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Cogar, Jessica L.Pearl Anthology: Prose Poems
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2017, English (Arts and Sciences)
Pearl Anthology: Prose Poems is a collection of prose poems, preceded by a critical introduction, that explore the ins and outs of queer femininity. The language of these poems borrows signs and symbols from Egyptian myth, augury, and hiking signposts. While utilizing surreal elements and dream logic, the poems aim to document the disorientation of a queer speaker as she tries to navigate a world of painful beauty rituals, queer love, and performative masculinity.

Committee:

Jill Rosser (Advisor); Eric Lemay (Committee Member); Mark Halliday (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory

Keywords:

Heterosexuality; formal poetry

Mitova, Mariana A.Relationship Between Investments in Self and Post-Graduation Career Satisfaction Among Apparel and Textiles Majors
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Leadership Studies
Rachel Vannatta Reinhart, Advisor The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore the relationship between investments that students make in themselves while enrolled in a higher education program and their post-graduation career satisfaction, and (2) to gather information about the importance apparel and textile professionals place on selected competencies identified by the International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA). Graduates (n=123) of an apparel and textiles (A&T) program at a four-year, public research institution were surveyed to examine which investments in self best predict post-graduation career satisfaction. The Survey of A&T Graduates’ Career Satisfaction consisted of 86 items measuring perceived importance and preparation of the ITAA meta-goals and competencies, career satisfaction, co-curricular activity involvement, on-the-job training, health and well-being, career competencies, and willingness to relocate. Multiple regression showed that Career Competencies and Health and Well-being best predicted participants’ post-graduation career satisfaction. Participants rated the Professional Development meta-goal; the Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal; and Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goal of highest importance. These same meta-goals received highest perceived preparation ratings. Lastly, ANOVA findings revealed that buyers, retail managers, marketing professionals and others indicated differences in perceptions of competencies and meta-goals. The buyers/merchandisers rated the Industry Processes and the Critical and Creative Thinking meta-goals of higher importance than retail managers. Retail managers perceived the Global Interdependence meta-goal as less important than marketing professionals did. The Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability meta-goal was perceived more important by retail managers than “others” category did. Graduates’ career satisfaction differed mostly by Income levels. Those who reported earning lower salaries were overall less satisfied with their careers. Results suggest that current leaders of apparel and textile programs should enhance their curricula with pedagogy methods that facilitate learning of teamwork, leadership, clear communication, ethics, and social responsibilities. Internships and experiential learning are recommended to enhance the on-the-job training of students in A&T programs. In addition, all investments in self, with exception of Willingness to Relocate, are related to Career Satisfaction. Lastly, Post-graduation career satisfaction is best predicted by graduates’ Career Competencies and Health and Well-being.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Gregory Rich (Other); Barbara Frazier (Committee Member); Joyce Litten (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Curricula; Curriculum Development; Design; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Health; Health Education; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Home Economics; Home Economics Education; Mental Health

Keywords:

Higher Education; College; Well-being; Health; Students; Career Satisfaction; Apparel; Textiles; Internships; ITAA; Graduates; Professionals; On-the-job Training; Internships; Curriculum; HCT; Human Capital Theory; economic theory; assessment

Sweeten, David W“Ymaried moore for hir goodes”: The Economics of Marriage in Middle English Poetry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, English
In her larger discussion of marital authority, Chaucer’s Wife of Bath advises those other wives who will listen to “[w]ynne whoso may, for al is for to selle” (3.413-414). This phrase, and the Wife of Bath’s Prologue at large, treats the dynamics of marriage in economic terms that the Wife of Bath can modify in order to attain authority over her husbands. This dissertation explores the larger trend of Middle English texts rendering marriage in economic terms and metaphor to determine what such treatment indicates about the shifting social relations of marriage in late medieval England. Previous scholarship has emphasized the role of antimercantilism in the period, pointing to a larger concern of the impact a market economy based on wages and exchange rather than social obligation would have on the social hierarchies of the period. This dissertation pushes back on this perspective, contending that the rising prevalence of market exchanges in every day life gives rise to the use of economic language and metaphor to better understand changing social relations. The Introduction establishes the historical basis of marriage in this period as well as the development of medieval economic thought in a burgeoning market economy. Chapter 1 focuses on two major Middle English texts, Geoffrey Chaucer’s the Wife of Bath’s Prologue and William Langland’s The Vision of Piers the Plowman, to consider how female figures taking part in the medieval marital market appropriate economic thought to dictate the parameters of their own exchange, the process of each commenting on the contradictory nature of the medieval marriage. Chapter 2 considers the role of avarice in John Gower’s Confessio Amantis and the anonymous Middle English poem Wynnere and Wastoure to plot how marriage is treated like local economies, where hoarding through avaricious desire harms all participants in the economy. Chapter 3 unpacks the function of widowhood in Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde, ultimately contending that Crisyede’s plight demonstrates the socioeconomic vulnerabilities of unfixed marital statuses in late medieval England. Finally, Chapter 4 looks at the function of labor in marriage as both a demonstration of marital identity and methodology for agency within marriage, focusing on the Middle English Breton Lay Emare’s use of textile labor. This dissertation contends that rather than feeding instability economic language and metaphor comprise a new method for understanding those shifting social obligations. The shift into an exchange economy does not supplant social obligations but instead forms new methods of understanding and properly performing exchange in the interest of interpersonal relationships.

Committee:

Ethan Knapp (Committee Chair); Richard Green (Committee Member); Karen Winstead (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Literature; Medieval Literature

Keywords:

Middle English; marriage; economic theory; Chaucer; Langland; Gower; Emare; Gender;

Lipkin, IlyaTesting Software Development Project Productivity Model
Doctor of Philosophy in Manufacturing and Technology Management, University of Toledo, 2011, Manufacturing and Technology Management

Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today’s business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted.

There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis.

This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD.

Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers.

Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control, Simulation and etc¿¿¿ This research validates findings from previous work concerning software project productivity and leverages said results in this study. The hypothesized project productivity model provides statistical support and validation of expert opinions used by practitioners in the field of software project estimation.

Committee:

Jeen Su Lim (Committee Chair); James Pope (Committee Member); Michael Mallin (Committee Member); Michael Jakobson (Committee Member); Wilson Rosa (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Armed Forces; Artificial Intelligence; Business Administration; Business Costs; Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Economic Theory; Economics; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Management; Marketing; Mathematics

Keywords:

"Software Estimation"; "Software Cost Model"; "Department of Defense Data"; COCOMO; "Software Project Productivity Model"

Leung, JenniferEssays on Bilateral Vertical Specialization,Reversed Fragmentation, Reshoring, and R&D Productivity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
The focus of the first essay is on, examining the effect of free trade agreements on the growth of bilateral vertical specialization in manufacturing between the U.S. and its trading partners, before and after the agreements were signed. Bilateral production sharing is modeled using input-output analysis. The goal to broaden market access through the elimination of tariffs on most of the manufactured goods between free trade agreements countries has produced mixed results, at least, in the manufacturing sector. Since the various free trade agreements involving the U.S. have taken effect, tariff reductions on manufactured goods have not been uniform in bringing a substantial increase in total bilateral vertical specialization levels with countries in Central and Southern America, Africa, and the Middle East. North American countries are by far the most significant trade partner with the U.S. Asian and Oceanic countries have increasing levels of bilateral vertical specialization with the U.S. Despite growing over time, bilateral vertical specialization levels are relatively small for most of the Central/South American countries, as well for countries in Africa and the Middle East. The second essay is an investigation of a case where the traditional dynamics of industrial fragmentation are reversed. Rather than having production of a good split into distinct stages carried out in different locations, it may be possible that a technological advancement or managerial breakthrough could induce a firm to combine previously fragmented stages back into one. Depending on whether this new process is performed at home or abroad. A general equilibrium framework is used by following the Heckscher-Ohlin model with two countries and two factors of production. The results show that the specific factor intensities of the original fragments, the new combined fragment, and the other final good play a major role in determining which one of the two scenarios is most likely. The third essay is a study of firm size and location in the context of R&D productivity in the U.S. In this essay, the focus is on refining the threshold by which firm sizes are defined in the U.S. manufacturing sector, as well as an examination of whether location by U.S. region plays a role in enhancing R&D productivity. System Generalized Method of Moments, and the augmented Olley and Pakes estimator (Olley and Pakes, 1996; Buettner, 2004) are used to compare R&D productivity for firms of different sizes, as well as for firms of different U.S. geographical regions. The results show that large firms consistently have a relatively higher R&D productivity than small and medium-sized firms. However, the results for location in terms of R&D productivity of a firm are mixed.

Committee:

Ian Sheldon (Advisor); Alessandra Faggian (Committee Member); Stanley Thompson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Crano, Ricky D'AndreaPosthuman Capital: Neoliberalism, Telematics, and the Project of Self-Control
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Comparative Studies
The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate some of the ways in which neoliberal social and economic discourse, in particular the work of Friedrich Hayek and Gary Becker, has influenced the cultural evolution of the late-twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. Chapter One introduces the scope and methods of the project and situates market-oriented social epistemology alongside the development of complexity theory in the physical and information sciences. Chapter Two situates Hayek’s philosophies of social science and communication within the broader science cultures of the postwar decades, arguing that his conceptualization of prices and markets is deeply rooted in coterminous projects of cybernetics and general systems theory. Consequently, Hayek’s ideas about autonomy, information, and cultural transmission are seen to dovetail with the dominant scientific paradigms and media technologies of the late twentieth century. Chapter Three argues that contemporary financial markets and telematic screen cultures have become operationally analogous in their actualization of neoliberal rationality and social thought. Expanding my reading of neoliberalism beyond Hayek’s macrological approach to examine the emerging and all-consuming micrological approach of “human capital” theorists like Becker, this chapter details the ways in which new media platforms, algorithmic cultural practices, and what cultural critics have named the “financialization of daily life” have become primary agents of governmentality today. Chapter Four offers an original interpretation of Michel Foucault’s 1979 lectures on neoliberalism, one that reads the abrupt change of course in his research—which, directly following his interrogations of Hayek, Becker, and others, jumped from contemporary political economy to ancient cultures of self-care—as an attempt to locate a genealogical precedent for the subjectivist governmental rationality he had revealed as a dominant theme of neoliberal discourse.

Committee:

Brian Rotman (Committee Co-Chair); Philip Armstrong (Committee Co-Chair); Eugene Holland (Committee Member); Kris Paulsen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Comparative; Economic Theory; Philosophy; Philosophy of Science; Social Research; Social Structure; Technology; Web Studies

Keywords:

neoliberalism; cybernetics; autopoiesis; posthumanism; social control; Hayek; Becker; Foucault; digital culture; subjectivity; epistemology; human capital theory; human sciences; governmentality; networks; new media; intellectual history

DeLong, Tyler BenjaminEucharistic Unity, Fragmented Body: Christian Social Practice and the Market Economy
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2015, Theology
The following is an interpretive synopsis of Henri de Lubac and Karl Polanyi's particular thought about how human sociality is organized around the formal influence of theological and economic structures, giving shape to the practice of everyday life. For De Lubac, social fragmentation and unity are central theological categories for understanding both the first instance of sin and the unfolding of salvation in history. God is at work in the world as an active agent in the reparation of discordant humanity, restoring humankind to its original state as one collective body in the Church. Karl Polanyi's analysis of the rise of market economics gives us a historical instance of social and ecological fracture, providing the possibility of relating de Lubac's theological argument in a particular historical context. Two competing logics of social formation emerge: 1.) the Eucharist implicates human sociality toward deep forms of community in the Church; and 2.) the mechanism of the self-regulating market actively dissolves these thick forms of community, organizing sociality around capital markets and production. Placing de Lubac and Polanyi in conversation provides a way of thinking theologically about the history of unity and break in an increasingly dispersed social era.

Committee:

Vincent J. Miller, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kelly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Portier, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Environmental Economics; Environmental Justice; Ethics; Home Economics; Labor Economics; Religion; Religious History; Social Structure; Sociology; Theology

Keywords:

Eucharist; Henri de Lubac; Karl Polanyi; Catholic Church; Ecclesiology; Capitalism; Free Market; Economics; Thomas Aquinas; Agrarianism; Ecology; Creation; Sociality; Christian Social Practice; Community; Distributism; Unity

Pelz, Eduard A.An analysis of the traveler's dilemma with experimental evidence
BA, Oberlin College, 1999, Economics

Game theory studies how people should respond in strategic situations and is naturally used for predictive purposes. The optimal strategy predictions yielded by game theoretic reasoning can be surprising when they conflict with preconceived notions of how to play, i.e. the "common sense" strategy. Consequently, the game theoretically optimal strategy may be a poor predictor of how individuals actually behave in real-life strategic situations. In order to accurately model such situations for predictive purposes it is important to know the limitations of the current game theoretic tools.

In the traveler's dilemma, Kaushik Basu presents a parable to illustrate how game theoretic reasoning and intuition can be at odds. The parable is as follows: Two travelers are returning home from a vacation where they purchased identical souvenirs. These souvenirs are, of course, routinely destroyed by the airline. The souvenirs were purchased with cash in an open-air market and as a result the travelers do not have receipts. The airline official in charge of damage claims wants to compensate the travelers fairly but has no way of determining the actual purchase price of the souvenirs. In an attempt to avoid spurious claims the official proposes a method to determine the amount awarded. Each traveler must submit a claim that lies between a known minimum and maximum. (The minimum bound can be thought of as that level of claim below which the airline never disputes for cost reasons and the maximum bound can be thought of as the most the airline's insurance company would pay absent a special policy). If the claims submitted are equal then both receive the amount claimed. However, if traveler 1 submits a lower claim than traveler 2, traveler 1 is considered "honest" and receives the lower claim plus a reward for honesty (ideally in frequent flyer miles thereby ensuring that the airline will have an opportunity to destroy those items which it missed on the first pass). Traveler 2 also receives the lower claim but in addition a symmetric penalty for "lying" is levied. Travelers report their claims simultaneously i.e., without knowledge of the other traveler's claim. This ensures that simple, collusive agreements cannot be reached because any such agreement involves a non-credible promise (the rewards are structured such that there it is never in a rational player's best interest to play as he agreed).

Game theoretic analysis suggests that two rational players will report the minimum claim. Moreover, this result is a direct consequence of both players attempting to maximize their individual payoff. Adoption of this strategy does not, on the face of it, appear to be the best strategy because both players can clearly improve their payoff simply by submitting random large claims.

Committee:

Robert Piron (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

airlines;travel;game theory;parable;claims;equilibrium;

Lalani, ImranOn the relation between pay and performance: presidents of liberal arts colleges
BA, Oberlin College, 2007, Economics

This paper uses panel data on the salaries and benefits of liberal arts college presidents during the period 2001-02 to 2003-04 to understand what presidents are rewarded for. We try and develop a basic framework in which to understand the president's role in the institution, and attempt to explain what some claim is a combination of high wages and relatively weak pay for performance.

The rising income inequality in America has been the subject of much heated debate in the recent past. 'Excessive' executive pay has been a recurrent theme during 2007 so far, with the Senate gearing up to address this imbalance by trying to pass measures such as limiting income tax deductions companies can claim for executives leaving the firm during the year. President Bush also singled out record levels of executive compensation as a major issue in his 'State of the Economy' speech in January.

A similar story emerges when we examine the executive compensation at universities and colleges across America. While the paychecks that executives in higher education receive are not as stunning as those in the corporate world, they are hefty in their own right, especially when compared with the salaries that faculty at their institutes command. This rise in pay has been especially great in public institutions, with the number of presidents making half a million dollars or more almost doubling between 2003-04 and 2004-05. Moreover, schools with smaller budgets or less willingness to pay often lose their presidents to other universities that pay significantly more; the case in point being three major state universities in Iowa that between them have lost 8 presidents in the last 18 years to institutions that paid significantly more.

Committee:

Kenneth Kuttner (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

college;presidents;liberal arts;pay;compensation;

Engelhardt, Bryan EldonMarital happiness and family economics
BA, Oberlin College, 2002, Economics

Economics has long been the study of maximizing production, minimizing cost, and analyzing distributions, but it was not until recently that the field of economics added the social institution of the family and subjective well being to its list. What is being expounded upon within this discussion is how marital happiness affects family economics. The question begins with how marriage affects the basic micro model of economics: utility, and in turn how marital happiness affects economic decisions made by the family, such as the amount of leisure and goods to consume.

Economic issues already analyzed within the family include joint and independent utility functions, the joint production function, distribution of economic resources, exiting constraints and more. The addition to the economic community that this discussion will be making hinges on a closer look at marriages shared goods; a good that can only be consumed within marriage, either produced by one spouse and consumed by the other or shared by both. From the shared good, we can analyze if happiness within marriage changes choices between shared goods, leisure, and private consumption, which in turn affects the personal or joint utility function when married.

The purpose of studying happiness within marriage for an economist when looking at it from the bigger picture is that it adds insights into the complex economic institution that would not otherwise be observable. The insights include how the complicated interplay of the resources allocated to shared goods and the leisure to consume them, is exchanged between private consumption. So, marital happiness, as it affects utility produced within marriage, can influence a variety of decisions. These broad definitions of goods once analyzed generically can define more specific issues such as economies of scale, income transfers, labor force participation decisions, human capital investments, and large ticket items such as a house or arguably children. In effect a happy marriage is not just interesting to sociologists and those who are married but gives insights into economic issues as well.

The layout of this paper will be as follows. In the second section there will be a literature review to highlight important points from which to construct the model and add to the discussion. In the third section the model will be developed and used to express how marital happiness changes family economics. In section four I will look at the data and its econometric results to support the model and then conclude. Appendix B will outline the idea of happiness as an endogenous decision.

Committee:

(Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics; Families and Family Life

Keywords:

family; economics;marital;

Pak, MinsokLong horizon movements in exchange rates: Great expectations
BA, Oberlin College, 1991, Economics
Results in this paper show that applying specific techniques designed to analyze long run behavior of time series variables provides evidence that long run movements in exchange rates differ from random walks. Long run behavior, for both the DM/$ and Y/$ spot rates, exhibit a rather substantial mean reverting component, a temporary component similar to that found in stock prices (Fama and French [1988]; Poterba and Summers [1988]). That is to say, a divergence of observed market values from fundamental values cannot simply be interpreted as support for models of inefficient markets. Rather, these divergences may be temporary swings away from fundamental values. Over some range, these swings are eliminated and values return to their mean. Such temporary swings and their subsequent reversion to the mean can be translated into¿¿¿¿ the statistical hypothesis that exchange rates contain a slowly decaying stationary (or transitory) component. With such a transitory series, the effects of a given shock are reversed over time.

Committee:

Wooheon Rhee (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

exchange;rates;change;

Reeder, Paul A.Insider trading regulations: effective or defective?
BA, Oberlin College, 1983, Economics
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of current regulations of insider trading. In the past, examinations of regulatory effectiveness have been solely concerned with analyses of the . excess returns earned by insiders from their trading actiovities in the stock market. This study, however, involves a more direct approach to the problem. It is assumed that for regulations to be effective, two conditions must be satisfied. First, they must be stated in a manner which prohibits all types of behavior which would be considered harmful. Second, the regulations must be enforced to the point where the marginal enforcement costs are no greater than the marginal loss from more insider trading. It is the thesis of this paper that current regulations of insider trading are neither accurately stated nor adeguately enforced thereby enabling insiders to reap excess returns from their tradirg activities in the stock and options markets.

Committee:

David Cleeton (Advisor); Mark Moran (Other)

Subjects:

Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

stock, insider;trading;securities;stock market;

Doyle, Daniel S.A Discourse-Proceduralist Case for Election and Media Reform after Citizens United
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Journalism (Communication)
This paper interrogates the U.S. Supreme Court's 2010 Citizens United v. FEC decision from the perspective of J¿¿¿¿rgen Habermas's Between Facts and Norms. It takes a legal-historical look at U.S. policy impetus toward legitimation procedures up to the Warren Court, and normatively reconstructs the U.S. constitutional right to participate in politics. Using a close reading of judicial literature defending the old status quo of campaign finance law against Citizens United's lawsuit, the paper examines market colonization of a discussion space that, according to Habermas, ought to be set aside for non-coerced political discussions. The paper argues that because rights derive from the natural human capacity for language and reason, any right to political participation should be able to protect public political discourse from the colonizing components of non-human market systems, namely corporations. The thesis further argues that public political discourse is important because elections are important, and that critical responses to Citizens United should be situated within movements for election reform and media reform more than campaign finance reform alone.

Committee:

Bernhard Debatin (Committee Chair); Aimee Edmondson (Committee Member); Hans Meyer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Communication; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Ethics; Journalism; Labor Relations; Law; Legal Studies; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Public Policy; Sociology

Keywords:

citizens united; election reform; election integrity; media reform; campaign finance; first amendment; constitutional amendment; habermas; communism; capitalism; critical theory

Flores, Saul DomingoCost benefit analysis of wind turbine investment in Oberlin, Ohio
BA, Oberlin College, 2008, Economics

As concern over global climate change and fears of rising energy costs permeate our collective and individual decision making, more and more private institutions are seeking out innovative and feasible solutions to meet these issues. Many colleges and universities throughout the United States have been among the first private and public institutions to dedicate themselves to positions of climate neutrality and have begun to incorporate the ethics of conservation and commitment to environmental sustainability into their primary objectives. To date nearly five hundred institutions of higher education have signed the American College and Universities Climate Change Commitment, pledging to take immediate and prolonged action to reduce their foot print of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Undoubtedly many of these schools will be able to implement extensive and inexpensive improvements in the efficiency of current facilities and practices in order to meet their objectives. However for those that have committed to complete climate neutrality, such as Oberlin College, additional measures extending beyond the traditional endeavors of an educational institution may also become necessary. One such option that has received attention from the Oberlin community is the construction of a utility scale wind turbine.

Although there are many other alternatives that the College may investigate, the choice to be considered here is between investing in a wind turbine or purchasing carbon offsets commercially. Naturally the college faces tradeoffs as it allocates its budget between turbines, offsets, and its myriad other operational activities, so a cost benefit analysis is particularly useful in comparing the advantages and disadvantages of investment in various turbine models. This paper addresses several primary objectives. First, the analysis conducted here will update previous research on the topic of the viability of wind power in Oberlin by incorporating spot market electricity prices into the calculations of net benefits and by utilizing a more conservative model of the cost schedule. This paper will also address many of the economic issues inherent in the college's desire to minimize expenditures while decreasing its footprint assuming that it will choose the option with the least cost per unit of emissions offset. Using a standard cost benefit analysis, and exploring the sensitivity of the results to a range of parameters, the results show that a wind turbine in Oberlin will under extremely conservative conditions reduce the carbon emissions footprint at a cost comparable to many commercially available carbon offsets, and that as these conditions are relaxed positive net present values emerge.

The rest of the paper will be organized as follows. The next section reviews relevant literature and focuses the motivation of this study. Section 3 is a statistical summary of the electricity price and wind speed data is presented. Following that a description of the procedures used in calculating generation, revenue, cost, and net present value figures is outlined. In section 4 the results are presented in the subsequent section, and discussion of their sensitivity to various parameters as well as various interpretations follow.

Committee:

Jordan Suter (Advisor); Barbara Craig (Other); Hirschel Kasper (Other); David Cleeton (Other); Shreemoy Mishra (Other); John Scofield (Other)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

wind turbine;Oberlin;Ohio;Oberlin College;reduce;carbon footprint;carbon offsets;wind power;electricity;United States;

Dighe, Ranjit S.The presidential business cycle in the U.S.: A theoretical and empirical examination
BA, Oberlin College, 1987, Economics

The idea of a politically-motivated business cycle is basically a conspiracy theory: "office-motivated" politicians, seeking to exploit the well-documented relationship between favorable economic news and votes for the incumbent president and his party, manipulate the timing of business cycles for their own electoral gain. This manipulation, theorists maintain, is effected through the use of any of several policy instruments including discretionary federal spending, government transfer payments, and the average tax rate, as well as pressure on the central bank to pursue a more accommodating monetary policy.

Theories of such a cycle seem to fall in and out of favor with each passing presidential election. William Nordhaus's pioneering paper, "The Political Business Cycle" (1975), emerged in the aftermath of Richard Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign, which even a former Nixon speechwriter described as a case of "open[ing] the sluices and letting the dollars flow." Edward Tufte, author of Political Control of the Economy, an in-depth analysis of the interdependence of economics and elections, has. acknowledged that Nixon's re-election was the inspiration for his book as well. Currently, after the supply shocks of the mid- and late-1970s, which in 1980 resulted in a (presidential) election-year recession for the first time since 1960, "there has been relatively little theoretical work on the 'political business cycle' for several years." With the re-election of Ronald Reagan in 1984, however, after which some observers claimed they detected a political cycle behind the economic growth patterns of the 1981-84 period , the next few years may well see a resurgence of political business cycle (PBC) literature.

In keeping with the present lull in new PBC theories, many economists, in reviews of PBC literature and elsewhere, have been sharply critical of the previous empirical work in this area. James Alt and K. Alec Crystal, in their 1983 book Political Economics. conclude a chapter on PBC' s by noting, "No one could read the political business cycle literature without being struck by the lack of supporting evidence." Several other studies, including those of McCallum (197B), Hibbs (1977 and 1978), Golden - Poterba (1980) and Beck (1982 and 1984), reject the notion of a PBC. Joseph Sulock recently conducted replications of several PBC models, all of whose original authors found evidence of a PBC, and reported that most of these models, when updated into the 1970s or even when truncated into a timeframe when political manipulation appeared most likely, performed poorly. Sulock admits, however, that the poor performance of these models may have been due to flaws in the models themselves rather than in the idea behind them.

Although much of the criticism of past empirical work on the PBC is well deserved -- indeed, some of these models are shockingly inept a review of both the theoretical and empirical literature on this subject will be necessary before moving on.

Committee:

Edward Gamber (Advisor); Hirschel Kasper (Advisor); Robert Piron (Advisor); James Zinser (Advisor); Luis Fernandez (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Political Science

Keywords:

political;business;cycle;PBC;politics;presidential;election;United States;

Brosius, Logan Robert ThomasOn the Rise of China, The Reconfiguration of Global Power, and the Collapse of the Modern Liberal Order
BA, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science
China’s Communist revolution served as a rebellion against both its despotic mandarin elite and their traditions as well as the presiding global trade order that flooded China with narcotics and ensnared all the rungs of society within its grasp. Together, dynastic decay and foreign intrigue fractured the country s ability to function as a coherent society. With both aspects of the limping Republican China discredited alongside the defunct dynastic system, the intervening period between the end of the civil war, the Communist revolution, Mao s reign, his death, and the coronation of Deng Xiaoping led the People s Republic of China (PRC) to shed its official doctrines even as its foundational organization, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), survived. Thanks to China s success after the Communist revolution and Deng s coronation, the PRC s story meanwhile not only became the larger story of East Asia, but also that of both the United States; special postwar San Francisco framework, and of the United States; broader projection of Open Door policies worldwide. Within the hierarchy of global capitalism, China consequently assumed a special role in East Asian and global production; guided in many ways by the hand of the United States. High level dialogue at the twilight of the Obama Administration suggests a world in which China’s place is perceived with great suspicion even as the country’s prospects continue to slide and grow more uncertain. This suspicion casts a shadow over the many nearby opportunities for cooperation within the most important bilateral relationship in the world from the outset of the 21st century. For China and the CCP, nothing here onward may be viewed with certainty, but for the world America made, any significant, continued Chinese climb, however likely, portends major repercussions both for the global liberal order and for the survival of the human species and the many factors that weigh upon it.

Committee:

Leslie Heaphy, Dr. (Advisor); Richard Robyn, Dr. (Committee Member); Joshua Stacher, Dr. (Committee Member); Kimberly Winebrenner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Economic History; Economic Theory; International Relations

Keywords:

China, United States, East Asia, neoliberal state, liberalism, world-systems theory, developmental studies, economic history, political economy

Ye, ZhinengSolving Eight Treasures Of Game Theory Problems Using Bi-criteria Method
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, EECS - System and Control Engineering
Game theory is a strategic mathematics model of how we make decisions. It is widely applied in fields like economics and psychology to make our decisions more competitive and favorable. Nash equilibrium, the foundation of game theory, is always the first method attempted to solve a problem, especially in a two-person game. In Goeree and Holt’s 2001 paper, “Ten little treasures of game theory and ten intuitive contradictions”, they did ten experiments on different kinds of two-person games, each game associates with a basic version and a contradictive version. From the experiment result, the basic version matches our assumption and intuition for most of the games, while the contradictive version disagrees with that, which the Nash equilibrium can’t explain the latter. But if certain weights are assigned to the payoffs of the two players and the additive weighted payoff is used as the new payoff for one player, then it may become possible to solve the “new” game and explain the result using Nash equilibrium. This is how the bi-criteria method works in game theory. Logically, the weight is assigned to the payoffs because the other player’s payoff is important to a decision maker. Using this method, almost all of the games in Goeree and Holt’s paper (2001) can be solved.

Committee:

Behnam Malakooti (Committee Chair); Vira Chankong (Committee Member); Mingguo Hong (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Engineering

Keywords:

Game theory; Nash equilibrium; Bi-criteria

Munyon, Vinola VincentVehicle Fuel Economy And Vehicle Miles Traveled: An Empirical Investigation Of Jevons’ Paradox
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2014, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
There has been, in recent decades, a concerted effort to promote energy efficiency as a means to reduce energy consumption, along the supply and demand sides. The general thesis is that, ceteris paribus, an increase in energy efficiency would lead to a decrease in the consumption of the good or service rendered efficient. This is in opposition to Jevons’ Paradox which states that “It is wholly a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to a diminished consumption. The very contrary is the truth…” (Jevons, 1865). While many studies have applied Jevons’ Paradox to various sectors to estimate rebound effects, few have examined if Jevons’ Paradox holds when all available factors that could affect consumption of an efficient good/service are controlled for. This study hoped to fill that gap in literature. The study looked at vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and examined if, all else being equal, a vehicle that was more fuel efficient accrued greater VMT. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2009), a multivariate regression model was built (N = 82,485) controlling for driver, household and vehicle attributes. The findings indicated that, at the microlevel, Jevons’ Paradox does hold true; a 1% increase in fuel efficiency was associated with a 1.2% increase in VMT.

Committee:

William Bowen, PhD (Committee Chair); John Holcomb, PhD (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Energy; Environmental Studies; Sustainability; Transportation Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Jevons Paradox; Energy efficiency; Fuel economy; Vehicle Miles Traveled; Rebound

Ghadimi, HodjatollahEconomic development in economies with an exhaustible resource: a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis for the case of Iran
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1993, City and Regional Planning

Oil exporting developing countries have the common problem of how best to transform their valuable but nonrenewable oil reserves into a permanent flow of income for achieving their long term development objectives. The most fundamental dynamic choices of these economies can be summarized in three basic questions: (i) how much to extract, (ii) how much to invest, and (iii) where to invest. In other words, a sustainable development path in the case of these economies involves the optimal depletion of their exhaustible resource, allocation of revenues generated by the resource, and the optimal composition of their investment funds. This study presents a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to explore issues related to economic development within a given window of time in these resource dependent economies by focusing on the case of Iran.

The proposed model consists of a price endogenous CGE model, simulating workings of a market economy, embedded in an optimal extraction model of an exhaustible resource. The model is benchmarked for the Iranian data and is used to examine the issues related to optimal extraction of an exhaustible resource, optimal savings in the economy, and the allocation of investment funds. Our interest is with general equilibrium effects of oil extraction and investment policies within a window of time during which the oil reserves abound and the oil sector plays a crucial role in the economy.

The model will be used to explore how changes in the extraction costs, discount rate, and in the structure of the model might affect the depletion profile of the exhaustible resource. It will also examine the effects of adopting various government savings policies, changes in the level of responsiveness of the financial markets, and changes in the absorptive capacity of the economy on the optimal savings path. The model also explores the effects of quotas on oil exports and finds the compensating oil price increase. A simulation experiment with the model shows that the Iranian economy would have been better off if it had allocated sectoral investment following a simple rule of relative sector profitability rather than following the centrally planned strategies of industrialization prior to the Islamic revolution of 1979.

Committee:

Burkhard Von Rabenau (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Costs; Economic Theory; Economics

Brown, Alexander L.Devaluation, short-run supply response, and the J-curve
BA, Oberlin College, 1987, Economics

This paper will attempt to empirically illustrate the contribution of short-run supply adjustment to the U.S. J-curve. I plan to study, on the major industry division level (2 digit SIC), 15 manufacturing sectors of the united states. Their supply movements will be calculated in terms of total short-run adjustment. These statistics will then be compared to the trade balance (J-curve) for the u.S. to see if the supply movements of U.S. manufacturers can explain the continued drop in U.S. international trade. If the theory is supported few industries will adjust quickly in the short-run, reflecting the slow adjustment of aggregate trade variables. Studies relating to the subject of supply response generally deal with movements in aggregate variables. To the best of my knowledge supply response relating' to the J-curve has never been measured on such a disaggregated level.

The final results of this paper indicate that following devaluation of the dollar the short-run supply response of U.S. industries is negligible. This finding lends itself to previous studies which have indicated that demand is highly inelastic over the same period. The poor performance of U.S. international trade and the length of the U.S. J-curve are in agreement with this finding.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: section II contains a selective review of the relevant literature. Section III develops the theory which is to be tested. Section IV describes the model which is used and how it is measured. Section V describes the data used in this study. Section VI presents the results. Section VII analyzes and explains the results. Section VIII describes some of the econometric difficulties encountered while measuring the model. Finally, Section IX concludes the paper with an agenda for future research.

Committee:

James Zinser (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

J-curve;United States; dollar;devaluation;manufacturing;manufacturers;

Husain, AsimFinancial intermediation and growth in developing countries
BA, Oberlin College, 1995, Economics
Two main relationships between finance and growth are often emphasized: i) the role that financial markets have in channeling savings towards investment and ii) the informational problems that financial markets are able to solve that would otherwise lead to inefficient outcomes. This paper emphasizes a model where prospective entrepreneurs are evaluated in turn by financial markets on their ability to come up with a successful innovation which determines the level of productivity in the economy. With efficient financial markets loans are made to those who are the most likely to come up with marketable innovations. Because marketable innovations lead to higher growth rates, countries that have more developed financial systems will have higher growth rates. My work differs from previous work in this area in that it differentiates the effects of the domestic financial markets from those of the foreign fmancial markets in allowing for the impact of an increasingly global financial system on an economy.

Committee:

Peter Montiel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

financial;markets;global;economy;marketable;

Adelman, DanPreference reversal and the independence axiom
BA, Oberlin College, 1992, Economics

In his article "Dynamic Consistency and Non-Expected Utility Models of Choice Under Uncertainty," (Journal of Economic Literature, Dec. 1989), Mark Machina asserted that preference reversal (PR) is caused by a violation of the independence axiom. Amos Tversky, Paul Slovic, and Daniel Kahneman submit, however, that "Observed preference reversal ... cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence...." This paper tests these claims by breaking the independence axiom into its two component parts: mixture and replacement separability.

Part one of this paper will give some background of the preference reversal field and identify the core questions that this paper will try to answer. Part two will detail experimental design. Part three will present the results and draw conclusions from them. Part four will summarize the most important findings of the paper.

Committee:

Robert Piron (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Economics

Keywords:

preference;reversal;field;independence;axiom;mixture;replacement;separability;gambling;

Obeng, George BoakyeA Game Theoretical Model For Prevention of Meat Contamination at A Meat Packing House
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2011, Applied Mathematics
This study aims to develop a theoretical procedure to deal with the strategic decisions taken by a meat packing firm to prevent meat contamination. The analysis is based on a game theoretical model with two players, the firm and the government (regulator). The model assumes that a firm can choose to implement extra controls apart from the usual mandated controls expected of them. At the same time, the government can also implement extra controls beyond those it has mandated for the firm, if the cost of prevention is cheaper for both the firm and the government than cleanup. After modeling the problem and determining the possible cases and equilibria of the game, we use these to elaborate inferences about possible actions of the firm and the government. The results indicate that both the firm and the regulator will control if the cost of cleanup is high or the cost of extra control is low. We also realize that if the level of effectiveness of control is high enough, neither the firm nor the government will be willing to implement extra control.

Committee:

Stefan Forcey, Dr. (Advisor); Timothy Norfolk, Dr. (Advisor); Gerald Young, Dr. (Committee Member); Curtis Clemons, Dr. (Committee Member); James Cossey, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economic Theory; Mathematics

Helbing, Joseph RitcheyInternationalization of the Renminbi Currency : Economic Factors Analysis, a Comparison with the Yen and German Mark and America’s Supporting Role
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, East Asian Languages and Literatures
The internationalization of the RenMinBi is a very complex and long-term process. According to standard international monetary theory, the RMB has still not fulfilled the requirements to be called an international currency. Use of the RMB has expanded from mainland China to Hong Kong and some neighbouring countries, but has not yet reached a level of internationalization similar to that of the Euro, let alone, as some speculate, as a possible replacement for the dollar. RMB current level of internationalization, to a large extent, can be attributed to China’s growing political and economic influence, rather than any initiatives by the Chinese government. In order to achieve the internationalization of the RMB, the Chinese government must now carefully design appropriate policies to promote the regionalization and internationalization of the RMB. There is no "off-the-shelf" internationalization model for the RMB. China’s economic development does not ensure smooth internationalization of the RMB. China must continue to promote reform of it’s domestic financial sector, in order to establish a stable foundation for the development of the RMB. Hong Kong has become an effective agent for RMB internationalisation. As early as 1989, the Chinese government decided to begin promoting an offshore RMB market in Hong Kong. In 2007, Hong Kong founded the first offshore RMB bond market. At present, Hong Kong has become the world’s most important offshore RMB trading platform. Hong Kong is the first stop for internationalization of RMB, and one of the most important. As of yet, China has not implemented the necessary monetary liberalization policies but through a coordinated Sino-US policy of internationalization the RMB can become one of the global monetary system’s foundational currencies. The United States has an opportunity to coordinate with China in promoting the development of the next iteration of the international monetary system in a way that protects the interests of both countries.

Committee:

Jianqi Wang (Advisor); Xiaobin Jian (Committee Member); Sunny Zong (Committee Member); Galal Walker (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics

Ellersick, Linda J.Expanding Fair Trade to Garment Production in Ciudad Sandino, Nicaragua
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2009, Latin American Studies (International Studies)
Despite challenges the movement is having and may continue to have, fair trade has proved itself a viable grassroots alternative to neoliberal free trade for farmers in the Global South and has gained legitimacy in both literature and consumer markets. Producers and consumers are becoming increasingly aware of fair trade as an economic and social alternative. While there exist set standards for fair trade agricultural products, no standards yet exist for fair trade garment manufacturing. Through a case study of COMAMNUVI (Cooperativa Maquiladora Mujeres de Nueva Vida) in Ciudad Sandino, Nicaragua, this research analyzes the application of fair trade principles to the garment production industry. Claiming to be the first garment production cooperative in the world to operate within both the fair trade and free trade markets, COMAMNUVI has contributed an unprecedented prototype of how fair trade garment production may extend to other communities. However, the cooperative has yet to be considered a success and has encountered many problems that challenge the very goal they set out to achieve.

Committee:

Yeong-Hyun Kim, PhD (Committee Chair); Brad Jokisch, PhD (Committee Member); Amado Láscar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Economic History; Economic Theory; Geography; International Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Relations; Latin American History; Social Research; Sociology; Textile Research

Keywords:

fair trade; COMAMNUVI; Latin America; Nicaragua; garment production; Nueva Vida; Ciudad Sandino; Latin American Studies; alternative development; cooperative; garments; developing countries; NGO; nongovernmental organizations; co-ops; fair labor

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