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West, Sarah M."Serviam": A Historical Case Study of Leadership in Transition in Urban Catholic Schools in Northeast Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Education and Human Services
The purpose of this historical case study was to explore, through the lens of knowledge transfer, answers to the following two questions: how did the Sister-educators from one community in Northeast Ohio prepare themselves for leadership, and when it became clear that the future of their urban school depended on transitioning to lay leadership, how did Sister-principals prepare their religious communities and their school communities for that change. This qualitative study focuses on six members of one active, engaged, service-based community which has supported schools Northeast Ohio for over a century. The research revealed that a successful Sister-to-laity leadership transition will have its foundation in charismatic love, encourage faith-filled mentoring of faculty and students, honor the mission of the founding community, and support an overarching leadership culture of magnanimity to all stakeholders. This model can be employed in other educational and nonprofit settings where non-hierarchical servant leadership would be an effective approach.

Committee:

Marius Boboc, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Lehfeldt, Ph.D (Committee Member); Adam Voight, Ph.D (Committee Member); Matt Jackson-McCabe, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education History; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Religion; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; School Administration; Teaching

Keywords:

qualitative research, case study, religious education, Catholic school culture, urban school leadership, religious congregations, Catholic school leadership, leadership models, education policy, Northeast Ohio Catholic education, education history

Grugan, Cecilia SpencerDisability Resource Specialists’ Capacity to Adopt Principles and Implement Practices that Qualify as Universal Design at a 4-Year Public Institution
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Due to the continuous growth of diverse student bodies on college campuses, creating accessibility for each unique student needs to be considered. Students who have a disability or disabilities are a substantial part of this growing diverse student body. Since disability resource specialists play a significant role in creating accessibility for such students, they can consider implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore where disability resource specialists fall on Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change and Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise in regards to implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. Six participants were included in this study out of eight who were invited to participate. Out of those six participants, the study showed that all participants demonstrated a strong presence in the Unfreezing stage of Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change. Also, the study showed that all participants showed a level of knowledge as the second tier to Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise. Limitations as well as recommendations for future research included recruiting a larger sample of participants to provide greater analysis of the study.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Suzanne Franco, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Stephanie Krah, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Engineering; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Instructional Design; Intellectual Property; Labor Relations; Management; Mass Communications; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Personal Relationships; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Public Policy; Reading Instruction; Recreation; Rehabilitation; Robotics; Robots; School Administration; Secondary Education; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Systems Design; Teacher Education; Transportation

Keywords:

Universal Design; Accommodations; Accessibility; Organizational Change; Proactive Practices; Disability; Disability Resource Specialists; Disability Services; Higher Education; Student Affairs

Contat, Bradley D.Ethical Principal Leadership Through Acts of Virtue: A Phenomenology
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
This study addressed the lack of emphasis and understanding related to the benefits of the practice of ethical principal leadership. The purpose of this study, to address the noted problem, was to explore the practice of principal ethical leadership through acts of virtue and was viewed through the Framework of Foundational Virtues of Educational Leadership: consisting of the virtues of responsibility, authenticity, and presence (Starratt, 2004). This phenomenological study consisted of interviewing six principals in Northwest Ohio. Data were collected through interviews, observations, and written personal codes of ethics. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed in conjunction with other noted forms of data. This data produced the essence of the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue via the following five themes: the virtue of responsibility, the virtue of authenticity, the virtue of presence, the virtue of perseverance, and student centrality. The identified essence and themes of the study provide a greater understanding of, and benefits related to, the practice of ethical principal leadership through acts of virtue. Also, this study expands the literature related to ethical leadership and principal leadership by identifying practical and theoretical implications that impact both areas of leadership.

Committee:

Paul Willis, EdD (Advisor); Salim Elwazani , PhD (Other); Tracy Huziak-Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin Pfefferle, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Ethics

Keywords:

leadership; ethical leadership; transformational leadership; educational leadership; ethics; virtue; responsibility; authenticity; presence; perseverance; student centrality; education; principal; phenomenology; 21st century

Dunn, Jeffery WNeoliberalism and the `Religious' Work of Schools: The Teacher as Prophet in Dewey's Democratic Society
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Policy and Leadership
This study explores the deleterious and often dehumanizing effects of neoliberal conceptions of schooling on broader democratic forms of education as John Dewey conceived them. I reveal how Dewey’s notion of the religious and his enigmatic claim that the teacher is a “prophet of the true God” provides a way to think differently about the aims and purposes of education situated now within the riverbeds of twenty-first century neoliberalism. With a renewed vision of education, I position teachers as the prophets of democracy who work to subvert the culture of neoliberal schooling.

Committee:

Bryan Warnick, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Neoliberalism; Dewey; Democratic Schools; Prophetic Teachers

Banks, Laurie AUnderstanding implementation, student outcomes, and educational leadership related to Ohio's Third Grade Reading Guarantee
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
This study explores the outcomes of policy implementation from the perspective of the policy makers and the educators who are charged with implementation, specifically examining the decision-making process for district leaders during implementation. The study identifies the outcomes from the perspective of the policy-maker utilizing accountability measures, while examining the decision-making process by district leaders during implementation particularly focusing on doing what is “right” and what is “good” as defined by Strike (2008). The author provides an overview of Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee (TGRG). Ohio’s TGRG is one of many literacy policy’s in America that include retention as a consequence for students not able to demonstrate proficiency by the end of third grade. Quantitative and qualitative data provide a robust data set to inform the scholarship around policy and implementation from a dual perspective. The study reveals the statewide trends in reading proficiency in third grade did not change after implementation, only after a new type of assessment was administered during SY 15-16, resulting in a drastic decline in proficiency as assessed through high-stakes assessment. The K3 literacy measure, an accountability measure for schools and districts tied to Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee, had a significant negative correlation to student demographics across all three years of initial implementation. This study found one cohort of students placed on Reading Improvement and Monitoring Plans (RIMPs) in a local education agency (LEA), after being found not on track in third grade, and then promoted to fourth grade, were assessed as fourth graders and found still to be off track as assessed by the fall diagnostic. Interviews were conducted with six educational leaders from an LEA. Those interviewed were asked to reflect on the implementation of Ohio’s Third Grade Reading Guarantee and the decisions they tackled during implementation to ensure they acted as functionaries, focusing on what is “right” and “good” (Strike, 2008). The data set was evaluated utilizing Strike’s (2008) work on ethical leadership and decision making. The author concludes the study with policy recommendations and considerations for those in K-12 Leadership.

Committee:

Andrew Saultz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Literacy

Keywords:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership, Literacy, Retention; Literacy Policy; Reading Instruction, Intervention

Ellerbe, Jennifer ChristineGAINING INSIGHT INTO ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION: THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF ALTERNATIVE EDUCATORS
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
What do the lived experiences of alternative school teachers reveal about the state of alternative education? This study sought to reflectively examine the experiences of three alternative school teachers that serve at-risk populations of students. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the experiences of alternative school teachers to extract the lived experiences and realities of these teachers. This interpretive narrative inquiry explored the phenomenon of regional alternative school teachers’ attitudes and perceptions toward alternative education. The focus of the study was on how regional alternative school teachers in a county in Southwest Ohio understand what makes a good alternative education program and what they understand to be the restraints on developing or implementing such programs. The research participants have all been working in the field of alternative education for at least 5 years and all have been teaching for at least 10 years. In this study, qualitative case study methods such as interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis were used to triangulate the data and reveal the lived experiences of these educators. This study found four major themes that emerged from the experiences of the alternative school teachers and what they believed to be true about alternative education. The four major themes highlighted in this study are that: 1) Certain resources and services must be accessible/available to students; 2) A negative image/stereotype teachers in alternative education are a focal point and important contributing factors to the overall program quality; 4) Certain factors must be in place to improve the effectiveness and is associated with alternative education that creates obstacles for students and teachers; 3) The functioning of alternative schools.

Committee:

Thomas Poetter, Dr (Committee Chair); Kate Rousmaniere, Dr (Committee Member); Joel Malin, Dr (Committee Member); Molly Moorhead, Dr (Committee Member); Leah Wasburn-Moses, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Alternative Education; Education; Alternative

VanHorn, Pamela MarieLinking Collaborative Leadership Practices to Increased Student Achievement
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Educational Studies
This study explored the relationship between the implementation of processes directed at improving school-level functions and student academic success. Specifically, the researcher used the Collaborative Leadership Organizational Practices Survey (CLOPS) to measure how fidelity of implementation of the Ohio Improvement Process (OIP) influenced sixth grade students’ reading and mathematics achievement. The CLOPS identified areas of strength and weakness in school level OIP implementation, thereby exposing gaps in the school improvement process. The study was conducted in 57 schools in four midwestern districts. Each school administered the Northwest Evaluation Association’s (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) formative assessment tool during fall and winter in two content areas, reading and mathematics. Those same schools adopted the OIP as the school improvement model. Research design employed the survey responses, publically available demographic data considered as control variables. The change from fall formative assessment scores to winter formative assessment scores for reading and mathematics in Grade 6 was identified as the dependent variable. Data included principal responses that reflected the principals’ perceptions of the degree of OIP implementation at the school-level, demographic data retrieved from the state education agency website, and school aggregated formative assessment data from fall and winter assessments. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine if the degree of fidelity of OIP implementation in a school influenced student achievement from fall to winter assessment administrations. Results identified three OIP practices at the teacher-based team level positively impacted the change in student achievement from fall to winter: (a) teachers on a team, which is described as membership on the teacher-based teams; (b) common post-assessment results, which are described as teams working together to review student progress after the completion of a common post-assessment and, (c) implementation of inclusive instructional practices, which are described as agreed upon instructional strategies that are research based with data that can be effective with all students. Practical implications for collaborative leadership practices within the context of a structured improvement process provide a model for districts to enhance achievement for all students. Future research should address ways to increase the impact of collaborative leadership practices in a structured improvement process. This research could include the impact of levels of trust, academic emphasis and collective efficacy of a staff within the structured improvement process on increased student achievement.

Committee:

Belinda Gimbert, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

collaborative leadership, school improvement process, student achievement

Moran, James PThe Impact of Extracurricular Activity on Teacher Job Satisfaction
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2017, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
Student involvement in extracurricular activities (ECA) has been studied in the field of educational research in regard to its impact on academic achievement. This research reviewed the extant research regarding student achievement. In addition, it expands upon the limited research on the relationship these activities may have in regard to the teachers and staff who oversee them, and how this supervision and involvement of ECA impacted those teachers’ job satisfaction. The findings of the current investigation indicate that supervision of ECA can have a positive impact on educational professionals. Additionally, the research has shown to substantiate positive impacts on teacher longevity, organizational commitment, job performance, and job satisfaction for those individuals who coach and/or advise these activities. Coupled with the research indicating a positive impact on academic achievement from participation in ECA for students, these findings support the prioritization of ECA by school districts and states, so that creative fiscal ways can be found to sustain such programs that have, in recent times, been eliminated due to budget cuts.

Committee:

Karen Larwin, PhD (Advisor); Charles Vergon, JD (Committee Member); Sara Michaliszyn, PhD (Committee Member); Matthew Paylo, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; School Administration

Keywords:

extracurricular activity, job satisfaction, coach, club adviser

Wolfe, Christine S.Co-existence of Traditional and Online Schools as Experienced by Principals in Rural Appalachian Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2018, Instructional Technology (Education)
This is a quantitative phenomenological study of the perceptions of principals of public secondary schools in rural Appalachian Ohio. The purpose of the study is to understand the experiences of the principals as online charter schools become feasible for students in their school district. A random sample of ten principals was obtained from the population. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with each principal. Data was then coded from the interviews to identify the concerns, opinions, and responses of the principals to the phenomenon of competition from online public schools. The principals consistently reported very few students have transferred to the online schools and half or more of those who transfer, return to the district school within a year. Students are attracted to the online schools when medical, emotional, behavioral, or social constraints make it difficult for the student to be successful in a traditional classroom. The principals do not believe the online charter experience is beneficial to students because they return to the district school without having made progress in the online charter. The principals are also concerned about the lack of socialization provided by online charters. The primary response to online charters is an attempt to accommodate student needs within the native school by providing online course delivery in-house.

Committee:

David R. Moore (Advisor); Greg Kessler (Committee Member); Phyllis Bernt (Committee Member); Teresa Franklin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Technology

Keywords:

principal; secondary school; education; online school; Appalachia; Ohio; charter school; ECOT; boomerang; rural; Diffusion of Innovation; escaper; embracer; school funding; phenomenology; community school; eschool; online;

Stanley , Wendy LAn Exploratory Case Study of How a Professional Learning Community is Being Implemented in an Elementary School from the Perspective of the Teachers
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Curriculum and Instruction
An Abstract of An Exploratory Case Study of How a Professional Learning Community is Implemented in an Elementary School from the Perspective of the Teachers by Wendy L. Stanley Submitted to the Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Curriculum and Instruction The University of Toledo May, 2017 The purpose of this qualitative research was to use a case study methodology to explore and describe in detail the process the teachers and support staff followed to implement a professional learning community in their elementary school. There has been little research on the how professional learning communities emerge and are implemented initially from an educators perspective. The three research questions that were addressed in this study were: (1) How do teachers describe their experiences as they transition from traditional professional development to a professional learning community, (2) What is the process the teachers and staff followed to implement the professional learning community model at Indian Trail Elementary School (ITES), (3) Does this process represent the conceptual framework for professional learning communities? The analysis of the teachers and support staffs’ experiences provides a deep and rich description of the journey the teachers and staff undertook during the transformation of the professional learning community in their school. It provides information on how the teachers and support staff embraced the concepts and practices, and launched a new professional learning community in their school with the entire staff. The main contribution of this study is the finding that the teachers and support staff were able to develop, implement, and transform their elementary school into a professional learning community through the use of three different resources: (1) the DuFour et al., professional learning community model, (2) the Solution Tree Conference, and (3) the summer course with a knowledgeable instructor.

Committee:

Leigh Chiarelott, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Templin, PhD (Committee Member); Edward Janak, PhD (Committee Member); Casey Reason, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Leadership; Teaching

Keywords:

Professional Learning Communities

Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Young, Cheryl DeniseEncountering the Emergence of Curiosity in a Sojourn Experience
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Institutions of higher education in the United States are undertaking strategies to comprehensively internationalize across all realms of the university. Embedded into institutional strategies is an expectation that a study abroad cultural immersion experience for undergraduates will increase their intercultural and global competence. One of the competencies identified as important to cultivate through the sojourner experience is curiosity. The object of this study is curiosity as an intercultural competence. The literature on curiosity as an intercultural competence is focused on a pre-conceived notion of curiosity, and from this arises a need to examine the manifestation of the phenomenon of curiosity in a sojourn experience to recognize it and subsequently understand through future research projects how it can be cultivated through intentionally designed curriculum and pedagogy. The question that guided this study is: What is the lived experience of human interpersonal curiosity as it manifests in an intercultural learning experience that takes students into an unfamiliar culture? This study was designed to examine undergraduate, American, study abroad students’ experiences of the phenomenon of curiosity during a cross-cultural study abroad experience, and to explore the essence of curiosity. Interviews with and observations of students in the pre- and post-study abroad phase, as well as during their sojourn experience, revealed that student curiosity is strongly influenced by teachers and cultivated by school enrichment programs. Intercultural wonderment encompasses student curiosity and involves a willingness to engage with the discomfort of the unknown. The discomfort of intercultural wonderment leads to a breakthrough in which the threshold concept of culture-as-meta-context propels the students into a transformed worldview. The currere method brought a richness of depth of the exploration to engage the students in reflecting on their educational experiences, as well as social media images and text. The narrative is framed through the researcher’s currere perspective which serves as a signpost throughout the exploration while moving it through hermeneutic circles framed in regressive, progressive, analytical, and synthetical steps.

Committee:

Thomas Poetter (Committee Chair); Denise Taliaferro Baszile (Committee Member); Joel Malin (Committee Member); James Shiveley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

curiosity; currere; study abroad

Schafer, Holly J.Searching for Superwoman: a Statewide Analysis on the Pay of Female High School Principals
Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership), Youngstown State University, 2018, Department of Counseling, School Psychology and Educational Leadership
Equal pay day was "celebrated" on April 4, 2017. However, it was hardly a celebration as defined in traditional terms. The day represents how many days since the beginning of the calendar year women essentially worked for free. Women of all races and across all occupations typically earn 80 cents to every one dollar that their male counterpart earns. A deeper dive into data shows that the disparity in wages is worse for African-American women (63 cents per dollar), Native American women (59 cents per dollar), and Latina women (52 cents per dollar). Teacher unions have worked hard to eliminate the wage gap; however, school administrators in Ohio are not union members, and as such, do not have the same protections against wage discrimination. This quantitative, causal-comparative study examines the relationship between gender and salary for Ohio public high school principals during the 2015-2016 school year. Additional research questions examine the impact level of education, ethnicity, and school typology have on salary in an attempt to address issues related to intersectionality. The results indicate that level of education, ethnicity, and school typology have a statistically significant impact on the salary of an Ohio public high school administrator. Specifically, the results indicate that women only represent one-fourth of the total population, the majority of women are working in the lowest paying school typology, and that future research should continue to investigate hidden factors in the existence of a real glass ceiling.

Committee:

Jane Beese, EdD (Advisor); Xin Liang, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Martin, PhD (Committee Member); Charles Vergon, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Gender; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Feminism; Intersectionality; Social network theory; Gender equality

Moulthrop, Dorothy RussoRetaining and Sustaining Mid-Career Teachers: The Middle Years Matter
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2018, Educational Studies
Teacher turnover is widely understood to be one of the most pressing challenges facing the American elementary and secondary education system. Studies indicate mid-career teacher attrition is a growing phenomenon in the United States. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of mid-career teachers with an aim toward understanding the factors that encourage them to stay in the profession and those that repel them from it. Using a qualitative research design, I employed a life history approach from a naturalistic inquiry and constructivist paradigm. I interviewed eight mid-career teachers, four who currently teach and four who left teaching at mid-career. Findings indicate there is a range of factors that influence teacher's career decisions. Some of these factors are particular to the individual and some are particular to the profession. While experience mitigates some of the challenges of being a beginning teacher, adverse working conditions present ongoing barriers to satisfaction. The mid-career teachers in this study who continued in the profession developed strategies to confront these barriers. Relationships are the key sustaining force for the participants in this study. For some, a sustaining force is their faith. Policies could better support teachers, so they could rely less on themselves, their families, their colleagues and their faith, and more on institutional and organizational structures. Further, education policy to stem mid-career teacher attrition needs to respond to the objective professional aspects of the job and not the personal ones. We will never be able to eliminate an individual's preference to stay or leave teaching, nor would we want to, but we can make schools and the profession more desirable places to work for teachers in the system and those considering becoming a part of it.

Committee:

Belinda Gimbert (Advisor); Antoinette Errante (Advisor); Ann Allen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

teacher retention; teacher attrition; mid-career teachers; mid-career teacher retention; teacher job satisfaction; life history research; qualitative study; education policy; career stages; working conditions; performativity

Hotmire, JessePrincipals' Role Perception and Implementation of Educational Reform
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Leadership Studies
A theme in education stems from comparing international students’ scores on standardized tests with sub-par American students’ scores. The gap between the scores of international students and American students has prompted educational reforms to be passed by state and federal legislatures in the United States. This study begins with an investigation in the A Nation at Risk report and includes No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Common Core, and the Every Student Succeeds Act. States and school districts across the United States have struggled with adapting these educational reforms over the last few decades. Therefore, research on educational leadership over the decades has provided insight into strategies educational leaders can utilize to successfully implement educational reform. Additionally, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) established the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (2015) to provide a set of updated standards for educational leaders. Often tasked with implementing educational reform, principals routinely bear the brunt of guiding the people in their buildings through the maze of changes. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to discover how six principals see their role and what those six principals do to implement educational reforms. The intended method of coding and data analysis is an existing method by Moustakas (1994). The research questions guiding the study are (1) What do principals from secondary schools in Northwest Ohio perceive to be their role as instructional leaders concerning the implementation of Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments? and (2) What leadership strategies do principals utilize to carry out implementation of Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments in their school environment? Themes from this study that revealed principals’ role perspective included their desire to practice distributed leadership and build relationships to foster a culture of collaboration. The emergent themes regarding leadership strategies included principals’ facilitation of teacher preparation and instruction to implement Ohio’s Learning Standards and assessments. Another major theme was challenges of rural high school principals. The implications for principals include to: maintain a positive attitude, search for solutions to challenges that predictably arise during times of change, utilize proven instructional leadership practices, and leverage their rural community characteristics to care for people. These qualities will help principals effectively lead their buildings through educational reforms.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor); Stephen Demuth (Other); Jamison Grime (Committee Member); Tracy Huziak-Clark (Committee Member); Paul Johnson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Instructional Leadership; Role Perception; Leadership Strategies; Principals; Educational Reform

Miser, Rachael SpikerA Phenomenological Study of Secondary Teachers' Experiences with Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2017, Educational Leadership
The study explored the experiences of seven effective high school teachers in assessing higher order thinking skills. For students to graduate an Ohio public school, they are to have the resources and skills to be college and career ready and according to the Ohio Learning Standards and developing higher order thinking is part of this mandate. Because of these demands, increased focus and attention is being directed to the development of knowledge beyond basic recall and rote memorization and towards deeper understanding, critical thinking, and problem solving. The methods used for this study were based on a qualitative phenomenological design that used a social constructivist framework and an ontological philosophical basis. Seven teachers from an Ohio secondary public-school district were the participants. Empirical data were collected through in-depth interviews and analysis of the data was through horizonalizing and finding themes, developing textural descriptions, and deriving meanings and essences. Twelve themes were constructed--internal classroom themes of defining higher order thinking, questioning, collaborative groups, problem and project based learning, demonstration of skills, instilling confidence, time; and external themes of administrators, professional development, teacher training, Common Core or Ohio Learning Standards, and collaboration with other teachers.

Committee:

Carolyn Ridenour (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

phenomenology; assessing; higher order thinking skills; experiences of secondary teachers

Amatullah, TasneemFemale Leadership Narratives in Higher Education in Qatar in the light of Islamic Leadership framework
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
The booming economic development and access to modern education are the key drivers that have recently changed the position of women in Qatari society. Research shows that increased motivation among women to pursue a career and enhance their skills and capabilities is helping the economy of all GCC nations. Despite the upcoming drastic increase in women's participation in the workforce, women still hold few leadership positions in the GCC. This study examines the experiences of women in educational leadership in Qatar in the field of higher education to further explore the ways they maneuver their leadership roles in the light of Islamic leadership theory and practice. Specifically, the intent was to understand the unique leadership narratives of three Qatari female leaders in higher education. To illuminate female leaders' experiences in Qatar, this study employs interpretivist narrative research methods. Interviews and meetings' observations helped construct detailed stories of leaders' lived experiences. While findings partially reiterated existing literature, this study shed light on several unique contributions to Muslim female leadership and embedding Islamic leadership in leadership roles resulting in implications for practice and research.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere (Committee Chair); Joel Malin (Committee Member); Brittany Aronson (Committee Member); Katherine Batchelor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Educational Leadership; Islamic Leadership; Female Leadership; Qatari Women Leadership; GCC Leadership; Higher Leadership

Li, YueSTEM Faculty Retention: Examining Gender Differences in Faculty Perceptions of Organizational and Professional Factors
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Educational Leadership
This quantitative study examined 1) the gender gaps in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty retention rates at two large, Midwestern, Research One universities; 2) the gender differences in STEM faculty’s perceptions of organizational and personal/professional factors, related to their retention outcomes; and 3) how faculty perceptions of organizational and personal/professional factors contributed to their actual retention at these two universities and what gender differences existed in modeling STEM faculty retention. Major findings included that 1) women STEM faculty, especially those hired initially as assistant professors, left the university at higher rates and stayed at the university for a shorter amount of time, compared to male faculty at the same rank; 2) male STEM faculty who departed held the least positive perceptions of their work life, male faculty who stayed had the most positive perceptions, while retained female held slightly less, negative views, than did departed males and females on most factors; 3) departed men and women faculty reported more positive perceptions of their self-efficacy and willingness to pursue leadership than did faculty who were retained; 4) retained female faculty held the most positive perceptions of departmental support for work-family balance among the four groups; 5) satisfaction served as a mediator between perceptions of organizational and personal/professional factors and retention outcomes for both female and male faculty; 6) a higher level of departmental support for work-family issues, less workplace incivility, and more positive attitudes about the university contributed to higher satisfaction, which in turn contributed to a greater likelihood of being retained at their universities for all faculty; 7) self-efficacy and willingness to pursue leadership had a significantly negative direct effect on retention for all faculty and for male faculty, but not for female faculty; 8) clarity and objectivity of departmental policies, respect, openness/transparency, and belief in university’s commitment to diversity had a significant effect on satisfaction for all faculty and for male, but not for female faculty; and 9) intersectionality among gender, race/ethnicity, and academic rank influenced certain aspects of faculty perceptions and retention outcomes. Policy implications included that university administrators should identify a specific set of leverage points to make policy and practice changes that are most likely to improve faculty retention outcomes. Institutional and departmental support for work-family balance should be implemented for all faculty across their life course. Institutions should provide local leadership opportunities to faculty in order to retain them at their institutions.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere (Committee Chair); Kathleen Knight Abowitz (Committee Member); Rose Marie Ward (Committee Member); Sarah Woodruff (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Female STEM Faculty Retention; Gender Differences; Factors Impact Faculty Retention; Faculty Perceptions; Work Environment; Survival Analysis; Structural Equation Modeling

Eicher, Michael D.The Influence of Leadership Style on Philanthropy and Fundraising in Three Independent Appalachian Schools
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2017, Educational Administration (Education)
This multiple-methods study explored the influence that leadership style has on philanthropy and fundraising, and investigated how behaviors and characteristics associated with leadership style promote successful fundraising in three P-12 independent schools. Research was conducted via a multiple-methods design in which qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Initially, qualitative interviews were conducted with the head of school, the director of development, and a major donor to the respective school. Subsequently, quantitative data were collected using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire for a more complete understanding of each head of schools’ unique leadership style. Findings revealed that heads of school utilize both transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and characteristics. Additionally, results indicated that the ability of independent heads of schools to delegate leadership tasks, thereby utilizing a distributive leadership approach in addition to transactional and transformational leadership achieved maximum success in their fundraising efforts.

Committee:

Charles Lowery (Committee Chair); Krisanna Machtmes (Committee Member); Leonard Allen (Committee Member); Renee Middleton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Annual fund; Capital campaign; Charter School; Director of development; Distributive leadership; Fundraising; Transactional Leadership; Transformational Leadership; Philanthropy; Successful Campaign Funding; Independent School

Ressa, Virginia A.A Tale of Two Policies: The Role of a Teacher-Based Team in School Reform
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Policy and Leadership
In the school policy reform discourse and literature, “teacher teams” at the local school and building level have become a promising venue for implementing policy innovations and bringing them closer to the settings and practices they hope to reform. This study examined the implementation of two policies, one federal policy, Race to the Top (RttT), and one state policy, Midwestern State Improvement Process (pseudonym; MWIP), within a single teacher team. Both policies emphasized teacher collaboration and improved instruction, and converged on teachers at Cardinal High School at the same time. Utilizing naturalistic inquiry and ethnographic field work, the study documented the work of a teacher-based team working to make sense of and enact the requirements and expectations of mandated policies from within the practical and professional contingencies of their daily work. This intersection is the focus of the study and its findings. These implementations of policy encounter in this teacher team a world whose contingencies may be no less compelling than those of the proposed reforms. The study revealed social, organizational, and professional values in play at the teacher team level that policymakers may not have anticipated, as in how teachers rely on existing systems and professional relationships to make sense of their new implementation tasks at the teacher-team level.

Committee:

Douglas Macbeth (Advisor); Allen Ann (Committee Member); Gimbert Belinda (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

teacher-based team; federal education policy; state education policy; case study; policy implementation; education reform; teacher teams; improvement processes

Reiser, David A.An impact analysis of computer assisted instruction on the reading skills of students with disabilities.
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2018, College of Education
This quantitative, quasi-experimental research study was designed to determine the impact of a computer assisted reading instruction program on the fluency rates and comprehension skills of third and fourth grade students with reading disabilities at an Ohio suburban-metropolitan elementary school. Pretests established the participants' baseline reading skills. The participants' reading progress was monitored, during twenty-week baseline and intervention periods, with weekly measures of fluency and comprehension. Posttests measured the intervention program's impact on the participants' fluency rates and comprehension skills. Results were evaluated through visual analyses of experimental data graphs and by conducting time series matched pair t confidence interval tests to determine the reading intervention program's impact on the participants' reading skills, as measured by AIMSweb reading fluency probes, STAR reading comprehension tests, and Woodcock Johnson IV tests of reading achievement. The study provided two potential benefits for participants, improved reading fluency rates and comprehension skills, and increased value-added measures of student performance on Ohio's Common Core State Standards tests; and a third unintended benefit, improved school district's and teachers' value-added evaluation scores on the Ohio State Report Card.

Committee:

Judy Alston, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Harold Wilson, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Constance Savage, Ph.D. (Committee Member); James Olive, Ph.D. (Other); Donna Breault, Ph.D. (Other); John Moser, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology; Special Education

Keywords:

teacher leadership; special education; single subject research; action research; students with disabilities; computer assisted instruction; specialized instruction; Individual Education Program; IEP; reading intervention; reading instruction

Mitova, Mariana A.Relationship Between Investments in Self and Post-Graduation Career Satisfaction Among Apparel and Textiles Majors
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
Rachel Vannatta Reinhart, Advisor The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore the relationship between investments that students make in themselves while enrolled in a higher education program and their post-graduation career satisfaction, and (2) to gather information about the importance apparel and textile professionals place on selected competencies identified by the International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA). Graduates (n=123) of an apparel and textiles (A&T) program at a four-year, public research institution were surveyed to examine which investments in self best predict post-graduation career satisfaction. The Survey of A&T Graduates’ Career Satisfaction consisted of 86 items measuring perceived importance and preparation of the ITAA meta-goals and competencies, career satisfaction, co-curricular activity involvement, on-the-job training, health and well-being, career competencies, and willingness to relocate. Multiple regression showed that Career Competencies and Health and Well-being best predicted participants’ post-graduation career satisfaction. Participants rated the Professional Development meta-goal; the Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal; and Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goal of highest importance. These same meta-goals received highest perceived preparation ratings. Lastly, ANOVA findings revealed that buyers, retail managers, marketing professionals and others indicated differences in perceptions of competencies and meta-goals. The buyers/merchandisers rated the Industry Processes and the Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goals of higher importance than retail managers. Retail managers perceived the Global Interdependence meta-goal as less important than marketing professionals did. The Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal was perceived more important by retail managers than “others” category did. Graduates’ career satisfaction differed mostly by Income levels. Those who reported earning lower salaries were overall less satisfied with their careers. Results suggest that current leaders of apparel and textile programs should enhance their curricula with pedagogy methods that facilitate learning of teamwork, leadership, clear communication, ethics, and social responsibilities. Internships and experiential learning are recommended to enhance the on-the-job training of students in A&T programs. In addition, all investments in self, with exception of Willingness to Relocate, are related to Career Satisfaction. Lastly, Post-graduation career satisfaction is best predicted by graduates’ Career Competencies and Health and Well-being.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Gregory Rich (Other); Barbara Frazier (Committee Member); Joyce Litten (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Home Economics; Home Economics Education; Mental Health

Keywords:

Higher Education; College; Well-being; Health; Students; Career Satisfaction; Apparel; Textiles; Internships; ITAA; Graduates; Professionals; On-the-job Training; Internships; Curriculum; HCT; Human Capital Theory; economic theory; assessment

Elam, Nicholas PTHE IMPACT OF THE OHIO TEACHER EVALUATION SYSTEM ON PRINCIPALS’ APPROACHES AND PERCEPTIONS TOWARD EVALUATION
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
In 2012-2013, Ohio introduced a teacher evaluation system that replaced many district-created systems. The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) incorporates quantitative student achievement data to a greater extent, a greater number of ratings classifications, more tangible consequences for teachers, requires a more extensive time commitment for evaluators, and relies more heavily on widespread uniform interpretation and implementation than most of its predecessors. This mixed-methods study investigates the ways in which OTES has reshaped principals’ approaches and perceptions toward evaluation. Quantitative data, from three years of OTES evaluations, does not indicate that principals’ evaluation ratings are influenced significantly by either of two policies unique to OTES – one policy that allows principals access to some (and only some) teachers’ quantitative ratings well in advance of submitting a qualitative rating, and another policy that allows highly-rated teachers to be evaluated less frequently in subsequent years. Qualitative data, from interviews with principals, reveal mixed perceptions about OTES’ ability to improve teacher practice and accurately reflect individual teacher effectiveness.

Committee:

Andrew Saultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Thomas Poetter, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Evans, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kate Rousmaniere, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Ohio Teacher Evaluation System

Zhan, XiDevelopment and Analysis of Two Instruments: The Shared Instructional Leadership Scale (SILS) and the Instructional Program Coherence Scale (IPCS)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Educational Studies
This dissertation is a collection of three manuscripts that report findings of studies on shared instructional leadership and instructional program coherence, two concepts that have been linked to high quality instructional practices, teacher collaboration, and student achievement. Shared instructional leadership means that the principal, teachers and other staff collaboratively exercise leadership on instructional issues. Instructional program coherence refers to a continually developing common framework that coordinates all instructional initiatives. I administered the seven-item (SILS) and ten-item (IPCS) questionnaires to teachers in public secondary schools in a Midwestern state and used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the two measures. Cronbach’s alpha and Guttman Split-Half Coefficient were used to test their internal consistency. In the first study, results confirmed a unidimensional factor structure for SILS with good internal consistency (.97). In the second study, results confirmed a unidimensional factor structure for IPCS with good internal consistency (.96). In the third study, results indicated that IPCS explains most of the between-school variation of SILS in a multi-level model where IPCS is used as a predictor. The three studies coherently point to the importance of systematic leadership. Collaborative undertaking of instructional leadership responsibilities and the implication of a common instructional framework tend to coexist in secondary schools.

Committee:

Anika Anthony (Advisor); Roger Goddard (Committee Member); Karen Beard (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Hottenstein, Kristi NA Qualitative Case Study on Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation at One Council on Undergraduate Research Institution.
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Higher Education
Regulations for research involving human subjects in higher education have long been a critical issue. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an IRB. Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the literature on the benefits of undergraduate research to students, faculty, and institutions, how human subject research public policy is being implemented at the undergraduate level was a significant gap in the literature. This qualitative single case study examined the human subject research policies and practices of a selective, Mid-western, Council on Undergraduate Research institution. The purpose of the study was to determine how this institution implemented human subject research public policy to benefit its students. This institution used a hybrid approach of public policy implementation that met federal requirements while capitalizing on the role local actors can play in the implementation process. This model resulted in a student friendly implementation emphasizing various learning outcomes and student mentoring. Although there is considerable research and public discussion on the negative aspects of IRBs, if approached in a manner that embraces student learning, the IRB experience can be an extremely beneficial aspect of the institution’s learning environment.

Committee:

David Meabon (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education Administration; Operations Research; Organization Theory; Social Research

Keywords:

IRB; institutional review board; CUR; council on undergraduate research; undergraduate research; UR; public policy; implementation; human subject research; implementation theory; hybrid theories; student mentoring; benefits of undergraduate research

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