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Tams, Sean T.Modeling Longitudinal Associations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior from Pre-school to Adolescence
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
Child externalizing behavior (i.e., defiance, impulsivity, disruptiveness, aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity) places children at risk for a broad range of adverse outcomes. Parenting has been implicated as a factor in the expression and maintenance of child externalizing behavior, but limitations exist that hinder the interpretation of findings from prior studies of associations between child externalizing behavior and parenting behavior. The current study used a large, nationally representative dataset that included multiple assessment points across child development and multiple informants and methods of assessment to examine the relationships between child externalizing behavior and parenting practices, including the moderating effect of child gender and elevated ADHD/ODD symptoms. Results of cross-lagged path model analyses revealed reciprocal relationships among child externalizing behavior and effective/ineffective parenting practices, though the pattern of results differed slightly between mothers and fathers. Child gender moderated these relationships such that some associations were stronger for males and others were stronger for females. Elevated ADHD/ODD symptoms did not emerge as a robust moderator, though group differences were identified for one model that was tested. These results underscore the need for early intervention that targets elevated child externalizing behavior and ineffective parenting practices, which may help to foster positive parent-child relationships and mitigate the risk of children with these problems developing more severe, clinically significant externalizing symptoms (e.g., ADHD and/or ODD).

Committee:

Brian Wymbs (Advisor); Steven Evans (Committee Member); Julie Owens (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology

Keywords:

externalizing behavior; parenting practices; child development

Lawson, Monica L. The Reliability of Children’s Event Reports to Their Mothers
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Psychology - Experimental
Children involved in maltreatment investigations often discuss allegations with their mothers before formal reports are made to authorities. The primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the amount and the accuracy of information children reported to their mothers about a non-shared experience. Children aged 4- to 7-years-old (N = 142) individually participated in a staged event and discussed the experience with their mothers approximately six-days later. Prior to interviewing children, mothers were provided with some details about the non-shared event. Accurately-biased mothers had accurate information about the event. Inaccurately-biased mothers had both accurate and inaccurate information about the experience. Individual difference factors including children’s age, maternal reminiscing style, and attachment quality were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between maternal bias and children’s reports. The results revealed older children had highly reliable reports regardless of maternal bias or maternal reminiscing style. However, younger children with inaccurately biased and high elaborative mothers reported less accurate and more inaccurate information about the event compared to younger children with inaccurately-biased and low elaborative mothers. Additionally, children of mothers with insecure attachment quality reported fewer details and made more inaccurate statements regarding the event. Results suggest that the mnemonic consequence of discussing past experiences with mothers varies depending on maternal bias, children’s age, maternal reminiscing style, and attachment quality. Forensic and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

Committee:

Kamala London, PhD (Committee Chair); Stephen Christman, PhD (Committee Member); Sarah Francis, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Rose, PhD (Committee Member); Lisa Pescara-Kovach, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Children; Eyewitness testimony; Maternal reminiscing style; Attachment; Suggestibility

Gross, Carol AIndividual Differences in the Addition Strategy Task in Adolescents
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Psychology
Strategies used to solve addition problems without pencil and paper have been evaluated and connected to math achievement in multiple studies of children and adults. However, only a few studies have used adolescent samples, and addition strategies have not been evaluated in a behavior genetic framework. In this study the addition strategies used by a group of adolescent twins (77 MZ pairs and 136 DZ pairs) from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project were evaluated. Participants solved 20 addition problems (14 simple and 6 complex) and reported the strategies that they used to solve each problem. Memory based strategies included retrieval and decomposition and procedural strategies included counting. Measures of strategy use on the task were taken from previous studies of children and adults. The measures that best characterized adolescent strategy use were the child and adult measures that described frequency of retrieval and decomposition. All measures of strategy use had significant nonshared environmental influences, and none of the measures had significant shared environmental influences. Further, strategy use measures for complex problems had a significant estimate of heritability.

Committee:

Lee Thompson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

math; addition strategies; twins; behavior genetics

Singh, ShwetaYOU ARE WHAT YOU STUDY OR YOU STUDY WHAT YOU ARE? CHOICE OF COLLEGE MAJOR AND IDENTITY AFFIRMATION AMONG EMERGING ADULTS
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
One of the critical developmental challenges of emerging adulthood is identity development and affirmation. This process continues throughout college when many undergraduate students experience increased independence and are thus free to “try on” new identities, or affirm existing identities which have proven meaningful. Opting for a major is a big leap towards shaping a student’s future and defining their desired adult identities. Additionally, it may be an expression of who they are and who they desire to become. This study aims to understand the role of this choice in the process of expressing and affirming one’s identity. This study tests the hypothesis that selection of a major provides an opportunity to affirm a student’s identity because it denotes certain desirable characteristic traits, or identity images. The study was conducted in two parts. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that unique clusters of identity images can be identified for different undergraduate majors (i.e., Hospitality Management, Recreation, Parks & Tourism Management, Journalism, Fashion Design and Biology). The findings suggested that discrete sets of identity images do exist for some of the majors while others shared some identity images. Study 2 investigated the second hypothesis and found that students tended to correspond highly to the identity images symbolized by their chosen major more than the identity images symbolized by other majors. Study 2 also asserted that emerging adults perceive a great degree of freedom in their choice of a college major. Results are discussed along with implications and future research prospects.

Committee:

Andrew Lepp, Dr. (Committee Member); Aviad Israeli, Dr. (Committee Member); Philip Wang, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Recreation

Keywords:

identity image, identity affirmation, college major

Fang, QijuanAttachment, Bullying, and Romantic Relationships in College Students
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Developmental
Some studies have examined the relationships between early attachment and bullying, bullying and romantic relationships, and attachment and romantic relationships. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding how later adverse experiences during adolescence, such as in-person bullying and cyberbullying, combines with early attachment to predict later romantic attachment and romantic relationships. In other words, my dissertation examines how early attachment style during childhood and online and offline bullying experience during adolescence may together affect someone’s later attachment styles and romantic relationships. There are some interesting findings. For instance, the more securely attached someone is to his or her mother in early childhood, and the less they were involved in bullying as an adolescent (regardless of online or offline), the more likely it is for them to be securely attached to their romantic partners later as a young adult. They also trust their romantic partners more and are more satisfied with their relationships. Childhood attachment and adolescent bullying involvement uniquely contributes to later romantic attachment as well as romantic relationship satisfaction. There are also some interaction effects on gender. Detailed differences between inperson bullying and cyberbullying as well as the interactions between predictors were examined.

Committee:

Marie Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); John Tisak (Committee Co-Chair); Carolyn Tompsett (Committee Member); Michael Buerger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Individual and Family Studies; Psychology

Keywords:

Attachment, traditional bullying, cyberbullying, romantic relationships, adolescent, college students

Tyler, Carmen MHow the Illness Experience Predicts Key Psychosocial Outcomes in Veterans with Brain Injury
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Sciences and Health Professions
The object of this thesis was to examine the illness experience of veterans who have suffered either a stroke or traumatic brain injury. Predictors of key psychosocial outcomes were identified by looking at the illness experience through the veterans’ perspective via self-report measures. Results confirmed relationships between the stressors role captivity, low self-esteem, decreased socialization, and dyad relationship strain and the outcome of depression and between the stressors physical strain and emotional strain and the outcome social/recreational participation for this population. More importantly, role captivity, social/recreational strain, and self-esteem uniquely predicted depression, and both physical and emotional strain uniquely predicted social/recreational strain in veterans with brain injury. Not only has this study demonstrated how the illness experience predicts key psychosocial outcomes in VBIs, it has also illustrated that self-reports from VBIs are reliable and valid indicators of their illness experiences and should be seriously considered when constructing treatment goals and plans.

Committee:

Katherine Judge, PhD (Committee Chair); Harvey Sterns, PhD (Committee Member); Eric Allard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Developmental Psychology; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

veterans; illness experience; brain injury; psychosocial outcomes; stressors; stress process model; perceived distress; appraisal; self-report; role captivity; social-recreational strain; dyad relationship strain; depression; self-esteem;

Wu, QiongMaternal Emotion Socialization and Child Emotion Regulation in At-Risk Populations
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2018, Human Ecology: Human Development and Family Science
Children’s ability to regulate emotions is very important to their socioemotional development. Maternal emotion socialization is significant in influencing children’s emotion regulation, especially among at-risk populations. The current dissertation presents the results of three studies which investigated maternal emotion socialization practices and child emotion regulation, while considering the specific risk factor in these socialization processes. In the first chapter, important concepts and theories concerning maternal emotion socialization, children’s emotion regulation, and factors influencing the socialization process are presented. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 present each individual study separately. In Chapter 2, the reciprocal relation between maternal emotion coaching and child emotionality was examined, while considering maternal parenting stress as a moderator on this reciprocal relation. In Chapter 3, the relations among maternal depressive symptoms, maternal rumination and child emotion regulation were explored. In Chapter 4, using a low-income, rural sample, the associations among emotion expression, behavioral regulation, and cortisol responses were explored, under different maternal parenting profiles. Finally, Chapter 5 presents an overall discussion of these findings with a focus on their research and clinical implications.

Committee:

Xin Feng, Dr. (Advisor); Natasha Slesnick, Dr. (Committee Member); Keeley Pratt, Dr. (Committee Member); Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life

Keywords:

emotion socialization; emotion regulation; maternal parenting; child development

Wernert, Sean PatrickThe Socio-ecological Influences of College Bullying Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of Student Perceptions
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Psychology
Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model of development as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine how college students perceive and understand the bullying phenomenon— as well as the influences and consequences— on campus at University X; a private, religiously affiliated, large, research university. A total of fifteen students representing each undergraduate academic class and college at University X were interviewed using a single interview protocol. The semi-structured interview consisted of open-ended questions allowing the participants to describe their own understanding and perceptions of what constitutes bullying as well as what they perceive to be its influences and consequences. Using a constant comparative analysis of transcribing, coding and analyzing the interviews, the researcher found that college students at University X closely define bullying in the same way research has but exclude the concept of repetition from their understanding. In addition, the participants understand all four forms of bullying— physical, verbal, relational, and cyber— as bullying behavior, but see only verbal and relational forms as the primary types on campus. Participants also primarily understand immediate micro-system and cultural macro-system influences—including the 2016 U.S. election of President Donald Trump—as impacting bullying behavior. Recommendations for prevention and intervention methods are also discussed.

Committee:

Lisa Pescara-Kovach, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Gregory Stone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Salem, J.D. (Committee Member); Florian Feucht, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

bullying; college student behavior; ecological development

Hamilton, Lucas JohnDoes posture impact affective word processing? Examining the role of posture across adulthood in an incidental encoding task
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Research in emotional aging has primarily investigated mechanisms that could explain the age-related increase in positive emotionality despite various age-related losses. Of particular note is the increasing importance of age-related positivity effects and underlying biological influences on affective processes. Despite evidence of weakened mind-body connectivity in older adulthood presented in the maturation dualism framework, research shows age-similarities in subjective and objective reactivity for certain negative emotional states across adulthood. Thus, robust physiological-experiential associations may still exist in later life. Investigations of integrated mind-body connectivity have lead researchers to examine the influence of posture on cognitive outcomes. Prior evidence has observed that specific postural manipulations (i.e., stooped posture) is linked to negative affective biases in memory and emotional experiences. To interrogate potential posture effects on word recognition, an incidental encoding task was utilized. Although no age differences emerged for concrete words, younger adults outperformed older adults on both negative and neutral abstract words, and older adults remembered more positive relative to neutral abstract words. These results provide partial support for age-related positivity, perhaps in line with older adults’ motivated positive affective goals. Although posture effects were absent in both age groups, there remains considerable room for other integrative research assessing mind-body connectivity within emotion-cognition links across adulthood.

Committee:

Eric Allard (Advisor); Katherine Judge (Committee Member); Jennifer Stanley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

posture; emotion; memory; age-related positivity; mind-body

Wetter, Sara ElizabethExamining Sleep as a Protective Mechanism for Executive Functioning in Children from Low-Income Homes
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2018, Psychology, Clinical
For young children, sleep is essential for healthy development across a wide variety of areas. Inadequate sleep can affect emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health outcomes in early childhood, and can lead to poor outcomes later in life. Low family income and resources can put children at risk for poor sleep quality, impairing their subsequent cognitive abilities, particularly those related to executive functioning. While sleep in early childhood and its effects on executive functioning have been studied, the interaction between family income and sleep habits and their associations with cognitive functioning is less well known. The current study examined sleep quality as a protective factor against the negative effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) on children’s executive functioning skills, specifically those of working memory and inhibition. It was hypothesized that SES would moderate the association between children’s sleep quality and executive functioning such that children from low-SES homes would display worse executive functioning skills when experiencing poor sleep quality. This study examined these associations by drawing from a large data set collected for a preschool expansion project in the Midwest. Parents filled out surveys related to their children’s sleep habits (quality and quantity) and executive functioning, as well as demographics questionnaires determining family income, children’s age, and gender. Poor sleep quality and low family income were associated with poorer performances in both working memory and inhibition. The association between sleep quality and working memory was specific to children from low-SES homes. Exploratory analyses revealed that sleep length was not associated with either working memory or inhibition. Additionally, sleep quality and family income were not associated with a direct assessment of executive functioning. These results suggest that good sleep quality could buffer against poor executive functioning skills for children from low-SES homes. Future studies should attempt to measure these associations longitudinally so as to determine causal links between these variables.

Committee:

Mary Fuhs, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jackson Goodnight, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Keri Kirschman, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Health; Psychology

Keywords:

Executive functioning; Sleep; Protective mechanism; Low-income; Early childhood

Lee, SaebyulLearning Abstract Numbers in Concrete Environment
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
In this dissertation I focus on (1) whether people process numerosity from concrete object arrays in an abstract manner, and (2) how they form abstract numerical representations. Abstractness is a key property of the mature number concept, as it enables humans to utilize numbers in any situation to solve complex problems, regardless of notation, modality, and dimension. The predominant view of numerical cognition assumes an inherent abstractness of numerosity representation, so that how humans develop abstract numerosity representation has not been properly examined. I considered and examined two alternative hypotheses that may explain the development of abstract numerosity processing through comparing the performances in numerical perception and numerical memory tasks of different age groups. In particular, I investigated (1) the effect of the visual properties of sets on adults and children’s numerosity perception, (2) the role of selective attention in non-symbolic numerical representation(s), and (3) the role of number words as young children’s potent attention cues. Study 1 In the first study, I conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, I examined the effect of the dimensional structure of concrete object arrays on numerosity and object perception across two age groups, adults and 4-5-year-olds, based on Garner’s (1976) integral-separable distinction. I found that irrelevant changes in object features significantly interfered with both adults’ and children’s numerical perceptions. Counterintuitively, both adults and children, while in general exhibiting high accuracy in the numerical matching task, consistently exhibited larger object interference. This finding indicates that adults and children, even when they are fully engaged in numerical processing, consider object information as relevant for numerical judgments. In Experiment 2, I tested a possible explanation for adults’ integral numerosity perception by removing the time limit in presenting the stimuli; however, the results showed no significant differences from the results in Experiment 1. Taken together, the results in both experiments imply that numerosity perception processing are neither abstract nor domain-specific, which challenges the predominant view of the abstract innate number system. Study 2 In the second study, I conducted four experiments in which I considered and resolved a potential concern with relying on Garner’s (1976) paradigm for examining dimensional interactions as in Study 1. I investigated whether salient object change captured attention from numerical features prior to focused attention, leading to the formation of proto-objects (Rensink, 2002). If so, the memory trace of the decaying proto-objects would lead to inefficient and inaccurate numerical decisions. To compensate for this concern, I reinvestigated the effect of object features on numerical judgements by relying on recognition memory tasks and Signal Detection theory. I examined the role of selective attention in numerosity representations and explored the role of number words as potent attention cues in 4-5-year-old children’s numerosity representations. The results of Experiment 3 showed a congruency effect in numerical memory across three age groups: adults, 8-9-year-olds, and 4-5-year-olds. The congruency effect in numerical memory sensitivity was particularly larger than that in object memory sensitivity, which was similar to the asymmetrical integral dimensions in Study 1. This asymmetry seemed to increase as the participants’ age increased. In Experiments 4 and 5, I manipulated the direction of attention during training, and found that a dimension-biased instruction led to analytic perceptual processing for adults and older children, but not for young children. This result indicates that cued attention altered the form of participants’ representation of the target dimensions. Furthermore, the training effect was also asymmetrical between the numerical and object dimensions: numerosity-biased training demonstrated larger training effect than did object-biased training. In Experiment 6, I explored the effect of number words on young children’s numerical representations by providing the labels of both dimensional properties during training. The result demonstrated that the verbal number-biased training increased the young children’s numerical memory sensitivity both on congruent and incongruent trials. Unexpectedly, the young children’s object sensitivity also increased, which indicates that the verbal number-biased training led young children to process numerosity in a more independent manner, but it also led them to more correctly encode and retain object information. My investigation in Studies 1 and 2 led me to conclude that integral numerosity processing is a genuine property of numerical perception and representation. A new model that represents this non-abstract nature of numerosity processing is necessary for advancing our understanding of how humans develop abstract number concepts from their concrete environment.

Committee:

Vladimir Sloutsky (Advisor); Andrew Leber (Committee Member); John Opfer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Cognitive development; numerical cognition

Harper, Erin KathleenA Review of Factors Contributing to the Shortage of Palliative Care Service for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Patients
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
Adolescent and young adult oncology (patients aged 15–39 years old) is an emerging group of patients that are recognized to have distinctive qualities concerning their cancer treatment, including intensified psychosocial needs compared to their adult and child counterparts (Bleyer, 2012). The quality of life for adolescent and young adults during and after cancer treatment is disproportionally worse than what is reported by adults and children and the incidence of cancer in this population is steadily growing (Bleyer, 2011, 2012; Pritchard, Cuvelier, Harlos, & Barr, 2011; Rosenberg & Wolfe, 2013; Siegel, Naishadham, & Jemal, 2013; Wein, Pery, & Zer, 2011). Palliative medicine refers to an interventional service that specifically targets improving a patient’s quality of life throughout their care and has been specifically tailored in the oncology treatment guidelines and care principles for adults and children. The healthcare system, however, has been slow to notice how palliative medicine could positively contribute to adolescent and young adult oncology care. Consequently it has been under considered for this patient group. It has yet to be studied in depth as a viable and beneficial service to this cohort. Using a comprehensive literature review, this dissertation explores current shortages in palliative medicine among the adolescent and young adult oncology population. Employing multiple search modalities for key terms of the research topic resulted in 28,832 article returns. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and 36 articles were used in the literature review along with seven grey literature publications. Aspects of palliative care delivery and quality were investigated. Several themes emerged from the literature as well as specific clinical considerations for working with this patient group. Systemic barriers influencing the identified shortages were also examined. Recommendations for remediation are discussed where applicable, as well as the current state of addressing or not addressing each shortage. The role of psychologists in palliative medicine and care of adolescent and young adult oncology patients is also discussed. By illuminating the shortages in palliative care service to the adolescent and young adult oncology population, this dissertation can act as a stimulus to guide the creation of treatment guidelines or assist in future service and program development having proactively identified areas in need of attention. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohio Link ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd Keywords: adolescent and young adult, oncology, cancer, palliative care, palliative medicine, AYAO

Committee:

Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Cheryl Azlin, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Ross Hays, M.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Medicine; Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Health Care; Oncology

Keywords:

adolescent and young adult, AYA, oncology, cancer, AYAO, adolescent and young adult oncology, palliative care, palliative medicine, palliative services

Gonsalves, Crystal RThe Remembered Experience of Adoption: Factors Supporting Healthy Adjustment
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
This qualitative research study is designed to explore ideas, customs, and practices related to adoption from the perspective of adult adoptees. While many studies seek to explain the negative impact of adoption, minimal literature exists with regard to a phenomenological exploration of adoption practices that successfully promote healthy adjustment and a sense of resilience and well-being in adopted children. Existing research on adoption has largely been conducted quantitatively, which can fail to capture the personal, lived experience of a positive adoption experience that leads to healthy adjustment. Specifically, little is known about which factors of the adoption experience adoptees perceive as contributing to healthy adjustment and a sense of well-being. The proposed study located themes and patterns that became apparent through narrative inquiry concerning factors in the adoption experience that contributed to adjustment. Narrative research honors the knowledge held in stories that are retrieved from memory (Fry, 2002). By interviewing adults who were adopted as children, it is hoped that their personal stories can augment clinical conceptualizations of adoption and shed light on positive meaning-making experiences in the context of adoption. These conceptualizations will be of use to persons and professionals who work closely with those involved in adoption, including mental health professionals and paraprofessionals working closely with adoptees and their families. This information is of value for those involved in family dependency treatment courts, child welfare services, and other agencies who wish to promote positive experiences for children and families who become involved in the adoption process. The electronic version of the dissertation is accessible at the Ohiolink ETD center http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Steve Kadin, PhD (Committee Chair); Bella DePaulo, PhD (Committee Member); Violet Oaklander, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Psychology

Keywords:

adoption; adopted; attachment; adjustment; resilience; phenomenological; qualitative; biological; adoptive parents; adoption registry; adoption stereotypes; adaptability; age of adoption; disclosure; racial identity; ethnic identity; closed; open adoption

Rybarczyk, Aubrey RachelWeighting of Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Speech Language Pathology
Word learning requires the ability to integrate auditory information (e.g., an object’s name—the label) and visual information (e.g., an object itself—the referent). Previous research has shown that children with typical development preferentially weight auditory information when auditory-visual stimuli is placed into conflict and that this weighting is advantageous for word learning. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are described as visual learners; however, no comparable test has been administered to children with ASD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether children with ASD follow the same pattern of information processing as children who are typically developing. In the present study, four children with ASD and four typically-developing (TD) children matched to the children with ASD on the basis of receptive language abilities were tested on a computerized preferential looking task. During the computerized task, the children were presented with auditory-visual stimuli on a television screen and trained to look for an auditory-visual “prize” that appeared in specific locations corresponding with the stimulus presented. The children’s eye gazes were recorded and coded frame-by-frame. Given the evidence of children with ASD’s relative strength in visual processing, it was predicted that the children with ASD would differ from their receptive-vocabulary mates and give greater weight to the visual component of auditory-visual stimuli. Study findings did not support this prediction; the majority of participants with typical development weighted visual information, while participants with ASD demonstrated no stimulus preference as a group. These findings call into question the commonly held assumption that all children with ASD are “visual learners.” Additionally, the cognitive and linguistic profiles of the participants with ASD (determined via scores on standardized assessments of cognition and language) revealed that stronger cognitive skills were associated with stronger language skills, regardless of stimulus preference.

Committee:

Allison F. Bean Ellawadi, PhD, CCC-SLP (Advisor); Rebecca J. McCauley, PhD, CCC-SLP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

autism; autism spectrum disorders; autism spectrum disorder; ASD; language development; word learning; processing; cognition; auditory processing; visual processing; auditory visual processing

Romig, Connie J.ACTIVE-CONSTRUCTIVE-INTERACTIVE: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES IN A CLASSROOM SETTING
PHD, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional strategy taxonomy proposed by Chi (2009) in a natural classroom setting. Specifically, according to Chi, instructional strategies that allow students to be active in their learning are more effective than those that allow the student to be merely passive, while constructive strategies are more effective than active and interactive are more effective than constructive. Each of the instructional strategies was employed in four Introduction to Educational Psychology Classes and the learning outcomes, as determined by student performance on unit exams, were compared. The participants were 120 undergraduate students who were enrolled in the introductory course. Each class was presented with a unit employing each instructional strategy, active, constructive and interactive, twice over the course of the semester. At the end of each unit an instructor-made exam was administered. Paired sample comparisons were conducted to determine whether any one of the instructional strategies was superior to the others in terms of student learning outcomes. According to Chi’s taxonomy, interactive instruction should yield the best learning outcomes, followed by constructive instruction and then active construction. Preliminary results indicate that the reverse pattern was observed, with active instruction yielding the best learning outcomes and constructive and interactive showing no significant differences.

Committee:

Chris Was , PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Bradley Morris, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); John Dunlosky, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Educational Theory; Psychology

Keywords:

Active instruction; Constructive instruction; Interactive instruction; Instructional strategies

Williams, Jaclyn HardestyThe Relationship of Trauma Severity, Rumination, and Restructured Core Beliefs to Posttraumatic Growth
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Exposure to trauma is a pervasive problem that can result in a myriad of symptoms and pathologies and affects individuals across all demographics. Following trauma exposure, some individuals reconstructed their world views, sought meaning and experienced the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Undergraduate participants (N=106, Mage= 20.75) were recruited to complete phase 1, which was an online, 15 minute questionnaire. Participants who acknowledged trauma exposure completed phase 2, which consisted of four additional measures. Ninety-three participants (87.7%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. The sample’s multiple correlation coefficient was .78, indicating that approximately 60% of the variance of PTG was accounted for by the linear combination of the predictors of trauma severity, core beliefs, and degree of intrusive and deliberate rumination. Deliberate rumination and core beliefs were both positive correlated with and accounted for significant variance of PTG; trauma severity was not a significant predictor. A follow-up exploratory analysis revealed that deliberate rumination (when entered without trauma severity and core beliefs) accounted for 53% of the variance of PTG. These results coupled with results from an exploratory analysis provided insight that deliberate rumination is a key component in facilitating PTG, and were consistent with other findings (Benetato, 2011; Stockton, Hunt & Joseph, 2011).

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Charles J. Kapp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Counseling Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Therapy

Keywords:

posttraumatic growth; trauma; growth; trauma severity; rumination; core beliefs

Miller, Emby McKinleyEDUCATION IN PERIL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLACK MALE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Human Ecology
Education is seen as one of the several critical factors in promoting the healthy development of youth as they transition to adulthood. In the current era, a high school diploma is considered a minimum requirement for employment in most sectors of the economy (Barton, 2006). The job prospects for youth who have not completed high school often are bleak, unstable, and relatively undesirable. Among youth living in disadvantaged urban communities, the rates of high school drop-out are highest among African American and Latino males. Although considerable efforts and resources have been devoted to preventing vulnerable youth from dropping out of high school, it is a persistent problem in many of our large urban school districts around the country. Part of the reason for this impasse is the gap between what is known about why and how vulnerable youth leave school or what helps them to succeed. Recognizing the effects of dropping out of high school on society, the question is why do urban, African American male students drop out of high school? What makes these students more prone to dropping out than their counterparts who remain in school? In an effort to better understand the lives and circumstances of these student groups, this research investigation uses a comparative case method to examine similarities and differences in the life histories of a matched sample of high school graduates and dropouts. This study investigates how the developmental systems of family, neighborhood, peers and education shape the youth's perspective on school. Findings reveal that while both groups experience high levels of risk factors high school drop-outs had significantly more risk experiences in the family, community, and criminal justice domains. Dropouts also had fewer protective factors in the school, peers, community, and family domains. Individuals experience educational obstacles in multiple domains and as such schools are not likely to promote educational resiliency without additional supports operating in the community to assist disadvantaged families.

Committee:

Deanna Wilkinson, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; Comparative; Counseling Education; Developmental Psychology; Ecology; Education Policy

Keywords:

African American males, High school, School dropout, Urban education, Comparative case method

Tiemeier, Julie MFamily Rituals and Child Psychopathology In Families With Substance Abusing Mothers
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2009, Psychology
Family rituals and child behaviors in families with a substance abusing mother {n = 26) were compared to families with a non-substance abusing mother {n = 26). Each mother completed a demographic form, a Child Behavior Checklist, and a Family Rituals Questionnaire. There were no significant differences found in mother-reported family rituals between families with a substance abusing mother and those with a non-substance abusing mother, but there were differences in mother-reported children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors of anxiety, depression, withdrawn, social, thought, rulebreaking, and aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research were outlined.

Committee:

W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Kathleen Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Renee Zucherro, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Individual and Family Studies

Keywords:

child psychopathology; substance abuse; mothers; Child Behavior Checklist

Pidruzny, Jacquelyn N. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Violent Media
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Psychology
The CDC estimates that 1 out of 175 to 1 out of 45 children in the United States meet criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is a life-long neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, language abilities, and overall daily functioning. Newly emerging research indicates that one-third of children with ASD demonstrate challenging, aggressive, and even violent behaviors. Five decades of research have found a complex but definite connection between violent media consumption and increased aggressive behavior. To date, few studies have examined how consumption of violent media may affect children with ASD. The present study used a mixed-method design to identify the immediate effects of violent media on the behaviors of 42 children from two Midwestern schools that exclusively serve children with ASD. Baseline behaviors during a period of free play, measured by trained coders using a structured behavior observation scale, were compared with the children's behaviors while they watched a cartoon with violent themes. Challenging behaviors were also documented outside of the two observation conditions. Attention to the cartoon, previous exposure to the cartoon, and self-reported favorite television programs were also examined. Participants diagnosed with autistic disorder were more likely to exhibit one or more aggressive behaviors than participants with Aspergers disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified. This is reasonable given that children who meet criteria for autistic disorder tend to be lower functioning and suggests that the structured observation scale was effective in identifying differences in behaviors. No statistically significant differences were found between aggressive behaviors during free play versus cartoon viewing, but only 11 of 42 children were able and willing to actually attend to the cartoon for any period of time. Qualitative analysis indicated that one fourth of the participants demonstrated a variety of challenging behaviors. In view of the importance of media for children with ASD, a possible causal relationship between exposure to violent media and challenging behaviors in this population remains an important question.

Committee:

Jeanne Brockmyer, Ph.D. (Advisor); Wesley Bullock, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Adrienne Fricker-Elhai, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michele Knox, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yueh-Ting Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology

Keywords:

ASD; Autism; Developmental Delays; Children with ASD; Violent Media; Violent Cartoons; Effects of Media Violence; Aggressive Behaviors; Challenging Behaviors and Autism; Behavior Checklist; ASD-BC

Sharpe, Tanzeah Shanae RobinsonShades of Knowledge: Young Children's Perceptions of Racial Attitudes and Preferences
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2014, College of Education
This study explores the racial attitudes and preferences among 164 children between three and seven years of age. The study is a partial replication of the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test which concluded that segregation, along with prejudice and discrimination, caused feelings of inferiority and self-hatred in African-American children. Significant changes to the original doll test are introduced in the current study. This study is based on an embedded mixed method design which utilizes Chi-square, cross-tabulations, and free-choice interviewing. The data were analyzed in response to research questions designed to test the racial attitudes and racial preferences of the participants. The findings of this study concluded that the participants can identify and have an awareness of racial differences, show doll preference, and display positive self-image. Qualitative themes that emerged from the research concluded that the participants liked the doll that looked most like them (or a family member), had a skin tone they liked, or was pretty. Themes associated with why participants did not like the doll that looked like them included skin tone and miscellaneous responses such as facial features and because the doll did not resemble the child’s doll at home. The findings of this study are compared to the results from the Clark and Clark (1958) Doll Test.

Committee:

Judy Alston, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rosaire Ifedi, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Sunny Munn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

early childhood education; self-esteem; identity; racial awareness; racial identification; racial preference; child development; Kenneth Clark; Mamie Clark; doll test; racial development

Ezechukwu, Rebecca NneomaUsing youth perspectives to examine antisocial behavior: A qualitative investigation of the juvenile offender in context.
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Psychology
The purpose of this project was to describe the juvenile offender in context to highlight areas for intervention with this vulnerable population. Youth offenders are a population that face challenges above and beyond the typical challenges of adolescence because many of the factors related to youth offending are intertwined with typical developmental processes shaped by the values and expectations that make up the youth’s cultural context. Because the issue of recidivism is key to designing and delivering effective interventions, it is important to understand the contextual factors that influence amenability to intervention, as well as the sustainability of interventions that are received. In this study, I interviewed five male offenders remanded to a juvenile corrections rehabilitation program for youth with felony offenses. Using youth perspectives, I sought to provide answers to the following questions: What are some of the life experiences among male juvenile offenders that contribute to antisocial behavior? How do developmental and contextual influences affect how youth perceive the events throughout their lives? How might these experiences account for youth responses to intervention and other system expectations while in a juvenile corrections rehabilitation facility? Each participant provided detailed accounts of his experiences. Those experiences often were described as a function of the interactions between each youth and those in his social context—his family, peer, school, and juvenile justice environments. Depending on the unique factors present in his background, each youth interpreted even similar experiences differently. Those differences in perspective strongly influenced each individual’s ability to comment on his self-image, relationships, criminal behavior, and intervention efforts. I present several implications and recommendations for intervention with the adolescent offender based on these youth perspectives. I contend that the nature of social interactions within youth contexts shape experience a great deal and thus, using contextualized understandings of behavior can improve intervention efforts with adolescents. Additionally, using youth perspectives to raise research questions and drive intervention recommendations may help transmit egalitarian values to youth and supplement traditional methods of correctional system evaluation and intervention.

Committee:

Larry Leitner, PhD (Committee Chair); Amy Garbrecht, PsyD (Committee Member); Glenn Muschert, PhD (Committee Member); Vaishali Raval, PhD (Committee Member); Virgina Wickline, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Developmental Psychology; Rehabilitation; Social Research

Keywords:

Adolescents; juvenile delinquency; incarcerated populations; social context; intervention; youth rehabilitation; qualitative research

Stovering, Jaime LTimelines of Disclosures Regarding Number of Victims By Juvenile Sex Offenders
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2010, Psychology
This study was designed to examine the number of victims reported over the course of treatment by 12- to 17-year-old juvenile sex offenders adjudicated to a treatment program. Records were reviewed at four time periods to ascertain the number of victims disclosed at each time period: at the time of conviction, assessment phase (1st day of treatment until polygraph), at the polygraph examination, and from the day of the polygraph to discharge. Results indicated that additional victims (M = 2.39, SD = 3.50) were reported over the participants' time in the program, with the most additional victims being reported during the assessment phase prior to the polygraph, which was from 6-12 weeks after the day of their placement in the program.

Committee:

W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Kathleen J. Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Cathy McDaniels-Wilson, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Jerome M. Rotterman, LSW, CCDC III-E (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Criminology; Developmental Psychology

Keywords:

juvenile delinquents; teenage sex offenders; sexual abuse victims

Currans, Kristn DThe social reputation of children with Asperger's Disorder in the classroom: Teachers' impressions
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2006, Psychology
The social reputations of children (ages 6-11) with Asperger's Disorder (AD) (n = 16) and classroom peers (n = 16) were examined using a modified version of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a measure of social behavior, completed by teachers. Teachers also completed a Behavioral Assessment Scale of Children - Teacher Report Scale (BASC-TRS) for each child, a measure of observed behavior. Relative to their peers, children with AD scored higher on the Sensitive-Isolated dimension and lower on the Sociability-Leadership dimension of the RCP, indicating less positive social reputations. They were observed to engage in more disruptive and fewer adaptive behaviors. The findings suggest that the behavior of children with AD negatively impacts their social reputations and acceptance by peers. The need for social skills interventions is discussed, and suggestions for further research are made.

Committee:

Janet R. Schultz, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Crighton Newsom, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Educational Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

psychology; education; social reputation; asperger syndrome; children

Feng, YayuAnalysis of Moral Argumentation in Newspaper Editorial Contents with Kohlberg's Moral Development Model
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Journalism (Communication)
This study evaluates reasoning stages addressed in newspaper editorial contents based on Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development model. Ten editorial pieces from two newspapers in Athens, Ohio,--The Post, a student newspaper and The Athens News, a local newspaper--were analyzed with regard to two local incidents involving rape culture. To facilitate the analysis, a chart was developed to connect moral argumentations in the editorials to the model's abstract description of moral reasoning stages. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the sample revealed that The Post mainly addressed reasoning stages 2, 3, and 4, while The Athens News presented higher level reasoning on stages 3, 4, and 6. The study details the different patterns of moral reasoning stages addressed in the two newspapers and offers a relevant case study of editorials’ performance as moral educators. The analytical system developed in this study also contributes a new approach to investigating moral media messages.

Committee:

Bernhard Debatin (Advisor); Aimee Edmondson (Committee Member); Ellen Gerl (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Developmental Psychology; Ethics; Journalism; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

media ethics; moral reasoning stages; Kohlberg moral development model; newspaper editorials; rape culture; moral argumentation

Lackovich-Van Gorp, Ashley N.Positive Deviance and Child Marriage by Abduction in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
This dissertation uses Positive Deviance (PD) to understand child marriage by abduction in a community in the Sidama Zone of Ethiopia. Marriage by abduction occurs among the poorest 10% of the Sidama population and entails the kidnapping of girls between the ages of 10 and 14 for forced genital circumcision, rape and marriage. PD is a problem solving approach that mobilizes a community to uncover existing yet unrecognized solutions to solve the specific problem. This study, which entailed an examination of the evolution of marriage norms among the Sidama as well as an analysis of the underpinnings of marriage by abduction, discovered that some community members practice behaviors and strategies that can prevent child marriage by abduction. The results support PD application to this specific form of child marriage as well as the practice as a whole, offering an alternative to traditional behavior change methodology. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Alan Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Monique Sternin, MA (Committee Member); Sandra Cheldelin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Studies; Behavioral Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Gender Studies; Social Psychology

Keywords:

positive deviance; child marriage; Ethiopia; Sidama; action research; mothers; daughters; abduction; harmful traditional practice; adaptive behavior change; adolescents; adolescent development; international development

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