CA membranes. The rejection of BSA and lipase was the same for both the copper charged and CA membranes. The filtration with the synthetic brackish water showed that copper-charged membranes had higher flux values as compared to CA membranes, and biofouling analysis showed more bacteria on the CA membranes as compared to copper-charged membranes. Therefore, the copper-charged membranes made here have shown a potential to be used as low-biofouling membranes in the future.

Committee:

Isabel Escobar (Committee Chair); Maria Coleman (Committee Member); Cyndee Gruden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering; Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Biofouling, Cellulose acetate, Nanofiltration, Surface functionalization, Copper

BHAYANI, RACHIT BCOLOR REMOVAL OF DYES WASTEWATER BY COAGULATION AND MICROFILTRATION PROCESSES
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2014, Washkewicz College of Engineering
Various Industries such as textiles, paper, clothing, food etc. uses significant amount of dyes and generates large volumes of effluents which are heavily loaded with pollutants, turbidity and are highly concentrated in salts and color. A significant improvement in effluent quality is required prior to discharging into the water bodies. In the present research work performances of combined process using chemical coagulation and microfiltration were investigated in treating dyes wastewater containing reactive dyes (Disperse Yellow 3,Congo Red, Methylene Blue, Crystal Violet & Pro Indigo). The main objective was the color removal from dye wastewater using stage 1 coagulation process combined with stage 2 microfiltration treatment. Also the objective was to choose appropriate coagulants with appropriate doses for each type of dye. Further objectives were to achieve reductions in the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the dye wastewater. Decolorization and TOC rates were highly dependent on the type of the dye, type of coagulant used and concentration of dye.

Committee:

Yung-Tse Hung, PhD (Committee Chair); Walter M. Kocher, PhD (Committee Member); Lili Dong, PhD (Committee Member); Chung-Yi Suen , PhD (Committee Member); Sailai Sally Shao, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Sang, LijuanChemical Decontamination of Outdoor Pool Water using Oxone® and the Impact of Nanoparticles from Personal Care Products
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Engineering and Applied Science: Environmental Engineering
Swimming and other water activities are available for people of all ages and are considered as one of the most complete forms of exercise, representing a great benefit to human health. However, the use of chlorine as disinfectant in swimming pools and spas has brought a growing concern of adverse health effects for bathers, due to the contact and exposure to the formed disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine disinfectant and organic precursors present in the swimming pool water. The active nanomaterial-based ingredients, which could be introduced into pool water through the use of personal care products by bathers, has received relatively little attention as potentially environmental contaminants and hazardous health risks from the environmental authorities. These active ingredients, such as zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, present in sunscreens formulations, are known to be photocatalytically active upon solar light irradiation. Little information on their transport and fate in swimming pool is known and they may not behave in a predictable way. They might interact with the disinfectant; organic compounds introduced by the bathers especially some nitrogen-containing compounds excreted by human body, or even the bathers in swimming pools. The main objective of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the impact of TiO2 nanoparticles from personal care products on the performance of Oxone®, a DuPont product with peroxymonosulfate as active component, in swimming pool water. Oxone® is considered as an alternative non-chlorine shock oxidizer used in pool water treatment. The decontamination of pool water containing creatinine, an organic model human metabolite contaminant present in swimming pools and spas, with Oxone® and Oxone®/TiO2 (including control tests in the absence of the simulated solar light irradiation) was evaluated. The effect of solar irradiance on the overall performance was addressed. The study was focused on the fundamental aspects of the oxidation with the disinfectants tested as well as on the understanding of the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles in pool water chemistry. The outcomes of this study make significant contributions in environmental chemistry and environmental nanotechnology fields. Moreover, the findings from this study serve as an important basis for future studies on potential human health risks from personal care products.

Committee:

Dionysios Dionysiou, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Ting Lu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Kupferle, Ph.D. P.E. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Oxone;DBPs;Swimming pool;sunscreen;TiO2;creatinine

Rossman, Paul DCharacterizing Variability in Ohio River NOM and Validating Reconstituted Freeze-Dried NOM as a Surrogate for its Aqueous Source
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Environmental Engineering
Surface water contains natural organic matter (NOM) that reacts with disinfectants creating disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are USEPA regulated contaminants. Characterizing NOM can provide insight with respect to DBP formation and water treatment process adaptation to climate change as the nature of NOM varies. This study collected NOM from the Ohio River over 15 months (April 2010 to July 2011) in order to assess seasonal variability in NOM characteristics. The NOM was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV254, TOC, high performance liquid chromatography – size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC), and elemental analysis. NOM was concentrated, freeze-dried (lyophilized), and validated with the source NOM creating a standardized lyophilized NOM that may be used in water treatment process evaluations investigating utility adaptation to seasonal changes. Additionally, NOM was concentrated at multiple concentration factors, lyophilized, and reconstituted allowing for the determination of optimal NOM concentration and reconstitution conditions. The NOM was characterized using UV254, TOC, HPLC-SEC, fluorescence spectroscopy, and DBP formation. Raw Ohio River water NOM was concentrated in the following order: ultrafiltration (UF), cation ion exchange, reverse osmosis (RO), sulfate removal, and lyophilization. Lyophilization allows for long-term storage of NOM while providing the ability to reconstitute at various NOM concentrations compared to liquid material with a short shelf-life. Lyophilized NOM was used for elemental analysis while UF effluent, concentrate, and reconstituted lyophilized NOM were employed for all other analyses. A single RO concentration factor (150X) was used during the 15-month study while 50X, 100X, 150X, 200X, and 250X were used to determine the optimal RO concentration factor versus reconstitution factor. Parallel factor ii analysis (PARAFAC) determined the locations of principle components within fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). DBP formation from chlorination was analyzed for the multiple concentration factor concentrate and reconstituted NOM at 1X source, concentrate, and 250X TOC concentrations. TOC and UV254 results demonstrated seasonal variation of NOM concentration during the 15-month study. However, PARAFAC determined that the nature of the NOM components were humic-like and constant. The humic characterization was further supported by the humification index (0.79-0.90) determined from corrected fluorescence EEMs. In addition, elemental analysis revealed mid-range oxygen to carbon ratios that are 0.62-0.87, also indicative of humic NOM. Humic substances are composed of naturally-occurring biologically-decayed plant material that can affect the alkalinity, pH, and other treatment characteristics of surface water. Since the humic nature of the NOM was similar over the 15-month study, the primary difference was NOM concentration. Reconstituted lyophilized NOM was validated against source NOM allowing its use as a standardized NOM material in treatment process studies that evaluate effects of changing NOM character and concentration. This temporal library of well-characterized, drinking water relevant NOM is the first of its kind in the drinking water industry and will be a valuable research tool for the drinking water community. The multiple concentration factor study revealed that NOM may be concentrated at RO factors from 50X to 250X, lyophilized, and reconstituted to 1X source, concentrate, and 250X conditions without changing the characterization of the NOM or DBP formation.

Committee:

Dominic Boccelli, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jonathan Pressman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Kupferle, Ph.D. P.E. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

natural organic matter;reverse osmosis concentration;fluorescence spectroscopy;lyophilization;NOM characterization

Anand, Chirjiv KaurEvaluation of Conventional and Alternative Sanitation Technologies Using the Life Cycle Assessment Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, Civil Engineering
Most of our drinking water and wastewater infrastructure are at the end of their useful life facing significant deterioration, causing leaks and water losses. These losses are a waste of both energy and water, considering both water and wastewater treatment systems are very energy intensive. In order to deal with the urban water infrastructure issues, EPA has listed out the following goals: asset management, water and energy efficiency, infrastructure financing, price of water services and alternative technologies assessment. This dissertation addresses two of EPA&#x2019;s goals, water and energy efficiency and alternative technologies assessment. Three approaches were taken to address these goals. In the first approach, the life cycle energy demand for water and wastewater studies were reviewed from literature to understand the energy requirements of these systems and propose a benchmark energy demand. System boundaries, data collection and reporting, type of LCA used, were identified as the factors that influence the total energy use and energy use reporting. Energy use data of water and wastewater treatment systems have been compiled to obtain ranges of 2.8 x 10-06 - 4.8 x 10-03 kWh per L and 2.8 x 10-09 to 1.32 x 10-02 kWh per L respectively. From the details obtained from literature, energy use ranges for specific processes related to water and wastewater could not be obtained due to lack of appropriate data reporting. Development of an appropriate data reporting procedure for water and wastewater treatment life cycle assessments is required to be able to collect, use and analyze this data. In the second approach, alternative technologies were assessed to reduce the energy requirements of the water and wastewater treatment systems. The quality of drinking water cannot be compromised; however, the use of potable water flushing toilets can be avoided to conserve energy and resources. In approach 2A Standard sanitation technology (Scenario 1) was compared with the following alternative technologies high efficiency toilets flushed with potable water (Scenario 2), standard toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 3), high efficiency toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 4), and composting toilets (Scenario 5). These technologies were compared on two University Buildings, based on cost, energy and carbon emissions using Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). Based on all the three indicators, scenarios 4 and 5 were the most preferable scenarios. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) are done largely either using the economic input-output approach or process based approach. While both methods are commonly used, it is not well known how much the LCA results might change when one method is used instead of the other. In approach 2B the technologies from 2A were compared with the conventional sanitation technology using EIO-LCA and process based LCA. The results were overall higher from EIO-LCA except for potable water treatment. EIO-LCA was found better for modeling. The difference in magnitude for all products and processes involved is reported. More detailed documentation from both models is required for an explanation of the difference in magnitudes. There was no difference in the suggested ranking of scenarios from both the models. In approach three, composting toilets were studied in more depth. The composting toilets technology demonstrated potential for the most sustainable sanitation technology among all the five technologies compared. In approach 3A, the composting results however, were preliminary. A review of the available composting toilet technologies and the composting process was conducted to better understand the technology. The review, categorized the different types of composting toilets. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50-60 %), temperature (40-65oC), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25-35), pH (5.5-8.0) and porosity (35-50%). Barriers in implementing this technology were also identified. In approach 3B, Composting is an old technology and more popular only in rural areas that are disconnected from the urban water and wastewater infrastructure. The impact of using these technologies in urban areas on a large scale has not been evaluated before. In approach 3B, use of composting toilets with land application and back yard application of compost were modeled in GaBi for a tenth of the city and compared to the conventional sanitation system for the city of Toledo. Results show that composting toilets are beneficial if a tenth of the city shifts from conventional to composting technology.

Committee:

Defne Apul (Committee Chair); Ashok Kumar (Committee Member); Cyndee Gruden (Committee Member); Dong Shik Kim (Committee Member); Matthew Franchetti (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

Life cycle assessment, sanitation technologies, composting toilets, water and wastewater

Sullivan, Sarah EWash Water Quality Characterization from Transportation Maintenance Facilities in Ohio During Winter Operations
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2014, Civil Engineering
Polluted stormwater runoff including both organic and inorganic components from traveled roads has been extensively reported. There is significantly less information regarding pollutants that aggregate on vehicles that are then introduced into sewer systems or on-site treatment systems when the vehicle is washed. Depending on the nature and concentration of the pollutants, additional treatment or other environmental management options may be required. This study reports more than 10,400 measurements (17 metal and 10-non-metal parameters) obtained from 24 Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) maintenance facilities during the 2012-2013 winter season after full wash events. Measurements were compared to local disposal guidance and potential brine reuse limitations. Contaminants by sample percent found to exceed disposal guidelines were Cu (4%), Zn (20%), oil and grease (20%), and total suspended solids (65%), whereas Cu (59%), Zn (66%), Fe (19%), Pb (4%), and oil and grease (74%) exceeded reuse limits. For 11 of the 24 garages, the median Cu concentration at the facilities was at least double the reuse limit. Zinc was also high, with 10 of the 24 garages double the reuse limit. Elevated oil and grease and TSS concentrations were likely due to undersized oil-water separators and washing of all of the trucks at once. Metal phase analysis (particulate vs. dissolved) and chemical equilibrium modeling results show zinc is predominantly in the dissolved phase (>90%) at concentrations that alone will exceed reuse limits, significantly impacted by pH, and elevated in the presence of high chloride concentrations measured in the wash water. These results suggest that in order to reuse the wash water as brine and in some instances to meet disposal guidance, the wash water would need to undergo treatment and the treatment option must address dissolved zinc.

Committee:

Christopher Miller, Dr. (Advisor); William Schneider, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Duirk, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Transportation; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Wash water, water reuse, brine, heavy metals, winter maintenance

Wahl, Mark D.Quantifying the Hydraulic Performance of Treatment Wetlands
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Constructed wetlands are becoming an increasingly common best management practice for reducing pollutants. Processes like rhizofiltration, settling of suspended particles, and degradation are all time dependent. These treatment mechanisms can be limited by hydraulic inefficiencies like short-circuiting in treatment wetlands. It is not known exactly what role such inefficiencies play in treatment, but when expected water quality gains are not realized the adoption of treatment wetlands as a best management practice can be slowed. One reason the effects on treatment are not well understood is that hydraulic inefficiencies are difficult to quantify. The aim of this work was to develop a universally applicable hydraulic index to quantify the hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands. An index demonstrating strong correlation to pollutant reduction is needed to identify the optimal wetland configuration for maximizing residence time. Such an index should be related to the various wetland parameters that influence the RTD. The index would not only be useful in quantifying the effects of vegetation, bathymetry, and wetland shape on residence time; it could then be used to supply the bounds for anticipated pollutant reduction.

Three existing hydraulic indices were evaluated for their suitability both as a measure of hydraulic performance and as a predictor of treatment. Of the three existing hydraulic indices evaluated, only one demonstrated strong correlation to the effluent pollutant fraction. However, that index could not detect variations among residence time distributions that had a common centroid implying the index could not detect attenuation of a residence time distribution. Other indices are needed to better quantify the influence that various wetland parameters have on residence time and develop predictive models for treatment.

Three new indices were proposed. The moment index was derived using residence time distribution theory. This approach quantifies hydraulic inefficiencies according to the juxtaposition of the hold back parameter relative to the nominal residence time. The index was evaluated for its ability to detect variation, for conformity with qualitative assessments, and for correlation to effluent pollutant fractions in order to assess its suitability as a predictor of treatment. Further, two other indices were derived using a statistical approach. Recognizing the close relationship between the residence time distribution and a probability density function, an approach typically associated with failure analysis was used to develop the two new indices. The hazard index demonstrated superior agreement with qualitative assessments implying this index could be useful for characterizing the effects on the flow regime from various wetland parameters like depth, bathymetry, and shape. The temporal hazard index demonstrated superior correlation to the effluent pollutant fraction predicted by a first order reduction implying the temporal hazard index could be the good predictor of treatment.

All three proposed indices overcame weaknesses inherent in the existing indices. The arbitrary truncation of data resulting from finite resources for data collection has no impact on any of the proposed indices. All the proposed indices had the ability to detect attenuation of residence time distributions.

Committee:

Larry Brown, PhD (Advisor); Norman Fausey, PhD (Committee Member); Jay Martin, PhD (Committee Member); Alfred Soboyejo, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Engineering; Civil Engineering; Ecology; Engineering; Environmental Engineering; Hydrology; Statistics

Keywords:

constructed wetland; treatment wetland; hydraulic efficiency; hydraulic index; residence time distribution; RTD; retention time; moment index; hazard index; temporal hazard index; failure analysis; nominal divide; hazard function

Bova, Anthony ScottModeling the Ventilation of Natural Animal Shelters in Wildland Fires
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2010, Civil Engineering

The level of protection from wildland fires that tree cavities provide to sheltered fauna is not well understood. Further, few experiments have been performed to investigate the transfer of combustion products into, and ventilation of, tree cavity shelters in wildland fires. This paucity of data is unlikely to change in the near future. However, increasingly realistic fluid and fire dynamics simulation software has made the execution of “virtual experiments” tenable. In such experiments, data from simulations are used to form empirical relationships between the investigated phenomena and simulated conditions. As an example of this approach, the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) was used to create formulas for estimating maximum combustion product concentrations, doses (concentration integrated over time) and maximum gas temperatures within a single-entrance cylindrical shelter at heights above 3 m.

A three-step approach was taken: First, FDS was validated for single-entrance ventilation by comparison of simulation results to data from large- and small-scale ventilation experiments. Second, data from 45 simulations of a single-entrance, cylindrical shelter subjected to frontal winds at various speeds, angles of incidence and temperatures, were used to create empirical formulas relating these variables to entrance flux and rates of temperature change. Third, these formulas were applied to data from 26 separate simulations of different surface fire scenarios. As a result, a single empirical formula was found relating gas concentrations, doses and maximum temperatures inside a shelter to fire intensity, flame depth and wind speed. The findings suggest that virtual experiments can help provide tools for forest and land managers to estimate the impact and minimize the hazards of prescribed burning, as well as evaluate the consequences of naturally occurring wildland fires.

Committee:

Gil Bohrer, PhD (Advisor); Matthew Dickinson, PhD (Committee Member); Ethan Kubatko, PhD (Committee Member); John Lenhart, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering; Environmental Science; Fluid Dynamics

Keywords:

wildland fire; animal shelter; cavity ventilation; fire dynamics simulator

Antoniou, Maria G.Mechanistic studies on the degradation of cyanobacterial toxins and other nitrogen containing compounds with hydroxyl and sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Technologies
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Engineering : Environmental Engineering

Analytical techniques and instrumentation have progressed significantly in recent years allowing the detection of xenobiotic compounds in water resources at ng/L levels, thereby providing explanations to “mysterious” events of human and animal poisoning worldwide. Among them are the Poisonous Lake of Australia, 1878, the Caruaru Syndrome, 1996 and the Palm Island Mystery, 1979, all related to the same group of naturally occurring toxins, the cyanotoxins. The recalcitrant nature of these compounds towards natural degradation combined with the inadequacy of current water treatment practices for complete toxicity removal of cyanotoxin- contaminated water has propelled research towards finding appropriate treatment technologies. This dissertation explored the potential use of emerging hydroxyl (HO, TiO2 photocatalysis) and sulfate (SO4•-) radical-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for the treatment of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and the chemically related uremic toxin, creatinine.

Herein, an array of TiO2 photocatalytic films activated under UV-A were tested. The study also aimed to determined how the structural properties of the catalyst (porosity, crystallinity, thickness) and water quality (pH, and initial toxin concentration) affected the degradation rates of MC-LR. The findings of this study can assist in adopting practices that elevate the performance of the photocatalytic films and provide insightful input for the design of a large scale reactor. Detoxification studies based on the inhibition of the PP1 enzyme indicated complete loss of MC-LR toxicity following treatment, suggesting that TiO2 photocatalysis may be an effective technology for detoxification of cyanotoxin-contaminated water.

SO4•--AOTs were also tested for the degradation of MC-LR and compared to more commonly used HO•-AOTs. Even though SO4•- are strong oxidants with redox potentials comparable to HO, few studies have utilized SO4•- for water and wastewater treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the degradation of any cyanotoxin with SO4•-.

In this dissertation, emphasis was on transformations of MC-LR during treatment with HO and SO4•-. The reaction intermediates and pathways of MC-LR were reported in three separate studies: two TiO2 photocatalysts and SO4•--AOTs. From these studies, new sites of MC-LR where HO and SO4•- can initiate toxin degradation were unveiled. The determining factor (position or susceptibility) that lead to the preferable site of degradation was also investigated.

MC-LR has a complex structure comprised of various functional groups (double and peptide bonds, carboxylic and amidic groups) and heteroatoms (nitrogen). The intermediates of nitrogen containing-compounds induced by HO oxidation are of great importance in environmental chemistry because they follow different oxidation pathways than carbon-based compounds and are not studied as well. Creatinine possesses the same basic guanidine group as MC-LR and was chosen for a fundamental study on the formation of intermediates with HO at different pH values.

The conclusions from studies conducted as part of this dissertation have broader impacts on the water industry and public health sector because they can assist in developing detection, toxicity assessment, and effective treatment techniques for cyanotoxins. The intermediates identified herein can be used as markers of their presence in our water resources.

Committee:

Dionysios Dionysiou, PhD (Committee Chair); George Sorial, PhD (Committee Member); Armah Del la Cruz, PHD (Committee Member); Jody Shoemaker, PHD (Committee Member); Margaret Kupferle, PhD, PE (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

microcystin-LR;creatinine;sulfate radicals;hydroxyl radicals;reaction intermediates;TiO2 photocatalysis

Moughton, Lynette JaneEffect of Temporal and Spatial Aggregation on Cross Correlation of Indoor Residential Water Demands
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Engineering : Environmental Engineering
Cross correlation between nodal demands may influence the hydraulic performance (e.g., flow velocities, minimum pressures) and associated quality metrics (e.g., disinfectant residual, water age) in a drinking water distribution system. Despite the potential impact of correlated demands on network behavior, the magnitude of cross correlation among indoor water demands in a real network is unknown. In this study, measurements of domestic indoor water use were analyzed to: (i) estimate the magnitude of cross correlation between concurrent indoor residential water demands at different homes for each day of the week and (ii) examine how the level of cross correlation changes with temporal averaging (size of time step) and with spatial aggregation (number of homes at a node). High resolution indoor residential water demands measured in 1997 at 21 single family homes in Milford, Ohio, were screened and averaged at 60-s, 600-s, and 3,600-s intervals for non-overlapping 24-hour periods. The resulting data set, with over 4,130 home-days of indoor water demand observations, was used to estimate the cross correlation between indoor residential water use at two hypothetical nodes formed by randomly assigning home-days to two equally sized groups ranging from 1 to 250 residences. Results show that the magnitude of cross correlation between indoor residential water demands increases with temporal averaging and spatial aggregation. These empirical findings corroborate theoretical predictions formulated in a separate investigation. A case study using the Cherry Hills/Brushy Plain water distribution network indicates that the amount of mass reaching consumers over a 3-day period following 1-hour, 4-hour, and 16-hour contamination events is not significantly affected by the presence of cross correlation among nodal indoor water demands. In addition, while mean travel time differences between the two cases show significant differences from zero, there is no way to determine whether it is caused by cross correlation.

Committee:

Steven Buchberger, PhD (Committee Chair); James Uber, PhD (Committee Member); Dominic Boccelli, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Engineering

Keywords:

water demands; cross correlation; EPANET; time step; spatial aggregation

Next Page