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Prasad, VanditaDesigning and Implementing an Evaluability Assessment of a Career-Technical Education Program as the First Step towards Validating Program Effectiveness: A Case Study of Toledo Technology Academy
Doctor of Education, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Administration and Supervision
Career Technology Education (CTE) program evaluations have been mostly completed for compliance and monitoring purposes. Hence, they have limited use in establishing program effectiveness or for program improvement. Moreover, engaging in program evaluations can be time consuming and costly, especially for programs that have not been evaluated in the past. In these situations, it is recommended that a determination of program readiness for an evaluation be conducted first through an evaluability assessment (EA). This study demonstrated how an EA could be conducted. The purpose of this study was to implement an EA of a local CTE program to determine if and to what extent the program had the systems in place that would generate formal evidence of its effectiveness as well as inform the program improvement process. This study was designed as a case study, targeting a specific CTE program - Toledo Technology Academy, a 7-12 Toledo Public School that prepares students in the area of Engineering and Sciences Technologies. The study methodology used the 5-task EA model outlined in the Evaluability Assessment: Examining the Readiness of a Program for Evaluation developed by the Juvenile Justice Evaluation Center (2003). Task 1 and 2 were conducted to understand program history, design, and implementation. Task 3 looked at the program’s capacity for data collection, management, and analysis. Task 4 assessed the overall likelihood of TTA’s program in attaining its goals and objectives. Finally, Task 5 analyzed TTA program’s capacity for data collection, management, and analysis to determine if the collected data were useful in determining program effectiveness and improvement. For Tasks 4 and 5, first, specific EA rubrics were designed and then applied to the program. For Task 5, the rubrics were created for three of the 10 standards listed on the Ohio’s Quality Program Standards for Career Technical Programs (2016). The findings indicated that the TTA program had a formal design and was implemented as designed. Overall the program collected an abundance of data, but data analysis was very minimal. Furthermore, TTA was highly likely to achieve its goals and objectives. However, the study revealed that though TTA data collection was adequate in some areas, it needed some or major improvement in others. The study produced numerous recommendations for the TTA program. It also made a significant methodological contribution (especially in the field of CTE evaluation) by presenting a detailed methodology for conducting an EA with simple steps that could be used by a CTE administrator.

Committee:

Svetlana Beltyukova (Committee Co-Chair); Randy Vesely (Committee Co-Chair); Nancy Staub (Committee Member); Gale Mentzer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Secondary Education; Vocational Education

Keywords:

evaluability assessment, career-technical education, program, evaluation, case-study

Grugan, Cecilia SpencerDisability Resource Specialists’ Capacity to Adopt Principles and Implement Practices that Qualify as Universal Design at a 4-Year Public Institution
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2018, Educational Leadership
Due to the continuous growth of diverse student bodies on college campuses, creating accessibility for each unique student needs to be considered. Students who have a disability or disabilities are a substantial part of this growing diverse student body. Since disability resource specialists play a significant role in creating accessibility for such students, they can consider implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore where disability resource specialists fall on Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change and Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise in regards to implementing practices that qualify as Universal Design. Six participants were included in this study out of eight who were invited to participate. Out of those six participants, the study showed that all participants demonstrated a strong presence in the Unfreezing stage of Lewin’s (1951) continuum of change. Also, the study showed that all participants showed a level of knowledge as the second tier to Reynold’s (2009) levels of expertise. Limitations as well as recommendations for future research included recruiting a larger sample of participants to provide greater analysis of the study.

Committee:

Carol Patitu, Ph.D. (Advisor); Suzanne Franco, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Stephanie Krah, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Community College Education; Community Colleges; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Engineering; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Instructional Design; Intellectual Property; Labor Relations; Management; Mass Communications; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Occupational Health; Occupational Therapy; Personal Relationships; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Public Policy; Reading Instruction; Recreation; Rehabilitation; Robotics; Robots; School Administration; Secondary Education; Special Education; Speech Therapy; Systems Design; Teacher Education; Transportation

Keywords:

Universal Design; Accommodations; Accessibility; Organizational Change; Proactive Practices; Disability; Disability Resource Specialists; Disability Services; Higher Education; Student Affairs

Mitova, Mariana A.Relationship Between Investments in Self and Post-Graduation Career Satisfaction Among Apparel and Textiles Majors
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
Rachel Vannatta Reinhart, Advisor The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore the relationship between investments that students make in themselves while enrolled in a higher education program and their post-graduation career satisfaction, and (2) to gather information about the importance apparel and textile professionals place on selected competencies identified by the International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA). Graduates (n=123) of an apparel and textiles (A&T) program at a four-year, public research institution were surveyed to examine which investments in self best predict post-graduation career satisfaction. The Survey of A&T Graduates’ Career Satisfaction consisted of 86 items measuring perceived importance and preparation of the ITAA meta-goals and competencies, career satisfaction, co-curricular activity involvement, on-the-job training, health and well-being, career competencies, and willingness to relocate. Multiple regression showed that Career Competencies and Health and Well-being best predicted participants’ post-graduation career satisfaction. Participants rated the Professional Development meta-goal; the Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal; and Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goal of highest importance. These same meta-goals received highest perceived preparation ratings. Lastly, ANOVA findings revealed that buyers, retail managers, marketing professionals and others indicated differences in perceptions of competencies and meta-goals. The buyers/merchandisers rated the Industry Processes and the Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goals of higher importance than retail managers. Retail managers perceived the Global Interdependence meta-goal as less important than marketing professionals did. The Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal was perceived more important by retail managers than “others” category did. Graduates’ career satisfaction differed mostly by Income levels. Those who reported earning lower salaries were overall less satisfied with their careers. Results suggest that current leaders of apparel and textile programs should enhance their curricula with pedagogy methods that facilitate learning of teamwork, leadership, clear communication, ethics, and social responsibilities. Internships and experiential learning are recommended to enhance the on-the-job training of students in A&T programs. In addition, all investments in self, with exception of Willingness to Relocate, are related to Career Satisfaction. Lastly, Post-graduation career satisfaction is best predicted by graduates’ Career Competencies and Health and Well-being.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Gregory Rich (Other); Barbara Frazier (Committee Member); Joyce Litten (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Home Economics; Home Economics Education; Mental Health

Keywords:

Higher Education; College; Well-being; Health; Students; Career Satisfaction; Apparel; Textiles; Internships; ITAA; Graduates; Professionals; On-the-job Training; Internships; Curriculum; HCT; Human Capital Theory; economic theory; assessment

Elam, Nicholas PTHE IMPACT OF THE OHIO TEACHER EVALUATION SYSTEM ON PRINCIPALS’ APPROACHES AND PERCEPTIONS TOWARD EVALUATION
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
In 2012-2013, Ohio introduced a teacher evaluation system that replaced many district-created systems. The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) incorporates quantitative student achievement data to a greater extent, a greater number of ratings classifications, more tangible consequences for teachers, requires a more extensive time commitment for evaluators, and relies more heavily on widespread uniform interpretation and implementation than most of its predecessors. This mixed-methods study investigates the ways in which OTES has reshaped principals’ approaches and perceptions toward evaluation. Quantitative data, from three years of OTES evaluations, does not indicate that principals’ evaluation ratings are influenced significantly by either of two policies unique to OTES – one policy that allows principals access to some (and only some) teachers’ quantitative ratings well in advance of submitting a qualitative rating, and another policy that allows highly-rated teachers to be evaluated less frequently in subsequent years. Qualitative data, from interviews with principals, reveal mixed perceptions about OTES’ ability to improve teacher practice and accurately reflect individual teacher effectiveness.

Committee:

Andrew Saultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Thomas Poetter, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Evans, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kate Rousmaniere, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Ohio Teacher Evaluation System

Brind'Amour, KatherineMaternal and Child Health Home Visiting Evaluations Using Large, Pre-Existing Data Sets
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Health Services Management and Policy
Introduction: Although popular and prevalent nationwide, maternal and early childhood home visiting interventions are, in many cases, of uncertain effectiveness. Methods: For Studies 1 and 2, the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) Columbus, Ohio location was evaluated via propensity score matching with non-participants for its impact on a range of health outcomes. For Study 3, the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) was used to create a nationally representative profile of the home visiting population using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. Results: In Studies 1 and 2, matching revealed greater likelihood to have a C-section, low birth weight, and to be enrolled in WIC for women and infants participating in the Columbus NFP compared to non-participating matches. In Study 3, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis indicated substantial differences between participants and non-participants. Conclusions: There is no conclusive evidence that the Columbus NFP program is effective at achieving its stated goals; however, the studies’ limitations were considerable. The national profile created using the NSCH supports that there are substantial differences between participants and non-participants, with home visiting participants reflecting greater health and environmental risks and lower socioeconomic status, but perhaps better parental engagement. Improved data collection and evaluation methods, as well as confirmatory factor analysis and changes in questions for the NSCH data, may help improve opportunities for home visiting evaluation in the future.

Committee:

Thomas Wickizer (Committee Chair); Phyllis Pirie (Committee Member); Sharon Schweikhart (Committee Member); Sarah Keim (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Families and Family Life; Health; Health Care Management; Health Education; Nursing; Public Administration; Public Health; Public Health Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

home visiting; prenatal intervention; home health; program evaluation; public health; maternal and infant health; MIECHV; Nurse Family Partnership; National Survey of Childrens Health; propensity score; factor analysis

Meyers, Timothy WalterThe Relationship between Socioeconomic Status (SES) and the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses: Comparing SES indicators in Mediated and Moderated Logistic Regression
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
Passing the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) is required for a graduate of an accredited nursing program to practice nursing. The current study investigated first time student success on the NCLEX-RN, which is the examination used to grant licensure to Registered Nurses (RNs) after graduation from an accredited institution such as a school or a college of nursing. Universities, colleges, faculty, students, parents, healthcare employers, the National Council of States Boards of Nursing (NCSBN), and society in general have a vested interest in the success of nursing students on the NCLEX-RN. It is imperative that nurses are properly prepared and competent in providing safe and reliable healthcare services. Failure to pass the NCLEX-RN prevents practice as an RN, resulting in potential financial hardship, professional embarrassment, and a continued shortage of qualified RNs. Existing data from nursing students at a large, Midwestern university were analyzed. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Socioeconomic Status (SES), the ACT, and the NCLEX-RN. Through moderation and mediation logistic regression models, the above relationships were investigated. Additionally, Conditional Process Analysis was used to gain a more in-depth understanding of the complexity of the relationship between SES, ACT, and the NCLEX-RN. Proxies of SES were explored, which included: (1) Pell Grant Eligibility, (2) Student Race, (3) College Generation (i.e., first-generation or non first-generation), and (4) Zip Code.

Committee:

Aryn Karpinski, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jian Li, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Curtis Good, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Nursing; Statistics

Keywords:

Socioeconomic Status; National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses; NCLEX RN; SES; Mediation; Moderation; Moderated Mediation; Conditional Process Analysis

Powers, Chris J.School Psychology Training in Traumatic Brain Injury Assessment: Current Practices in Graduate Programs
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2015, School Psychology
There is an identified need for more training and education in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI) assessment; as such, it is necessary to examine how it is currently being addressed in school psychology graduate preparation programs. The present research study addressed the gap in current research regarding how TBI assessment is taught in school psychology graduate programs by gaining in-depth, qualitative information from current practitioners. Nine participants were interviewed to gain insight into their experience with TBI training in their graduate programs. The results provide insight into the current training models of graduate programs and feedback from early career professionals. Suggestions are made for school psychology graduate programs and for possible future research.

Committee:

Susan Davies, Ed.D (Committee Chair); Elana Bernstein, Ph.D (Committee Member); Bobbie Fiori, Ed.S (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Higher Education; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

School Psychology; Traumatic Brain Injury; Concussion; Assessment; Graduate Training; Graduate School

Beausoleil, Kent AlanTransforming Lives: Attending to the Spirit of College Students from Dysfunctional and/or Abusive Young Adult Formational Experiences
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
Despite the prevalence of college students who have been a victim of abuse and/or complex dysfunctional experiences, higher education typically ignores the spiritual life of its students in regards to treating the effects of abuse and/or dysfunction. This study examines efforts at four Jesuit universities to offer spiritual programs that attend to the spirit of this particular group of students. The purpose of this phenomenologically grounded research is to understand the nature of the relationship between the practice of Ignatian (Catholic/Christian) spiritual direction and growth toward spiritual intelligence of college-age students and recent college graduates. Participants in this study came from physically, sexually, and/or emotionally abusive homes, dysfunctional childhood experiences, or challenging young adult formational experiences. Each participant was also engaged in Ignatian spiritual direction and Ignatian spiritual programming at the Jesuit universities they attended. This study examined the life stories of sixteen upper class college students and/or recent college graduates. Each participant was interviewed twice in an open conversational style for a total of thirty-two interviews. The aim of the research was to develop a richer understanding of the impact of Ignatian spiritual direction in light of the effects of their formational experiences. The research questioned whether or not engaging in this particular type of spiritual programming made a significant, positive impact in participants’ spiritual development and growth toward spiritual intelligence. The findings of this research revealed that Ignatian spiritual direction did indeed lead to developmental growth toward spiritual intelligence for participants along sixteen key spiritual intelligence indicators. Participants experienced these spiritual indicators as a progressive movement that fostered interpersonal healing and wholeness, healthier ways of being and relating to others, and a more positive outlook toward their future as spiritual leaders. This research further demonstrated that attending to college students’ spirit is an important part of their overall holistic development and spiritual intelligence growth.

Committee:

Judy Rogers, PhD (Advisor); Elisa Abes, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Goodman, PhD (Committee Member); M. Elise Radina, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Pastoral Counseling; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

Spirituality, Ignatian, Jesuit, Society of Jesus, Spiritual Direction, Spiritual Intelligence, Abuse, Dysfunction, Higher Education, Holistic, Student Development, Phenomenology, Qualitative, College Student

Dwyer, Kathleen MarieA Study of the Impact of Funding on Growth and Development of Selected School and Colleges of Allied Health
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1983, EDU Teaching and Learning

Committee:

Kathryn T. Schoen (Advisor); Clair A. Johnson (Committee Member); Robert R. Bargar (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Kaburu, GilbertTeaching for Social Justice in Northern Uganda: The Case of Mission Girl's School.
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Over a decade since the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) and the initiation of Education for All (EFA), access to quality education continues to be a social justice concern for educationists and other stakeholders in Uganda. And while the Uganda government considers social justice a key objective of basic education, there is little research that examines what this means in classroom practices. Further, research on educational development in Uganda is often presented using large-scale quantitative comparative data, leaving a void of in-depth qualitative research about how teachers perceive and negotiate social justice in their classrooms. This two year critical ethnographic study fills that void by focusing on the perceptions and practices of twelve primary school educators at a girls’ school in northern Uganda, with education stakeholders in the community as a secondary source. The study employed a critical theoretical framework and relied on narrative interviews, classroom observations and documents to highlight the voices of the teachers and examine how they apply social justice. The findings indicate that rather than approach social justice through an inductive idealistic lens, participants’ perceptions of social justice were grounded in the deductive realm and they understood social justice through a realist lens using concrete experiences of social injustices social injustices at the societal, professional and classroom level. Further, their application of social justice beliefs in their pedagogical practices was more subtle and complex, and mediated by the social and economic conditions in which they lived and worked. Conclusively, any initiatives on quality education and social justice need to address the complex nature of educational policy implementation, include teachers’ voices and consider the social and material conditions that are contextually grounded and perpetuate injustice.

Committee:

Cynthia Tyson (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Studies; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Elementary Education; Social Research

Keywords:

universal primary education; teaching and learning; social justice; Sub Saharan Africa

Davis, Tanya S.The Ohio Achievement Assessment and Deaf / Hearing Impaired Students: Have They Been Left Behind?
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Allied Health Sciences: Communication Sciences and Disorders
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine Ohio Achievement Assessment data in the content areas of Reading, Science and Social Studies between the years of 2004-2010) to determine whether an achievement gap exists within the disability category of Deaf /Hearing Impaired; 2) to determine whether the trends present in the data of normal hearing students were also present in the data of students who are Deaf/ Hearing Impaired, and 3) to determine what impact No Child Left Behind has had on student performance.

Committee:

Jo-Anne Prendeville, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); James Basham, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lisa Cahill, Ph.D. (Committee Member); John Clark, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Wilcox Kretschmer, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Keywords:

achievement gap;ohio achievement assessment;no child left behind;deaf; hearing impaired students;reading across the content;

Hibbard, Laura E.Student Literature Access in an Online School: A Program Evaluation
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Instructional Technology (Education)
School libraries have historically served an important role in students' access to quality literature. Students who attend schools virtually, or through online schools, are typically not afforded the luxury of borrowing books from classroom libraries or through school libraries. Many students who attend online schools are economically-disadvantaged and access their education through school-provided computers and internet access. Impoverished students often have a lack of literature in their homes and rely on school libraries to fulfill the need. This study, a program evaluation, followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a school library system, replete with both physical books and ebooks. A mixed methods approach was taken, utilizing data from teacher and administrator focus groups, student and parent interviews, student and parent surveys, library use records, and students' DIBELS, or oral reading fluency scores. It was found that stakeholders were generally pleased with the libraries and asked for more books and additional genres, such as graphic novels and historical fiction. Stakeholders cited the main goal of the library being to "get books into the hands of the students." The library in the school study lacked a true leader though, and communication suffered. Teachers requested that Library be considered a special, in ways similar to how physical education and computer classes were offered, primarily to help lure reluctant readers to use the resources. It was found that students who accessed the libraries most were those who were already motivated readers. Stakeholders requested that the school consider purchasing mobile digital reading devices so that reading ebooks would be easier for the students than reading on their desktop computers. Conclusions were that it is an essential role for online schools to provide students access to literature. To empower students to fully access library resources, a strong librarian is needed to serve as an instructional partner, an information specialist, a teacher, and a program administrator, following the recommendation of the American Association of School Librarians. The final conclusion was that ebooks can be a valuable literature resource for online schools, but that students report fatigue and difficulty reading from desktop computers, thus hampering reading motivation.

Committee:

Teresa Franklin, PhD (Committee Chair); David Moore, PhD (Committee Member); John Hitchcock, PhD (Committee Member); Gregory Janson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Technology; Elementary Education; Library Science; Literacy; Literature; Middle School Education; Reading Instruction; Secondary Education; Teaching

Keywords:

online; education; virtual; eschool; distance learning; elementary; library; school; economically disadvantaged; low-income; reading; web-based

Watts, Rebecca L.An Exploration of Community College Transfer Alumni Perceptions of their Undergraduate Experiences and Subsequent Alumni Affinity
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Higher Education (Education)
The study explored transfer alumni perceptions of their community college and university experiences, their alumni affinity as measured by the frequency of alumni engagement with each institution, and what motivates that engagement. Study participants rated their university experiences more positively than those at their community college and reported engaging in more alumni activities with their university than their community college. Based on the findings, recommendations for practitioners include enhanced documentation and communication of the learning and development outcomes gained through the community college experience, increased university support services for transfer students, and increased community college outreach efforts with alumni.

Committee:

Henning John, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Young Robert, Ph.D. (Advisor); Horton David, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brooks Gordon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Descutner David, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Theory; Higher Education

Keywords:

transfer student; community college student; transfer alumni; alumni affinity; student satisfaction; student development; residential student; non-residential campus; at-risk college students; community college alumni outreach; university alumni outreach

Golsan, Kathryn B.Assessment of Embedding Peer Tutors in the Basic Communication Course: Examining Student Engagement, Classroom Climate, Affective Learning, and Communication Competence
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Communication and Information / School of Communication Studies
Recent instructional research has suggested that students have expressed their need to be actively and emotionally engaged in the classroom. Student engagement decreases student attrition and increases student retention. Instructors who promote positive communication and facilitate relationship developments in the classroom influence positive classroom climates, which helps satisfy the social and emotional needs of students. Although student-centered instructors can satisfy these needs, the instructor-student ratio in the classroom may keep some students invisible, therefore, potentially unengaged. Instructional methods have begun to recognize the relational and individualized communication potential of peer learning, specifically peer tutoring. Moreover, peer learning engages students through observational and vicarious learning experiences of positive student models. This project explores the inclusion of peer tutors as positive student models embedded within the communication basic course and the potential affects this may have on student engagement, classroom climate, affective learning, and communication competence.

Committee:

Jeffrey T. Child, PhD (Advisor); Paul M. Haridakis, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer L. McCullough, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Evaluation; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Pedagogy; Personal Relationships; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Student-Teacher Relationships; Communication Basic Course; Peer Tutoring; Peer Modeling; Personalized System of Instruction; Individualized Communication; Student Engagement; Classroom Climate; Affective Learning; Communication Competence

Davis, Christen R.The Effect of a Computerized, Cognitive Intervention on the Working Memory and Mathematical Skill Performance of Inner-City Children
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2012, Educational Psychology
This study examines the effectiveness of a computerized, cognitive intervention on the working memory capacity and mathematical performance of elementary students from an urban school. Working memory and mathematics performance were measured using two subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (Wechsler, 2003), the Calculation subtest from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery – Third Edition (Woodcock, McGrew & Mather, 2001), and the Math Concepts and Applications (MCAP) and Math Calculation (MCBM) assessments from AIMSweb®. Results were analyzed using a paired samples t-tests to evaluate if working memory and mathematics performance scores significantly increased after the cognitive intervention. Results reflected significant differences in working memory capacity and mathematical performance after the intervention. Implications of these results, future research directions, and tips for using cognitive interventions within an RTI framework are discussed.

Committee:

Michael Woodin, PhD (Committee Chair); Raymond Witte, PhD (Committee Member); Iris Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Jane Bogan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Software; Educational Tests and Measurements; Mathematics Education; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Cognitive Intervention; Working Memory; Math Skill; Cogmed

Li, YanjuItem Discrimination and Type I Error Rates in DIF Detection Using the Mantel-Haenszel and Logistic Regression Procedures
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2012, Educational Research and Evaluation (Education)

The inflation of Type I error rates can have damaging effects in DIF identification. This study primarily aimed to examine the performance of the Type I error rates in DIF analysis when using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and logistic regression (LR) procedures by simulating data based on two-parameter logistic (2PL) and three-parameter logistic (3PL) item response theory (IRT) models. Specifically, the focus of this study was to explore how item discrimination parameters affect the Type I error rates in both MH and LR procedures when other influencing factors such as, sample size, group mean difference, and matching method were manipulated. Several Monte Carlo simulation studies were conducted. The patterns of the false rejection rates under various conditions were displayed and the effects of influencing factors were evaluated.

The findings suggested that under thin matching, a small range of discrimination parameters for all items resulted in very little Type I error rate inflation for both MH and LR procedures, even with large sample sizes and large group mean differences. The results also indicated that when all items have relatively high discrimination parameters, there is less Type I error inflation regardless of the range of discrimination parameters for all items when using thin matching and deciles thick matching. Additionally, for the condition where the non-studied items did not include weak items, the false rejection rates were controlled fairly well when the studied item had a relatively larger discrimination value. When data were generated with a 3PL IRT model, the results confirmed that guessing was a nuisance determinant on the inflation of Type I error rates. This study also concluded that thin matching was preferable in controlling Type I error rates, deciles thick matching was acceptable in most circumstances, and quintiles thick matching was poor.

Committee:

Gordon Brooks (Committee Chair); Valerie Conley (Committee Member); George Johanson (Committee Member); Adah Ward Randolph (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Tests and Measurements

Keywords:

Differential Item Functioning;Item Discrimination;Logistic Regression Procedure;Mantel-Haenszel Procedure;Type I Error

Bissett, Rachel L.An Assessment of the Research Chefs Association's Core Competencies for Practicing Culinologists
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Food and Nutrition (Health and Human Services)

Professional organizations have linked core competencies to professional success and competitive strategy. The Research Chefs Association (RCA) recently released 43 core competencies for practicing Culinologist. Culinology® is a profession that links skills of culinary arts and food science and technology in the development of food products.

A mixed method quantitative/qualitative study was performed. The qualitative portion aimed to understand what RCA members know about the state of the RCA membership, the new Culinology® core competencies, and the best way to assess the knowledge of each competency. Three focus groups were conducted at the 2007 RCA Annual Conference and Culinology® Expo. Participants (n = 20) from all six membership categories attended. RCA members agreed that there was benefit to a competency assessment and were confident that the results may have the potential to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of RCA members, which ultimately benefits members, employers, and the entire industry.

An online survey was created asking RCA members from all six membership categories to rate their knowledge level based on a seven point scale and agreement to importance in job performance based on a 5-point Likert Scale for each competency statement. RCA participant's (N=192) survey results were analyzed using SPSS for Windows v.13 at (alpha = 0.05). Statistical survey validation grouped all 43 competency statements into eight factors according to level of competency proficiency (opposed to the seven groups each competency was originally designated by the RCA) and into nine factors according to job success.

Results suggest that Chef Members know “Culinary Arts” best, FST members know “Food Science” best, and Culinology® members perceive their knowledge level between that of the Chef and FST members. Significant (alpha = .01) correlations between the knowledge of and importance to job success factors indicated positive relationships between factors within each set. An opportunity exists to better define RCA defined membership categories and improve educational efforts for specific membership categories.

Committee:

Robert G. Brannan, PhD (Advisor); Fang Meng, PhD (Committee Member); George Johanson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Food Science

Keywords:

Research Chefs Association; Competency Assessment; Factor Analysis; Focus Group; Professional Competency

Tamanini, Kevin B.Evaluating Differential Rater Functioning in Performance Ratings: Using a Goal-Based Approach
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Measuring performance in the workplace is an endeavor that has been the central focus of many applied researchers and practitioners. Due to the limited information that objective data provides to decision makers, subjective data are often used to supplement performance ratings. Unfortunately subjective ratings can be biased. Indeed, rating errors frequently bias ratings and have plagued performance evaluations. Much of the performance appraisal (PA) research has focused on ways of eliminating, detecting, or controlling these rater errors. The results from these areas are mixed and insufficient in providing insights and understanding about how to deal with rater errors.

This research extends and tests a technique called differential person functioning (DPF; Johanson and Alsmadi, 2002) to the detection of rater bias (specifically leniency/severity) during a performance evaluation, as well as test a goal-based approach for performance evaluations. The DPF technique is used to identify the responses for a given individual that are different for different groups of items. The goal-based approach proposes that individuals’ pursuit of different goals is what leads to different ratings. Two studies were conducted to examine these phenomena.

The first study was a pilot study to refine the materials and manipulations that were to be used in the main study. Specifically, two different evaluation formats were compared, sex differences were examined, and the manipulation was tested. In the second study (i.e., the main study) the sensitivity and consistency of the DPF technique was compared with two other traditional methods for detecting leniency/severity. Participants completed an actual performance evaluation for a faculty member under one of three different response instructions.

The results of the main study indicated that the DPF technique was not more sensitive than the other traditional methods. Indeed all methods examined were insensitive to the manipulation, thus all were ineffective at detecting rater bias. Although the DPF method was ineffective, results provided support for the goal-based approach. Those raters who were responding under different instructions (i.e., goals) provided significantly different ratings. These findings suggest that there was a reasonable opportunity for differential ratings to occur across groups, but yet none of the detection techniques were effective at detecting them. The discussions of these studies provide implications for the findings as well as implications for the DPF technique, the goal-based approach, and other personnel decisions.

Committee:

Jeffrey Vancouver, PhD (Committee Chair); Paula Popovich, PhD (Committee Member); Griffeth Rodger, PhD (Committee Member); Markman Keith, PhD (Committee Member); Johanson George, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Organizational Behavior; Psychology

Keywords:

Performance ratings; Differential Person Functioning; Rater Errors

Karpinski, Aryn C.The Relationship between Online Formative Assessment Scores and State Test Scores: Measure Development and Multilevel Growth Modeling
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Policy and Leadership

The formative assessment literature has unanimously heralded the benefits of the diagnostic use of assessment to inform curriculum and instruction and improve student performance and achievement. Research in this area has primarily focused on traditional formative assessment practices. More recently, research is beginning to examine the effectiveness of technology-based formative assessment, with the latest studies of this mode formative assessment beginning to replicate the traditional findings. The current study examined one computerized/online formative assessment program, the Diagnostic Online Reading Assessment (DORA), and its relationship to a summative state proficiency test, in addition to examining the multilevel influence of teacher use of this technology-based mode of formative assessment on student DORA growth.

Existing state test data from one school district in Colorado and existing DORA scores were obtained. In addition, teacher survey data from the same Colorado school district and across the United States were collected online. Student data from grades 3 through 11 and teacher survey data were analyzed via Hierarchical Linear Growth Modeling and Rasch Analysis to investigate the following three main objectives: (1) Examining if DORA growth is related to state test score growth, (2) Developing a behavioral frequency measure of teacher use of computerized/online formative assessment, the Online Formative Assessment Survey (OFAS), and (3) Investigating the relationship between the OFAS and student DORA growth.

Specific to the first objective, it was found that DORA subtest growth was significantly and positively related to state reading test score growth. For the second objective, it was found that a psychometrically sound measure of teacher computerized/online formative assessment practices can be developed. The results rendered a 50-question measure focusing on all elements of teacher use of computerized/online formative assessment, and 10-question measure concentrating solely on how teachers use the results from the computerized/online formative assessment program. In the third objective, it was found that both the 50-question and 10-question OFAS were not significant, positive predictors of student DORA score growth.

Although the validation of OFAS scores was not supported, future research should continue to define this theoretical network of relationships, and maintain the measure revision and validation process. The Rasch results provide psychometric support for this newly developed measure, specifically the focus on using the online formative assessment results. Internet-mediated assessment is becoming commonplace in the classroom, and is more frequently being used to replace traditional modes of assessment. The need to examine the extent to which these methods are educationally sound is in high demand. Results from this study can support administrative demands for more efficient, technology-based ways to encourage teachers to use this mode of formative assessment, and in turn, meet state standards and increase student achievement.

Committee:

Jerome D'Agostino, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Lomax, PhD (Committee Member); Dorinda Gallant, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Keywords:

Online Formative Assessment; State Test Scores; Multilevel Growth Modeling; Rasch Modeling

Burgoon, Jacob NoalThe Development of Elementary and Middle School Teacher Science Knowledge Instruments for the Evaluation of a Professional Development Program
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2008, Biology (Cell-Molecular Biology)
Professional development programs are important in helping teachers to obtain the knowledge and skills that are necessary to overcome students lack of achievement in science. Effective measures of teachers science knowledge are essential for successfully evaluating the programs impact on teachers knowledge. This study explores the development of science knowledge instruments for elementary and middle school teachers participating in the second cohort of a professional development program called NWO-TEAMS (Teachers Enhancing Achievement in Mathematics and Science). The instruments that were used for cohort one of the program were found to be too easy and thus not able to assess the effectiveness of the program. New instruments were created to be more difficult by using Blooms taxonomy and increasing the effectiveness of the items distracters. The second year instruments included more items with effective distracters and more items that measured higher order cognitive abilities. As a result, the second year instruments were better able to separate teachers based on their science knowledge and every grade level in the second cohort demonstrated significant increases in science knowledge on the posttests. The development of the instruments in this study is presented as a model for the evaluation of professional development programs which seek to improve teachers science knowledge.

Committee:

Patricia Komuniecki, PhD (Advisor); Emilio Duran, PhD (Committee Member); Christine Fox, PhD (Committee Member); John Plenefisch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Science Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

NWO-TEAMS; professional development; teacher science knowledge; science knowledge instruments; test development

Chen, FangDoes an Early Second Language Immersion Experience Impact Student Motivation?
MAE, Otterbein University, 2012, Education
The aim of this study was to determine how an early immersion second language (L2)school experience might impact students’ motivation to learn the target language. The study was conducted in a Spanish Immersion Academy in the Columbus City (Ohio)school district. Students were surveyed about their motivation for learning Spanish. Three K-3 classes were observed and students’ engagement in different kinds of instruction was recorded. Teachers were interviewed in an effort to obtain their views on motivating students. The data collected suggest that learning motivation was highly valued by teachers in the school. Teachers generally reported trends in learner motivation that are consistent with the educational psychology literature that young learners are naturally internally motivated, and that motivation becomes more external and complicated as students age. Where teachers did feel a need to motivate their students, positive reinforcement and well-designed instruction were the two most frequently-adopted motivational strategies cited as important by teachers and observed in the classroom lessons.

Committee:

Wendy Sherman Heckler (Advisor); Patricia Ryan (Committee Member); Kristin Reninger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Keywords:

Early Second Language Immersion; K-3 classes; students&8217; motivation; learning motivation ;

Heiss, Brandon M.The Effectiveness of Implementing Classroom Response Systems in the Corporate Environment
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Career and Technology Education/Technology
Throughout education and training, instructors strive to create innovating as well as effective tools to assist their teaching skills. For this study, the researcher sought to determine whether the implementation of Classroom Response Systems (CRS) in a corporate environment would be an effective teaching method. Participants in this study were composed of employees at a Columbus, Ohio reprographics company. The employees were divided into either a control group, which received strictly lecture-based learning, or a treatment group, which used CRS technology integrated within a lecture. Using a pre-test post-test design method, the researcher wanted to determine if there was a difference in the amount of knowledge gained between the two groups. Along with observing a knowledge transfer between the groups, the researcher also wanted to determine whether the CRS technology was easy to use. Finally, the researcher tied in age demographics to determine if Digital Natives were more comfortable with using technology within this study than Digital Immigrants, or vice-versa. Analyses of the data indicated that there was a difference in scores between the participants using CRS technology integrated within their training lecture, and those students whose training was strictly lecture-based. The treatment group scores averaged 11% higher on their post-tests when compared to the control group scores. The researcher also observed participants disclosed in post-test results that CRS technology was easy to use, innovative, and kept their attention throughout the entire training session. The results of this study indicated that trainers, much like educators in higher education, must teach with engaging technologies as opposed to lecture-based pedagogies only.

Committee:

Terry Herman, PhD (Committee Chair); Paul Cesarini (Committee Member); Carrie Rathsack (Committee Member); Laney Fugett (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Software; Teaching

Keywords:

Classroom Response Systems; Clickers; Corporate Training; Training Effectiveness; Classroom Technology

Chunnu, Winsome M.Whither Are We Drifting? Primary Education Policy in Jamaica
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2009, Curriculum and Instruction Cultural Studies (Education)

This study sought to understand the factors that influenced primary educational policy implementation between 1980 and 1985. Then Minister of Education Mavis Gilmour stated that 80 to 90% of the Jamaican population received no form of education beyond the primary level, and 52% of students who graduated from primary school were unable to read or write. She insisted that major changes had to take place at the primary level to improve the overall education system. This study examines the polices that were introduced to “fix” primary education in Jamaica.

This was a qualitative study conducted in two Jamaican parishes; Kingston and St. Thomas. A case study design was utilized in order to gain indepth insight into the policy implementation process, using postcolonial and the political model as theoretical frameworks. Interviews and document analysis were used as the main sources of data.

The study revealed that education officers in the ministry stated that policies were communicated, while the majority of teachers insisted that they were never informed by the ministry or education officers about these policies. Instead, they heard about them on television, the radio, or read them in the newspaper if they knew at all. Teachers also insisted that they were never provided with guidelines and policy goals were never communicated to them.

The majority of teachers were not aware of an evaluation process although the education officers and the ministry personnel all indicated that an evaluation process was in place. It was also evident that there was a high level of confusion among the implementation team.

Lack of parental involvement, poverty and unemployment significantly influenced the consciousness of the value of education. These challenges are compounded by teenage mothers, absentee fathers, uneducated parents, and a low educational level as well as a low literacy level in communities, all of which influenced primary education.

There needs to be significant improvement in communicating policies as well as in involving teachers in the consultation and implementation process. Providing policy implementation guidelines is also critical. Policy should be tailored to fix specific problems instead of the “cookie cutter” approach in use now.

Committee:

Francis Godwyll, Ph.D (Advisor); Peter Mather, Ph.D (Committee Member); Rosalie Romano, Ph.D (Committee Member); Thomas Smucker, Ph.D (Committee Member); Dauda Abubakar, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Political Science; Public Administration

Keywords:

Mavis Gilmour; Policy Implementation in Jamaica; Jamacian Primary Education

Reid, Maurice CliffordAn Analysis of the Baldrige Quality Philosophy within the State of Ohio's Department of Education
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Business Administration
The Ohio Department of Education organization is evaluated relative to the Malcolm Baldrige Quality philosophy. After implementing this philosophy two years prior to the beginning of this study, the depth of the organization’s compliance with the philosophy is tested to provide insight on how the Malcolm Baldrige philosophy applies to an education service organization, and the time it takes to achieve the benefits of a top down commitment to total quality management. The findings of this study suggest that even though there is a strong commitment to total quality, and an improvement in the performance of the organization over time; the structure identified in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Application process has not been replicated in the Ohio Department of Education. The question of applicability is discussed as the Malcolm Baldrige education criteria does not completely capture the environment of an education service organization, nor does the service industry model fit the environment of this state agency.

Committee:

Paul C. Nutt, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); John R. Current, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); David A. Schilling, PhD (Committee Member); Keely L. Croxton, PhD (Committee Member); Susan L. Sutherland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Management

Keywords:

Baldrige; quality; education; quality program implementation

Lewis, Adam H.Technology and Collaborative Learning in Employee Training
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Instructional Technology (Education)
This study examined key approaches that could be used in evaluating and improving employee training in universities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which employee training opportunities at one university used collaboration and technology, identify the foci of the training opportunities, and describe employees’ perceptions of the relationship between training programs and productivity. The differing methods utilized during trainings can have a significant impact on how employees retain information and translate those skills to their work tasks. A mixed methods research methodology was utilized and a demographic survey and in-depth interviews were used to collect data from participants. In this study, a total of ten university staff members participated as interviewees. Each of them attended various trainings at Ohio University with different subject matters. The trainings all had differing levels and types of instructional technology utilized during the sessions. Some of them also contained collaborative learning experiences to reinforce the learning. Information gathered from the interviews showed that there were numerous ways through which employees in learning institutions can become innovative and productive. The findings presented in this study show that both instructional technology and collaborative learning utilized during training can have a perceived impact on employee productivity. In fact, learning institutions can enhance employee productivity by utilizing collaborative learning and enabling employees to combine skills and experiences for enhancing growth and performance. The ability of an individual to utilize the instructional technology and collaborative learning resources that have been provided can significantly impact the success of the entire organization. Implications for future studies and research in the field are provided, as well as suggestions for the further research in the area of employee productivity as well as the different factors of institutional success.

Committee:

Greg Kessler (Committee Chair); Krisanna Machtmes (Committee Member); Alan Wu (Committee Member); Danielle Dani (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Technology

Keywords:

Collaborative Learning; Instructional Technology; Employee Training; Employee Productivity; University Training

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