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Akram, Hadeel AbdulahTHE PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE ARABIC VERSION OF THE SELF-DIRECTED SEARCH (SDS)-FORM R, 5th EDITION FOR FIRST-YEAR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA)
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The factor structure of Holland’s hexagonal model as shown in the Self-Directed Search (SDS) has received extensive attention across the world. The goal in creating the SDS was to equip guidance counselors and services with information about adults’ personality types, interests, preferences, and career options. More precisely, the SDS items assess personality types and link them to other measures or instructional repositories containing tools for educational and vocational planning. The SDS has been translated into 25 languages, adapted for use in many cultures, and supported in many countries such as Australia, Africa, Europe, and Asia, but not in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This study evaluated the application of the SDS to Saudi students, and examined the newly-translated inventory’s internal structure and consistency in the KSA and Arabic-speaking cultural context. The Arabic version of the SDS-Form R, 5th Edition was administered to first-year students (N = 1,090) at King Abdul Aziz University (KAU), Jeddah, KSA. The main objective was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the Arabic Version of the SDS-Form R, 5th Edition. The secondary objective was to examine the differences on the SDS responses between male (n = 457) and female (n = 633) students and between students in the Scientific track (n = 603) and the Administrative and Humanitarian track (n = 487) and to determine the equivalence of both genders and tracks in fitting the data to the Holland model. Evidence regarding the application of the SDS in the Saudi population was obtained.

Committee:

Aryn C. Karpinski (Advisor); Tricia Niesz (Committee Member); Ning-Kuang Chuang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Tests and Measurements

Elam, Nicholas PTHE IMPACT OF THE OHIO TEACHER EVALUATION SYSTEM ON PRINCIPALS’ APPROACHES AND PERCEPTIONS TOWARD EVALUATION
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
In 2012-2013, Ohio introduced a teacher evaluation system that replaced many district-created systems. The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) incorporates quantitative student achievement data to a greater extent, a greater number of ratings classifications, more tangible consequences for teachers, requires a more extensive time commitment for evaluators, and relies more heavily on widespread uniform interpretation and implementation than most of its predecessors. This mixed-methods study investigates the ways in which OTES has reshaped principals’ approaches and perceptions toward evaluation. Quantitative data, from three years of OTES evaluations, does not indicate that principals’ evaluation ratings are influenced significantly by either of two policies unique to OTES – one policy that allows principals access to some (and only some) teachers’ quantitative ratings well in advance of submitting a qualitative rating, and another policy that allows highly-rated teachers to be evaluated less frequently in subsequent years. Qualitative data, from interviews with principals, reveal mixed perceptions about OTES’ ability to improve teacher practice and accurately reflect individual teacher effectiveness.

Committee:

Andrew Saultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Thomas Poetter, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Evans, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kate Rousmaniere, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Ohio Teacher Evaluation System

Musolff, Jennifer A.Variables Considered by Educators when Determining Educational Placement for Children with Autism
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2016, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
Since 2000, the prevalence of autism has been on the rise, with the most current data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016) showing 1 out of 68 children being diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. With this growth comes an increase in the number of children served under IDEA in public schools. Educators are required under IDEA to provide children with disabilities a free, appropriate public education in the child’s least restrictive environment. There is a need, now more than ever, for effective and efficient methods of assessing students with autism and ensuring placement in the most appropriate environment to meet their unique and diverse learning needs. This study was designed to contribute to the current literature on assessment variables used to determine educational placement, thus informing educators on proficient means in deciding the most appropriate placement for a child with autism. The first research question investigated the extent children with autism are included in general education classes. The second research question sought out variables used in determining placement. The third question explored the weight each variable has in determining educational placement. The final research question analyzed outside factors and influences that IEP team members take into consideration when they determine educational placement. An online survey consisting of 39 questions was administered to analyze the variables educators in elementary public school buildings use to determine placement for children with autism. The results indicated the most widely used assessments included achievement measures and other measures including social skills assessments and the use of a functional behavior assessment. This study will assist educators with using a variety of assessment procedures when deciding placement for children with autism, helping to ensure the student’s needs are met and learning is maximized.

Committee:

Karen Larwin, PhD (Advisor); Charles Vergon, JD (Committee Member); Kathleen Aspiranti, PhD (Committee Member); Philip Belfiore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Educational Tests and Measurements; Special Education

Keywords:

autism; assessment; least restrictive environment

Lark, Adam ChristopherImplementation of Scientific Community Laboratories and Their Effect on Student Conceptual Learning, Attitudes, and Understanding of Uncertainty
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Physics
Scientific Community Laboratories, developed by The University of Maryland, have shown initial promise as laboratories meant to emulate the practice of doing physics. These laboratories have been re-created by incorporating their design elements with the University of Toledo course structure and resources. The laboratories have been titled the Scientific Learning Community (SLC) Laboratories. A comparative study between these SLC laboratories and the University of Toledo physics department’s traditional laboratories was executed during the fall 2012 semester on first semester calculus-based physics students. Three tests were executed as pre-test and post-tests to capture the change in students’ concept knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of uncertainty. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate students’ conceptual changes through the semester and average normalized gains were compared between both traditional and SLC laboratories. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) was conducted to elucidate students’ change in attitudes through the course of each laboratory. Finally, interviews regarding data analysis and uncertainty were transcribed and coded to track changes in the way students understand uncertainty and data analysis in experimental physics after their participation in both laboratory type. Students in the SLC laboratories showed a notable an increase conceptual knowledge and attitudes when compared to traditional laboratories. SLC students’ understanding of uncertainty showed most improvement, diverging completely from students in the traditional laboratories, who declined throughout the semester.

Committee:

Lawrence Anderson-Huang (Committee Chair); Rebecca Schneider (Committee Member); Richard Irving (Committee Member); Song Cheng (Committee Member); Jon Bjorkman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Physics; Science Education

Sanders, MargaretMultifactor Models of Ordinal Data: Comparing Four Factor Analytical Methods
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Policy and Leadership
In education research, ordinal data is the norm but does not meet the assumptions of most statistical methods and thus is often analyzed inappropriately. Using a dataset typical of the field, this study compared four factor analytic methods: a traditional exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a full-information EFA, and two EFAs within the confirmatory factor analysis framework (E/CFA) conducted according to the Jöreskog method and the Gugiu method. Because an approach for handling cross-loaded items in multifactor models has not been clearly defined within the Gugiu method, two approaches were compared. The fixed-loadings approach involves forcing cross-loaded items to load onto only one factor, chosen based on the strongest theoretical justification. The delete-items approach deletes all cross-loaded items from the model. Both approaches were used to arrive at a starting model that was then modified according to the Gugiu method. Methods were compared on initial model fit, replication in a confirmatory factor analysis, and the stability, interpretability, and reliability of the models. In terms of initial model fit, methods appropriate for ordinal data produced better models, the E/CFAs outperformed the EFAs, and the Gugiu method demonstrated greater model interpretability than the Jöreskog method. Both approaches to the Gugiu method produced well-fitting models, but the delete-items approach outperformed the fixed-loadings approach. However, contrary to the findings of a previous study, these results did not hold for model validation. In CFAs conducted on posttest data, the model fit of the E/CFAs was on par with or worse than the model fit of the EFAs. Additionally, the two approaches to the Gugiu method performed the worst where before they had performed the best, with the fixed-loadings approach faring particularly poorly. In the case of this data, the full-information EFA produced the best fitting models. Examining characteristics of the data help to explain the unexpectedly poor performance of the E/CFA methods and help to clarify when these methods are appropriate to use. Diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS), the method of estimation employed by the full-information EFA and the two E/CFAs, may produce biased parameter estimates when used with small sample sizes, with factors defined by only a few items, and with items with high skewness. These biased parameter estimates are even more problematic when used to make model modification decisions, as they were for the Jöreskog and Gugiu E/CFA methods. Thus, the results of the current study suggest that the full-information EFA may be the most appropriate method to use with data with these problematic characteristics. Secondarily, the findings also provide evidence for the delete-items approach as the more appropriate way of dealing with cross-loaded items in the Gugiu E/CFA method.

Committee:

P. Cristian Gugiu (Advisor); Eric Anderman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Tests and Measurements; Psychological Tests

Keywords:

exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis; ordinal data analysis

Passero, ThomasUsing popular culture to teach the community college business curriculum: A comparative study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Higher Education
This study addressed a need for comprehensive quantitative empirical studies to determine the effectiveness of using popular culture media as a teaching technique. A quasi-experimental design was implemented to examine whether a group of community college students taking a first-semester introduction to business course who were exposed to a teaching method incorporating popular culture media (Treatment Group) would have increased levels of knowledge and stronger preferences toward this method versus a group of students taking the same course who were not exposed to this teaching style (Control Group). Specifically, this study examined: (1) Do differences exist relative to student learning; (2) Do differences exist relative to perceived student comprehension; (3) Do differences exist relative to student semester retention; (4) Do differences exist relative to student semester attendance; (5) Do differences exist relative to student interest in the discipline of business; (6) Do differences exist relative to student’s interest in taking additional business courses; (7) Do differences exist relative to student satisfaction; (8) Do differences exist relative to student satisfaction between Millennial students and non-Millennial student. The 143 students taking part in the study comprised six intact groups, meaning they selected the days and times of the sections available that appealed to them (non-random samples). Without the students’ knowledge, the researcher/instructor arbitrarily selected three sections as the Treatment Groups and three as the Control Groups. Throughout the semester, general business concepts from the course textbook were taught to the Treatment Group using films, television shows, comic strips, and music. The Control Group were taught the same concepts but without the use of any popular culture media. Participants completed Pre-Delivery and Post-Delivery attitudinal questionnaires and took five multiple-choice exams during term. The fit of survey and exam data were tested using the Rasch model, with further hypotheses testing accomplished with Independent t’s, Chi-square cross-tabulations, and dependent paired samples. The analyses showed no significance between the groups receiving different teaching methods on knowledge, retention, or attendance. However, there were statistically significant differences on perceived knowledge, interest in the business major, interest in taking additional business courses, and course satisfaction for both the Treatment Group and Control Group favoring the popular culture-enhanced methodology. Regarding generational attitudes this alternative teaching method, both the Millennial and Non-millennial sub-groups strongly favored the popular culture techniques over the traditional ones. Implications for students and instructors are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Angela M. Nelson, PhD (Committee Member); Gregory E. Stone, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Business Education; Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Experiments; Higher Education; Inservice Training; Instructional Design; Mass Media; Pedagogy; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

teaching techniques: instructional methodology; popular culture; quantitative study; quasi-experimental; Rasch; community college; millennial; survey; media; business education; empirical study

Davis, Christen R.The Effect of a Computerized, Cognitive Intervention on the Working Memory and Mathematical Skill Performance of Inner-City Children
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2012, Educational Psychology
This study examines the effectiveness of a computerized, cognitive intervention on the working memory capacity and mathematical performance of elementary students from an urban school. Working memory and mathematics performance were measured using two subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (Wechsler, 2003), the Calculation subtest from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery – Third Edition (Woodcock, McGrew & Mather, 2001), and the Math Concepts and Applications (MCAP) and Math Calculation (MCBM) assessments from AIMSweb®. Results were analyzed using a paired samples t-tests to evaluate if working memory and mathematics performance scores significantly increased after the cognitive intervention. Results reflected significant differences in working memory capacity and mathematical performance after the intervention. Implications of these results, future research directions, and tips for using cognitive interventions within an RTI framework are discussed.

Committee:

Michael Woodin, PhD (Committee Chair); Raymond Witte, PhD (Committee Member); Iris Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Jane Bogan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Software; Educational Tests and Measurements; Mathematics Education; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Cognitive Intervention; Working Memory; Math Skill; Cogmed

Li, YanjuItem Discrimination and Type I Error Rates in DIF Detection Using the Mantel-Haenszel and Logistic Regression Procedures
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2012, Educational Research and Evaluation (Education)

The inflation of Type I error rates can have damaging effects in DIF identification. This study primarily aimed to examine the performance of the Type I error rates in DIF analysis when using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and logistic regression (LR) procedures by simulating data based on two-parameter logistic (2PL) and three-parameter logistic (3PL) item response theory (IRT) models. Specifically, the focus of this study was to explore how item discrimination parameters affect the Type I error rates in both MH and LR procedures when other influencing factors such as, sample size, group mean difference, and matching method were manipulated. Several Monte Carlo simulation studies were conducted. The patterns of the false rejection rates under various conditions were displayed and the effects of influencing factors were evaluated.

The findings suggested that under thin matching, a small range of discrimination parameters for all items resulted in very little Type I error rate inflation for both MH and LR procedures, even with large sample sizes and large group mean differences. The results also indicated that when all items have relatively high discrimination parameters, there is less Type I error inflation regardless of the range of discrimination parameters for all items when using thin matching and deciles thick matching. Additionally, for the condition where the non-studied items did not include weak items, the false rejection rates were controlled fairly well when the studied item had a relatively larger discrimination value. When data were generated with a 3PL IRT model, the results confirmed that guessing was a nuisance determinant on the inflation of Type I error rates. This study also concluded that thin matching was preferable in controlling Type I error rates, deciles thick matching was acceptable in most circumstances, and quintiles thick matching was poor.

Committee:

Gordon Brooks (Committee Chair); Valerie Conley (Committee Member); George Johanson (Committee Member); Adah Ward Randolph (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Differential Item Functioning;Item Discrimination;Logistic Regression Procedure;Mantel-Haenszel Procedure;Type I Error

Piotrowski, DeborahThe Effects of Kindergarten Entrance Age and Gender on Students’ Performance on the Ohio Third Grade Reading Achievement Assessment
Doctor of Education, University of Toledo, 2011, Educational Administration and Supervision
This study investigates whether gender and kindergarten entrance age affect students’ achievement on the Ohio Third Grade Reading Achievement Assessment. More specifically, this study investigates whether kindergarten children with late birthdays (after July 1) and who reside in northwest Ohio score lower on the literacy component of the Ohio Third Grade Reading Achievement Assessment than their older peers with birthdays prior to July 1. The sample for this study is composed of 2,296 third-grade students who attended schools within 10 different school districts in rural northwest Ohio over a three-year period (2007, 2008, and 2009). The sample data consisted of total reading scores, birth dates and gender of the students in the sample. Analysis of the data was conducted using two statistical models: simple linear regression analysis, a series of two-sample t-tests, and a General Linear Model. Overall, the results of the regression analyses indicated a slight negative correlation (not statistically significant) between the age at kindergarten entrance and reading achievement scores, suggesting that the reading iv achievement scores for both boys and girls decreases as their age at kindergarten increases. Based on the t-test results, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference in the scores between boys with birthdays after July 1 and girls with birthdays after July 1 on the Ohio Third Grade Reading Achievement Assessment. The General Linear Model analysis indicated there were significant differences between the participating districts.

Committee:

Eileen Carr, PhD (Committee Chair); Gale Mentzer, PhD (Committee Member); Leigh Chiarelott, PhD (Committee Member); Cynthia Beekley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education

Keywords:

Kindergarten entrance age;gender difference on standardized reading assessment

Moore, Tonia L.Student-Directed Inquiry: Virtual vs. Physical
Master of Computing and Information Systems, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems
This paper investigates whether student-directed inquiry within a virtual setting is better than student-directed inquiry within a physical setting in terms of acquisition of knowledge regarding DNA, chromosomes, genotypes, phenotypes, punnett squares and alleles. In order to explore the research questions, a group of middle school students within the same science class at an inner-city middle school were recruited as participants, and divided into two groups, student-directed virtual inquiry (SDVI) and student-directed physical inquiry (SDPI) groups. The students in SDVI group learned the science topics, DNA, chromosomes, genotypes, phenotypes, punnett squares and alleles, within a virtual learning environment on genetics for middle school students called Rigglefish. The students in SDPI group received the instructions on the same topics within a physical setting, their regular classrooms by a live teacher. Students in both groups (SDPI and SDVI) were asked to complete a pre-test and a post-test that included the same multiple-choice questions. The comparison of the groups through an independent group t-test on the pre-test administered before the experiment showed that the two groups were at the same level in terms of knowledge of the learning objectives for this experiment. Post-test administered to assess the students' knowledge of the learning objectives after they went through the experiment in the two different settings (virtual learning environment vs. physical setting). A 2-tailed independent group T-test was run in order to compare the two groups on the dependent variable, their scores on the post-test. The statistical test results showed that the difference between the groups on the post-test scores was not statistically significant, which indicated that the setting, virtual versus physical, did not make any impact on how much students acquired the learning objectives, DNA, chromosomes, genotypes, phenotypes, punnett squares and alleles.

Committee:

Abiurrahman Arslanyilmaz, Ph.D. (Advisor); Yong Zhang, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alina Lazar, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Genetics; Science Education

Keywords:

Middle School;multi-user virtual environment;scientific inquiry,self-efficacy

Ryan, Kelli AAn Investigation of Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Literary and Assessment Confidence: Measure Development and EdTPA Performance
PHD, Kent State University, 2018, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The need to create assessment literate and assessment confident teachers is increasing (Popham, 2009; 2011). Research has revealed that teachers are not well trained to use assessment in the classroom and are poorly trained in standardized testing (Zhang & Burry-Stock, 1997; Zhang & Burry-Stock, 2003). The purpose of this study was to: (1) evaluate the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and validity) of an instrument that measures the assessment literacy and assessment confidence of pre-service teachers (i.e., the Classroom Assessment Literacy Inventory [CALI]), and (2) investigate the relationship between assessment literacy, assessment confidence, and scores on a performance-based assessment (edTPA). In the pilot testing phase, Rasch Analysis and Rasch Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and validity) of the assessment literacy and confidence measures (i.e., the CALI). The pilot sample (N = 165) consisted of sophomores and juniors in one teacher preparation program in the Midwestern United States (US). After the pilot testing phase, the instrument was revised and administered to a second sample of 112 pre-service teachers who were in their final semester of the same undergraduate teacher preparation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to provide evidence of the internal structure of the CALI. Following the CFA, controlling for other demographic and academic variables such as teacher education program (e.g., Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Adolescent Education, etc.) and Grade Point Average (GPA), the impact of the second phase sample’s assessment confidence on the relationship between assessment literacy and performance-based assessment scores was examined. Results indicated the limited range of the assessment-related content measured by the modified CALI, as well as the modified CALI’s relative difficulty for this sample. Significant relationships were found between pre-service teacher Program and GPA on the relationship between assessment knowledge, assessment confidence, and a performance-based assessment. Discussion and implications for teacher education programs emphasizes the relationship between assessment knowledge and performance, GPA and performance, as well as the differences between programs on the main variables of interest. Methodological and statistical discussion and implications are presented for the use of Rasch PCA, parceling, the CFA model, and the benefits to considering a mixed-methods methodological approach.

Committee:

Aryn Karpinski, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Teacher Education

Keywords:

assessment literacy, teacher preparation, measurement, Rasch analysis

Young, William F1:1 Laptops in Education and Achievement Test Results in One Rural High School
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between a 1:1 laptop program and the achievement test results for the Ohio Graduation Tests (OGT). Two cohorts were examined (N=193): 1. Tenth graders who took the OGT subtests in Reading, Writing, Math, Science, and Social Studies in 2014 (n=109) and who had received traditional instruction and 2. Tenth graders who were given individual laptops and eTexts to use at school and at home, and who took the same OGT tests in 2015 (n=84). A Chi Square statistical assessment was conducted to compare student performance. No statistical difference was evident for overall passage rates when comparing the two cohorts. For the laptop cohort, there was no statistical difference in the expected counts for the subject areas of Writing, Science, and Social Studies. For Reading, laptop cohort scores reflect a trend, with scores moving upward into the Accelerated performance category. Math scores showed significantly more scores falling in the highest performance category of Advanced in comparison to what was expected. Similarly, when looking at the economically disadvantaged subgroup within the laptop cohort (n=29), a positive and significant difference from what was expected occurred within the Advanced category for Math, while a trend toward significance for improved performance occurred for Reading scores. The potential for significant gains in student achievement is evident. Additional longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the significance of impact as pedagogical practices develop following initial implementation and considering contextual factors.

Committee:

Jane Beese, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Charles Vergon, J.D. (Committee Member); Karen Giorgetti, Ph.D. (Committee Member); I-Chun Tsai, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Information Technology; Mathematics Education; School Administration; Technology

Keywords:

1 to 1 laptops; laptops in education; laptops and achievement tests; ubiquitous technologies; technology and education; laptops; achievement tests; rural schools; change in education; 1 to 1 technology, one to one; laptop programs; mathematics education

Spiel, Craig F.Is Reading Standardized Tests Aloud an Accommodation for Children with ADHD?
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Although frequently used in academic settings for students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), there are no published studies evaluating the effect of reading standardized tests aloud for this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if reading a standardized test aloud provides a differential boost to children with ADHD relative to same aged peers and if the size of the differential boost changes over the duration of the test. Participants were 45 5th and 6th grade children, 58% with ADHD, who were randomly assigned to take a standardized test either in silence or with a recording of the test questions and answer choices read aloud. Results indicate that reading tests aloud in small groups significantly improved the testing performance of children with ADHD and provided a differential boost relative to children without ADHD. Implications for special education practice and future research are discussed.

Committee:

Steven Evans, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Tests and Measurements; Psychology

Keywords:

ADHD; Accommodations; Special Education; Read Aloud; Testing

Pathak, AmitForecasting Models to Predict EQ-5D Model Indicators for Population Health Improvement
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The healthcare sector possesses big issues needing to be addressed in a number of nations including the United States. Problems within and effecting healthcare arena are complex as they are interdependent on several factors. It. To cope this situation and find solutions, best of predictions backed by data for effective decision making are required. Even though predictions are made, it takes extreme cautiousness to make claims for policy inaction. The EuroQol five Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire developed by the Euro-Qol group is one of the most widespread used tools assessing the generic health status of a population using 5 dimensions namely mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. This thesis develops a methodology to create forecasting models to predict these EQ-5D model indicators using chosen 65 indicators, capable of defining population health, from the World Bank, World Health Organization and the United Nations Development Programme databases. The thesis provides the capability to gauge an insight into the well-being at individual levels of population by maneuvering the macroscopic factors. The analysis involves data from 12 countries namely Argentina, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and United States, for both sexes with ages ranging from 18 to 75+. The models are created using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and are contrasted with statistical models. It is observed that the ANN model with all 65 indicators performed the best and the age group of 75+ was found to be the most correlated with EQ-5D dimensions. Conclusively the research also provides with the countries and indicators that need the most attention to improve the corresponding EQ-5D parameter. This thesis aims at fostering better policy making for increasing well-being of populations by understanding the impact of predominating factors affecting population health.

Committee:

Gary Weckman (Advisor); Diana Schwerha (Committee Member); Tao Yuan (Committee Member); Andy Snow (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Artificial Intelligence; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Demographics; Demography; Developmental Psychology; Economics; Educational Tests and Measurements; Evolution and Development; Finance; Gender Studies; Health; Health Care; Health Care Management; Health Sciences; Higher Education; Industrial Engineering; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Literacy; Mental Health; Public Health; Public Policy; Sanitation; Social Psychology; Social Research; Statistics; Sustainability

Keywords:

Population Health;EQ-5D;Forecasting;Policy;Artificial Neural Networks;Statistics;Healthcare;Visualize;Data; Decision;World Bank,World Health Organization;WHO;United Nations Development Programme;UNDP; Indicator;Regression;Exploratory;Principal Components

Eafford, Felisa R.The Impact of High School Exit Exams and Other Predictors on College Readiness: A National Study
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Higher Education
High school exit exams (HSEEs) are administered to approximately 70% of all public school students in the United States. These exams were designed to prepare students to be successful in the workforce and postsecondary education. However, many students are still entering college underprepared. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the impact of high school exit exams on college readiness. College readiness was defined as enrollment in remedial courses at the first postsecondary institution. Because other factors can influence college readiness, this study controlled for multiple variables (e.g., demographic, educational, school, involvement, intermediate, institutional) using a blocked form of stepwise multiple regression. Alexander Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) conceptual model and his theory of student involvement were used as the framework for the study. A nationally representative sample of high school students from the graduating class of 2004 was examined using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. The study found that having an exit exam policy had a negative impact on college readiness, even though certain types of exit exams had a positive impact. The strongest positive predictor was the highest level of math taken in high school. Stakeholders can use the results of this study to implement alternative strategies to develop high school environments that facilitate preparation for college.

Committee:

David Meabon, Dr. (Committee Chair); Ronald Opp, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Beekley, Dr. (Committee Member); Dennis Lettman, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Higher Education; Secondary Education

Keywords:

High school exit exams; college readiness; remedial coursework

DiTrapani, John BIRT in SPSS: The development of a new software tool to conduct item response models
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Psychology
Item Response Theory (IRT) is a modeling framework that can be applied to a large variety of different research questions in many different disciplines. Currently, there are many software packages that can be used to conduct IRT, but they can be difficult to access for a practitioner who primarily uses software like SPSS. To make IRT models more accessible for the general researcher, a tool has been created that can easily run one-parameter IRT (1PL) models on SPSS without any required downloads or add-ons. This tool takes advantage of the fact that a 1PL model is a member of the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) family by utilizing the built-in SPSS function for GLMMs. It can run 1PL models with person and item covariates, DIF analyses, multidimensional models, IRTree models, and many other variations. It also provides the user with item and person fit statistics, item characteristic curves, item information functions, and several other options. Comparisons show that the estimates provided by this macro are very similar to those estimated from other software packages.

Committee:

Minjeong Jeon (Advisor); Paul De Boeck (Committee Member); Michael Edwards (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Tests and Measurements; Psychology; Quantitative Psychology

Keywords:

Item response theory; quantitative psychology; SPSS

Glass, Lindsey HeatherA Case Study of an International Baccalaureate School within an Urban School District-University Partnership
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
This research examines the relationship between the International Baccalaureate (IB) program and individual and institutional development as well as the potential of the IB program to increase students’ social capital. Drawing on a case study approach, research methods included semi-structured interviews with 21 educators; a focus group with students and a focus group with parents; and a review of archival material. Study findings suggest that educators found the learning curve challenging in opening and sustaining a school with the IB curriculum. Teachers reported tension between teaching the transdisciplinary IB content while also needing to attend to state standards on which their students would be tested. Educators and parents underscored the experience of uncertainty in terms of issues of staffing, space, and enrollment, often sources of anxiety and sometimes a source of engagement. The goals of the IB curriculum, combined with the opportunity and resources to shape the direction of a new urban school, appear to have sustained a high level of teacher motivation. Educator experience suggests the IB curriculum provides teachers with a platform to make significant, lasting change in the lives of their students due teachers’ feelings of professionalism, autonomy and willingness to challenge themselves for the betterment of the student body and the school itself. In an era of school accountability and national efforts to implement a common core of content standards, it is useful to study the growth and struggle encountered by key stakeholders as they participate in building a rich curriculum focused on the whole child and attentive to social, academic, physical, and civic development at its core. The study is significant in terms of its ability to offer insights in the development of future IB schools, particularly in urban settings.

Committee:

Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Justin Perry, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ronald Abate, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Adams, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Megan Hatch, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Higher Education; Multicultural Education; Teaching

Keywords:

International Baccalaureate; case study; university-district partnership; teacher narratives; teacher autonomy; social capital; whole child education; standardized testing; urban education; community engagement

Sampson, Neil EdwardAn Extensive Reading Approach to Teaching English Second Language Reading Comprehension with the American Language Institute at the University of Toledo
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, English (as a Second Language)
Seven English second language students enrolled in informal reading comprehension and discussion classes through the American Language Institute at the University of Toledo were compared to determine whether the students who read extensively would outperform the students that did not through pretest and posttest measures. Follow-up interviews were also conducted to investigate the affective influence of extensive reading on the participants, the test-taking strategies they use while taking the Test of English Foreign Language (TOEFL), and their opinions of the reading comprehension portion of the TOEFL. The researcher found that three of the participants who were to have read extensively did not achieve any considerable gain to the scores of their posttest measures, while one participant not required to read extensively did make a considerable gain. Qualitative data from the interviews suggests that whether or not a participant possessed an intrinsic motivation for reading influenced the outcome of these measures.

Committee:

Melinda Reichelt, Dr. (Committee Chair); Anthony Edgington, Dr. (Committee Member); Barbara Schneider, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Bilingual Education; Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; English As A Second Language; Foreign Language; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Language; Linguistics; Literacy; Multilingual Education; Reading Instruction; Teaching

Keywords:

EFL; ESL; extensive reading; intrinsic motivation; multiple-choice tests; reading comprehension; test-taking strategies; TOEFL;

Lewis, Gregory SImplementing a Math Study Skills Course
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Mathematics
Helping underprepared students find success in college level mathematics continues to be an issue of great significance in higher education. This is especially true for students in developmental mathematics courses which usually have some the highest levels of failure and non-completion of any such developmental courses. This thesis describes the steps the University of Toledo Department of Mathematics and Statistics took to begin to address this problem. We created a hybrid entry level and credit-bearing math course and partnered it with a co-requisite math study skills course. A post-course survey helps to paint a good picture of the type of students enrolled in the courses. In the survey results, students enrolled in the math study skills courses recognized and acknowledged the important contribution that course had on their success. The main finding of this study is that students who took the math study skills class seriously were able to bridge the gap in their unpreparedness compared to other students taking the same entry level course but not enrolled in the co-requisite math study skills course. Using a general linear regression model our data showed that students caught up, receiving similar and even a slightly higher grade in their entry level math course.

Committee:

Donald White (Committee Chair); Paul Hewitt (Committee Member); Rong Liu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Technology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Mathematics; Mathematics Education

Keywords:

developmental math; math study skills;

Retz, Anne ChristineImportant issues of educational testing: lessons from the No Child Left Behind Act
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2007, EDU Policy and Leadership

In January 2002 President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) into law and imposed the most expansive and regimented educational law in the history of the United States. Since the enactment of the Act and its extensive testing regime, controversies have arisen regarding the testing elements of the Act; but also who the Act may harm, as well as its fairness, both educationally and financially. The “unfunded mandates” debate has been popular in the media as well as in the legal system because of the staunch opposition to No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on the basis of the amount of money it will cost states and public school districts. Providing timely notice for supplemental services as well as the stipulation for highly qualified teachers in every classroom are two NCLB issues that have also garnered adequate attention in the courts.

The well-known and highly contested issue of adequate yearly progress (AYP), which must be demonstrated through test scores by every school and district for mathematics and reading has received the majority of attention during the previous five years of NCLB’s life. The Department of Education has attempted to be more lenient in the rules and regulations initially outlined by the Act. This has spurred not only criticism from the educational community, but also praise from others. The issue of AYP is closely related to the massive and unprecedented level of student testing that has resulted from the enactment of NCLB. This unprecedented level of testing, unseen prior to NCLB, has raised concern for the reliability and validity of the tests being used to measure student performance. With annually mandated testing occurring in grades three through eight, with a test in high school having been implemented in the 2005-2006 school year; this issue, and the possible numerous faults of the tests being used, will assuredly propel more scholarly research in the years to come as these tests are scrutinized more carefully.

This report is designed to discuss in detail the issues of the controversy around meeting AYP and the assessments used to measure it; legal issues involving NCLB; sanctions imposed on failing schools; the differing state academic standards, and some of the measurement issues related to the assessment measures of NCLB. This report aims to paint a balanced picture of what has happened in the past five years of NCLB’s life and to offer suggestions for new directions for improvement in what some believe is a comprehensive and worthwhile educational policy.

Committee:

Ayres D'Costa (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Tests and Measurements

Lewis, Tiffany EmmaThe Relationship Between Evaluation Tools and Public Value in Ohio
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Arts Policy and Administration
This thesis attempts to use literature, document analysis, and interviews with industry professionals to identify evaluation tools for arts programs and their relationship to public value. I interviewed staff from a variety of organizations in Columbus Ohio and used the “Framework for Understanding the Benefits of Arts” to analyze the results and documents. This research identified that there is a relationship between evaluation and public value. The relationship is most evident when analyzing the evaluation tools. The tools recognize the results the programs are attempting to achieve and those results can be compared to the benefits mentioned in the “Framework for Understanding the Benefits of Arts.”

Committee:

Margaret Wyszomirski, PhD (Advisor); Wayne Lawson, PhD (Committee Member); Vesta Daniel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education; Arts Management; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Arts; Program; Evaluation; Adminstration; Public Value

Vantaggi, Andrea L.Evaluation of a Science Language Assessment for Preschool Students
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2011, Speech Language Pathology
Currently, there are very few assessments used to measure, aggregate, and compare young children’s science learning. The Preschool Science Assessment Protocol (PSAP) is an assessment instrument designed to fulfill this need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the PSAP. Specific foci included (a) investigating alternate form reliability between two matched versions of the assessment protocol, (b) investigating inter-rater reliability, and (c) investigating the validity of the PSAP by comparing children’s language performance on the PSAP and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P2). Children participated in two expository adult-child book reading sessions; questions posed during the book reading documented children’s ability to respond to “science language” consisting of (a) prediction, (b) WH-questions, (c) causal relationships, (d) argumentation, and (e) vocabulary.

Committee:

Joan N. Kaderavek, PhD (Committee Chair); Lori Pakulski, PhD (Committee Member); Charlene Czerniak, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Language; Preschool Education; Science Education; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

preschool assessment; assessment; science language

Drost, Bryan R.An Action Research Study: Engaging in Authentic Formative Assessment
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
Effective teaching in the United States over the last decade has been based on student performance on standardized tests (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Many school districts, in attempts to make gains on standardized assessments, have implemented standardized formative assessment procedures that dictate intervention for students not making gains (Popham, 2011). It is my contention that in some cases, standardized formative assessment procedures have negated authentic formative assessments where teachers interpret any classroom activity, such as observation, teacher-student conversation, and teacher-student interaction, to adjust instruction to ensure that all students are making progress. I believe that there are two specific problems associated with standardized formative assessment: standardized formative assessments may not honor nor cultivate the teacher-student relationship inherent in transactional relationships (Ryan, 2011) and may not allow teachers flexibility of method to solve classroom-based problems in a practical way (Schwab, 1970). The purpose of this action research study was to describe the pedagogical strategies of an authentic formative assessment process my classroom. This study also explored how an authentic process can be a viable alternative to a standardized one within one classroom. Three major findings are present from the study: multiple strategies could be used to determine curricular needs for students; authentic formative assessments could honor and cultivate teacher-student relationships; classroom life was improved for me and my students when rigorous investigation into the assessment practices of the classroom were explored.

Committee:

James G. Henderson, Ed.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Teresa Rishel, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Averil McClelland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Tests and Measurements; Middle School Education

Keywords:

formative assessment; authentic assessment; transaction; action research; middle childhood

Williams, Anne-Evan KaleThe Impact of Formative Assessment Program Implementation on Reading Achievement
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, EDU Policy and Leadership
In a climate of assessment and accountability, school districts are constantly on the search for product solutions to the pressing issue of student reading performance, as assessed by annual state standardized accountability testing. In an attempt to increase student reading growth rates, some districts are turning to formative assessment systems, such as the formative online reading assessment Diagnostic Online Reading Assessment, or DORA (commercially available from Let’s Go Learn, Inc.), in order to encourage more differentiated classroom instruction and as a growth monitoring tool for instruction. The implementation of DORA, while top-down in nature, is being done in collaboration with the product developers, whose professional development model utilizes a Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) framework, providing for extensive administrator support, modeling of usage, using a teacher cohort model, and allowing for teacher concerns to be address during the professional development cycle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects in student reading growth of the teacher-level implementation decisions and in the top-down, district wide implementation of a formative online reading assessment, as part of district-wide measures to improve student reading performance, and subsequently, student reading test scores. Data was collected from a large, urban school district in Southern California, with a large minority population, many of whom speak English as a second language. Existing student DORA data was collected, while a survey was administered to teachers to collect teacher-level professional development implementation data. Student data and teacher data were analyzed using regression analysis and Hierarchical Linear Modeling to determine 1) the relationship between teacher-level professional development implementation decisions and the overall teacher use of DORA, and 2) the relationship between teacher-level professional development implementation decisions and student DORA growth over time. For the first research question, it was determined that none of the study variables pertaining to teacher professional development and implementation decisions were statistically significant predictors of overall teacher usage of the DORA formative assessment program. For the second and third research questions, while it was found that student DORA growth curves did vary by teacher in grades two, three, and five. Few of the study variables pertaining to teacher professional development and program implementation accounted for variance in student growth curves at the teacher level, and none consistently across grade level. Although many of the study variables pertaining to professional development were not found to be significant in this study, future study regarding the implementation of large-scale formative assessment programs should examine how the effects of this professional development vary as the time of the implementation vary. Further research should also examine the effects of a Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) on the implementation of district-wide formative assessment programs. Within a climate of assessment and accountability, more emphasis is being placed on formative assessment use in the classroom, and further study of these formative assessments is warranted.

Committee:

Jerome D'Agostino (Advisor)

Subjects:

Continuing Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Software; Educational Tests and Measurements; Reading Instruction

Keywords:

formative assessment; professional development; reading assessment; program implementation

Briney, Carol EMy Journey with Prisoners: Perceptions, Observations and Opinions
MLS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
Carol E. Briney is the founding executive director of Reentry Bridge Network, Inc. and Reentry Solutions, Inc. Briney believes that a systematic approach is required to reduce the likelihood of recidivisim. For nearly a decade, she has written and facilitated holistic pro-social programs inside prisons and in community forums. Her programs support bridging the gap between prison and community by focusing on human value, grief-impairment, daily literacy, reentry and job readiness, trauma-informed care, the healing arts, and understanding poverty. Briney's work is founded on her strong belief - If we can’t help people to realize their own universal value, how can we expect them to see the value in their victims or their environment? This is gained through asset building, not punitive action. It takes community to reduce recidivism.

Committee:

Richard Berrong, PhD (Advisor); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member); Manacy Pai, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Aging; Art Criticism; Art Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Black History; Black Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Criminology; Cultural Anthropology; Cultural Resources Management; Curriculum Development; Developmental Psychology; Divinity; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Evolution and Development; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Forensic Anthropology; Gender Studies; Gerontology; Individual and Family Studies; Inservice Training; Instructional Design; Journalism; Kinesiology; Language; Linguistics; Literacy; Logic; Mental Health; Metaphysics; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Modern Literature; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Pastoral Counseling; Peace Studies; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Political Science; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Administration; Public Policy; Religion; Religious Education; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociolinguistics; Sociology; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Theology; Urban Planning; Vocational Education; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

prison; reentry; trauma; poverty; grounded theory; universal value; punitive; recidivism; corrections; Retablo; play therapy; male prisoners; female prisoners; socio-metaphysics; grief-impairment; grief and loss; truth-telling; poverty; hood; prison art

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