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Gatlin, DeAngelo CRelations Between Family Cohesion and Social Competence Among Youth Living in Poverty
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2017, School Psychology
Research abounds that explores the impact of economic disadvantage on youth and their families. An increased likelihood of the development of assorted negative outcomes has been revealed, yet researchers have also presented various protective factors for these families. The current study employs a correlational research design to investigate (a) the relationship between family cohesion and social competence among a large and ethnoracially diverse sample of U.S. families living in poverty, and (b) the potential moderating role of grade level on that relationship. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES IV; Olson 2011) and Harter’s Perceived Competence Scale (Harter, 1985) were adapted to measure family cohesion and social competence. Results revealed that family cohesion was significantly and positively related to social competence among the sample. A regression analysis demonstrated that grade level did not significantly moderate the relationship between family cohesion and social competence. Practical implications and future research directions are provided.

Committee:

Amity Noltemeyer, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Anthony James, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Bush, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Families and Family Life

Keywords:

family cohesion; social competence; poverty; economic disadvantage

Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Klima, Kerry Lee BelvillHidden, Supported, and Stressful: A Phenomenological Study of Midlevel Student Affairs Professionals' Entry-Level Experiences with a Mental Health Condition
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of midlevel student affairs professionals who navigated a mental health condition as a new professional and remained in the field. New professionals’ attrition and retention concerns continue to warrant further exploration through research. Research is lacking on new professionals group was those with a mental health condition. Mental illness is prevalent in our society, and as evident in this study, professionals do negotiate their mental illness as professionals in the field. I interviewed nine midlevel student affairs professionals from across the United States. Each of the professionals worked at a variety of institutions and within many functional areas in student affairs during their first five years in the field. I lead eighteen interviews with nine participants. In addition to the interviews, all of the participants responded to one journal prompt. To mask the identities of my participants, the professionals selected pseudonyms and I used these names throughout my manuscript. The participants shared their experiences comprising five main themes: (1) coping with mental health conditions, (2) student affairs competence and mental health, (3) influential relationships, (4) disclosure, and (5) organizational influences. Three primary findings emerged following the analysis of the experiences and the review of the literature. Participants experienced fear of discrimination. They shared about negotiating the personal nature of the experiences and their own self-advocacy. Lastly, the professionals’ community was instrumental in connecting to their retention. With these themes and findings, I developed implications for practice and future research. Implications for practice include a proposed paradigm shift in our organizations; the important role of supervisors, administrators, and colleagues; the use of a universal design model; and the value of structures to support those with mental health conditions. Future research could explore the identities of people with a mental health condition, the various community structures, and the role of the influential relationships in coping with a mental health condition.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson (Advisor); Michael Coomes (Committee Member); Neal Jesse (Committee Member); Hyun Kyoung Ro (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Education; Educational Psychology; Health; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Mental Health; Occupational Health; Psychology

Keywords:

mental health; student affairs; student affairs professionals; mental health condition;

Brady, Anna CIntegrating Time Estimation into a Model of Self-regulated Learning
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2018, Educational Studies
This study was focused on better understanding the time estimation accuracy of undergraduate students enrolled in a learning to learn course. Students completed a course assignment which asked them to consider an academic task they planned to complete in the coming week. Then, half of the students completed a four-question reflection where they considered aspects of the task (i.e., similarity to previous tasks, challenge of previous task, anticipated challenge, and anticipated obstacles) while the other half did not complete a reflection. Next, students estimated the number of minutes they expected the task to take, completed the task, and reported the number of minutes the task actually took. Results indicated that, in contrast to previous research (Boltz & Yum, 2010; Buehler, Griffin, & Ross, 1994), students tended to overestimate the amount of time their academic tasks would take. In addition, the completion of the reflection did not impact time estimation accuracy. When considering the specific beliefs about the academic tasks, results indicated that the challenge of previous, similar tasks impacted their time estimation ratio, while students’ anticipated challenge impacted predicted and actual task duration. In light of these findings, implications for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Christopher A. Wolters, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Shirley L. Yu, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Time estimation; time management; self-regulated learning; college students

Whitehead, Shawna LPreschool Impact on Emergent Literacy in Kindergarten Students: A Case Study
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2018, School Psychology
The current study explored the role of preschool attendance in early literacy attainment (as measured by scores on the STAR Early Literacy assessment) for students in kindergarten. It also examined the difference between students of low-income backgrounds who did, and did not, attend preschool. This research was conducted in order to answer a specific question that school administrators from a local school district had: Does preschool make a significant difference in students' early literacy attainment? Results indicated that students who attended preschool scored significantly higher than students who did not attend preschool. In addition, results from the present study demonstrated that students of low SES who went to preschool did not score significantly higher than students of low SES who did not go to preschool. This only occurred during the winter, though, as students of low SES who went to preschool did score significantly higher on their spring SEL scores than students of low SES who did not go to preschool. Based on the findings of this study, a relationship between preschool attendance and early literacy development was confirmed.

Committee:

Raymond Witte (Committee Co-Chair); Michael Woodin (Committee Co-Chair); Jason Abbitt (Committee Member); Joel Malin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

preschool; kindergarten; early literacy; emergent literacy; preschool impact; literacy

Thomas, Elizabeth AnneSTUDENTS’ EXPERIENCES WITH HEALTHY LIVING PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS DISSEMINATED THROUGH A SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
Public Service Announcements (PSAs) have had roots in American culture since WWII and are still used today to inform the public about current health, social, and environmental issues facing the population. In the past 70 years, traditional media outlets were used to spread PSAs, including print, television, and radio. However, newer technologies are starting to take shape as an alternative way to reach the masses, including social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Along with changes in the delivery of information, there have also been some changes with many Americans’ bodies, specifically related to weight gain. The increase in the weight of many Americans is largely attributed to oversized meal portions and a sedentary lifestyle. This study gathered information from young adults (N=249) at a large Ohio public university to add to the current literature about PSAs disseminated through the social networking site Facebook, and email, to determine their effectiveness on changing people’s awareness, attitudes and behaviors about daily food and exercise choices. The quantitative results provided evidence that a four-week intervention helped to create modest changes in both Facebook and email groups regarding awareness, behaviors, and attitude changes about healthy living. Contrary to the popularity of social media, the Facebook group did not perform better than the email group. In fact, the email group demonstrated statistical significance on two issues that the Facebook group did not. The qualitative results provided by the Facebook group demonstrated that SNSs can benefit people who read posted messages and comments and participate in discussion. In this study, 95% of the Facebook participants self-reported that they benefitted from discussions.

Committee:

Drew Tiene, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Goodall, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chia-Ling Kuo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Educational Psychology; Health Education

Keywords:

social media; social networking sites; email; health communication; public service announcements; healthy living

Romig, Connie J.ACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE-INTERACTIVE: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN A CLASSROOM SETTING
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional strategy taxonomy proposed by Chi (2009) in a natural classroom setting. Specifically, according to Chi, instructional strategies that allow students to be active in their learning are more effective than those that allow the student to be merely passive, while constructive strategies are more effective than active and interactive are more effective than constructive. Each of the instructional strategies was employed in four Introduction to Educational Psychology Classes and the learning outcomes, as determined by student performance on unit exams, were compared. The participants were 120 undergraduate students who were enrolled in the introductory course. Each class was presented with a unit employing each instructional strategy, active, constructive and interactive, twice over the course of the semester. At the end of each unit an instructor-made exam was administered. Paired sample comparisons were conducted to determine whether any one of the instructional strategies was superior to the others in terms of student learning outcomes. According to Chi’s taxonomy, interactive instruction should yield the best learning outcomes, followed by constructive instruction and then active construction. Preliminary results indicate that the reverse pattern was observed, with active instruction yielding the best learning outcomes and constructive and interactive showing no significant differences.

Committee:

Chris Was , PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Bradley Morris, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); John Dunlosky, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Psychology

Keywords:

Active instruction; Constructive instruction; Interactive instruction; Instructional strategies

Groman, Jennifer LynnFrom Calling to Crisis: The Growth Process of Teachers Through Crisis-Like Incidents
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2015, Elementary Education
The phenomena of crisis in the formation and development of teacher identity is not unknown in the field of educational research, yet the study of these phenomena tends to focus on preservice and novice teachers. The purpose of this research is to discover through veteran teacher narratives, descriptions of crisis-like incidents, as well as any growth and transformation they may have experienced in the context of the profession. By studying teacher stories I hope to contribute to the understanding of how teachers navigate their teaching lives and shifting identities, especially in the face of difficulty, and gain insight into the value of collectively sharing and talking about the stories together. This Organic and Narrative based inquiry engaged three veteran teachers in conversations about the difficulties and challenges (crisis-like situations) of their teaching lives. The stories of crisis-like incidents (Veteran Stories) varied greatly, but themes emerged, such as: passion for the profession; varying needs for reflection; conflict of personal beliefs and institutional beliefs; conflict of belonging and not belonging; harmed and healed relationships; and the presence of a strongly held core belief. The process of sharing crisis stories in a safe and caring environment was quite transformative for participants. Their reflections indicated increased understanding of self and others, desire to be of service, a sense of wellbeing and personal implications, as well. They concluded that teachers often cause crisis-like incidents for other teachers, and that reflecting on incidents, while emotionally difficult, proved valuable to them. The researcher gained increased awareness of the vulnerabilities and risk in teaching, and now views herself as moving into teacher Elderhood. Early readers responded to the stories of crisis with stories of their own, demonstrating the truly widespread nature of crisis-like incidents in the lives of public school teachers. Recommendations for the profession include increased time and space for teachers to talk to one another about their philosophical beliefs and values and the value of a healthy, trusting school culture. Further research is needed to unearth aspects of critical incidents among teachers with varying philosophical viewpoints, as well as the phenomena of teachers causing critical incidents to other teachers.

Committee:

Gary Holliday, Dr. (Advisor); Renee Mudrey-Camino, Dr. (Committee Member); Alfred Daviso, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Rebecca McElfresh, Dr. (Committee Member); Diane Montgomery, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Early Childhood Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Psychology; Elementary Education; Middle School Education; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Philosophy; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Spirituality; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Crisis, critical incidents, teaching, teacher training, organic inquiry, narrative inquiry, transpersonal psychology, stories, narratives, teacher stories, teacher identity, identity

Harrison, Robert WottringA factoral analysis of music course grades
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1946, EDU Teaching and Learning
N/A

Committee:

Ward Reeder (Advisor); Harold Edgerton (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Education; psychology

Amin, NeelumParental Attitude as a Predictor of School Achievement among an Ethnically Diverse Sample Living in Poverty
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2016, School Psychology
A large and growing body of literature examines factors that promote academic achievement in children. Apart from direct parental involvement, parental attitudes and dispositions, such as parental optimism, have been found to influence youth development. Using a correlational research design, this study examined (a) the relationship of parental optimism and students’ academic achievement within a sample of U.S. families living in poverty (n=1500), and (b) the possible roles of gender and ethnic/cultural group membership in moderating this relationship. The Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al., 1994) measured parental optimism and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement Brief Battery (Woodcock et al., 2007) measured student academic achievement. Results of regression analyses revealed that parental optimism did not predict achievement for the overall sample. Parental optimism did significantly predict achievement in individuals from a Hispanic background, although this relationship was no longer statistically significant once the influence of parental homework involvement was considered.

Committee:

Kevin Bush, Dr. (Advisor); Amity Noltemeyer, Dr. (Committee Member); Anthony James, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Parental Optimism; Academic Achievement; Parental Involvement; Parenting Behaviors; Poverty; Familism

Brooks-Turner, Brenda ElaineExploring the Coping Strategies of Female Urban High School Seniors on Academic Successes as it Relates to Bullying
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2016, College of Education and Human Services
Bullying has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportion and degree. (Thomas, Bolen, Heister & Hyde, 2010). In the United States over thirty-five percent of school-aged students were directly involved in bullying incidents. Tragic news stories about suicides and school violence raised awareness about the importance of addressing this global issue (Van Der Zande, 2010). To date reports further indicate that more females are involved in indirect relational bullying than males. Unfortunately, as technology becomes more and more accessible, relational bullying has become one of the fastest growing epidemics (Brinson, 2005; Rigby & Smith, 2011). Current research explanations were limited as to how female seniors who are victims of bullying showed resilience to academically succeed despite incidences of bullying throughout their high school experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this mixed method study was to explore the coping strategies utilized by12th grade female urban high school seniors who have experienced school success despite their involvement as victims of bullying. In this study, 32 high school female seniors completed the online Olweus’ Bullying Questionnaire which included self-reported attendance, discipline referrals, grade point average, and participation in extracurricular activities as it related to their bullying experiences. Additionally, the researcher randomly selected eight focus group participants were involved in two focus group sessions to provide rich descriptions of their experiences as victims of bullying. These victims expressed the coping strategies used to successfully defeat the negative connotations associated with bullying, and specifically acknowledged their personal triumphs. When students understood the intricacies of bullying, and were empowered to use effective coping strategies, their experience of school success should increase as the prevalence of bullying decreases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to decrease the number of bullying incidences in schools by providing students with effective resources or coping strategies that enabled them to no longer be victims of bullying, but to have opportunities to experience success as they develop, and learn in a safe and hostile-free environment.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ralph Mawdsley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Williams, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mittie Davis Jones, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Health Education; Individual and Family Studies; Law; Legal Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Public Policy; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Social Work; Sociology; Teacher Education; Urban Planning

Keywords:

bullying;coping strategies;academic success;academic achievement;female;urban high school;graduating seniors

Ziegler, Nathan E.English Language Learners’ Epistemic Beliefs about Vocabulary Knowledge
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Foundations of Education: Educational Psychology
There is a growing body of work that examines the epistemic beliefs of learners and the role those beliefs play in the development of their critical thinking and other cognitive processes (Hofer, 2001). This study examines the epistemic beliefs of English language learners, a population of learners that is relatively understudied on the topic of personal epistemology. More specifically, this qualitative study explores ELLs’ dimensional and developmental epistemic beliefs about vocabulary knowledge in English. First-year international undergraduate students enrolled in remedial ESL writing courses were given a series of speaking and writing placement tests in an Intensive ESL program at a Mid-western university. Responses to writing prompts and interviews were analyzed for this study from an epistemological lens to determine the espoused epistemic beliefs of English language learners. Results suggested that many ELLs espoused advanced epistemic beliefs (i.e., evaluativism) about vocabulary knowledge most of the time. There was a general disparity found, however, with ELLs’ epistemic beliefs about the source and justification of English vocabulary knowledge. That is, there was a tendency for ELLs to espouse less sophisticated epistemic beliefs (i.e., absolutism) about source and justification of vocabulary knowledge. This implies that participants’ beliefs about these dimensions of knowledge and knowing might be hindering the emergence of more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in the domain of English language learning. Additional implications suggest that ESL curriculum needs to focus on developing ELLs’ use of the appropriate cognitive strategies (i.e., critical thinking) to determine the most accurate sources of vocabulary knowledge in specified communicative contexts.

Committee:

Florian Feucht, Dr. (Committee Chair); Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Dr. (Committee Member); Thomas Dunn, Dr. (Committee Member); Susanna Hapgood, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; English As A Second Language; Epistemology

Keywords:

English as a Second Language; English Language Learners; ESL Education; Vocabulary Learning; Second Language Instruction; Personal Epistemology; Epistemic Development; Epistemic Beliefs; Educational Psychology

Powers, Chris J.School Psychology Training in Traumatic Brain Injury Assessment: Current Practices in Graduate Programs
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2015, School Psychology
There is an identified need for more training and education in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI) assessment; as such, it is necessary to examine how it is currently being addressed in school psychology graduate preparation programs. The present research study addressed the gap in current research regarding how TBI assessment is taught in school psychology graduate programs by gaining in-depth, qualitative information from current practitioners. Nine participants were interviewed to gain insight into their experience with TBI training in their graduate programs. The results provide insight into the current training models of graduate programs and feedback from early career professionals. Suggestions are made for school psychology graduate programs and for possible future research.

Committee:

Susan Davies, Ed.D (Committee Chair); Elana Bernstein, Ph.D (Committee Member); Bobbie Fiori, Ed.S (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Higher Education; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

School Psychology; Traumatic Brain Injury; Concussion; Assessment; Graduate Training; Graduate School

Umbarger, A LynneAchievement Goal Orientations, Cognitive Learning Strategy Use, and Continued Professional Learning Plans of First-Year Occupational Therapy Assistant Students
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Educational Psychology
Occupational therapy (OT) is an allied health profession that helps people with disabilities, cognitive or physical, participate in their lives as independently as possible. An associate degree college education is required for the occupational therapy assistant (OTA) professionals who implement the plans outlined by an occupational therapist and provide skilled treatment activities with patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the mastery and performance goal orientations of new occupational therapy assistant (OTA) students after participation in a highly competitive enrollment process and the relationships between any changes in their personal goal orientations and related cognitive learning strategies (CLS), and plans for continued professional learning (CPL) over time. In addition, the study sought to evaluate any relationship between mastery and performance instructional practices on the students’ personal goal orientations, use of deep processing and surface CLS, and plans for CPL. Instructional practices in the classroom can be mastery and/or performance focused and are known to influence students’ goal orientations and use of CLS. The implications of mastery and performance goal orientations on the pursuit of learning has been documented in limited fashion with students who have completed a competitive admissions process and participate in the cohort educational format characterized by OTA students. In addition, instructors in professional educational programs are drawn from the clinic and may have limited instruction in motivational instruction that focuses on student self-improvement and less on achievement of grades which conflicts with a goal of occupational therapy education to develop lifelong learners. This longitudinal investigatory study incorporated data from surveys of instructors and OTA students at the beginning and end of a class in the first semester and again in the next semester. The data from these surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, and growth curve modeling procedures. The findings showed that OTA students entered their educational program with both mastery and performance goal orientations, used both deep processing and surface CLS, planned for CPL even from the onset of their education, and had increased use of deep processing and surface CLS and CPL plans as they increased in mastery goal orientations.

Committee:

Revathy Kumar, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Beth Ann Hatkevich, PhD (Committee Member); William Knight, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Occupational Therapy

Keywords:

Occupational therapy assistant students, achievement goal orientations, cognitive learning strategies, continued professional learning, instruction

Hamilton, RasheaPerspective Taking: The Role of Visual Perspective in Future Oriented Behavior
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, EDU Policy and Leadership
Research has demonstrated that imagining one's self in the future can enhance one's intentions to pursue that future image. Vasquez and Buehler (2007) further suggest that students experience a greater increase in motivation when they imagine themselves completing a task from a third-person perspective rather than a first-person perspective. In this study I examine the influence of visual perspective and context on students' intentions to pursue an academic goal. Three research questions guided this analysis: (1) How does visual perspective influence intent to achieve a goal? (2) How is this influence moderated by socioeconomic status, parental support and racial-ethnic identity? and (3) How does visual perspective influence the strategies that students report using to achieve their goals?. This study utilized an experimental research design and participants were randomly assigned to conditions. The sample in this study consisted of 176 high school students from the four schools and one university-based college preparatory program. Approximately 59% of the sample identified themselves as female, 43.2% as African American, 40.9% as White, 5.7% as Multiracial, 3.4% as African, 2.8% as Asian, 1.1% as Indian and 2.9% as other. Additionally, approximately 70.6% of the sample lived in neighborhoods where at least 11.6% of residents were in poverty. Surveys were administered at two time points and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to analyze data. Findings suggest that (1) intent varied significantly across visual perspective groups, (2) parental support and racial-ethnic identity self schemas were related to changes in the relation between visual perspective and intent, and (3) reported strategies did not vary significantly across visual perspective groups. The present study provides support for the need to examine student-related phenomena in context. Whereas previous research suggested that third-person perspective led to increased intent to achieve future goals when compared to first-person perspective, results of the present study did not support prior findings. Rather, the first-person perspective was related to higher levels of intent. Further, other factors such as parental monitoring and one's racial-ethnic identity are related to the relation between visual perspective and future-oriented behavior, so scholars might also consider these contextual pieces in future investigation of student goals and their plans for achieving those goals. Finally, results of this study suggest that a simple cue, perhaps from a teacher or a parent, can alter the way in which students plan to achieve their goals. Simply asking some students to think of their goals from the first person perspective versus the third-person perspectives meant varied intent to pursue an academic goal. This might have particular implications for school- and home-based interventions and might provide a cost efficient way to get students to orient themselves towards goal attainment.

Committee:

Eric M. Anderman, Ph.D (Advisor); James L. Moore, III, Ph.D (Committee Member); Richard Lomax, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Sharpe, Tanzeah Shanae RobinsonShades of Knowledge: Young Children's Perceptions of Racial Attitudes and Preferences
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2014, College of Education
This study explores the racial attitudes and preferences among 164 children between three and seven years of age. The study is a partial replication of the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test which concluded that segregation, along with prejudice and discrimination, caused feelings of inferiority and self-hatred in African-American children. Significant changes to the original doll test are introduced in the current study. This study is based on an embedded mixed method design which utilizes Chi-square, cross-tabulations, and free-choice interviewing. The data were analyzed in response to research questions designed to test the racial attitudes and racial preferences of the participants. The findings of this study concluded that the participants can identify and have an awareness of racial differences, show doll preference, and display positive self-image. Qualitative themes that emerged from the research concluded that the participants liked the doll that looked most like them (or a family member), had a skin tone they liked, or was pretty. Themes associated with why participants did not like the doll that looked like them included skin tone and miscellaneous responses such as facial features and because the doll did not resemble the child’s doll at home. The findings of this study are compared to the results from the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test.

Committee:

Judy Alston, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rosaire Ifedi, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Sunny Munn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

early childhood education; self-esteem; identity; racial awareness; racial identification; racial preference; child development; Kenneth Clark; Mamie Clark; doll test; racial development

Lyman, Jeffrey TImpact of Parental Involvement and Poverty on Academic Achievement
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2014, Educational Psychology
Recent research has indicated that parental involvement can increase a student’s academic achievement, but the literature still has not determined which specific aspects of parental involvement help to increase academic achievement for economically at-risk students. This study examined the impact of parental homework involvement and parental school involvement on the academic achievement for a sample of 219 economically disadvantaged students attending 36 schools in a Midwestern state. Parental involvement was measured using factors derived from a parent survey and academic achievement was measured using results from an individually-administered norm-referenced achievement test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between a set of two parental involvement variables (i.e., parental homework involvement and parental school involvement) and an academic achievement outcome variable. Regression analyses revealed that parental homework involvement significantly predicted academic achievement, but parental school involvement did not. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Committee:

Amity Noltemeyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Kevin Bush, PhD (Committee Member); Doris Bergen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Parental Involvement; Parental School Involvement; Parental Homework Involvement; Poverty; Academic Achievement

Beausoleil, Kent AlanTransforming Lives: Attending to the Spirit of College Students from Dysfunctional and/or Abusive Young Adult Formational Experiences
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
Despite the prevalence of college students who have been a victim of abuse and/or complex dysfunctional experiences, higher education typically ignores the spiritual life of its students in regards to treating the effects of abuse and/or dysfunction. This study examines efforts at four Jesuit universities to offer spiritual programs that attend to the spirit of this particular group of students. The purpose of this phenomenologically grounded research is to understand the nature of the relationship between the practice of Ignatian (Catholic/Christian) spiritual direction and growth toward spiritual intelligence of college-age students and recent college graduates. Participants in this study came from physically, sexually, and/or emotionally abusive homes, dysfunctional childhood experiences, or challenging young adult formational experiences. Each participant was also engaged in Ignatian spiritual direction and Ignatian spiritual programming at the Jesuit universities they attended. This study examined the life stories of sixteen upper class college students and/or recent college graduates. Each participant was interviewed twice in an open conversational style for a total of thirty-two interviews. The aim of the research was to develop a richer understanding of the impact of Ignatian spiritual direction in light of the effects of their formational experiences. The research questioned whether or not engaging in this particular type of spiritual programming made a significant, positive impact in participants’ spiritual development and growth toward spiritual intelligence. The findings of this research revealed that Ignatian spiritual direction did indeed lead to developmental growth toward spiritual intelligence for participants along sixteen key spiritual intelligence indicators. Participants experienced these spiritual indicators as a progressive movement that fostered interpersonal healing and wholeness, healthier ways of being and relating to others, and a more positive outlook toward their future as spiritual leaders. This research further demonstrated that attending to college students’ spirit is an important part of their overall holistic development and spiritual intelligence growth.

Committee:

Judy Rogers, PhD (Advisor); Elisa Abes, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Goodman, PhD (Committee Member); M. Elise Radina, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Pastoral Counseling; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

Spirituality, Ignatian, Jesuit, Society of Jesus, Spiritual Direction, Spiritual Intelligence, Abuse, Dysfunction, Higher Education, Holistic, Student Development, Phenomenology, Qualitative, College Student

DeGreg, JuliaVideo Modeling as a Classwide Intervention for Promoting Positive Behavior in Art Class
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: School Psychology
Teachers often face the arduous task of managing disruptive behaviors within their classrooms and keeping their students engaged. Implementing Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), a widely adopted series of preventative strategies, can help teachers proactively address problem behaviors. One of the first steps of PBIS is to instruct and model expected behaviors for the classroom. Traditionally, educators use in vivo or live modeling of the behavioral expectations. Another approach to teaching these expectations is through video modeling (VM), whereas teachers use the same video displaying the behaviors instead of having to live model them repeatedly. VM is an evidence-based intervention that many educators use to instruct and improve students’ behaviors. However, VM has mostly been used with individual students or small groups of students and often with students with disabilities. This study examines the use of VM with a whole class of regular education students. Using a multiple baseline across settings ABB’ design, baseline levels of student disruptive behaviors and engagement were compared to VM intervention levels across intervention phases. Social acceptability and future areas of research are discussed.

Committee:

Julie Morrison, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Renee Oliver Hawkins, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Nabors, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

behavior;video modeling;PBIS;education

Currans, Kristn DThe social reputation of children with Asperger's Disorder in the classroom: Teachers' impressions
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2006, Psychology
The social reputations of children (ages 6-11) with Asperger's Disorder (AD) (n = 16) and classroom peers (n = 16) were examined using a modified version of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a measure of social behavior, completed by teachers. Teachers also completed a Behavioral Assessment Scale of Children - Teacher Report Scale (BASC-TRS) for each child, a measure of observed behavior. Relative to their peers, children with AD scored higher on the Sensitive-Isolated dimension and lower on the Sociability-Leadership dimension of the RCP, indicating less positive social reputations. They were observed to engage in more disruptive and fewer adaptive behaviors. The findings suggest that the behavior of children with AD negatively impacts their social reputations and acceptance by peers. The need for social skills interventions is discussed, and suggestions for further research are made.

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Crighton Newsom, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

psychology; education; social reputation; asperger syndrome; children

Leach, NicoleSchool Community, Peer Bonds, and Perceived Competence
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Policy and Leadership
Since the Industrial Age of the early 1900’s, American education has consisted of school organizations that emphasize control, monitoring, and evaluation to meet the demands of a needed factory-based workforce (Furman, 2002a) that necessitated efficiency and hierarchal managerial power structures. According to the self-determination theory, these controlling environments suppress personal growth, intrinsic motivation, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2002). An alternative approach to school organizations is school community, or the structuring of school around mutual obligations, interdependence, common mission, and social ties (Kindermann & Gest, 2009). The three studies presented in this dissertation explore the construction and culture of a school community while also seeking to understand the unique peer associations among students that result from creating school community and how those relational ties relate to students’ perception of competence, as defined in self-determination theory. Study 1 explored teachers’ use of specific strategies to construct school community including humor, whole-school discussions, anecdotal stories, cues, modeling, service-learning projects, monitoring, and scaffolding. Study 2 described, operationalized, and created a valid and reliable measure of peer bonds for students. Study 3 tested a model in which students’ peer bonds predict their perceived competence explaind by their self-reported help-seeking behaviors and social goal pursuit. Thus, school community may be important for the creation of peer bonds, which then has implications for academic behaviors, social goal pursuit, and motivation.

Committee:

Lynley Anderman (Committee Chair); Eric Anderman (Committee Member); Beverly Gordon (Committee Member); Barbara Piperata (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Tomeo, Nicholas AnthonyCorrelates between Chronic Stress and Executive Function in College Students
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
Abstract Chronic stress can generate an oversupply of cortisol to the prefrontal cortex, which can lead to impairment in executive function--sound judgment, thoughtful reflection, and higher order thinking. College students, who are in the midst of making life changing decisions, experience a great deal of stress during their matriculation. This study examined relationships between specific stressors and deficits in executive functioning and addressed the following research questions: “Which type of stress is most closely related to deficits in executive function (EF) overall?” “Which of these correlated stressors is most predictive of executive function deficit levels?” and “Which type of stress is most predictive to specific subscales of executive function deficits?” The secondary aim of this study was to answer the question, “What can be done to help college students manage stress?” Primary research data on 121 college students were gathered using two surveys: an adapted version of the Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life Experiences (ICSRLE) and the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Survey-Short Form (BDEFS-SF). This study determined that General Social Mistreatment was the highest correlated stressor with overall executive function deficits. General Social Mistreatment, Developmental Challenges, and Academic Alienation demonstrated significant predictive relationships with overall executive function deficits. Developmental Challenges, and Academic Alienation were also predictive of a number specific types of executive function deficits. Several interventions were also discovered that could be employed in universities to help college students minimize the effects of specific stressors in their life at the university. Keywords: Executive function, chronic stress, college students, cortisol, triadic model, neuropsychology

Committee:

Rhonda Douglas Brown, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jodie K. Edwards, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Marcus Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Executive function;chronic stress;cortisol;triadic model;neuropsychology

Bishton, Rodger C.The Mental Health of Children in Certain Third and Sixth Grades
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1947, EDU Teaching and Learning
none

Committee:

Wilda M. Rosebrook (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Campbell, JenniferCorrelation Between Piagetian Theory of Cognitive Development and College Mathematics Proficiency
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2014, Mathematics
In our culture, which places such importance on technology, science, engineering, and mathematics, student success in mathematics courses continues to be a priority. However, many students are required to enroll in remedial or developmental mathematics courses during their post-secondary education. Many studies have been produced which show a wide variety of conclusions as to whether these remedial courses are effective. The fact is that, regardless of their effectiveness, the number of students who need to take these courses is unacceptable to education professionals. Built on concepts from developmental psychology, especially those of Jean Piaget, we formulated a hypothesis that the cause of these mathematical deficiencies in students is correlated to the students' cognitive development. We created an assessment consisting of a mathematical portion to test a student's proficiency and a psychological portion to determine at which stage of development a student is. It is the goal of this study to show a correlation between the levels of proficiency and cognitive development. While we did not find that correlation in our results, we did find a correlation between mathematical proficiency and college success as measured by grade point average. We also found a significant difference between one of the types of mathematical concepts assessed and the other two types of mathematical concepts. The specific concept is addition of fractions and the difference we found leads us to the conclusion that this portion of the assessment can be used in the future as a good discriminator of developmental level.

Committee:

Timothy Norfolk, Dr. (Advisor); Laurie Dunlap, Dr. (Advisor); Phillip Allen, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology; Mathematics Education; Psychological Tests

Keywords:

Mathematics Education; Piaget; Cognitive Development

Bradic, Matthew CA survey study of the perceptions of middle school personnel with respect to learning disabled students as victims of bullying/harassment and the corresponding relationships with bullying prevention and discipline
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to examine the perceptions of administrators and other support staff in public middle schools across the United States regarding the current bullying prevention/treatment program being used in their school building and whether it is effective with all types of students, regardless of academic standing (particularly the effectiveness for students with learning disabilities). Secondary purposes included surveying administrators and other support staff about the differences in bullying behaviors between LD students and students not on an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and soliciting feedback from administrators to determine disciplinary procedures when an LD student is a bullying victim. The survey was distributed to public middle school principals, assistant principals, school psychologists, and school counselors across the United States. A correlational ex post facto design was used, and the survey instrument used was created by combining two surveys from previously published studies. The instrument data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an independent samples t-test. Findings revealed significant differences amongst the administrator and school psychologist populations regarding the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs for all student populations (including the learning disabled). Further, findings indicated significant differences between school psychologists and the other populations surveyed with respect to the frequency of learning disabled students as victims of bullying. The results support a greater need for specialized bullying prevention programs, more intervention for this population following incidents of bullying, and heightened sensitivity with respect to the overall safety of students placed on IEP’s.

Committee:

Catherine Hackney, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jason McGlothlin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Christa Boske, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Psychology; School Administration; School Counseling

Keywords:

Bullying; Middle School; IEP; Administration; School Psychology; School Counseling; Prevention Programs; Learning Disabilities

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