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Jangid, AnuradhaVerifying IP-Cores by Mapping Gate to RTL-Level Designs
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Computer Engineering
Since 1965, with the invention of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices, the number of transistors on ICs has doubled every two years, as predicted by Moore. Today, the scaling of digital ICs has reached a point where it contains billions of interconnected transistors. As anticipated by International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), mass production of silicon will contain over 6.08 billion transistors per chip by 2014, based on 14nm design technology standards. This humongous density of transistors places immense pressure on verification of IC designs at each stage of silicon development. Hardware Verification is the process of validating the correctness of a design implemented from the design specs. It accounts to nearly 70% - 80% of the total efforts in an IC development process. To validate the implementation, a typical silicon development cycle includes functional, logic and layout verifications processes. Therefore, it is desirable to incorporate a standard verification methodology which can certify point to point symmetry between the designs at different abstraction levels. Moreover, if such a methodology is applied, it would facilitate early detection of hardware defects which might arise from design synthesis, thereby, reducing the verification efforts in silicon development. In our work, we introduce a novel technique to verify the implementation of an IC at different design phases. Our technique is based on mapping of design models, by using Distinguishing Experiment, Distinguishing Sequence Generation, Simulation and Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG). ATPG produces input sequences; such that when these sequences are applied on a pair of gates from a circuit, they generate different logic values at their corresponding outputs. Both designs are simulated with these input sequences and based on the simulation results, a distinguishing tree is constructed. Our technique utilizes a recursive simulation approach where feedback to distinguishing sequence generation module is provided by the tree after each simulation. Intelligence drawn from distinguishing tree states correspondence or mismatch between designs. A System on Chip (SoC) is an IC design, containing wide range of Intellectual Property (IP) cores. Verifying the equivalency of these IP cores at different abstraction levels, such as - Register Transfer Level (RTL) and gate-level, is extremely important. Our approach requires examination of gate-level design and its equivalent RTL-level design to identify the correspondence between gates and wires/variables. For the implementation, we are proposing an algorithm which accepts the gate and an RTL level circuits, matches the wires/variables in RTL-level design to the gates in gate level-design and identifies the location(s) where the two descriptions differ (if any) from each other. Similarly, a mapping of gates from Gate-level and transistors (pMOS, nMOS) from layout-level design can be established. Our methodology is applicable to both combinational and sequential designs. We designed an algorithm based on the Time Frame Expansion concept in sequential ATPG. This algorithm generates distinguishing input sequence for both classes of circuits. We have used several heuristics to improvise our ATPG algorithm in terms of speed, efficiency, for example; loop avoidance, controllability to select objective and guide backtrack, unreachable state, etc. For asserting our approach, we have performed various experiments on standard designs, which include ALU, USB 2.0 and Open RISC 1200, wherein we have successfully established a correspondence between the designs. Also, we have introduced several variances in both the designs and carried out experiments to identify those differences and to evaluate the precision and efficiency of our approach.

Committee:

Daniel G Saab (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Design; Systems Design

Keywords:

Distinguishing Sequence, Distinguishing Experiments, Distinguishing Tree Generation

Dreser, MelanieDesign, Fun and Sustainability: Utilizing Design Research Methods to Develop an Application to Inform and Motivate Students to Make Sustainable Consumer Choices
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

Nowadays, when we talk about sustainability or environmentally friendly practices, we try to convince groups or individuals to be good citizens or good people. Especially young people do not care deeply about pursuing an environmentally conscious lifestyle if it requires an effort on their part.

What if one uses fun to influence (i.e., motivate and inform) students about sustainability in their daily life? Would this approach be more successful in changing their behavior? Can sustainability even be considered to be fun? As we already know, behavior change requires motivation and fun could be used as a motivational factor. Proposing that we need to develop programs and concepts that make a sustainable lifestyle fun instead of perceiving it as a negative influence on our quality of life provides new opportunities for projects and interventions.

When we make sustainable practices fun, the likelihood to adapt such a new behavior increases.

Behavioral change results from a combination of three factors, namely, awareness, information and motivation, which is the most important starting point for fun.

This thesis addresses the difficulties in informing and motivating students to choose a sustainable lifestyle by focusing on their consumer behavior. With a fun and playful application, the user should be able to learn and inform herself or himself about a sustainable lifestyle and be motivated to integrate it into her or his own daily life.

By offering multiple choices of action as well as the opportunity to be and act as a part of a whole group (i.e., collective action), competition and therefore motivation should be raised. This results from the idea that fun can be experienced both individually or as a group. Design Research is the main tool to develop this informational and motivational application. Research on the target group, in combination with existing case studies in design and the psychological aspects of human decision making, will lead to a design application. The resulting methodology could be used for any target group.

Committee:

Paul Nini, J (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Sanders, B.-N. (Committee Member); Carolina Gill (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Demographics; Design; Fine Arts; Sustainability; Systems Design

Keywords:

design; fun; sustainability; design research; participatory design; game; game mechanics; behavior change; Generation Y; sustainable lifestyle; human-centered; social networks; social media; co-design; motivation; information; awareness;

Benzenberg, Elizabeth Marie AcoxExploring Design Process Evolution in Architecture and Interior Design Firms
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

Architects and interior designers must work together and with others on the design team in a series of processes in order for the building projects they undertake to be successful. The two major processes that they go through are the creative decision-making process as well as the project timeline and process. These two processes must be able to work within one another in order to produce a successful outcome.

Along with changes in the creative decision-making and the project processes, two shifts are taking place in how architects and interior designers bureaucratically manage a project. The first is a shift in the type of technology used to share concepts and document design. The second is a shift in project management that begins to include the client (and other stakeholders) earlier in the process, thus increasing the size of the design team. These two shifts have a great affect on one another and are continuously co-evolving.

This thesis first defines processes historically used in the architecture and interior design professions through secondary research and a literature review. These discipline specific processes are compared and contrasted with processes gathered from general design and related disciplines such as engineering design, product design, and software design. Second, this thesis documents primary research (in the form of interviews), which seeks to identify processes that currently utilize new technologies and expanded project team within the architecture and interior design profession. In summary, the results are analyzed, compared to secondary research, and a new process is suggested as the next step in the evolution of the design process.

Committee:

Jeffrey Haase (Advisor); Heike Goeller (Committee Member); Blaine Lilly (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Design; Interior Design

Keywords:

interior design; architecture; process; process evolution; design process; design

Dommaraju, Sunny RajDesign and Implementation of a 16-Bit Flexible ROM-less Direct Digital Synthesizer in FPGA and CMOS 90nm Technology
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2013, Electrical Engineering
A ROM-less direct digital synthesizer architecture is presented in this thesis. This architecture eliminates the ROM-based phase to sine wave amplitude converter, which is a bottleneck for pushing clock frequencies into the gigahertz range. The design consists of a 16-bit phase accumulator, a set of 18 band pass finite impulse response filters, a 12-bit digital to analog converter and a low pass filter to produce a sine wave with output frequencies ranging from 36 MHz to 72 MHz with a resolution of 3.05 kHz and a 55 dB spur free dynamic range. The same hardware can be used to achieve output frequency ranging from hertz to gigahertz and a 191 Hz resolution by changing the clock frequency. A resolution of 0.05 Hz can be achieved by using a 32-bit phase accumulator. The average phase noise obtained was -87 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset, -118 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and -151 dBc/Hz at 5 MHz offset. This design was implemented on Virtex-6 FPGA. The analysis results of FPGA data show that the proposed design is an effective alternative. An ASIC design was also implemented in CMOS 90nm technology to reach higher frequency ranges.

Committee:

Saiyu Ren, Ph.D (Advisor); Raymond E. Siferd, Ph.D (Committee Member); Chein-In Henry Chen, Ph.D (Committee Member); R.William Ayres, Ph.D (Other)

Subjects:

Design; Education; Electrical Engineering; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

Direct Digital Synthesizer, ROM-less, 16-Bit Accumulator, Multiplier-less FIR Filter, Virtex 6 FPGA, CMOS 90nm Technology, Hardware Reuse, Pipe-lined Design, ASIC

Syed, Tamseel MahmoodPrecoder Design Based on Mutual Information for Non-orthogonal Amplify and Forward Wireless Relay Networks
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Akron, 2014, Electrical Engineering
Cooperative relaying is a promising technique to enhance the reliability and data-rate of wireless networks. Among different cooperative relaying schemes, the half-duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is popular due to its low implementation complexity and performance advantages. This thesis investigates precoder design for a cooperative half-duplex single-relay NAF system from an information theoretic point of view using a novel mutual information-based design criterion. The first part of the thesis considers the design of a 2x2 precoder for the NAF half duplex single relay network in the presence of the direct link using mutual information (MI) as the main performance metric. Different from precoder design methods using pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, which are valid only at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the proposed precoder design can apply to any SNR region, which is of more interest from both information-theoretic and practical points of view. A MI-based criterion is developed for a cooperative frame length of 2, which corresponds to the case of using a 2x2 precoder. The design criterion is established in a closed-form, which can be helpful in finding an optimal precoder. Then it is analytically shown that a good precoder should have all entries that are equal in magnitude, which is different from the optimal precoders obtained thus far using the conventional PEP criterion. Simulation results indicate that the proposed class of precoders outperform the existing precoders in terms of the mutual information performance. The second part of the thesis extends the precoder design to an arbitrary block length of 2T. In general, for this case, a precoder of size 2Tx2T needs to be considered to optimize the MI performance. Similar to the 2 × 2 precoder design, a MI-based design criterion is first established. While the criterion can be expressed in closed form, the design of optimal precoders in this case is not possible, due to the complexity of the optimization problem. As an alternative, a novel grouping technique, which is referred to as symbol grouping, in which a group of only P = 2 information symbols are pre-coded to improve the MI, is proposed. It is then demonstrated that the grouping technique yields a much simpler design criterion and an optimal 2x2 precoder can be developed. Numerical results show that the proposed precoding technique outperforms existing precoder designs while keeping the receiver complexity at a minimum.

Committee:

Nghi H Tran, Dr. (Advisor); Alexis De Abreu Garcia, Dr. (Committee Member); Arjuna Madanayake, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Design; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Literature; Systems Design; Systems Science; Theoretical Mathematics

Keywords:

Cooperative Communication; wireless; network; reliability; data-rate; NAF; space-time code; non-orthogonal amplify and forward; information theory; mutual information; PEP; precoder; SNR; closed form; symbol grouping; receiver complexity; Tamseel Syed

Wang, Chun-YenKnowledge-Based Design: Networked and Visualized Knowledge for Improved Product Development
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2001, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design
Product design and development is a team activity. Each discipline should be immersed in the entire development process and communicate thoroughly to ensure that the final product design conforms to their standpoints and concerns. As can be seen from published literature and the real design environment, this closely working model and scenario is rare. Different disciplines have different standpoints and concerns. And without consensus, managerial level persons and implementers have communication gaps; experience and know-how cannot be accumulated and disseminated; drawbacks and blind spots cannot be identified and improved. All these factors result in the bad designs and the stagnation of product improvement. The purpose of this thesis is to propose a design methodology, theory, and framework to transform a traditional product development team into an integral and more effective team. Through the assistance of Thinkmap™, a relational database, and the Internet, all the product development related information and knowledge can be documented at a team level, and can be disseminated in a networked and visualized representation to form a 'product development encyclopedia'. This tool and medium is not to replace people, but to create a point of interaction, responsibility, and dialogue. This transforms knowledge from a 'passive knowledge' stage to an 'active knowledge' stage. All team members can readily acquire relevant knowledge and understanding regarding both past and current projects' decisions, reasons, design histories, know-how, disciplines' standpoints, personal contacts, etc. to improve their inspiration and problem-solving abilities. This thesis can provide the following benefits- a better collaborative environment, improved project management, an innovation and inspiration assisting tool, quality improvement, self-learning and education.

Committee:

Wayne C. Chung (Advisor); Elizabeth BN Sanders (Committee Member); Blaine W. Lilly (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Interior Design

Miller, Adam J.Methodology for Cost Estimation of Systems at a Preliminary Stage of Design
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)

Reliable cost estimation of systems in the early design stages can be very beneficial. Some methods that do focus on system estimation are based on high level parametric models, which are not always detailed enough to provide a reliable or useful prediction model.

This thesis provides a repeatable method for creating Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) for the estimation of a system of parts using attributes available at a preliminary design stage. The methodology provides guidelines for collecting data, classifying data, and creating CERs. Also, Attribute Estimating Relationships (AERs) are discussed for estimating the CER inputs that may not be available in preliminary design with attributes that are available in preliminary design.

The methodology was tested on a system of parts from a jet engine and the resulting CERs were compared to other higher level models. The results indicated the proposed method was slightly less accurate than some alternative models. However, the proposed method provided a more detailed and logical CER than the alternate models.

Committee:

Dale Masel, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Business Costs; Design; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

Cost Estimation of Systems; Systems CERs; Cost Estimating Relationships; Cost Estimation; System Level Cost Estimation

Kauffman, Jordan A.G.Success Metrics and Sustainable Business Models in Social Innovation Design Firms
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
This thesis is an investigation into sustainable business models and the different evaluation methods utilized in social innovation design. Over the last twenty years, there has been an increase in awareness and desire within the design industry to utilize design as a way to help solve some of the large, systemic social problems facing people all over the world. To make this work financially and sustainably, designers are utilizing a variety of for-profit and nonprofit business models. However, these business models are potentially hindering social innovation designers’ access to the resources needed to measure the impact of their work. Social innovation designers are co-designing and developing services, programs, systems, and products with nonprofits and communities that are dealing with these social problems. Social change work of this nature requires designers and their partners to be engaged in measuring the long-term impact of their work in order to truly make lasting change. This has led social innovation designers to turn to evaluation methods used in the parallel fields of social work, community organizing, education, and public health, in order to track the impacts of their work. These evaluation methods also play a key role in helping social innovation designers better communicate the value they bring to their clients and partners. By utilizing and integrating these evaluation methods into their design processes, social innovation designers are leading the way for this field to gain broader acceptance and support.

Committee:

Ken Visocky O'Grady, MFA (Advisor); Jessica Barness, MFA (Committee Member); Sanda Katila, MFA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Entrepreneurship; Social Work; Systems Design

Keywords:

Social Innovation Design; Design for Social Good; Business Models; Business Models in Social Innovation Design; Visual Communication Design; Theory of Change; Logic Model; Evaluation Methods in Design; Evaluation Methods; Nonprofits; Nonprofit Design;

Olson, Branka VExperiential Workplace Design for Knowledge Work Organizations: A Worker Centered Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Management
The built environment can have a significant positive (or negative) effect on our work experience. At an individual level, we intuitively understand the effects of the physical space, but when we try to demonstrate the sources and types of effects, we are often unable to do so. This lack of evidence creates a divergence of opinion between management, workforce, and design professionals as to the value that workspace design adds to organizational success and why organizational leadership should invest in more mindful design of knowledge work environments. To address this problem of practice, an exploratory, multi-method series of three studies was conducted. The first study is qualitative in nature and explores how knowledge work organizations and design teams develop workspace design projects. The results reveal a divergence of vision, values, and vernacular amongst the actors in the initial design criteria-setting phase that obscures a unified problem definition resulting in disparate perceptions of workspace success. It also reveals that workers are not directly engaged in the process of determining the problem definition and design criteria. The second study evaluates workers’ perceived satisfaction with components of their workspace as predictors of their emotional and behavioral response to work. This quantitative study measures workers’ cognitive assessment of satisfaction with the components of their workspace and facilities and tests their predictive value on worker job engagement, job satisfaction and performance. The results demonstrate that workers’ satisfaction with components of the work environment do not predict the effects on the emotional states of workers. Thus, the study uncovers deeper issues involved in determining the effects of workspace on emotional and behavioral outcomes. A third study assesses the workers’ affective experience of the integral work environment on their emotional response to work. The results indicate an overwhelming effect of the experiential workplace on the emotional response of workers, including engagement. This set of three studies points towards a new paradigm for the methodology of workplace design project delivery by placing emphasis on the worker holistic, integral experience of the workplace. A new, emergent process model is proposed, which is worker centered, that establishes a clear relationship between the physical work environment and organizational performance outcomes.

Committee:

Richard Boland (Committee Chair); Somers Toni (Committee Member); Laszlo Christopher (Committee Member); Stephens John Paul (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Design; Experimental Psychology; Interior Design; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

assimilative coherence; design problem definition; integral workplace; worker centered design

Unrath, Katie CCollaborative Creativity in the Physical Work Environment: A Pre-Test, Intervention, Post-Test Case Study
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design
There is little research on the relationship between the physical work environment and group creativity. Components within a physical work environment could potentially affect the users' perceptions of their own creativity or the creativity that they experience with others. The increase of creative work output as a standard in various work settings today requires that further research be completed to better understand the nuanced relationship between the physical work environment and group creativity. Various entities such as Google have taken this relationship very seriously, experimenting with a wide variety of environments to support their creative workforces. The experiential work environment is comprised of many elements within a complex system. Researchers are still working on outlining the components of this system, how these components relate to one another and how this system relates to creativity. Important questions relative to this relationship may include: How might an individual's (or a group's) perception of creativity (feeling creative) be affected by the physical work environment? What is the relationship of mood to creativity within an environment? What is the role of tools and materials to creativity within an environment? How might participatory design methods, the codesign of a workspace, affect the ownership and/or stewardship of a work environment? This research attempts to address these questions through the study of a group of creative workers who, by accounts of existing research on the topic, worked in a physical environment that did not support creativity. This group was able to function as creative professionals and students within this ill suited (pre-test) environment and was documented doing so for a 113 day period. This group then participated in co-designing their work environment to better support their creativity, which was implemented soon after. Finally, this group was documented working in their co-designed (post-test) environment for a 115 day period to determine if the changes to the environment had lasting impacts on their perceptions of creativity. The co-designed post-test physical environment had a positive impact on this group's perceptions of creativity, at both individual and group levels. This may be, in part, due to a more comforting atmosphere that allowed the users of the post-test environment to be happier while working in the spaces. The workspaces developed through co-design encouraged encounters with others and with creation supplies, which impacted their creativity. The engagement in the design process of their work environment directly affected their perceptions of ownership of the workspaces, in particular, a sense of group ownership. This sense of group ownership had a positive impact on the stewardship of their environment. The results of this research support the notion that work environments, when planned appropriately, can enhance group creative collaborative efforts. A new framework has been developed by the investigator, which visualizes a system for the creative work environment. This system includes: the people, the culture of the workplace, the artifacts, the functional features of resources and space and the inspirational features of resources and space. This framework is a starting point for envisioning the creative work environment system as an active, evolving entity comprised of not only the physical elements of the environment but also how people experience and interact within the physical environment.

Committee:

Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders, Ph.D. (Advisor); Susan Melsop (Committee Member); David Staley, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Design; Interior Design

Keywords:

co-design; design research; interior design; creative space; creative workspace; creative workplace; creativity supplies; creativity materials; creativity artifacts; group creativity; collaborative creativity; individual creativity; design intervention

Scudieri, Paul AnthonyInformation in Complex Product Systems
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Industrial, Interior, and Visual Communications Design

In a highly interconnected world, the design challenges faced by design professionals,engineers, and individual users are growing increasingly difficult due to multiple objectives that one must attempt to satisfy across multiple scales. Accordingly, the effectiveness and fit of a particular design solution is often dependent upon the ability to balance competing constraints for which there exists no optimal solution. In instances where user needs and relevant solutions are dynamic, why not attempt to leverage the knowledge, information, and sharp-end expertise of all of a product’s users distributed throughout the product system?

In order to facilitate a better understanding of both product systems and the heterogeneous users who comprise them, this thesis looks to ideas from the diverse and growing body of complex systems research, and attempts to synthesize an understanding of complex product systems. In order to design for the complex environments in which products will be used, we must acknowledge the scale, scope, and complexity of the design problem, and then look to distributed information regarding users’ needs, goals, and desires in order to gain a more complete perspective.

By capturing, transferring, and integrating relevant information from multiple contexts of use, information can be tailored to the current understandings and goals of specific users. Accordingly, a system of specifically tuned products and information has great potential to maintain the relevance of both products and information across multiple iterations and over longer periods of time, all while helping users to more effectively accomplish dynamic goals and incorporate products into their own local contexts.

Committee:

Carolina Gill, MFA (Advisor); Wayne Carlson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Engineering; Systems Design

Keywords:

product; design; complex system; information; metadata

Haile, YohannesSustainable Value And Eco-Communal Management: Systemic Measures For The Outcome Of Renewable Energy Businesses In Developing, Emerging, And Developed Economies
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Management
The International Energy Agency (IEA) forecast of 2014 indicates a 37% energy demand increase in the next 25 years. To meet the forecasted energy demand increase and ameliorate ecological stress associated with meeting the demand, the increased deployment and effective operations of renewable energy projects and businesses are of paramount importance. This study sought to understand the factors impacting renewable energy businesses and identifies an integrative measure for the performance of these businesses in the context of developing, emerging, and developed economies. Our research data have revealed that the performance of renewable energy (RE) systems cannot be viewed or determined in isolation (contextual reduction) from the social system of the host community. Hence, the best way to understand its implications is using integrative approaches. Our research suggests well-developed and deployed eco-communal management practices, a type of innovative management, is the best way to create value proposition of RE businesses/projects into sustainable value. For developed economies the primary value path is from knowledge creation => eco-communal management => sustainable value, whereas, it is from connectedness => eco-communal management => sustainable value for emerging economies. In the context of emerging economies, the impact of knowledge creation on sustainable value is primarily indirect through hastening and affecting transformational changes, hence deploying effective transition engagements and instituting accurate methods to measure the efficacy of knowledge creation are imperative. In the context of developing economies knowledge creation and integrated vision frame the outcome of the RE business or project mediated by both eco-communal management and market creation. Our research further suggests the level of managerial authority bifurcates the translation of strategic objectives of businesses, and the relatedness of the key decision maker into sustainable value through its strategic management practices in emerging economies, while it does not have significance in developed economies. Our research makes theoretical, and practical contribution to the theory of innovation by discovering a novel type of management strategy, which is effective and instrumental in creating sustainable value from the initial conditions of integrated vision, knowledge creation, and connectedness.

Committee:

Roger Saillant, PhD (Committee Chair); Kathleen Buse, PhD (Committee Member); James Gaskin, PhD (Committee Member); Christopher Laszlo, PhD (Committee Member); Hokey Min, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Area Planning and Development; Asian Studies; Atmosphere; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Business Administration; Business Education; Climate Change; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Comparative; Conservation; Demographics; Design; Ecology; Economic History; Economic Theory; Economics; Education; Electrical Engineering; Energy; Engineering; Entrepreneurship; Environmental Economics; Environmental Education; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Health; Environmental Justice; Environmental Management; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; European Studies; Experiments; Finance; Geography; Health; Health Sciences; Higher Education; History; Hydrologic Sciences; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; International Relations; Labor Economics; Labor Relations; Latin American Studies; Management; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mathematics; Mechanical Engineering; Meteorology; Natural Resource Management; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Personality; Political Science; Public Policy; Regional Studies; Religion; Social Structure; Spirituality; Statistics; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Sustainability; Systematic; Systems Design; Systems Science; Technology

Keywords:

Performance, nested complexity, connectedness, eco-communal management, transition engagement, technology and business model innovations, entrepreneurship, and sustainable value

Bryant, Molly E.Physical Environments Conducive To Creativity and Collaboration Within the Work Environment
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

Relationships between work environments and physical spaces are understudied. Components within the physical environment could have an influence on the work environment in regard to how the workers perceive group collaboration and creative output. Common changes to the physical space such as “introducing open plan offices, cubicles, and ergonomic furniture have led to increased worker performance, satisfaction, and improved communication and teamwork” (Dul et al., 2011, p. 2). Even with these basic modifications to physical space within the work environment, questions remain unanswered.

How does physical space within a work environment influence our creativity? How do physical environments contribute to our work styles and how we communicate with others within the workplace? The open office floor plan is quickly becoming the norm, but is this the only way designers should plan a workplace? Can private areas improve the fostering of creativity? Do surrounding materials within a designed environment such as the floor, wall, and ceiling finishes, even the lighting, have an influence on creativity and collaboration?

With the increase of design thinking strategies and the addition of “innovation teams” within businesses, the demand for the physical workspace to enhance these strategies and structures is growing. Knowledge workers, also known as “the creative class” by Richard Florida, “are the source of original and potentially useful ideas and solutions for a firm’s renewal of products, services, and processes”(Dul et al., 2011, p. 1). It is the designer’s responsibility to understand what components within the physical environment can be perceived as conducive to creative thinking and what perceived components might promote collaborative work styles. With this understanding, we can implement these components within the planning and design programming phases to create spaces that support creativity and promote collaboration.

By taking an in depth look at a variety of creative service providers and the preferences and way people work within these spaces, perceptions have been identified for stimulating creativity and collaboration through the means of the physical environment can begin to be understood. With the constant change in design, this knowledge will aid in formulating a conceptual framework for physical components that may be perceived to enhance creativity and collaboration within the work environment. With the constant change of work styles, today’s technology, and the increase in the integration of “innovation teams” to foster new ideas, there is value in the understanding of how companies can contribute to physical spaces through implementing components perceived to represent creativity and promote collaboration through the designed environment.

Committee:

Susan Melsop (Advisor); Heike Goeller (Committee Member); Elizabeth Sanders (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Business Community; Design; Interior Design

Keywords:

Interior Design; Creativity; Collaboration; Architecture; Work Environment; Physical Environment; Workplace

Wynn, James JoshiOpen Space Cluster Developments to Conservation Subdivisions: Standards and Management Plans Influencing Conservation Goals
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2008, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)
This thesis poses the question: Can goals for natural resource conservation and sustainability be better achieved through higher standards for the quantity, quality, configuration and management of the open space areas in conservation subdivisions? This thesis is based on an analysis of the standards in the literature that are used to designate the quantity, quality, configuration and management of the open space in conservation subdivisions, and their influence on the conservation goals of natural resource preservation and sustainability. Using a case study approach this thesis analyzes three conservation subdivisions and their respective municipal subdivision ordinances, including: their covenants, conditions and restrictions; development design guidelines; management plans; and site characteristics. Conclusions reached confirm that there are a variety of terms, standards and design and management approaches that can be advanced to influence natural resource conservation and sustainability goals. Each case study site and ordinance profiled has approaches and standards that can be used to inform future land use policy and planning to better achieve goals most valued in a particular location.

Committee:

Nancy J. Manring, PhD (Committee Chair); Nancy Bain, PhD (Committee Member); Geoff Buckley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Civil Engineering; Design; Ecology; Energy; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Science; Geography; Landscaping; Public Administration; Systems Design; Transportation; Urban Planning

Keywords:

conservation development; conservation subdivision; open space; cluster development; cluster subdivision; subdivision ordinance; zoning ordinance

Edman, Christopher L.The Effect of Tactile and Audio Feedback in Handheld Mobile Text Entry
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2016, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
Effects of tactile and audio feedback are examined in the context of touchscreen and mobile use. Prior experimental research is graphically summarized by task type (handheld text entry, tabletop text entry, non-text input), tactile feedback type (active, passive), and significant findings, revealing a research gap evaluating passive tactile feedback in handheld text entry (a.k.a. “texting”). A passive custom tactile overlay is evaluated in a new experiment wherein 24 participants perform a handheld text entry task on an iPhone under four tactile and audio feedback conditions with measures of text entry speed and accuracy. Results indicate audio feedback produces better performance, while the tactile overlay degrades performance, consistent with reviewed literature. Contrary to previous findings, the combined feedback condition did not produce improved performance. Findings are discussed in light of skill-based behavior and feed-forward control principles described by Gibson (1966) and Rasmussen (1983).

Committee:

Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Advisor); John Flach, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Scott Watamaniuk, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Design; Engineering; Experiments; Industrial Engineering; Information Technology; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Systems Design; Systems Science; Technology

Keywords:

text entry; texting; mobile; handheld; hand held; hand-held; feedback; feed back; feed-forward; feed forward; tactile; haptic; audio; typing; interface; touchscreen; touch-screen; touch screen; iPhone; skilled; skill-based; behavior; Gibson; Rasmussen;

Tashfeen, Asheer I.The Presentation of Spatial Design using Autonomous Characters in Virtual Environments
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Industrial, Interior, and Visual Communications Design

This research is an exploration of virtual environments as it relates to presenting spatial design, specifically focusing on the use of autonomous behavior in virtual characters for simulation purposes. The characters in motion gives the viewer of this environment an understanding of circulation routes, traffic density and space usage (function) among other aspects. Since the characters can ‘think’ by themselves through the programmed artificial intelligence, the resulting simulation may be unexpected. Flaws or miscalculations in the design may be highlighted due to the chaos that arises from the virtual crowd.

To conduct the research, two virtual environments were produced and examined. These were modified through an iterative process based on analysis and review by groups of peers, academics, as well as designers in the field. My documentation includes the necessary steps taken prior to production, an analysis of the environments, as well as possible future directions. The existing uses of this technology were also analyzed and compared.

Similar to the impact on the design field by the introduction of perspective drawings, the use of virtual environments has the potential of creating a new method of designing, one where design is conceived and experimented on a computer, as opposed to orthographic drawings and perspective vignettes. This is due to the ability of real-time spatial manipulation which allows one to see the direct effect of any proposed change upon the characters in the simulation. One could experience the environment through these autonomous beings, giving us a dimension of sight we could never see otherwise. The functionality of designed space could now be ‘discovered’ by the virtual characters, thus enabling the most ambiguous forms to take on roles we may not have conceived ourselves.

Committee:

Jeffrey Haase, MA (Advisor); Alan Price, MFA (Committee Member); Stephen Turk, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture; Artificial Intelligence; Design; Interior Design

Keywords:

virtual environment; architecture; architectural graphics; spatial representation; autonomous characters;

Beach, Lindsay BrookeThe Interaction of Color in the Context of Electronic Media: Providing a New Platform for Exploratory Learning in the Additive Color Space
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

This thesis research is constructed around leveraging applied, professional art practices coupled with emerging technologies to expand the educational experience in the Design classroom. By extending the classic theories of teaching Color Theory, rooted from the Bauhaus School, into a digital and interactive space, students are likely to have a better understanding and appreciation for the interaction of color in the digital space.

The experimentation of several interactive prototypes could potentially be used as options for enhancing different tasks in digitally manipulating color. A different concept for each prototype allows for a wider evaluation of the effectiveness of each prototype and create a more creative and exploratory experience for the final product. The difficulties that programming presents prohibit the completion of several conceptual prototypes. It would be interesting to examine the effectiveness of contracting the knowledge and abilities of one or two Computer Science students to assist in creating fully functional prototypes to strengthen the results of this research and to have the ability to create a final product for usability analysis and investor presentations.

This product will not only teach designers and emerging artists basic color theories in the digital space, but will allow the students to explore various color harmonies and color nomenclature based on the teacher’s lesson plan and allow a cognitive approach to manipulating the interaction of color in a digital setting.

Several prototypes were designed and developed containing various components centered around color theory. Each platform offers the student different ways to explore the interaction of color, with thorough explanations of color interactions in the digital setting, such as color relationships, perception hue, and saturation and value. Lessons were reinforced by different interactive exercises throughout the system. Secondary research shows that various defined user experience elements need to be included during the design of the prototypes, such as accompanying feedback, providing the assistance that guides users in correctly manipulating the color on-screen. While one prototype may give the user complete control in each exercise, keeping track of each decision made throughout the experimental process, as well as offering tips to enhance or alter the outcome for different desired results.

Through an evolutionary process, the final prototype was more robust and addressed the results from each testing, while new concepts were introduced through iterative research. The first step was to design and develop a basic prototype that addressed the fundamentals of the in-class exercises. By first testing the usability of that prototype as well as assess student engagement and comprehension, the results were used to create an improved prototype the second time around. Additionally, by including new concepts in each successive iteration, the final prototype addressed needs of the student currently, while offering advancements that will create a better experience in the long run.

Using the application, students can interact with the interface and manipulate color with touch technology, a gesture based system such as the Microsoft Kinect or a web based point and click environment. By leveraging touch technology or interaction design in general, the student will participate in a richer interactive experience compared to one using a mouse and keyboard. The touch screen interaction mimics the actions akin to the analog experience of using traditional methods of cut paper and paint. Touch screen technology also opens the door to the possibilities of future implementation of a multi-touch experience and exposure to collaboration and co-creation in the classroom.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Advisor); Paul Nini (Committee Member); Dr. Phillip J. Smith (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Education; Educational Software; Educational Technology; Educational Theory; Experiments; Fine Arts; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Teaching

Keywords:

Color Theory; Interaction Design; High Education; Instructional Design; Constructivism; Learning Theory

Mahadevan, SriramVisualization Methods and User Interface Design Guidelines for Rapid Decision Making in Complex Multi-Task Time-Critical Environments
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2009, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering

Real-world scenarios are complex dynamic systems that are often overloaded with information. Effective performance of these dynamic systems depends on the objects in such systems and the relationship among them. The control of many of these systems is semi-automated. Human operators constantly monitor and control these systems, assess the situation and often make decisions under time pressure. However, this supervisory control paradigm in a dual-task environment can be a very challenging task. Existing interface design methodologies and techniques have not delved deeply enough into defining information displays for complex, dynamic, time-critical, dual-task environments with capabilities for rapid task change awareness and task resumption while continuously maintaining situation awareness.

This research focuses on designing user displays with advanced cueing techniques to support performance in complex dynamic dual-task environments. A primary question addressed in this study is whether visualization methods such as status-at-a-glance displays, interruption recovery tools, and course of action planning tools would assist in maintaining situation awareness, resuming tasks quickly, and effectively perform decision making tasks.

The research examines interface design methods to support supervisory awareness in primary and secondary task situations, rapid assimilation when switching to a secondary task, rapid re-assessment upon return to the primary task or secondary task, a course of action solution explorer for successful mission planning/re-planning, and notification systems such as alerts to inform operators about interrupting tasks. This research provides a means to realize an “at-a-glance” decision making environment.

The methodology adopted in this research effort used a three-stage process. In stage one, the effect of interruptions on trust and coordination among team members was studied. For stages two and three, the operator tasks and the interface protocols for accomplishing the tasks were designed based on the operator function model. Visual display components were designed to maintain situation awareness, resume the interrupted task scenario quickly, and plan/re-plan course of action for missions and anticipate system status. Multi-modal alert techniques are designed to notify the operator about the interrupting task scenario. The hypotheses related to each stage and the designed components were empirically evaluated using human participants.

Results showed that providing an user interface with status-at-a-glance display and interruption recovery tool and other task resumption cues assists the user in maintaining situation awareness and gain change awareness quickly. It was also found that course of action solution exploration tool assists users in quickly designing a feasible course of action and also allows users to re-plan the course of action based on requirements. The use of alerts helps to inform users about a secondary task that would need their attention.

A primary contribution from this research is defining a set of user interface design guidelines for use on small screen displays for dual-task supervisory monitoring and control scenarios. Other significant contributions include the design of the status-at-a-glance display, along with the interruption recovery tool, mission planning tool, and the evaluation of alert techniques in such complex, dynamic, time-critical environments.

Committee:

Raymond Hill, PhD (Advisor); Raymond Hill, PhD (Committee Chair); Frank Ciarallo, PhD (Committee Member); Yan Liu, PhD (Committee Member); Sundaram Narayanan, PhD, P.E. (Committee Member); Edward Pohl, PhD (Committee Member); Dan Voss, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems; Systems Design

Keywords:

Interruptions; dual-task; multi-task; time-critical; supervisory control; rapid decision making; visualization methods; decision support systems; trust; virtual teams

Limbach, Holli E.Hugo F. Huber, 1869-1934 Interior Decorator Stan Hywet Manor, Akron, Ohio
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2010, Clothing, Textiles and Interiors
In the late-nineteenth century notable interior decorators gradually emerged to help make interior decoration a serious, individualized, and worthwhile discipline. This study traces H. F. Huber & Co., one of New York’s first American interior decorating firms to successfully design, execute, and install complete high-end commercial, hospitality, and residential interiors in close conjunction with the project architect. Despite significant commercial contracts Hugo F. Huber’s career was built on a range of residential work for wealthy clients, often German-American like Huber. Two residences, each with fine archival resources and well-preserved interiors, provided the author with great insight into Huber’s design philosophy, expertise, and work ethic. The Christian Heurich Mansion interiors (1892-1894), Washington, DC, provided an example of Huber’s immense talent during his early-career, and Stan Hywet Manor (1911-1917), Akron, Ohio, provided an example of Huber’s artistic genius during the peak of his career.

Committee:

Virginia Gunn, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Architecture; Art Education; Art History; Biographies; Design; Fine Arts; History; Interior Design; Museums

Keywords:

Hugo F. Huber; interior decorator; interiors, Stan Hywet; Akron, Ohio; history of interior decoration; history of interior design; F. A. Seiberling; Tudor Revival; Cuba; Washington, DC; German-American; H. F. Huber Co.

Gaier, SamanthaInterior Decoration as Fine Art: Rachel Feinstein and The Sorbet Room, 2001.
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Art/Art History
Rachel Feinstein, wife of figure painter John Currin and mother of three also works as a fine artist. Primarily a sculptor and installation artist, Feinstein combines fairytales with reality. Often her contributions to the art world are overlooked due to her active social life and vast network of friends. Feinstein’s connection to Currin and her collaboration with fashion designers taints her reputation as a serious artist. Such an approach diminishes her identity as a female artist and silences her creative voice. She challenges the notion of contemporary feminine sculpture by creating personal yet relatable three dimensional objects rooted deep within the canon of art history. Through the lens of feminist theory coupled with formal analysis, this paper will study the site specific installation entitled The Sorbet Room, 2001, through which Feinstein empowers female artists. She does this by blurring the boundaries of many disciplines combining both male and female as well as historical and modern approaches to her art. A woman working successfully in the male dominated field of sculpture is rare. Feinstein embodies the role of mother, wife, artist and socialite encouraging and inviting changes for the New York art scene and the world at large. By her work and life she empowers female working artists by raising craft especially interior decoration to the status of high art. This paper finds that Feinstein brings her work to the understanding of the gallery viewer, by clearly explaining her intentions and drawing inspirations from current events. In this way, Feinstein is given a separate identity from her husband, in order to add important new scholarship on the work of female artists.

Committee:

Andrew Hershberger, PhD (Advisor); Katerina Ruedi Ray, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Architectural; Architecture; Art Criticism; Art History; Design; European History; Fine Arts; Interior Design; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Rachel Feinstein; Art History; Sorbet Room; Rococo, Baroque; sculpture; interior decoration; John Currin; installation; site specific; fashion; art; interior design; architecture; Germany; fairy tales; contemporary; feminist theory; gender; identity;

Rutherford, SarahBusiness Environmental Design, Consumer Visual Literacy and Self-Concept
MFA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
This research explores the hypothesis that the identity and environmental design of a business, whether created intentionally or not, attracts customers because it affirms some aspect of the customer’s self-concept. Two online surveys featuring photo-simulated shopping experiences in eight shopping scenarios—grocery stores, book stores, shoe stores, bakeries, wine stores, coffee shops, sit-down restaurants, and clothing stores—were distributed to online survey participants to evaluate self-concept, purchasing behavior, the application of retail patron images, store choice, and consumer perception of brand personality. Although connections to self-conflict were not conclusive, the findings of this research imply that consumers make judgments about the quality and availability of merchandise and service based on the exterior of a business. Consumers are also able to convey whom they think shops at a given store, an additional motivator for patronage. The research displays that it is important for retailers to have an understanding of their target audience in order to connect with them, and that predictive value may lie in consumer preference for similar store types.

Committee:

Ken Visocky O'Grady (Committee Chair); Sanda Katila (Committee Member); Jerry Kalback (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Architectural; Business Community; Design; Interior Design; Urban Planning

Keywords:

retail design; visual communication; branding; retal branding; environmental graphic design; EGD; graphic design; business exteriors; business; self-concept; self-consistency; self concept; self consistency; visual literacy; visual design; consumers

Tippery, Gabriel J.Learning to Be in the Digital Era: 
A Holistic Learning Framework for Design Education
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design

Design education is in an interesting place. Design as a discipline is currently and continually in a state of transformation due to ever changing societal contexts. How we go about educating and preparing the designers of the future needs to be constantly evaluated and collaboratively explored to continue to be relevant and increasingly nimble in our methods. Add to this the fact that design educators are now welcoming to their classrooms a new type of student without existing precedent. The “Net Gen” students are simultaneously highly digitally connected yet still interested in the physicality of the traditional design spaces. To address the changing needs of the design discipline, design educators (and educators in general) need tools that will facilitate the sharing of ideas and methods across disciplines and reframe the ways we understand the learning needs of our students. This thesis proposes two such tools.

The first tool, Meta-Keyword Phrases, seeks to be a relatively simple idea to implement that is made possible by digital search tools and the increasingly connected nature of web-based information. The Meta-Keyword Phrases have the potential to increase the opportunities for serendipitous discovery of teaching and learning resources by flipping the orientation of traditional keyword searching. The Meta-Keyword Phrases are based on a holistic framing of the types of learning which every student must achieve throughout their education; Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Work Together, and Learning to Be.

The second tool, the Learning Map Framework, is a scalable way to understand and visualize the relationships between the above-mentioned types of learning as they apply to any particular learning activity or series of activities. This thesis first uses a series of Web 2.0-based learning activities as a toolbox to demonstrate how the Learning Map Framework can be used to understand, evolve, and reinterpret learning activities across various academic disciplines. Second, the Learning Map Framework is demonstrated as a tool for fostering a holistic approach to course and curriculum design.

Together, these two proposed tools have the potential to help create learning experiences that are lasting and effective for our students, while allowing educators to more easily share and collaborate on ways to foster holistic student learning.

Committee:

Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Paul Nini (Committee Member); Clayton Funk, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education; Curriculum Development; Design; Education; Educational Technology; Higher Education; Interior Design; Teaching

Keywords:

Learning to Know; Learning to Do; Learning to Work Together; Learning to Be; Design Education; Design; Education; Social Media; Web 2.0;

Rayo, Michael FDirective Displays: Supporting Human-machine Coordination by Dynamically Varying Representation, Information, and Interjection Strength
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Allied Medical Professions
The ability of decision-support technology to function as a “team player” in directing attention and conveying relevant information is a critical component of system coordination. Good coordination, although effortful, increases overall system resilience as differences in knowledge and expertise of the technology and human agents can complement each other. In addition, a shared common ground among agents facilitates consistent priorities across the system, helping all agents to know when and how to interject as new events arise. Based on complementary theoretical frameworks for directing attention and human-machine coordination, a new class of decision-support was created, a directive display. Directive displays provide alternatives to text-based alerts by reconceptualizing the decision support design architecture into four distinct evidence-based design dimensions: representation type, information type, information delivery, and interjection strength. By explicitly selecting options from each dimension, directive displays dynamically change their design based on situational factors. Three studies were conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of directive displays in reducing inappropriate diagnostic imaging, a timely issue due to the recent increased awareness of its associated patient risk and cost. The first study used data collected from an academic medical center’s information warehouse to determine the impact of changes in computed tomography (CT) volume and dose reduction strategies on patient exposure to ionizing radiation. It was hypothesized that the combined reductions of imaging volume and radiation dose per image would reduce patient exposure. This hypothesis was confirmed by the findings, with the combination of decreased CT volume and decreased dose per image reducing patient exposure by 63%. The second study was a between-subject study in a simulated setting that determined the comparative effectiveness of directive displays relative to baseline clinical alerts in reducing inappropriate imaging. It was hypothesized that physicians using directive displays would reduce inappropriate imaging orders. Findings from this study confirmed that directive displays were more effective at reducing inappropriate imaging for both routine and novel patients, including those for which the technology had incomplete or incorrect information. The third was a descriptive study using participatory design methods to better understand the framework of decision factors physicians use to determine whether or not to ordering diagnostic imaging. It was found that the ability for a test to provide actionable information for patient diagnosis was consistently prioritized over considerations of patient safety, blunt end constraints, or patient comfort. These findings indicate that a non-interrupting directive display that is always visible is a viable and superior alternative to interrupting textual alerts that are commonly found in clinical decision support. It is anticipated that directive displays may be able to overcome common decision support vulnerabilities for other applications, especially in settings with high variability in uncertainty and consequences, because of their ability to dynamically select contextually appropriate design options within the four design dimensions. As this high variability is common for many complex sociotechnical systems, there are many potential future applications for directive displays. Future research directions are discussed, including new settings that may be well suited to directive displays and exploration into multimodal directive displays.

Committee:

Emily Patterson, PhD (Advisor); Nina Kowalczyk, PhD (Committee Member); Elizabeth Sanders, PhD (Committee Member); Beth Liston, MD, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Computer Science; Design; Information Science; Information Technology; Systems Design

Keywords:

directing attention; human machine coordination; cognitive systems engineering; alert; alarm; visualization; design; decision support; workload; interruption; representation; diagnostic imaging; directive display;

Ongkodjojo Ong, AndojoElectrohydrodynamic Microfabricated Ionic Wind Pumps for Electronics Cooling Applications
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This work demonstrates an innovative microfabricated air cooling technology that employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) corona discharge or ionic wind pump that has the potential to meet industry requirements as a next generation solution for thermal management applications. A single ionic wind pump element consists of two parallel collecting electrodes between which a single emitting tip is positioned. A grid structure on the collector electrodes enhances the overall heat transfer coefficient and facilitates an IC compatible and batch process. The main purpose of the work presented here is thus to investigate whether an optimized ionic wind pump employed in an array configuration might exhibit performance comparable to a conventional CPU fan. The manufacturing procedure developed for the device uses a glass wafer, a single mask-based photolithography process, a low cost copper-based electroplating method, and explores the effect of employing a palladium coating on the device. Various design configurations and optimization processes were explored and modeled computationally to investigate their influence on the cooling phenomenon. The optimized single element device provides a convection heat transfer coefficient of up to 3200 W/m2-K and a COP of up to 46.7 (a maximum COP of 51.5 exhibited by the 6-element array) exhibiting an overall area of 5.35 mm x 3.61 mm, an emitter-to-collector gap of 500 ¿¿m, and an emitter radius curvature of 12.5 ¿¿m. When compared with other ionic wind pumps, the device developed for this work is superior in terms of heat transfer coefficient and COP. However, the overall performance of the array does not compare favorably to a conventional CPU fan except in terms of COP. Additionally, the lifetime experiments conducted demonstrate that additional work may be required to extend the operation of the device, and some form of non-porous coating may be required to protect the underlying copper material. Nonetheless, the device described herein exhibits a flexible and small form factor, low noise generation, high efficiency, large heat removal over a small dimension, relatively simple technology, high reliability (no moving parts), lower power consumptions, and low cost; these are characteristics required by the semiconductor industry for next generation thermal management solutions.

Committee:

Alexis Abramson, PhD (Advisor); Norman Tien, PhD (Committee Member); Christian Zorman, PhD (Committee Member); Jaikrishnan Kadambi, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Electrical Engineering; Electromagnetics; Energy; Engineering; Experiments; Fluid Dynamics; Materials Science; Mechanical Engineering; Physics; Plasma Physics; Solid State Physics; Systems Design; Theoretical Physics

Keywords:

ionic wind pumps; thermal management; MEMS; electronics cooling; corona discharge; electrohydrodynamics; heat transfer coefficients; coefficient of performance (COP); FEM/FEA; optimization; lifetime test; microfabrication process

Damle, Amod N.Influence of design tools on design problem solving
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial and Systems Engineering

The literature on design thinking indicates that, in order to avoid early fixation on a less than effective overall form, product designers are trained to sketch the overall form for a design before focusing attention on the details of individual components. Using a between-subjects design, an empirical study involving 30 experienced designers was conducted to investigate how design tools can influence this process, specifically investigating the potential for color to induce early fixation on the details of a design rather than first exploring concepts for an effective overall form of that design.

In this study, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups performed a design task that involved creating a concept sketch for a lamp by selecting and combining two features from each of the two lamps seen in a reference picture. The participants were asked to assemble several line segments of various sizes and orientations on a computer screen to create the sketch. Group one was provided with the line segments in a single color while Group two had access to the line segments in multiple colors.

It was hypothesized that the availability or use of multiple colors for sketching could influence the participants to focus on the details of the individual components before sketching the overall form. Based on the data from the verbal protocols it was found that the participants in the multi-color group were 33% more likely to verbalize the goal of sketching the overall form than those in the multi-color group. Consistent with these verbal protocols, it was observed that the multi-color group made significantly more revisions (p=0.02) on the first component before leaving it for the first time than after revisiting it (as contrasted with the single color group). This suggests that the multi-color group was more likely to focus on the details of the first component before completing a sketch of the overall form.

One way of explaining these results is to say that the availability of multiple colors influenced the participants to mentally group design elements into discrete objects and create a perceptual or cognitive discontinuity, focusing attention on the details of the first component before sketching the outlines of the rest of the components. As a result, they were less likely to apply their training and to sketch the overall form before working on the details of specific components. Thus, these findings indicate that, like the problem-solving processes involved in diagnosis and planning, the problem-solving processes involved in a creative activity like design can be influenced in fundamental ways by the features of the tool provided.

Committee:

Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Chair); Liz Sanders, PhD (Committee Member); Matthew Lewis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Design; Fine Arts; Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

early design; prototyping; sketching; design thinking, design cognition; design theory; science of design; graphic design tools; cognitive boundary theory; breadth-first; depth-first; fixation

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