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Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Fedder, Joshua C.Causal Complexity and Comprehension of Evolution by Natural Selection
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Psychology
Learning the theory of evolution by natural selection has proven to be difficult for students and adults alike. This may be due, in part, to the finding that adults reject the existence of within-species variation. Within-species variation is a requirement if evolution is to occur. Individuals who reject within-species variation often times misconstrue the process of evolutionary change as not the survival of some members of the species at the expense of others, but rather as the gradual change of all members of the species simultaneously. In this manner, rejection of within-species variation leads to misconstruals and misunderstandings of the theory of evolution by natural selection. One proposal for this tendency to reject within-species variation is psychological essentialism, which proposes that individuals construe species as possessing an underlying essence, shared by all species members, determining the observable properties of that species. Here we propose an alternative explanation, which we term the causal complexity hypothesis. We posit that biases for single-cause explanations lead participants to reject within-species variation. We argue that these simpler causal structures make within-species variation probabilistically less likely. In Studies 1 and 2 we find evidence that not only are preferences for single-cause explanations correlated with decreased estimates of within-species variability, but that manipulating number of causes has a causal effect on variability judgments. In Study 3, we find that evolution comprehension also predicts performance on category identity tasks, and find some support for the proposal that this is also related to within-species variability and causal complexity. Overall, we find that our causal complexity hypothesis can account for individual differences in variability judgments, and may offer a target for interventions in the domain of evolution comprehension. However, whether a preference for single-cause explanations influences reasoning within intuitive biology beyond judgments of within-species variation remains an open question and direction for future studies.

Committee:

Susan Johnson, Dr. (Advisor); John Opfer, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Petrill, Dr. (Committee Member); Laura Wagner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Educational Sociology; Psychology

Keywords:

causal complexity, simplicity, evolution, natural selection, essentialism, within-species variation

Kirby, Kara LEMPOWERMENT PROCESSES IN THE LIVES OF TANZANIAN WOMEN: INTERSECTION OF FAMILY, EDUCATION, AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
This study explores the experiences and feelings of seven Tanzanian women towards education, social relationships, and digital technology within the broader discourse on well-being, aspirations, and empowerment. Using a narrative inquiry method this study examines how the intersection of education, social relationships, and digital technology contribute to an enhanced quality of life for Tanzanian women. A capabilities approach in tandem with a feminist perspective were employed allowing for a deep and thick description of well-being and empowerment as expressed through the participants’ narratives and reflections on their lives, and what they aspire to be and do. With the guiding question: Whether, to what extent, and how do urban Tanzanian women use ICTs for empowerment? I implemented Clandinin and Connelly’s (2000) three dimensions of space, backward/forwards, inward/outward, and situated in place to examine the participants’ lived experiences. These three dimensions provided insight into how ICTs create spaces for women’s voices to be heard, aspirations to be awakened, and where ideas can be shared, and solutions to pressing issues can be addressed. The findings from this research study suggest that with a secondary level education or higher in combination with access to digital technology, supported by strong family relationships, women have the means to engage in opportunities that are personally, professionally, and economically uplifting. They also develop a sense of agency and contribute to social change through connections with others, aspiring to alternative ways of being and doing, and constructing a collective voice to express the way forward.

Committee:

Vilma Seeberg, PhD (Committee Chair); Natasha Levinson, PhD (Committee Member); Suzanne Holt, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Educational Sociology; Ethnic Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Technology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

education, digital technology, ICTs, African women, aspirations, empowerment, capabilities, well-being, Tanzania

Minkin, Sarah M.Starting from Here: An Exploration of the Space for Sustainability Education in Elementary Science and Social Studies
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
Sustainability education (SE) is a pathway for creating a more socially, economically, and environmentally just and sustainable world. SE involves the incorporation of sustainability concepts into curricula using innovate teaching methods (i.e. place-based education, outdoor education, experiential education, nature-based education). This thesis explores the space for SE in Grade 5 science and social studies classrooms. Using the case study methodology, this study looked to practicing teachers for insights on how SE could be integrated into the public education system. This study investigated teachers’ understanding of sustainability and practice of SE by analyzing their perceptions of sustainability, examples of SE lessons, and their sources of knowledge about sustainability. The results indicated that teachers’ understanding of sustainability is largely focused on environmental aspects and that teachers’ practice of SE also has an environmental focus. This study evaluated the feasibility of teaching SE in the classroom by outlining the challenges and opportunities for SE presented by teachers. While there are some factors that limit teachers’ ability to teach SE (i.e. teachers’ limited knowledge about sustainability, lack of training in SE, and institutional demands), with guidance and support from education institutions and community partnerships current and future teachers can provide SE for their students.

Committee:

Nancy Manring, PhD (Advisor); Danielle Dani, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Scanlan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Environmental Education; Science Education; Social Studies Education; Sustainability; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

sustainability; sustainability education; place-based education; education for sustainable development; elementary education; science education; social studies education; teachers; teacher education; community partnerships

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Jesse, Bach EThe Portrayal of Force, Fraud, and Coercion Within Northern Ohio Federal Sex Trafficking Trials — 2010-2013
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Education and Human Services
Human trafficking is often considered to be one of the three largest criminal enterprises worldwide, ranking beside the sale of illegal drugs and illicit firearms (Bales, 2004, 2007; Bales & Doodalter, 2009; Hussein, 2011; Schauer & Wheaton, 2006; Skinner, 2008). National estimates suggest that 100,000-300,000 American, school-aged children are at-risk for sex trafficking (Department of Homeland Security, 2014) while there is only a one percent arrest and conviction record for traffickers (Bales, 2007). This dissertation explored the portrayal of force, fraud, and coercion within federal domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) trials of Northern Ohio from 2010-2013 so as to gain a greater understanding of the contributing factors that make individuals vulnerable to the phenomenon. DMST occurs when a “commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age” (U.S. Department of State, 2011). Data were examined via qualitative means by conducting a narrative analysis of existing court documentation of fifteen confirmed DMST cases, guided by critical theory and feminist epistemology. Findings revealed dimensions of individual agency in tension with structural and cultural conditions as well as a complex set of factors contributing to the persistence and legal response to sex trafficking. The examined episodes of DMST were initiated via factors that included fraudulent documents, economic instability, emotional dependency, drug addiction, reliance on an informal/underground economy, and lack of educational attainment. DMST continued through factors including physical force, coercion, indebtedness, feelings of belonging, the leveraging of an intimate relationship, financial arrangements, and the reliance on an informal/underground economy. The episode of DMST was terminated via law enforcement involvement, voluntary departure, familial involvement, ending the use of illegal drugs, and coming into a period of economic stability.

Committee:

Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Joshua Bagaka's, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeremy Genovese, Ph.D. (Committee Member); George Tsagaris, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

human trafficking; sex trafficking; domestic minor sex trafficking; DMST; Qualitative research; Ohio court documents; human rights

Brown, Charles APerceptions of the value and uses of English among university English majors in Taiwan
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Policy and Leadership
In this research, I employed qualitative methods to understand the role of English in the lives of 50 university English majors and recent graduates in Taiwan. I especially drew upon ethnographic interviews to learn about the life histories of English learning for these individuals, supplementing this data with ethnographic observations and participant observations as an English teacher at two universities in southern Taiwan. The ways in which participants made meaning of experiences with English, established goals, and enacted choices related to English provided insights into the role of the individual within the social, political, ideological, and pedagogical terrain in which English is situated. This especially highlights language ideology and language power. This research documents the uses to which participants put English in the past and present as well as their goals for English use in the future. The foremost use of English for these participants was within contexts of formal education in which they derived a number of tangible benefits from their English competency. Outside of such settings and for those having already graduated from university, English appeared to be much less useful. Despite this, individuals in this study – especially those not having yet entered the workforce – evidenced an inflated sense of the value of English both in the world of work and in Taiwan society more broadly. Virtually all participants expressed criticism of English teaching as implemented in their day schools. They found these classes to be inadequate and even oppressive in nature due to the combination of heavy reliance on traditional teaching approaches and the focus on preparing for high-stakes high school and college entrance exams. They especially criticized the focus on declarative grammatical knowledge, rote vocabulary memorization, and formal literacy skills, viewing these as necessary but insufficient for the well-rounded language user. They perceived their own personal language deficits as rooted in these educational experiences. Although all had taken measures to supplement their formal day schooling, they still felt themselves to be weaker in oral language competencies and, especially, language use in less formal socially-situated negotiation of meaning. The sense among participants of the ideologies and regimes of power underwriting English do not parallel the critical stance of scholars who have questioned widely-held assumptions about the value and innocence of English as well as the central position of the native speaker as language model and as preferred language teacher. Instead, constructing the foreigner in specific phenotypic terms, participants viewed themselves against a foreigner standard with foreigner contact being seen both as a measure of self worth and as a means of remediation. While such beliefs reflect a utilitarian sensibility given the benefits accruing from alignment with the institutions and linguistic norms associated with the traditional English-speaking countries, they also underwrite the ongoing hegemony of the native speaker and these countries and institutions. Instilling a sense of the legitimacy of Taiwan English could disrupt the hegemony of native-speaker Englishes, empowering students and teachers and enhancing their well-being. Reducing the reliance upon high-stakes assessments would also yield important benefits.

Committee:

Antoinette Errante (Advisor); Jan Nespor (Committee Member); Richard Voithofer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; English As A Second Language; Foreign Language; Higher Education; Language; Linguistics; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Pacific Rim Studies; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Taiwan; Taiwan EFL; Taiwan ESL; Taiwan English education; Critical applied linguistics

Douglass, D'Wanna M.Lost Youth: The Forgotten Ones. A Personal Journey of Awareness & the Need to Advocate
MLS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
This essay recounts the story of one woman’s efforts to overcome adversity through a combination of life experiences and education in the context of and sometimes even in opposition to recent Sociological studies of the underprivileged; It also examines how such individuals can use the knowledge they acquire in this way to pay it forward; and advocate for youth.

Committee:

Manacy Pai (Advisor); John S. Rainey (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art Education; Counseling Education; Education; Educational Sociology; Families and Family Life; School Counseling; Sociology

Keywords:

youth at risk; sociology; education; counseling; advocate; abuse

MEREDITH, DAVE MILTONCarolina Covenant: Low-SES, First Generation College Students Navigation of Higher Education
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Education : Educational Foundations

This study explores the educational backgrounds of low-SES, minority and first generation college students benefitting from the Carolina Covenant program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It specifically focuses on their experiences with the education system beginning in middle school and continuing on into their first year of college. The results provide support for the effectiveness of a need-based financial aid program targeting academically successful low-income students. In addition to providing insight into these student's academic backgrounds, it suggests that by eliminating concern about financial status, colleges and universities can help low income students earn a college degree and do so without compromising the admissions standards of the institution.

The participants in the study were sophomores when they completed an on-line questionnaire that examined their experiences in three main areas. First, the survey explored their experiences with support and encouragement received from family members, school personnel and peers during middle and high school. Second, using the College Choice Process Model as a framework, it examined the path each student took as they developed a predisposition to go to college, assembled the credentials to be admitted and finally secured admittance to a four-year institution. Third, using models developed Tinto and others, it asked students to reflect on their social and academic assimilation during their first year of college. These questions showed that participants in the study enjoyed strong levels of support and encouragement from all areas and only minimal levels of discouragement. Despite the dire predictions found in much of the literature, Carolina Covenant students are successfully navigating a four-year university. These students received support from both family and school personnel in high school, achieved high levels of academic success in high school and are successfully making the academic and social transition to college life. Though fundamentally different in many ways from those discussed in this same literature, Carolina Covenant students do come from low-SES backgrounds and are more frequently minority and First Generation College than the general undergraduate student population. In spite of what the literature predicts, these students are being retained at nearly a 97 percent rate.

Committee:

Annette Hemmings, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Lanthin Camblin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Roger Collins, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas Hadley, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Sociology

Keywords:

Carolina Covenant; Low SES; First Generation College

Stack, Wendy M.The Relationship of Parent Involvement and Student Success in GEAR UP Communities in Chicago
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
Nationally, the education pipeline is not preparing enough students for success and high school dropout rates in the nation’s urban areas are alarming. This mixed methods (QUAN→qual) empirical study examines the influence of parent involvement on the academic success of 1,774 GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) students matched to their parents in 21 high schools in Chicago. The results of the regression analyses were presented to focus groups composed of GEAR UP parents and staff to assist in making meaning of the data and to gain deeper insight and understanding of the results. The study results were viewed through the lens of social capital and implications for leadership were drawn for marginalized stakeholders. Parental involvement was measured by the amount of time parents engaged in GEAR UP program activities and the degree to which this involvement is related to their child’s achievement and aspirations for college was studied. The study focused on students and their parents who have been involved in GEAR UP in 8th grade and 9th grade. Student success was measured by 9th grade GPA and 10th grade PLAN Composite Score and Aspirations for College measured by the postsecondary intent question on the PLAN. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between parent involvement and 9th grade GPA (p <.001) and a significant relationship between parent involvement and the PLAN Composite Score (p < .05). The video clips included in this document require Adobe Reader 9.0 and are directly accessible while reading.

Committee:

Carol Baron, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); George Olson, PhD (Committee Member); Chandra Taylor-Smith, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Higher Education; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Secondary Education; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

parent participation; GEAR UP; student achievement; social capital; mixed methods; quantitative; qualitative; urban; Chicago; transition; elementary; Latino; African-American; college access; GPA; college aspirations; K-12; leadership; family

Bajamal, Huda FuadSaudi third culture kids: A phenomenological case study of Saudis' acculturation in a Northeast Ohio elementary school
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2017, Elementary Education
Purpose: This research aims to explore the lived experience of Saudi “third culture kids” (TCKs) and how those children, as well as their parents and teachers, describe their experiences as children growing up between different cultures. Method: This research applies a phenomenological multiple case studies to a sample of three children aged (7-10) years, three parents, and three homeroom teachers. Data is collected from the participants as follows: questionnaire and open-ended one-on-one interviews with parents, a photo-elicitation along with open-ended interview with children, and written interview with teachers. Having multiple perspectives is intended to manifest the essence of the experience of acculturation of Saudi third culture kids and to illustrate how these children identify themselves and make meaning of their experience and the role of their parents and teachers in cultural adaptation. Results: The findings showed that Saudi TCKs have positive cultural adaptation during their lived experience, developing their identities as Saudis Muslims and Arab with developing bicultural perspective. Roles of Saudi parents and American teachers as they enhance cultural adaptation are discussed. Recommendations and implications of the research are provided. Keywords: Third culture kids, TCK, cross-cultural kids, acculturation, Saudis in the U.S, Saudi children, Muslims, Arabs, childhood, cultural identity, adaptation.

Committee:

Gary Holliday (Advisor); Xin Liang (Committee Member); Lisa Lenhart (Committee Member); Lynn Kline (Committee Member); Renee Mudrey-Camino (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Middle Eastern Literature

Long, PollyDiminishing the Discipline Gap: Restorative Justice as a Promising Alternative in One Urban School
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2015, School Psychology
Across the nation, the education system is responding to student misbehavior with zero tolerance policies that parallel the punitive practices found in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Zero tolerance policies have contributed to the “discipline gap,” wherein schools punish racial and ethnic minorities more often and more severely than they punish whites. One alternative to punitive punishment is restorative justice, which aims to foster respect, responsibility, and empathy in members of school communities. This project evaluates the relationship between restorative justice and out-of-school suspension rates in an urban school district. It also serves as one of the few studies that evaluate the effect of restorative practices on the discipline gap. The results validate previous research findings, as restorative justice is related to reductions in out of-school suspension rates. Further, the results reveal a promising alternative to the punitive practices that plague the education system, as restorative justice is related to reductions in the size of the discipline gap.

Committee:

Susan Davies, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Elana Bernstein, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jamie Longazel, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Philosophy; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Psychology; Special Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

discipline gap; punitive punishment; restorative justice; mass incarceration; zero tolerance; suspension;

Lewis, James R.SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT
PHD, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
LEWIS, JAMES R., Ph.D., December, 2015 Cultural Foundations in Education SPIRITUAL FITNESS AND RESILIENCE FORMATION THROUGH ARMY CHAPLAINS AND RELIGIOUS SUPPORT (237 pp.) Dissertation Advisor: Natasha Levinson, Ph.D. Catalyzed by my observations as a U.S. Army Chaplain dealing suicide in the military across the past decade, in this study, I explore and more clearly conceptualize social processes of spiritual fitness and resilience formation in a context of plurality. Guiding questions include: Why do some become suicidal through suffering, while others experience “post-traumatic growth” instead? And if this capacity is a product of resilience, how is such a resilience formed? My research through this interdisciplinary study of literatures of spiritual and social formation through education, has identified three facets of this formation process, entailing 1) socially formed 2) frameworks of meaning 3) that become resilient habitus and habits of mind only through habitual practice, often requiring broad social support, as opposed to being the individual processes often thought. I argue that the integrated components of religious and civic formation, once central to resilience formation through American public education, are now largely ineffective, and have yet to be effectively replaced. It is that process of formation, cultivation and reinforcement of a core of spiritual fitness in resilience which the research of this dissertation is intended to explore and develop. Potential legal ramifications when the language of spiritual fitness is used by public institutions such as the U.S. Army, are also addressed. Army Chaplains have effectively fostered pluralistic models of resilience formation and reinforcement through religious support since before the birth of the United States, uniquely equipping Chaplains as resources for intentional spiritual fitness and resilience formation in the pluralistic context.

Committee:

Natasha Levinson (Advisor); McClelland Averil (Committee Member); Jeffrey Wattles (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Armed Forces; Behavioral Sciences; Clergy; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Comparative; Continuing Education; Counseling Education; Curriculum Development; Education History; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; Ethics; Individual and Family Studies; Mental Health; Military Studies; Rehabilitation; Religion; Religious Education; Social Research; Spirituality

Keywords:

spiritual fitness, formation, Army suicide, secular age, social formation, spiritual formation, personal formation, socio-cultural change, Constantinian Christian culture, habits of mind, habitus, Chaplaincy, Army Chaplains, Army Chaplain histor

O'Hara, Mark WilliamFoucault and Film: Critical Theories and Representations of Mental Illness
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
This study investigates the representation of mental illness in Hollywood film. Using an approach grounded in Foucauldian theory and media literacy, this study will examine six Hollywood films covering a span of six decades, roughly from the end of World War II through the first decade of the twenty-first century. When writers, directors and producers of films portray characters with psychological disorders/disabilities, these representations may result in negative attitudes and skewed impressions among viewers/consumers. Further, inaccurate and demonizing portrayals in filmic texts serve only to create blueprints of stigmatization that could affect real-world persons with psychological disorders. With the agenda of exploring the hegemonic infrastructures of stigma and othering, this study will employ a theoretical framework of Foucauldian theory, along with critical media literacy perspectives to unpack the discursive power carried by popular visual media, as well as to analyze dominant cultural attitudes toward the normal/abnormal binary. In an attempt to emphasize the need for increased awareness of and sensitivity toward the lived experiences of persons with psychological disorders, this study will also highlight the value of curricularizing films featuring mental health/illness issues, and of recommending ways of striving for social justice for persons with these invisible disabilities.

Committee:

Dennis Carlson, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Quantz, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Poetter, PhD (Committee Member); Frank Fitch, PhD (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Gender Studies; Literature

Keywords:

Foucault; film; Hollywood film; representations; mental illness; disability; disability studies; Shutter Island; The Soloist; One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest; Patch Adams; The Snake Pit; Girl, Interrupted; education; film literature

Alrefaie, Nadia AFrom Singular to Mixed: A Comparative Study of the Perceptions of Male and Female Saudi Students at The University of Akron in Adapting to the Coeducation Experience.
Master of Arts in Education, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
In this study, I had investigated how Saudi students at The University of Akron perceive and experience coeducation as individuals who originate from a cultural environment and educational system that normalizes the separation of sexes, and explore any differences in such perceptions and experiences between male and female Saudi students. The objective of this study was to find answers to four questions; (a) How do Saudi students, as products of a single-sex education system and a gender-segregated culture, perceive the coeducation experience while attending academic programs in the U.S.? (b) Do Saudi women perceive the coeducational experience of the U.S. differently from Saudi men? (c) Is the gender of the student a factor in hindering or accelerating adjustment to this new norm? Or is it the time spent in a coeducation setting? Or is it both? (d) How may the perceived challenges of adapting to coeducation be mitigated or resolved? To address the research problem and questions, I had applied a phenomenological methodology, as to study the perceptions of four randomly selected Saudi students attending the University of Akron, differing in gender, level of education and time spent in the U.S., and to assess the role of gender and time in their adjustment to coeducation. Guided by the focus of this study, I presented a theoretical framework that consisted of several gender identity, social identity and acculturation theories and models, and used this framework in interpreting the responses of the study’s subjects. Additionally, I had discussed the predominant social and gender identities in Saudi Arabia and reviewed previous studies that have researched the experiences of Saudi students attending higher education in western countries in relation to matters of gender and coeducation, as to present a contextual setting for the analysis of the responses. In relation to the research questions, this study suggests that there are indeed differences between the perceptions and experiences of Saudi female and male students attending a coeducation program at The University of Akron. Female participants had found that their initial expectations of experiencing a coeducation program had little impact on their first interaction with non-Saudi students of the opposite sex. Additionally, they had commented that during the first month, their interactions with male teachers were influenced by the norms of their home culture, that they were more concerned with the view of others, that they had preferred to join groups of female only students, and that their perceptions and experiences would be the same had they been men. However, the participants, male and female, had also reported to have similar perceptions and experiences in adjusting to coeducation. They had mentioned that before arriving in the U.S., they had developed a broad premonition about education and coeducation in the U.S., had not identified any specific challenges they wished to avoid whilst in a coeducation program, and believed that any challenges they would meet should be resolved by themselves. They also mutually agreed that on the first day, they had experienced stress and anxiety due to coeducation, and for the duration of the first month they had experienced intense feelings of embarrassment and discomfort when interacting with Saudi students of the opposite sex, and an unexpected ease to interact with non-Saudi students of the opposite sex. All participants had reported to view coeducation as normal by the end of the first semester and their current perceptions to coeducation to be positive, and significantly different from their initial perceptions, thus they would prefer to continue to attend a coeducation program in the U.S. even if they had the choice to transfer to a separate sex program. However, they also reported that they continue to experience various levels of difficulty and embarrassment when interacting with Saudi students of the opposite sex, and that they would prefer to join a separate sex setting when returning to Saudi Arabia. The gender-based concerns and issues not only suggest that Saudi female students may have several different coeducation-related perceptions and experiences, but also that their adaptation to coeducation may be more challenging for them than it is for Saudi male students. Thus, the gender of Saudi female students could be a hindering factor during their adaptation of coeducation, especially during the first semester attending a coeducation program. On the other hand, the mutual points of agreement between male and female participants suggest that Saudi students of both genders would also have similar perceptions and experiences during and post to adapting to coeducation. Therefore, while male and female Saudi students in coeducation would at times face similar challenges, hold similar perceptions and live through similar experiences, at other times, female Saudi students may have different experiences and perceptions that are unique to their gender. These gender-exclusive factors may make adapting to coeducation more challenging, demanding and stressful than it is for male Saudi students. In the context of the previous studies, I found that the themes of this study partially differ from the themes of such studies, and add new themes that were not previously identified. The foremost significant new theme is that Saudi students of both genders, and regardless of length of stay and exposure to coeducation, continue to experience difficulty and embarrassment when interacting with Saudi students of the opposite sex, and not with non-Saudi students of the opposite sex. In the context of theories, this theme may translate as achieving a temporary level of cultural adaptation to coeducation, and acquiring a contextual intercultural social identity. In other terms, and in answering the first research question, this means that Saudi students of both genders who are attending a coeducation program would base their perception of the normality of coeducation, or mixing of genders, on the context of the situation. For when in a context and situation that normalizes coeducation, such as attending their studies in a cultural environment in which coeducation is the norm or when interacting with American students, they would perceive coeducation as normal and appropriate. However, when Saudi students find themselves in a context and situation in which coeducation is not the norm, such as when returning to Saudi Arabia or when interacting with other Saudi students, their would perceive coeducation to be abnormal and inappropriate. Thus, I conclude that Saudi students attending a coeducation program in the U.S. may have different perceptions and experiences while adapting to coeducation, especially during the first semester, which differ according to their gender and consequently make it more the adaptation process more challenging for female Saudi students. However, after gaining sufficient exposure to coeducation, Saudi students, both male and female, would achieve a similar level of adaptation and adjustment to the cultural difference of coeducation and be capable of interacting effectively and stressfully with non-Saudi students of the opposite sex. The exclusion to this conclusion is that they still may experience various levels of stress, difficulty and embarrassment when interacting with Saudi students of the opposite sex. It the recommendation for Saudi students who intend to study abroad, The Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia, The University of Akron and researchers to further investigate the causations of such issue and recommend resolutions that may mitigate the stress of these experiences.

Committee:

Suzanne MacDonald, Dr. (Advisor); Huey-Li Li, Dr. (Committee Member); Wondimu Ahmed, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Communication; Comparative; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Personal Relationships; Social Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

Saudi Arabia; coeducation; gender; culture; adaptation; acculturation; international students;

McLeod, Ryan PatrickAn Examination of the Relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy and School Culture
Doctor of Education, University of Toledo, 2012, Educational Administration and Supervision
Although a relationship between the constructs of teacher efficacy and school culture has been suggested in the literature (e.g., Beard, Hoy, & Hoy, 2010; Deemer, 2004; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001), no studies have actually examined the relationship directly. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship among the components of school culture and the factors of teachers’ sense of efficacy. The perceptions of Michigan middle school teachers (n = 387) were obtained using an online survey via random cluster sampling. The survey included a professional demographic survey, the School Culture Survey (SCS) (Saphier & King, 1985 as modified by Edwards, Green & Lyons, 1996), and the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). Correlations were used to examine the relationships among the TSES factors (Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management) and the SCS factors (Teacher Professionalism and Goal Setting, Professional Treatment by Administration, and Teacher Collaboration). The study showed weak significant positive relationships between SCS and TSES in 13 of the 16 correlations conducted. All of the relationships determined in the study were found to have small effect sizes. The greatest correlation values occurred between the SCS factors and teacher efficacy in student engagement. In addition, the SCS factor of professional treatment by administration had the highest correlations with each of the factors of TSES. Finally, teacher efficacy in classroom management did not have significant relationships with two of the three SCS factors or the SCS composite scores.

Committee:

Dale Snauwaert, PhD (Committee Chair); Cynthia Beekley, EdD (Committee Member); Nancy Staub, EdD (Committee Member); Randall Vesely, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Middle School Education

Keywords:

school culture; teacher efficacy; teacher sense of efficacy; culture; efficacy; teachers' sense of efficacy;

Das, Dilip A.Four-Year College Choice Considerations Among High-Achieving Lower-Income Community College Students in Michigan
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Higher Education
The college choice considerations and decisions of high school seniors matriculating full-time to four-year colleges is well-documented. However, a growing majority of students do not fit within the high school to four-year college group, leaving gaps in the college choice research literature. This qualitative study addresses the college choice research gap though semi-structured interviews of 17 academically talented – 3.5 or higher grade point average with over 25 college credits completed – Pell Grant-eligible community college students seeking transfer to a four-year college. All participants demonstrated high levels of motivation to complete a baccalaureate. Twelve of participants applied to only one transfer college and five applied to two. Constraints on college choice included a variety of financial considerations, strategic recruiting strategies by four-year colleges, and a lack of detailed guidance and college knowledge. Utilizing a cultural capital framework for analysis, marked differences between the college experiences of traditional four-year students and high-achieving, low-income non-traditional community college students were found including differences based on class, race and cultural traditions.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Larry G. McDougle, PhD (Committee Member); Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Adult Education; African American Studies; Community College Education; Economics; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Middle Eastern Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

Transfer college choice; college choice; lower-income; Pell-eligible; high-achieving; first generation; class reproduction; undermatching; cultural capital; stratification; workforce experience; motivation; choice constraints; race and class constraints

Urso, Christopher J.Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools: A Grounded Theory on School Success on Achievement Tests
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2008, Educational Leadership
This research project analyzed student success, as measured by achievement tests, within communities of high poverty. The purpose was to develop a grounded theory that offered insights as to how schools located within communities of high poverty could experience success on achievement tests. A second, and equally critical focus of this research was to better understand how teachers and principals interpreted success on achievement tests. What did success on achievement tests mean for students and their chances to live the American Dream? Specific questions this study intended to answer included: Do some schools experience success on achievement tests even when social class predictors of academic success forecast differently? What is occurring in these schools that contributes to their success on achievement tests? How do teachers and school administrators interpret student success on achievement tests in connection to student life chances?

Committee:

Michael Dantley, PhD (Committee Chair); Nelda Cambron-McCabe, PhD (Committee Member); Dennis Carlson, PhD (Committee Member); Tammy Schwartz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Elementary Education; Organizational Behavior; School Administration; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

grounded theory; achievement tests; effective schools; postmodernism; social reproduction theory; critical theory; critical pedagogy; ethic of care; cultural capital; habitus

Demaske, Devin M.The Differences Between How Boys and Girls Learn and the Benefits of Single Gender Schools
Master of Education, Cleveland State University, 2010, College of Education and Human Services
A developing trend in the world of education is separating students by gender via single gender schools, classrooms, or separation for certain subjects. The goal is finding out whether or not this segregation is beneficial to student achievement, if boys and girls learn differently, and whether or not these differences are biological or due to socialization. It is important to find these answers for educators to best serve their students. The approach was a review of the available literature, analyzing the studies involving student achievement at single gender schools, and studies about the differences in between the male and female brain and how the structure relates to their behavior. The research findings determined that there are significant differences in how boys learn versus girls. It happens extremely early on in life, if not prior to birth. There is compelling evidence for both biological and sociological influences. It is inconclusive to what extent each factors in to the equation. The research indicates that single gender schooling may be most beneficial for students in certain circumstances. Single gender schools have produced great gains in student achievement in areas with a disproportionately high population of “at risk” children. However, the study is limited in the lack of history for these programs, and the amount of variables involved. Schools that implement single gender programs may also have other distinct features that contribute their success such as more professional development for teachers, more community support, or a number of other factors. This remains a crucial topic for further research. It is essential to improve in the field of education to adapt to the needs of the constantly changing world.

Committee:

James Moore, PhD (Advisor); Anne Galletta, PhD (Committee Member); Amanda Yurick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

single gender education;differentiated instruction;sex differences in brain;learning

Olivo, Julio C.The Relationship Between Academic Emphasis and Academic Achievement for African-American Students in Predominately White Suburban Schools
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
African-American students in suburban schools are underperforming. Data reveals that African-American students who attend suburban schools do not perform as well as their Caucasian peers (Alson, 2003; Ferguson, Clark, & Stewart, 2002; Ogbu, 2002). The achievement gap between African-American and Caucasian students appears in not only scores, but also in other academic areas, such as attendance rates, graduation rates, special and gifted education placements, percentages of students in college preparatory or advanced placement classes, numbers of students in extracurricular activities, honor roll nominations, and grade-point-averages (Kober, 2001; Ogbu, 2002). The purpose of this study is to examine the difference in academic emphasis between high performing and low performing African-Americans in predominately white suburban schools by examining the relationship between academic emphasis and the achievement of African-American students. More specifically, examine the relationship between academic emphasis and the achievement of African-American children in predominately white suburban schools by observing the opinions of parents. The study is designed to indicate the importance of School, Family, Children, and Student Peer Academic Emphasis for African-American children in predominately white suburban schools based on parents’ perceptions. Participants in this study were black parents of 221 African-American students attending predominately white suburban schools. Parents’ opinions were collected during the third quarter of the academic school year 2007- 08 using a self-constructed questionnaire. Results reflected that after controlling for significant demographic variables, School Academic Emphasis was not related to grade point average; however, Family, Children, and Student Peer Academic Emphasis, as well as, characteristics of academic emphasis remained to have significant relationships to student achievement.

Committee:

Antoinette Miranda, PhD (Advisor); Adrienne Dixson, PhD (Committee Member); Kisha Radliff, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Multicultural Education; Psychology

Keywords:

Achievement Gaps; Black Students; African-American Students; Affluent Neighborhoods; Suburban Neighborhoods; Middle Class

Merolla, David M.Race, Education, and Social Reproduction: A Study of Educational Careers in the United States
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
While disparities in educational attainment between racial groups are a persistent and well-documented feature of American society, questions remain as to how race structures differences in the educational career trajectories of students. For instance, recent sociological studies have found that controlling for family background minority students are more likely to attend college than white students are. Yet it is not known whether this pattern is specific to college enrollment or if this pattern is a feature of earlier educational experiences as well. Additionally, many sociological studies have focused on differences in aspirational orientations and school characteristics as important aspects in the etiology of racial disparities in educational outcomes. However, it is not know how the impact of these factors changes over the course of student careers, or how changes in the impact of these variables contribute to racial disparities in educational outcomes. To address these issues, I analyze how racial disparities in educational attainment are produced using an empirical model of educational careers. Findings indicate that racial differences in educational careers begin in early grades and take a different form at different points in student educational careers. For instance, while aspirational variables do not change the pattern of racial differences in early grades, these variables become increasing important as students progress in their educational careers. These and other findings indicate that current sociological understandings of racial inequalities in education need re-specified to better understand contemporary racial disparities in educational outcomes.

Committee:

C. Andre Christie-Mizell, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Serpe, PhD (Committee Member); Cheryl Elman, PhD (Committee Member); Amoaba Gooden, PhD (Committee Member); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Sociology

Keywords:

Education; Race/Ethnicity; Status Attainment; Social Reproduction; Educational Careers; School Effects; Social Psychology; Multi-Level Models

Lucero, TamuThe Relationship between the Degree of Threat-Rigidity Principals Perceive in their School Environment and Principals’ Belief in a Just World
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2012, Educational Administration (Education)

This study examined the idea that principals in this age of accountability are feeling stressed and pressured to increase test scores for all students, especially students living in poverty. The literature related to principals, poverty, Belief in a Just World (BJW) and threat-rigidity is clear: the role of a principal is overwhelming, economic status is often a superior predictor of educational success, individuals often believe that people deserve their success and failure in life, and the threat of NCLB accountability measures is causing educators to react in a rigid manner.

This study surveyed the universe of elementary principals in the state of Ohio to determine the extent to which perceived district-level threat-rigidity (measured as principals’ assessment thereof) might be related to principals’ BJW. Subsidiary inquiries deal with the magnitude to which school improvement status might be related to threat-rigidity, principals’ BJW, and other key personal and organizational characteristics examined in this study.

Surveys (N=1556) were distributed electronically to elementary principals in the state of Ohio. Seven hundred fifty-five principals returned a survey producing a response rate of 48.4%. I used the survey data to conduct a multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship (if any) between threat-rigidity and principals’ BJW, then used a logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between school improvement status and threat-rigidity; conducted an auxiliary multiple regression analysis to determine if there is a relationship between threat-rigidity and school designation rating; and finally, conducted an auxiliary ANOVA analysis to determine if schools in school improvement status perceived greater district-level threat-rigidity than schools not in school improvement (Daly et. al., 2011, p.173).

The study determined that there is a (slight) statistically significant relationship between principals’ perceived district-level threat-rigidity and principals’ self-reported BJW. The study, however, found no statistically significant correlation between school improvement status and threat-rigidity. Yet, the study resolved that schools in school improvement status reported greater district-levels of threat-rigidity than schools not in school improvement status as determined by NCLB criteria (confirming findings Daly et. al., 2011).

Committee:

Gordon Brooks, EdD (Committee Chair); David Descutner, PhD (Committee Member); Jerry Johson, EdD (Committee Member); Dwan Robinson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Threat-Rigidity; Principal Leadership; Poverty; Belief in a Just World

Shepard, Brandi A.Using Dramatic Literature to Teach Multicultural Character Education
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2011, Theatre Arts

In the fast-paced, ever changing society in which Americans live, where children bring guns to school, hate crimes are committed daily, and the suicide rate is rising, character education is essential. Multicultural character education will not only help create stronger individuals, but stronger societies. Throughout history educators have used drama to teach multicultural character education effectively.

This thesis examines the need for multicultural character education, with special attention and lesson plans devoted to sexual orientaion and disability awareness.

Committee:

James Slowiak (Advisor); Durand Pope (Committee Member); Neil Sapienza (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Philosophy; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Fine Arts; Glbt Studies; Language Arts; Literature; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Performing Arts; Psychology; Religious Education; School Counseling; Social Research; Teaching

Keywords:

character education; dramatic literature; homophobia; discrimination; lesson plan, LGBT, The Laramie Project; And They Dance Real Slow in Jackson; multiculturalism; disability

Pippin, James D.Education on the Edge of Empire: Chinese Teachers' Perceptions of Development and Education in Xinjiang, China
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Cross-Cultural, International Education
Proponents of both capitalist and socialist ideologies have historically vied to define and implement the development processes that best mitigate disparities between the “rich” and “poor”, both between and within countries (Payne, 2005). Acknowledging burgeoning rich-poor inequalities within its own borders, largely between the coastal and western regions and among the dominant Han Chinese and the country's ethnic minorities, China established the Western Development Strategy in 2001 to combat these disparities (Lai, 2002; Zhao Y., 2001). One of its key areas of concern is the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, an “underdeveloped” province in northwest China fraught with ethnic tensions between the Han and Turkic Uyghur populations. Schooling is an integral component of the strategy as China seeks to educate students in ways that quell these tensions and favor its development goals (Benson, 2004). However, to date there are no studies which explore the ways in which teachers, the primary purveyors of the state-generated curriculum, perceive and communicate their perceptions of development in the region. Utilizing qualitative methods of inquiry (including interviews, observations, and document analysis) and building upon literature concerning theories of development, education in China, the Western Development Strategy, and Han-Uyghur relations, this study explored four Han Chinese Xinjiang Senior School (a pseudonym) teachers' perceptions of the role of education in the Western Development Strategy. It concluded that teachers at the Xinjiang Senior School overwhelmingly support the strategy and its development goals. Additionally, the study supported previous studies which suggest that the strategy serves as a conduit for colonization and marginalization (Gladney, 1999).

Committee:

Christopher Frey, PhD (Advisor); Patricia Kubow, PhD (Committee Member); Stefan Fritsch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

China; Xinjiang; Uyghur; Han Chinese; Development; Education; Qualitative Research; Globalization; Colonization

Briney, Carol EMy Journey with Prisoners: Perceptions, Observations and Opinions
MLS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Liberal Studies Program
Carol E. Briney is the founding executive director of Reentry Bridge Network, Inc. and Reentry Solutions, Inc. Briney believes that a systematic approach is required to reduce the likelihood of recidivisim. For nearly a decade, she has written and facilitated holistic pro-social programs inside prisons and in community forums. Her programs support bridging the gap between prison and community by focusing on human value, grief-impairment, daily literacy, reentry and job readiness, trauma-informed care, the healing arts, and understanding poverty. Briney's work is founded on her strong belief - If we can&#x2019;t help people to realize their own universal value, how can we expect them to see the value in their victims or their environment? This is gained through asset building, not punitive action. It takes community to reduce recidivism.

Committee:

Richard Berrong, PhD (Advisor); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member); Manacy Pai, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Aging; Art Criticism; Art Education; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Black History; Black Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Criminology; Cultural Anthropology; Cultural Resources Management; Curriculum Development; Developmental Psychology; Divinity; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Tests and Measurements; Elementary Education; Evolution and Development; Experimental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Fine Arts; Forensic Anthropology; Gender Studies; Gerontology; Individual and Family Studies; Inservice Training; Instructional Design; Journalism; Kinesiology; Language; Linguistics; Literacy; Logic; Mental Health; Metaphysics; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Modern Literature; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Pastoral Counseling; Peace Studies; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Personality Psychology; Philosophy; Political Science; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Administration; Public Policy; Religion; Religious Education; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Research; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociolinguistics; Sociology; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Theology; Urban Planning; Vocational Education; Welfare; Womens Studies

Keywords:

prison; reentry; trauma; poverty; grounded theory; universal value; punitive; recidivism; corrections; Retablo; play therapy; male prisoners; female prisoners; socio-metaphysics; grief-impairment; grief and loss; truth-telling; poverty; hood; prison art

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