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Grugan, Cecilia SpencerDisability Resource Specialists’ Capacity to Adopt Principles and Implement Practices that Qualify as Universal Design at a 4-Year Public Institution
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Due to the continuous growth of diverse student bodies on college campuses, creating accessibility for each unique student needs to be considered. Students who have a disability or disabilities are a substantial part of this growing diverse student body. Since disability resource specialists play a significant role in creating accessibility for such students, they can consider implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore where disability resource specialists fall on Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change and Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise in regards to implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. Six participants were included in this study out of eight who were invited to participate. Out of those six participants, the study showed that all participants demonstrated a strong presence in the Unfreezing stage of Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change. Also, the study showed that all participants showed a level of knowledge as the second tier to Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise. Limitations as well as recommendations for future research included recruiting a larger sample of participants to provide greater analysis of the study.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Suzanne Franco, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Stephanie Krah, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Engineering; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Instructional Design; Intellectual Property; Labor Relations; Management; Mass Communications; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Personal Relationships; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Public Policy; Reading Instruction; Recreation; Rehabilitation; Robotics; Robots; School Administration; Secondary Education; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Systems Design; Teacher Education; Transportation

Keywords:

Universal Design; Accommodations; Accessibility; Organizational Change; Proactive Practices; Disability; Disability Resource Specialists; Disability Services; Higher Education; Student Affairs

Dunn, Jeffery WNeoliberalism and the `Religious' Work of Schools: The Teacher as Prophet in Dewey's Democratic Society
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Policy and Leadership
This study explores the deleterious and often dehumanizing effects of neoliberal conceptions of schooling on broader democratic forms of education as John Dewey conceived them. I reveal how Dewey’s notion of the religious and his enigmatic claim that the teacher is a “prophet of the true God” provides a way to think differently about the aims and purposes of education situated now within the riverbeds of twenty-first century neoliberalism. With a renewed vision of education, I position teachers as the prophets of democracy who work to subvert the culture of neoliberal schooling.

Committee:

Bryan Warnick, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Neoliberalism; Dewey; Democratic Schools; Prophetic Teachers

Ariss, Laila DianeDifferentiated Instruction: An Exploratory Study in a Secondary Mathematics Classroom
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Curriculum and Instruction: Secondary Education
This case study explores the different approaches to teaching inside a differentiated instruction classroom. The research will be conducted at a college preparatory high school with an emphasis on using various approaches to differentiated instruction to enhance students’ comprehension of Advanced Algebra II. Data collection will include students’ journal reflections, direct-observations, participant-observations, lesson plans, physical artifacts, various students’ assessments, and survey-interviews. The study followed a mixed method design and consisted of two parts qualitative and quantitative data collection and analyses. Both data will be analyzed using excel sheets and ATLAS.ti software. In addition to studying the effects of differentiated instruction on the teacher, the focus of this study will be on mathematics differentiated instruction classroom and how the researcher will relate students’ experience in class to the quantitative outcome of the data.

Committee:

Leigh Chiarelott (Committee Chair); Debra Johanning (Committee Member); Berhane Teclehaimanot (Committee Member); Victoria Stewart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Mathematics; Mathematics Education

Keywords:

Differentiated Instruction;Mathematics Classroom;Learning style;Learning Profile;Content;Assessment; Process;Product;ATLAS-ti;Quantitative Research;Qualitative Research;Mixed Method Approach;Data;Frequency Table;Median;Data Analysis;Instructional Strategy

Hottenstein, Kristi NA Qualitative Case Study on Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation at One Council on Undergraduate Research Institution.
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Higher Education
Regulations for research involving human subjects in higher education have long been a critical issue. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an IRB. Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the literature on the benefits of undergraduate research to students, faculty, and institutions, how human subject research public policy is being implemented at the undergraduate level was a significant gap in the literature. This qualitative single case study examined the human subject research policies and practices of a selective, Mid-western, Council on Undergraduate Research institution. The purpose of the study was to determine how this institution implemented human subject research public policy to benefit its students. This institution used a hybrid approach of public policy implementation that met federal requirements while capitalizing on the role local actors can play in the implementation process. This model resulted in a student friendly implementation emphasizing various learning outcomes and student mentoring. Although there is considerable research and public discussion on the negative aspects of IRBs, if approached in a manner that embraces student learning, the IRB experience can be an extremely beneficial aspect of the institution’s learning environment.

Committee:

David Meabon (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education Administration; Operations Research; Organization Theory; Social Research

Keywords:

IRB; institutional review board; CUR; council on undergraduate research; undergraduate research; UR; public policy; implementation; human subject research; implementation theory; hybrid theories; student mentoring; benefits of undergraduate research

Romig, Connie J.ACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE-INTERACTIVE: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN A CLASSROOM SETTING
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional strategy taxonomy proposed by Chi (2009) in a natural classroom setting. Specifically, according to Chi, instructional strategies that allow students to be active in their learning are more effective than those that allow the student to be merely passive, while constructive strategies are more effective than active and interactive are more effective than constructive. Each of the instructional strategies was employed in four Introduction to Educational Psychology Classes and the learning outcomes, as determined by student performance on unit exams, were compared. The participants were 120 undergraduate students who were enrolled in the introductory course. Each class was presented with a unit employing each instructional strategy, active, constructive and interactive, twice over the course of the semester. At the end of each unit an instructor-made exam was administered. Paired sample comparisons were conducted to determine whether any one of the instructional strategies was superior to the others in terms of student learning outcomes. According to Chi’s taxonomy, interactive instruction should yield the best learning outcomes, followed by constructive instruction and then active construction. Preliminary results indicate that the reverse pattern was observed, with active instruction yielding the best learning outcomes and constructive and interactive showing no significant differences.

Committee:

Chris Was , PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Bradley Morris, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); John Dunlosky, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Psychology

Keywords:

Active instruction; Constructive instruction; Interactive instruction; Instructional strategies

Adams, Laural L.Theorizing Mental Models in Disciplinary Writing Ecologies through Scholarship, Talk-Aloud Protocols, and Semi-Structured Interviews
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This project explores how disciplinary habits of mind are circulated through forms of representation to instantiate English Studies disciplines, institutions which then shape scholars' practices for producing knowledge. Using a critical discourse analysis on scholarship, semi-structured interviews, and a talk-aloud protocol, I find that scholars' thinking and writing rely heavily on mental models. Scholars employ small-scale working representations of dynamic systems to help them reason through disciplinary problem spaces, including research questions and composing issues. Unlike the sciences, English Studies fields have not fully exploited mental models in research and teaching; nor have they been considered fully in writing studies' research on cognition and writing. In order to understand the role of mental models in writing and disciplinarity, I employ ecology theory to link the representational nature of mind to external media. I find that as scholars write, they produce complex mental models of disciplinary content that are comprised of objects of study, relationality between these objects, and discipline-specific forms of dynamism applied to "run" the models. Mental models are multimodal compositions that employ representational modalities afforded by "mind," such as force, image, and affect; their design reveals scholars' tacit values and assumptions. My research suggests that reflecting on mental models can enable scholars to extend their reasoning and critically evaluate their assumptions. During writing and revision, scholars model a generic reader's mind "unfolding" as it encounters the writing in order to anticipate eventual readers' "situation models." Scholars also model hypothetical exchanges with familiars with whom they have previously written in order to predict critiques and feedback. Mental models have a significant role in enculturating new members and constructing and maintaining disciplinarity. I propose that a facility with mental models is a significant component of reasoning-based "literacies" and suggest ways that scholars and teachers can make deliberate use of mental models in scholarship and in teaching writing. I describe the significance of mental models in knowing and composing in new media contexts with multimodal affordances that compare and contrast to those of the mind. I also suggest additional methods for analyzing and collecting data on mental models and writing.

Committee:

Lee Nickoson, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kristine L. Blair, Dr. (Committee Member); Jorge Chavez, Dr. (Committee Member); Sue Carter Wood, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Composition; Ecology; Educational Theory; Epistemology; Higher Education; Language; Literacy; Multimedia Communications; Organizational Behavior; Rhetoric; Social Research; Teacher Education; Technology

Keywords:

Mental Models; Writing Studies; Ecology and Complexity Theory; Disciplinarity; Disciplinary Writing Ecologies; Cognition and Writing; Social Cognition; Scholarship; Multimodal Composing; English Studies; Critical Discourse Analysis; Talk-aloud Protocol

Bales, JohnDesign and Implementation of Two Undergraduate Laboratories Teaching PID Controller Design and Robotics Using Simulink and LEGO NXT
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
This paper outlines the design and implementation of a novel system to design undergraduate laboratories with. An initial laboratory form was written for the Robotics and Control of Robotic Manipulators class utilizing a LEGO NXT system and the Simulink programming environment. This laboratory form is given to students and then revised after each student group based on answers to a questionnaire, direct observation, and direct questioning during the laboratory period. This process is repeated after each group. This subjective data was gathered and grouped into three groups for analysis. Grouping was used to showcase trends caused by changes made to the lab during the iteration process. The same process is utilized in the Linear Systems Control class. Recommendations are made for future laboratories that will feature the student designed controller from Linear Systems Control in the mandatory tasks assigned during the Robotics class. This allows the student to take previous work and build upon it, exposing them to the design process, and allows the University to receive a larger return on any investments it might make in LEGO NXT systems.

Committee:

Robert Williams, II, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

Robotics; LEGO NXT; Laboratory Design

Nemeth, Emily Annette“Because I Live in this Community”: Literacy, Learning, and Participation in Critical Service-Learning Projects
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Over the last decade, service-learning researchers have documented a lack of attention paid to the dynamic nature of student learning in service-learning projects (Butin, 2003/2010) and a lack of attention paid to learning over time (Melchior & Bailis, 2002; Yamauchi, et al., 2006). In light of these gaps in the literature, this dissertation study used New Literacy Studies (e.g., Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Street, 1984) and communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) to explore situated literacies and learning of four focal students participating in two critical service-learning projects at a traditional urban public high school in a mid-size city. Specifically, I explored the following three research questions: 1. What happens when students and their teacher participate in a critical service-learning project; 2. What learning opportunities and forms of participation emerge in a critical service-learning project and how are they taken up by the students; and 3. What is the role of literacy in these learning opportunities and forms of participation? Using an ethnographic case study design, I collected data over the course of an academic school year to include fieldnotes, artifacts, and transcripts. I analyzed these data using an iterative data analysis process. I concluded the study by offering implications for classroom practice, education policy, and service-learning research.

Committee:

Valerie Kinloch (Advisor); Caroline Clark (Advisor); Mollie Blackburn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Literacy

Keywords:

Critical service-learning; service-learning; literacy; communities of practice; situated learning; sociocultural; high school; adolescents; participation; literacy practices; equity; community relevant literature; community

Appleman, Michael JEmerging Adulthood: The Pursuit of Higher Education
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
The introduction of this thesis project will provide an overview of emerging adulthood and the context of higher education in contemporary society. In chapter two, a conceptualization of emerging adulthood will be provided. Given the social psychological nature of emerging adulthood, chapter two will explain the influence of identity development and social factors on emerging adults. In chapter three, self-authorship will be discussed as a theory for considering how emerging adults make meaning of their experiences, progress toward mature thinking, and assume responsible roles in adult life. Next, chapter four will provide an analysis of the relationship between emerging adults and higher education. An emphasis in chapter four will be the Learning Partnerships Model which articulates the potential for higher education to foster the development of self-authorship. This will provide one example of the way higher education cultivates individuals, and the implications for emerging adults. Lastly, a conclusion follows in chapter five to discuss the intersections between emerging adulthood, self-authorship, and higher education, with an emphasis on the social and cultural implications of emerging adulthood as a newly theorized phase in the human lifespan.

Committee:

Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Advisor); Li Huey-Li, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Megan Moore-Gardner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Aging; Cognitive Psychology; Curriculum Development; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Individual and Family Studies; Multicultural Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

emerging adulthood; higher education; self-authorship; educational philosophy; social and cultural foundations; lifespan; student development; identity development; decision-making; possible selves; future-oriented thinking; student learning outcomes

Simms, Andrea P.The Relationship Between Teachers' Causal Attributions for Student Problem Behavior and Teachers' Intervention Preferences
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
How teachers respond to student problem behavior can impact the extent to which behaviors are maintained, intensified, or changed. Best practices suggest that teachers use effective, research-based behavioral interventions in their classrooms, but there are several key factors that influence if, when, and how teachers intervene. An examination of (a) teacher causal attributions or explanations for student problem behavior and (b) thinking that precedes intervention (or lack thereof) can help us understand why and how teachers intervene with students who display problem behaviors. This research study examined the causal attributions that teachers of various disciplines and grade levels hold for student problem behavior. The relationship between teachers' beliefs about the causes of student problem behaviors and teachers' willingness to implement supportive, research-based behavioral interventions was explored. The participants in this study were 84 public school teachers in Ohio. Teachers completed the Teacher's Attributions for Student's Behavior measure. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relative contribution of three causal attributional dimensions on teacher intervention preferences. This study revealed that teachers' causal attributions of student problem behavior are predictive of teachers' intervention preferences. In particular, special education teachers' causal attributions of student problem behavior are predictive of special education teachers' preference for use of unsupportive interventions. Potential benefits of teacher attribution training were discussed in light of these results.

Committee:

Melody Tankersley (Committee Co-Chair); Andrew Wiley (Committee Co-Chair); Richard Cowan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

causal attributions; student problem behavior; problem behavior; behavioral interventions; intervention preferences; teacher causal attributions; casual dimensions; attribution training; research to practice gap; research-based interventions

Beausoleil, Kent AlanTransforming Lives: Attending to the Spirit of College Students from Dysfunctional and/or Abusive Young Adult Formational Experiences
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
Despite the prevalence of college students who have been a victim of abuse and/or complex dysfunctional experiences, higher education typically ignores the spiritual life of its students in regards to treating the effects of abuse and/or dysfunction. This study examines efforts at four Jesuit universities to offer spiritual programs that attend to the spirit of this particular group of students. The purpose of this phenomenologically grounded research is to understand the nature of the relationship between the practice of Ignatian (Catholic/Christian) spiritual direction and growth toward spiritual intelligence of college-age students and recent college graduates. Participants in this study came from physically, sexually, and/or emotionally abusive homes, dysfunctional childhood experiences, or challenging young adult formational experiences. Each participant was also engaged in Ignatian spiritual direction and Ignatian spiritual programming at the Jesuit universities they attended. This study examined the life stories of sixteen upper class college students and/or recent college graduates. Each participant was interviewed twice in an open conversational style for a total of thirty-two interviews. The aim of the research was to develop a richer understanding of the impact of Ignatian spiritual direction in light of the effects of their formational experiences. The research questioned whether or not engaging in this particular type of spiritual programming made a significant, positive impact in participants’ spiritual development and growth toward spiritual intelligence. The findings of this research revealed that Ignatian spiritual direction did indeed lead to developmental growth toward spiritual intelligence for participants along sixteen key spiritual intelligence indicators. Participants experienced these spiritual indicators as a progressive movement that fostered interpersonal healing and wholeness, healthier ways of being and relating to others, and a more positive outlook toward their future as spiritual leaders. This research further demonstrated that attending to college students’ spirit is an important part of their overall holistic development and spiritual intelligence growth.

Committee:

Judy Rogers, PhD (Advisor); Elisa Abes, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Goodman, PhD (Committee Member); M. Elise Radina, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Pastoral Counseling; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

Spirituality, Ignatian, Jesuit, Society of Jesus, Spiritual Direction, Spiritual Intelligence, Abuse, Dysfunction, Higher Education, Holistic, Student Development, Phenomenology, Qualitative, College Student

Medina, Patricia M.Hermeneutical principles for education based on Dewey's and Gadamer's philosophies
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1986, EDU Teaching and Learning
none

Committee:

Philip L. Smith (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Theory

Edington, Joy LynnInvestigating the Stability of Bootstrapped Confirmatory Factor Analysis Estimates for Multiple Dimensions of the 2010 National Youth Nutrition and Physical Activity Study using Linear Structural Relations (LISREL)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership
Abstract This work examines the dimensionality of the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study ((NYPANS) using exploratory factor analysis as a preliminary technique and structural equation modeling to confirm factor structures for input to the bootstrapping process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in three constructs: 1) a three-variable physical activity engagement latent variable; 2) a four-variable latent construct consisting of inactive behaviors; and 3) a five-variable physical activity enjoyment latent variable. Factor loading, latent independent variable, and measurement error variance and covariance parameters are bootstrapped and examined for the design conditions of maximum likelihood and unweighted least squares (UL or ULS) methods estimation and six bootstrap resample sizes. The study examines baseline group sample responses for youth classed as ‘obese’, without applying file-supplied analysis weights. This present work contributes methodologically to knowledge of bootstrap methods and the limitations thereof for structural equation modeling, in particular for confirmatory factor analysis models conducted and resampled in LISREL. The study informs research pertaining to the eating and physical activity behaviors of American youth, contributes to the validity of an instrument utilized for a biennial nationwide data collection, and contributes to educational system research for primary schools in the United States. Results indicate that: 1) most bias ranged from 0% to 3% across estimates, bootstrap repetition sizes, and estimation methods; 2) original sample values were within the 95% confidence bounds; 3) and that few estimates were stable at 50 repetitions and most were stable at 500 repetitions. Relative efficiency of unweighted least squares to maximum likelihood estimation was approximately unity, with few exceptions. The iii sampling distributions of resultant fit indices were also examined for normal theory weighted chi-squared, RMSEA, SRMR, GFI, and AGFI. Bias was expectedly high for chi-squared (80%-90%) and approximately 50% for RMSEA, and the original sample values were not contained in the 95% confidence intervals. SRMR had less bias and the original sample value was within the confidence bounds across repetitions and estimation methods. There were some differences in GFI and AGFI based on estimation method, but both indexes were near unity and bias was low. The number of non-convergent and inadmissible solutions was low, and was not influential.

Committee:

Richard Lomax (Advisor); Mike Edwards (Committee Member); Ann Allen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Physical Education; Public Health Education

Keywords:

SEM; NYPANS; CFA; LISREL; structural equation modeling; factor analysis; obese youth

Fultz, David MarkPrincipal Influence on School Climate: A Networked Leadership Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Policy and Leadership

As processes and contexts for educating students alter, principals are expected to shift their leadership styles to effectively cultivate school climates that proactively accelerate student academic success. Previous models of educational leadership have shown positive results under certain circumstances, but fail to consistently produce a recurring link from a leadership platform to student academic success.

This study explored the amalgamated influence of instruction, collaboration and parental involvement on the teachers’ perceptions of school climate through a newly conceptualized networked leadership model. Within such a model, how the principal instructionally leads, collaborates, and secures parental involvement to leverage gains in a positive school climate guides this inquiry. This study predicts an increase in the measure of networked leadership is positively associated with an increase in the teachers’ perceptions of school climate.

The target population for this study consisted of public school elementary principals and teachers across the United States of America who were identified to participate in the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES, 2010). The sample identified for this study consisted of 2,761 public elementary principals and 10,293 teachers. Items on the SASS allowed the researcher to determine the principal’s degree of focus on instruction, teacher collaboration, and parental involvement, as well as the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate. The primary statistical analysis used for this model was multiple linear regression using hierarchical forced entry to better understand how each of the specific constructs within the networked leadership model impacts school climate.

Results indicate that the principal’s engagement in a networked approach to leadership had a significantly positive influence on student academic success. However, the correlation was weak (r = .072, p < .05). Likewise, when the principal’s focus on instruction is entered into the model alone, it is positively correlated (r = .103, p < .01) with the teachers’ perceptions of school climate. The principal’s influence on collaboration and parental involvement did not display significant correlations with the teachers’ perceptions of school climate.

While it initially appeared that the networked leadership approach held promise to leverage positive influences on teachers’ perception of school climate, further analysis revealed that the construct of instruction was predominantly impacting significance. When the individual constructs were parceled out, only the construct of instruction retained significance. However, these results must be tempered with the fact that this significance is weak and the entire model only accounts for 3.1% of the variability in school climate.

The limited application and statistical significance of the results should not diminish interest in future configurations of networked leadership. The foundation of this concept is a viable approach to school leadership. The notion of networked leadership needs to be explored using appropriate instrumentation and research to identify unique attributes and combinations of actions that may ultimately lead to a stout leadership model. Further theorization of networked leadership may yield better research and result in outcomes that facilitate leadership development and implementation in the field of education and principal preparation.

Committee:

Belinda Gimbert, PhD (Committee Chair); Helen Marks, PhD (Committee Member); Jerome D'Agostino, PhD (Committee Member); Anika Anthony, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Principal; school leadership; school climate; networked leadership; influence; leadership theory

Watts, Rebecca L.An Exploration of Community College Transfer Alumni Perceptions of their Undergraduate Experiences and Subsequent Alumni Affinity
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Higher Education (Education)
The study explored transfer alumni perceptions of their community college and university experiences, their alumni affinity as measured by the frequency of alumni engagement with each institution, and what motivates that engagement. Study participants rated their university experiences more positively than those at their community college and reported engaging in more alumni activities with their university than their community college. Based on the findings, recommendations for practitioners include enhanced documentation and communication of the learning and development outcomes gained through the community college experience, increased university support services for transfer students, and increased community college outreach efforts with alumni.

Committee:

Henning John, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Young Robert, Ph.D. (Advisor); Horton David, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brooks Gordon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Descutner David, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Theory; Higher Education

Keywords:

transfer student; community college student; transfer alumni; alumni affinity; student satisfaction; student development; residential student; non-residential campus; at-risk college students; community college alumni outreach; university alumni outreach

Howard, RebeccaA Pedagogy of One’s Own: Bricolage, Differential Consciousness, and Identity in the Translexic Space of Women’s Studies, Theatre, and Early Childhood Education
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, Educational Administration

This work employs the mechanism of differential consciousness to create a bricolage of content and structure. It examines the intersections of feminism (as it has been brought into the academy through women’s studies), theatre, and early childhood education, particularly as they work together to create a personal and professional identity that defines, and is defined by, a unique pedagogy of transdisciplinarity. Specifically, it is designed to address six primary points:

1. It provides an exemplar of how to employ differential consciousness as a mechanism for constructing a bricolage of narrative, research, and theory.

2. It demonstrates the application of feminist theory through specific disciplines into a transdisciplinary discourse.

3. It advocates for and furthers a transdisciplinary conversation in relation to the social, cultural, political, and academic intersections of early childhood education, women’s studies, and theatre.

4. It adds to the body of historical knowledge of women in the academy through the stories of Patty Smith Hill and Winifred Ward.

5. It offers, by blending the stories of Hill and Ward with my own, a cogent example of the ways in which biography can be contextualized to provide inspiration for non-traditional career paths.

6. It challenges early childhood educators and caregivers to embrace feminism, it challenges feminists to more thoroughly ally with early childhood education, and it challenges both to expand their thinking about the function of gender roles in educational settings, and demonstrates the application of performance theory to this process.

Committee:

Sally Lloyd (Committee Co-Chair); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz (Committee Co-Chair); Sheri Leafgren (Committee Member); Kathleen Johnson (Committee Member); Elizabeth Mullenix (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Educational Theory; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Preschool Education; Teacher Education; Teaching; Theater; Womens Studies

Keywords:

bricolage; feminist theory; early childhood education; women's studies; theatre; interdisciplinary; transdisciplinary; differential consciousness; curriculum; Patty Smith Hill; Winifred Ward; creative dramatics; kindergarten; gender; performance theory

Hsiao, E-LingThe Effectiveness of Worked Examples Associated with Presentation Format and Prior Knowledge: A Web-based Experiment
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Curriculum and Instruction Instructional Technology (Education)
The aim of this study is to explore whether presentation format and prior knowledge affect the effectiveness of worked examples. The experiment was conducted through a specially designed online instrument. A 2X2X3 factorial before-and-after design was conducted. Three-way ANOVA was employed for data analysis. The result showed first, that prior knowledge, gender and class year had some impacts on the effectiveness of worked examples, so individual differences needs to be considered while designing worked example instruction. Second, the expert reversal effect (Kalyuga et al, 2001) was confirmed by one of findings in the study. When worked example instruction was provided, the higher prior knowledge level groups reported lower cognitive load by viewing the text-only presentation format; in contrast, the low prior knowledge level group reported lower cognitive load by viewing the text-plus-graphic presentation format. It indicated novices might need more detailed guidance in worked example instruction. Third, the study discovered that the low prior knowledge level group reported lower cognitive load by viewing the text-plus-graphic worked examples instead of text-only worked examples. It indicated that integrating text and graphics in worked examples might help novice learn better. Lastly, the findings of the study showed that high prior knowledge level group performed better on the posttest by using worked examples than general statement. The study indicated that worked examples may not only benefit novices as previous studies addressed (Crissman, 2006; Kalyuga, et al., 1998), it may also work for experts.

Committee:

David R. Moore, PhD (Committee Chair); Teresa Franklin, PhD (Committee Member); George Johanson, EdD (Committee Member); Ginger Weade, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Experiments; Gender; Higher Education; Teaching; Technology

Keywords:

Worked Example Effect; Prior Knowledge; Presentation Format; Web-based Experiment; Cognitive Load Theory

Sanders, Alane K.Schools as Emotional Arenas: Enhancing Education by Dismantling Dualisms in High School Life
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Communication Studies (Communication)

In this dissertation, I position schools as social and emotional arenas, embedded within powerful societal and educational discourses about emotion, relationships, and learning. Based on in-depth interviews and participant observation at New Haven High School, I present a qualitative study of students' and teachers' emotional experiences related to learning and being at school. Guided by a reflexive methodology, key reflective sensibilities emerged as meaningful when analyzing discourses: social constructionism, organizational socialization, and feminist-poststructuralism. Specifically, theoretical frameworks for the major themes were crafted using structuration, narrative, dialectical, boundary-management, emotion socialization, instructional, learning, and critical theories.

Results coalesce around four key themes which include analysis of (1) how emotion shapes teaching and learning; (2) how discursive and material structures and practices shape emotion rules and experience in schooling; (3) the ways in which peers groups, close friendships, and romantic relationships evoke, mediate, and socialize emotion; and (4) the influence of home life on students' emotional socialization and well-being at school. The impact of dualistic thinking on school life is discussed within each of these themes. Specifically, the consequences of viewing emotion as separate from reason, and public spheres as separate from private spheres are examined.

This project attempts to disrupt dispassionate views of schools that ignore the emotional realities of teaching and learning, and, conversely, explore ways in which emotion both enables and constrains students' abilities to learn and thrive at school. In so doing, I draw attention to taken-for-granted ideologies and practices shaping emotional experience, and interrogate the ramifications of dominant societal and educational discourses about emotion. Of particular importance are the ways in which these discourses pervade student life and guide students' and teachers' decisions about how to manage their emotions at school. I enter into perennial discussions of the role of emotion in the public sphere to argue that emotion should not be viewed as antithetical to reason, but should be considered a form of reasoning. Moreover, I seek to dislocate clear boundaries between students' public and private lives calling instead for recognition of the dynamic interplay between public and private spheres that becomes evident though the medium of emotion. Ultimately, I contend that we sacrifice deep connection with and understanding of students in educational organizations by striving to create emotionally neutral domains for learning detached from the broader landscape of students' lives. I call for new emotional scripts that could enlarge possible subject positions for stakeholders, and enhance learning in the classroom. Contributions to theoretical and practical knowledge, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Committee:

B. Scott Titsworth, PhD (Committee Chair); Lynn Harter, PhD (Committee Member); Jaylynne Hutchinson, PhD (Committee Member); Beth Graham, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Education; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Communication and Emotion; Emotion and Education; Learning and Emotion; Instructional Communication; Organizational Communication; High School Students; Rationality; Emotionality

DelMar, Sarah NicoleDon't Call Me "Professor": Student Perceptions of Graduate Instructor Ethos
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2012, English
Graduate Teaching Assistants hold a unique role, a dual identity as both an instructor and a student. Most frequently, Graduate Teaching Assistants in English develop their professional roles as instructors through teacher training and their responsibilities as instructors of record for composition courses. Given that teaching loads for graduate students in English require that these graduate students' professional identities are constructed and performed for a significant number of undergraduate students, it is worth knowing whether and how graduate students' ethos as composition instructors is interpreted by students in their composition courses. The author investigates the relationship between Graduate Teaching Assistant ethos and students' perceptions of the role of composition through a survey and interviews, and analyzes the effect that individual Graduate Teaching Assistants' identities as composition instructors have on undergraduate students.

Committee:

Patrick Thomas, PhD (Committee Chair); Bryan Bardine, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Wilhoit, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Graduate Teaching Assistant Ethos; Student Perceptions; Instructor Ethos; Graduate Teaching Assistant Training; Teacher Ethos; Teaching Composition Courses

O'Neil, Kathrine PamelaCase-based Lessons: A quantitative study of how case studies impact teacher efficacy for the application of principles of motivation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this quantitative study was to provide a response to the following question: Does the use of video case studies focused on motivation increase undergraduates’ sense of efficacy for applying principles of motivation? I examined the proposed research question using quantitative methods over the course of two 10-week quarters. Participants in the study were undergraduates enrolled in four sections of an educational psychology course. Participants completed four existing measures at three time points. During the second time point subjects were assigned to an experimental group that viewed a video case study or a control group that watched a lecture on motivation. Multiple repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that those who viewed the video case study were significantly less likely to believe in using performance approaches in their future classrooms than those who watched the control video but were slightly more likely to have a lower sense of personal teaching efficacy. Results of this study indicate further research is needed involving greater exposure to cases and deeper integration of cases in teacher education programs.

Committee:

Anita Hoy (Advisor); Eric Anderman (Committee Member); Bryan Warnick (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory

Keywords:

case studies; case based; pedagogy; motivation; self-efficacy; teacher-efficacy; goal thoery; educational psychology; teacher education

Hachem, AliThe Oxymoron of the Cultural Residue in the Organizational Paragon: A Critical Pragmatist Critique of Selected Popular Educational Administration Textbooks
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2013, Educational Leadership
While the academic field of educational administration is multivocal and contested, its field of policy and practice is increasingly trapped in the logic of economic efficiency and the language of standardization and accountability. The modern department of educational administration is nowadays at this difficult crossroad, constantly forced to justify any kind of intellectual multivocality against a standard of means-end rationality. Still, celebrating and negotiating multivocality while resisting the technical logic covert in neo-capitalism should be a prime concern to any liberal democracy, including its democratic public schools. This is because democratic public education should be deep-rooted in culture and its politics. Based on a historical review of the field of educational administration, and using a critical pragmatist framework that draws from George Herbert Mead's pragmatist sociology of language, John Dewey's naturalism, Valentin N. Voloshinov's critical philosophy of language,019 and work by Helen Gunter and Peter Ribbins on mappers, mapping, and maps, this study investigates four popular introductory educational administration textbooks used in the preparation of educational administrators in pre-service educational administration programs in colleges of education. More specifically, this study investigates (1) the degree of multivocality reflected in these textbooks and (2) their critical democratic potentials and limitations. In the course of this investigation, the selected textbooks are found to be monovocal, drawing mainly from a structural, functional, and rational organizational theory. By naturalizing one specific version of the ontology, epistemology, and axiology of schooling, and by ignoring any substantive debate about education in its relation to democracy, culture, and politics, these textbooks are also found to lack in critical democratic inclinations.

Committee:

Kathleen Knight Abowitz, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Quantz, PhD (Committee Member); Karen Stansberry Beard, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Misco, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Theory

Keywords:

Critical Pragmatism; Educational Administration; Textual Analysis

Samford, Wendy L.EXPLORING SUSTAINED CHANGE IN TEACHERS’ BELIEFS AFTER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
This qualitative multi-case study examined the relationship between professional development (Teacher Leader Endorsement Program) and sustained change in teachers’ beliefs about a deliberative curricular platform (teacher leadership) after professional development. Participants in the study consisted of four volunteers that felt that they had undergone change as a result of the TLEP. Data collection for the class, were the teacher leader narrative, the leadership plan, and two individual interviews that were conducted six months after the professional development took place. Three research questions guided this study: (1) What were the qualities of the Teacher Leader Endorsement Program that supported teachers’ change in beliefs about teacher leadership? (2) What tools did teachers employ to support sustained change in their beliefs about teacher leadership and to support such change in their colleagues’ beliefs? (3) After the Teacher Leader Endorsement Program ended, what factors supported or hindered the re-presentation of teachers’ change in beliefs about teacher leadership? Collectively, all of the participants in this study stated that the qualities in the definition for meaningful professional development were important in changing their beliefs about teacher leadership and they, and their colleagues, had made a sustained change into a new non-reflective state as a result of the TLEP. The main supports for re-presenting ideas about teacher leadership to their colleagues were continued professional reading, collegiality, timeliness of the core content standards, and seeing change in their students and colleagues. Hindrances were budget cuts, lack of administrative support, lack of time, and pre-existing climate in the school.

Committee:

James Henderson (Committee Chair); Scott Courtney (Committee Member); Frank Ryan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Curriculum Development; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Sustained change in teachers' beliefs; professional development; change in beliefs

Richardson, Anne E.Explainers' development of science-learner identities through participation in a community of practice
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
The urgent environmental issues of today require science-literate adults to engage in business and political decisions to create solutions. Despite the need, few adults have the knowledge and skills of science literacy. This doctoral dissertation is an analytical case study examining the science-learner identity development of Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers. Located in San Francisco, CA, the Exploratorium is a museum of science, art, and human perception dedicated to nurturing curiosity and exploration. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with sixteen former Field Trip Explainers, participant observation of the current Field Trip Explainer Program, and review of relevant documentation. Data analysis employed constant comparative analysis, guided by the communities of practice theoretical framework (Wenger, 1998) and the National Research Council's (2009) Six Strands of Science Learning. Findings of this research indicate that Exploratorium Field Trip Explainers participate in a community of practice made up of a diverse group of people that values curiosity and openness to multiple ways of learning. Many participants entered the Field Trip Explainer Program with an understanding of science learning as a rigid process reserved for a select group of people; through participation in the Field Trip Explainer community of practice, participants developed an understanding of science learning as accessible and a part of everyday life. The findings of this case study have implications for research, theory, and practice in informal adult science learning, access of non-dominant groups to science learning, and adult workplace learning in communities of practice.

Committee:

Elizabeth McCann, PhD (Committee Chair); Tania Schusler, PhD (Committee Member); Joe Heimlich, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Educational Theory; Environmental Education; Environmental Studies; Museum Studies; Museums; Science Education

Keywords:

Explainers; Science Museum Educators; Communities of Practice; Informal Learning; Science Literacy; Science Learning; Museums; Exploratorium; Adult Learning; Workplace Learning

Pavliga, Gail K.Toward a Conceptual Definition for Social Competence: An Exploratory Study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2008, Secondary Education
Law, Wong and Song (2004) explain that the study of social competence has itsroots in Thorndike (1920) proposition that intelligence has three broad based components. One of three described intelligence in he social arena as he ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls-to act wisely in human relations (Law, et al, 2004, p. 484). Since this early work, many conceptual definitions for social competence have been forwarded. Although social competence has been described by investigators, the field has thus far proceeded in the absence of a conceptual definition. It was Darden and Gintner (1996) who explained that within the social competence literature, many terms and definitions have been used which are often overlapping and contradictory. In addition, many current research articles in the area of social competence report a lack of an accepted conceptual or operational definition for the term (Johns, 2001; Hubbard and Dearing, 2004; Zsolnai, 2002; Smith and Travis, 2001). This dissertation research utilized mixed methods to collect opinions from experts in the field of social competence to answer the main research question; how do experts conceptually define social competence? Experts were defined as those persons who had published an article between 2002-2007 that included the term ocial competence in the title. Using a three round Delphi study, the researcher collected both qualitative and iv quantitative data by using open as well as closed ended questions to answer the research question how do experts conceptually define social competence? While information processing perspectives and cultural competencies did not find much support as a conceptualization for social competence in this study, constructs such as social skills, abilities and social goals did resonate from both the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data. Further findings suggested that social competence is a multi-dimensional construct and that experts believe that the research community should move toward consensus for a conceptual definition for social competence.

Committee:

Francis Broadway, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Educational Theory

Keywords:

social competence; social skills; developmental psychology

Murphy, Robert L.Saving our Sons: The Impact of a Single Gender Public School on the Social, Emotional, and Academic Progress of Young African American Males From Low Socioeconomic Urban Neighborhoods
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2013, Educational Administration (Education)
African American males consistently perform at significantly lower academic levels, than their peers, at every age level and on almost every national assessment (Lewis, Simon, Uzzell, Horwitz, & Casserly, 2010; Harvey, 2010; Tsoi-A-Fatt, 2010; Fergus & Noguera, 2010), and of all racial/ethnic and gender groups, African American males continue to be the least likely to secure a regular high school diploma in four years (Schott Foundation, 2012). Their lack of educational progress increases the likelihood that many of them will not live productive and meaningful lives, and they will be trapped in a continuous cycle of poverty. Because of the technical skills required to be employable in the 21st century workforce, getting a quality education may be more critical now, than in years past (Jackson & Moore, 2006). Too many of the African American male students in several of the coeducational public schools within the urban centers of the United States are not achieving academically. It is the researcher’s opinion that many of the coeducational public schools, in large urban cities, are not meeting the social and emotional needs of their African American males, which greatly contributes to the low academic performance of these students. If this nation is truly serious about ameliorating the educational problems of these members of our society, we need to examine, and adopt educational alternatives to these schools that have historically not met their needs. This qualitative study will examine the impact of single gender public schools on the educational progress of young, low-income African American males. The specific aim of this inquiry is to add to the limited, but growing collection of theories and research about single gender public schools and to critically examine how these single gender public schools affect the social, emotional, and academic progress of young, low-income African American males. This study will focus on the perceptions and experiences of young, low-income, African American males who attend a single gender public school; perceptions and experiences of their parents and/or guardians; and the perceptions and experiences of their teachers and administrator. Specifically, this study will focus on what the single gender public school is doing to develop a school culture designed to address the social, emotional, and academic needs of these young, low-income, African American males. The researcher designed and conducted a pilot study to explore the complexities of the research process. The participants of the pilot study were six African American male students, their parents/guardians, three of their teachers, and their administrator. The pilot study was conducted at The Leaders Academy, an all African American male, public high school located in a large Midwestern city. The Leaders Academy also served as the site for the final study, which will focus on four students, their parents/guardians, three teachers, and the principal.

Committee:

Dwan Robinson, Ph D (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Theory; Instructional Design

Keywords:

African Americans; Young African American Males; Education; Social, Emotional, and Academic Progress; Single Gender Public Schools

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