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Sherman, Derek RTurning Back the Clock: The Trivium’s Rhetorical Advantages in Secondary Education
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Findlay, 2015, Rhetoric and Writing
Classical education—a language-based education that is taught through the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric)—has been a sound educational structure for thousands of years and continues to be in many private and a select few public schools. Students, educators, and parents find themselves referring back to classical education for answers because of policymakers’ inability to find a remedy to the United States’ educational issues such as illiteracy. Classical education could provide the antidote as it employs a natural scaffolding approach that builds upon students’ application of content. Additionally, classical education has created many influential leaders in fields ranging from philosophy to literature to science, thus illustrating its impact across disciplines. This educational philosophy, though, focuses on the development of language skills first, which leads students to further studies in the quadrivium. To illustrate the positive effects of a classical education, a study was conducted in a rural, public high school in Northwest Ohio on a group of thirty-four sophomore Advanced English students. The goal of this study, therefore, was to solidify that a classical education through the trivium can be implemented and successful in a rural, public high school. All state standards (i.e. Ohio’s New Learning Standards) were used to ensure all students were meeting the requirements set forth by the state of Ohio. This study dedicated twelve consecutive weeks to each stage of the trivium with small weekly assignments and a major project for each stage. Students participated in pre and post trivium surveys to determine the students’ views of classical education. Also, students completed a pretest and posttest covering all stages of the trivium to show their growth. An analysis of the results was completed for the grammar and logic stages to show why a classical education approach is best for students’ skill development.

Committee:

Christine Denecker, PhD (Committee Chair); Christine Tulley, PhD (Committee Member); Erin Laverick, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Classical Studies; Composition; Education; Language, Rhetoric and Composition; Pedagogy; Philosophy; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Classical Education, Trivium, Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric

Kuzawa, Deborah MarieQueering Composition, Queering Archives: Personal Narratives and the Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, English

I examine the Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (DALN), an open-access archives of personal stories about literacy. Examining the DALN’s structure, implicit values, and contents, I argue that the DALN is both a queer and queering resource for composition studies, and may help expand understandings of literacy, expertise, and the relevancy of the personal and openness in composition classrooms and research. In this context, queerness is not about sexuality or gender but a heuristic: a way to critically question the traditional frameworks and epistemologies used to interpret and explore the world. My overarching research questions are:

1. What might the DALN (as a classroom and research resource) and queerness (as an epistemological and ontological concept) offer to the discipline of composition studies?

2. To what degree does the Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives reflect and/or push against the epistemology and ontology of different conceptions of archives?

3. How have composition teacher-scholars positioned/used the personal, literacy narratives, and archives within composition scholarship, and how might they use the DALN to push against conventional approaches/understandings of archives and personal narratives in classrooms?

4. Does the queer nature of the DALN shape or manifest itself in teachers’ perceptions of the DALN and how teachers use and discuss the DALN in their classrooms? If so, how and why, and if not, why?

I argue that the DALN simultaneously embraces and resists dominant binary values (restriction/openness; academic/personal; expert-direction/self-direction) that shape the fields of archival and composition studies and may be used to queer and expand composition classrooms, providing richer understandings of archives, personal literacy narratives, and queerness.

The DALN both reflects and resists archival values and practices originating in archival studies, queering understandings of what an archives can be, look like, and who and what are appropriate for inclusion in and access to archives. Though the DALN may not have been consciously developed with queerness in mind, its archival structures, practices, and implicit values queer conventional archival values and structures. Because the DALN is an archives of personal literacy narratives, I explore it within composition studies’ scholarship about archives and literacy narratives. I contend that composition teacher-scholars may use the Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives to expand relatively narrow conceptions and uses of archives and personal narratives found in composition scholarship, which may mean greater inclusion in composition scholarship and theorizations.

In order to understand how the DALN is already perceived and used by composition instructors, I developed an open-ended questionnaire to ask instructors (n=9) about their experiences with the DALN as a classroom and research resource. Though findings reveal practical and philosophical challenges of incorporating the DALN (e.g. issues of technological access; curriculum mandates; resistance to openness), I argue instructors may use the DALN to meet and challenge the goals of composition courses (e.g. teach about literacy; bridge between discursive and material understandings of sociocultural identity; meet research mandate of undergraduate education). Future studies would include larger sample sizes and a wider range of DALN stakeholders such as students, administrators, and community members to gain a more holistic understanding of the DALN-in-context.

Committee:

Cynthia L. Selfe, Ph.D (Advisor); Scott L. DeWitt, D.A. (Committee Member); Beverly J. Moss, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Higher Education; Literacy; Pedagogy; Rhetoric; Teaching

Keywords:

composition studies; Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives; archives; critical archival studies; personal narratives; queer; literacy

DeLuca, Katherine MarieDeveloping a Digital Paideia: Composing Identities and Engaging Rhetorically in the Digital Age
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, English
“Developing a Digital Paideia: Composing Identities and Engaging Rhetorical in the Digital Age” studies the complex multidimensional rhetorics and composing practices that are ongoing within online spaces, especially social media sites. From these sites, I derive insights to develop pedagogical approaches and suggestions that value everyday engagements with technology and mundane multimodal composing as significant and rhetorical. Technology users—from smart phone users to digital composers—have become deeply engaged with multiple technologies. This pervasive engagement has led many scholars and educators (for instance, Mark Bauerlein, Nicholas Carr, and Sherry Turkle) to decry the detrimental effects of technology upon intellectualism. This project offers a counterpoint to this argument, highlighting the complex rhetorical and composing work college students, many who are millennials, do in their everyday lives, while also proposing pedagogical approaches for instructors of rhetoric, composition, and digital media studies to incorporate these everyday literacy practices into their classrooms. I develop a digital rhetorical paideia, or course of study, using rhetorical identity and ethos as an access point for asking larger questions about rhetoric, composition, and digital media studies. To develop this paideia, I analyze rhetorical behaviors and multimodal composing practices across social media sites, engaging with issues related to individual identity on social-networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest in chapter one), shared identity and collective ethos within online communities and affinity groups (focusing on LiveJournal and Tumblr in the second chapter), and the collapsing boundaries among public, private, online, and offline experiences and communications (examining Reddit.com in chapter three). Alongside these analyses, this dissertation also features student work and voices in the form of curated student exhibits, which illustrate how students can and do engage with complex literacy practices and rhetorics in their compositions. From these sites of analysis and case study examples, I develop analytical and pedagogical insights for instructors in the fields of rhetoric, composition, and digital media studies. In conjunction with developing this digital rhetorical paideia, I also compose a theory of multidimensional rhetorics, building upon and uniting the concepts of rhetorical velocity (Ridolfo and DeVoss; Ridolfo, Sheridan, and Michel), the user-centered complex of technology (Johnson), and ecologies (Cooper; Selfe and Hawisher; Edbauer; Rivers and Weber). I unify these theories in the concept of multidimensional rhetorics to create opportunities to explore the movement across spheres, spaces, and rhetorical contexts that characterize digital citizens' everyday experiences and communications. A multidimensional rhetorical approach accounts for the multiplicity, simultaneity, complexity, and multifaceted nature of communicative events as they occur across spaces and time and among individuals. I conclude this project by exploring issues of digital citizenship, through this multidimensional rhetorics approach, to further the development of a digital rhetorical paideia and recontextualize rhetorical education within the field of rhetoric more broadly.

Committee:

Cynthia Selfe (Advisor)

Subjects:

Composition; Rhetoric; Teaching; Web Studies

Keywords:

rhetoric; composition; digital media studies; multimodal composing; social media; paideia; ethos; social networking

Bridgewater, MatthewWriting in the Age of Mobile: Smartphone and Tablet Multiliteracies and Their Implications for Writing as Process
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This dissertation compares the writing practices of students on desktops and laptops with their writing practices on mobile computing devices, namely tablets and smartphones. While there is much scholarship on computer-mediated writing (e.g., Eldred, 1991; Dave and Russell, 2010; Haas, 1989; Hochman and Palmquist, 2009; Palmquist et al., 1998), there has been less attention paid to how mobile computer devices mediate writing practices and promote (digital) literacies. This study used mixed methods, specifically quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews. Using a process-oriented first-year research writing class as a research site and the research paper as the genre of analysis, the study found that there are significant differences between the writing, research, and reading practices done on these computing devices. The student survey found that students indeed use mobiles for academic writing purposes, are less likely to revise on mobile devices than on desktops and laptops, and generally make local edits to global revisions when they do revise. It also found that students are more likely to access sources that are not typically considered scholarly, preferring to use unscholarly and advertisement-supported sources. The literacy narrative took a closer look at the research practices of a student in the first year writing program. Several emerging themes arose that are relevant to writing studies, including that the period between high school and the first year of college is a critical time in acquiring and losing different literacies, socioeconomic sponsors and barriers greatly influence writing practices, and some students' expectations and values make them unsure of the place of mobile technology in education.

Committee:

Kristine Blair, Dr. (Committee Chair); Lee Nickoson, Dr. (Committee Member); Donna Nelson-Beene, Dr. (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition

Keywords:

mobile technology; research methods; digital literacy; technology literacy; classroom technology; computer-mediated writing; research practices; revision practices; computers and writing;

Sloan, Philip JAssembling the identity of "writer"
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
This dissertation examines the ways that teachers of writing conceptualize and employ the term “writer.” The field of Rhetoric and Composition has a long history of prioritizing the writer in the writing process; a steady stream of scholarship has called for students to “see themselves as writers,” and the central issues of the field have long been associated with—sometimes even defined by—various conceptions of what a “writer” ought to be or do. This project responds to calls across the discipline for a more comprehensive understanding of both the writer and its place in scholarly conversations. Through two qualitative studies of writing teachers—a series of 10 multi-tiered ethnographic interviews and an interactive focus group—I explore various notions of "writer" and their pedagogical ramifications. Data were gathered and analyzed using a constructivist methodology (unstructured interviews and inductive coding) and contextualized within observed trends in Composition scholarship. Results reveal widely disparate notions of writer amongst participants, but also some shared assumptions. The coding process resulted in eight data-based categories: four broad types of writer and four overarching characteristics of writer. These categories, while discrete, interconnect in intriguing ways, and the observed tension between them suggests that the word “writer” cannot be viewed in singular terms. The most pronounced disjuncture is between identity and activity; that is, notions of writer based on the act of writing tend to clash with the mythologized “figure” of the writer. Results further suggest that even as Composition pedagogies evolve in the 21st century, the term “writer” tends to be associated with neo-romantic and anachronistic ideas of writing and literacy. In light of these results, I argue that the identity of writer may be too tenuous and unstable to serve as a pedagogical goal. In a broad sense, this research illuminates the implications of competing discourses, looking at how individual and disciplinary conversations can form implicit definitions that shape the pedagogical approaches of both students and teachers.

Committee:

Sara Newman, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Communication; Composition; Curriculum Development; Higher Education; Literacy; Pedagogy; Rhetoric; Teaching

Keywords:

writer; writing process; identity; expressive; pedagogy; interview; focus group; teacher talk; agency; being a writer; types of writers; characteristics of writers; categories of writers; romantic; identity of writer; discourse; rhetorical; academic; risk

Seely, ZacharyDefeat
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Music Composition
Defeat is a fourteen minute work for soprano voice, soprano saxophone, trumpet in Bb, horn, violoncello, prepared piano, and multi-percussion (one player.) Defeat explores timbral variations within contrasting textural densities, which musically reinforce the title's imagery. Defeat's structure is cast in cyclic binary form (ABAB) and emphasizes gestalt principles. Timbral polarization and contrasting textures enable a listener to perceive similarities between sequential plateaus. Repetitions, alternating temporal domains, and gestural proximities bridge these plateaus and provide directionality. Two bifurcations exist within the binary form, each intersecting the A and B sections. These bifurcations differ in instrumental density, text content, performance techniques, and pitch material. The vocalist's text is originally written for this work by the composer and is based upon a dramatic role in which the soprano relives a traumatic past. The soprano's inability to cope with these experiences is reflected by phonetic text divisions and the instrumentalists' dominating musical material. Both pitch and noise are employed to form the harmonic language. Juxtaposing dissimilar timbres and pitch-material create harmonic directionality. Evolving sonic environments result from layering pitch and noise, allowing both to take a central role in Defeat's character. The result of this treatment allows the entire ensemble to function as one instrument while simultaneously retaining their individuality. Microtonal pitch constellations determined through saxophone multiphonic analyses provide an additional harmonic thread. Rhythmically, Defeat fluctuates between silence and high attack density. Attention to gestural placement in both polyphonic and homorhythmic textures enhances this approach to rhythmic density. These rhythmic events contain either blocked sound masses or klangfarben gestures. In Defeat, I employ a variety of extended techniques, which are grouped into three categories. These include (1) performance techniques, such as ingressive singing, bowing and scraping wood or metal objects, timbral trills, multiphonics, and unusual pressure changes. Other special effects are used by (2) altering an instrument's physical characteristics and employing (3) non-standard percussion implements, including grating sticks, and fingers, in order to alter its timbre.

Committee:

Elainie Lillios, Dr. (Advisor); Christopher Dietz, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Music

Keywords:

music; chamber; vocal; instrumental; composition; composer; Zach Seely; noise; score

Cron, Amanda J. WrightThe Statement of Purpose in Applications to PhD Programs in Rhetoric and Composition: An Activity Theory Analysis
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2010, English
The applications process to PhD programs is complex, as signified by the number and variety of application requirements, including written texts. Of these texts, the statement of purpose in particular is regarded by recent scholarship as an occluded genre, one for which rhetorical purposes and resulting formal and content-related maneuvers are not apparent to applicants. This genre is a high-stakes genre in admissions to many PhD programs, acting as writing sample, evidence of disciplinary knowledge, and tentative proposal of future research. This thesis employs activity theory to investigate and analyze representative graduate programs’ admissions processes as activity systems and the role the statement of purpose plays in these systems. This role includes the ways the statement of purpose generates new texts and actions. The author makes both a nonspecific activity system model of admissions to PhD programs in rhetoric and composition and their use of the statement of purpose, and a contrastive model of one program and its use of the statement. The study’s findings demonstrate one potential cause of the occluded nature of the statement of purpose as a genre; that is, the expectations for and use of the genre in admissions practices vary from program to program, even within one discipline. Ultimately, this thesis examines the critical role student writing plays in the transition to a PhD program, concluding that the specific nature of this role is context-driven.

Committee:

Margaret Strain, PhD (Advisor); Susan Trollinger, PhD (Committee Member); Betty Youngkin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Composition; Continuing Education; Rhetoric

Keywords:

statement of purpose; personal statement; activity theory; graduate students; writing; rhetoric and composition; occluded genre

Updike, Ann SuttonArtful Literacies: Transculturation and Resistance in the Ledger Drawings of Nineteenth-Century Plains Indian Prisoners at Fort Marion
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, English
This thesis examines the intersection of literacy, identity, and power within the nineteenth-century contact zone of Fort Marion, Florida, where from 1875-1878, a group of Plains Indian warriors underwent a compulsory assimilation program while being held as prisoners-of-war. The thesis begins by proposing a broader view of literacy that includes non-alphabetic forms and argues that pictographic ledger art was a literacy practice deeply integrated within Plains Indian warrior society. The thesis then argues that, within the Fort Marion site, several warriors transformed their centuries-old pictographic literacy practice into cultural autoethnographic texts to intervene in dominant modes of understanding. By negotiating this literary middle space, the prisoners were able to write themselves into the metropolitan discourse and mediate between the two cultures, providing alternatives to the dominant group’s often negative, paternalistic, and hostile representations of Native Americans.

Committee:

Morris Young (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

Plains Indians; ledger art; exploit robes; pictographs; Fort Marion; literacy; autoethnography; transculturation; coup tales

Thomas, Patrick WilliamA Discourse-Based Analysis of Literacy Sponsorship in New Media: The Case of Military Blogs
PHD, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
This dissertation examines the construct of literacy sponsorship within the context of online literacy practices of soldiers blogging from Iraq and Afghanistan between 2008 and 2010. While existing treatments of the literacy sponsorship construct are situated within print-based modes of textual production, I argue that the new media context poses significant complications for current assumptions central to the construct; namely, that individuals pursue literacy practices as a means of socioeconomic empowerment, and that institutional definitions of literacy reproduce institutional ideologies. The case of military blogs is of particular import given current Department of Defense efforts to maintain information security during wartime. Additionally, this study extends current understandings of sponsorship by situating the study of sponsorship within actual discourse practices of sponsors and soldiers. This study draws on a multi-method approach of data collection and analysis in the forms of document collection from the Department of Defense, email interviews with nine currently deployed soldiers, and textual analysis of the soldiers’ blogs. The research design, in the form of a case study, provides a framework in which researcher-generated data and participant-generated data are compared. Data analysis for this study takes the form of three conceptually overlapping parts; analysis of the development for regulations that authorize soldiers’ blogging practices, comparative analyses of soldiers’ rhetorical knowledge about their blogs and blog post content, and a sample case study of one soldier’s blogging practices. Results from this study reveal individuals acting on behalf of the sponsoring institution to read and regulate soldiers’ blog content maintain idiosyncratic processes for doing so. These disparate forms of sponsorship are in part due to the new media context, which allows soldiers to define their own rhetorical situations, and which makes identifying soldiers’ blogs for review problematic. The rapid proliferation of and diverse rhetorical functions for blogs complicate and are complicated by the sponsor’s conception of the blog as a textual form. Thus, the sponsor-sponsored relationship in this context requires redefinition.

Committee:

Pamela Takayoshi, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Brian Huot, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patricia Dunmire, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alexa Sandmann, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Composition; Literacy; Military Studies; Rhetoric; Web Studies

Keywords:

Digital Literacy; New Media; Literacy Sponsorship; Literacy; Blogging; Soldiers; Army

Wierszewski, Emily AnnA Readerly Eye: Teachers Reading Student Multimodal Texts
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
This dissertation investigates how eight instructors with varying levels of experience and education teaching in English Departments at three major Midwest universities respond to their students’ multimodal texts. Because response begins with the reading process, concurrent verbal protocols are implemented to capture teachers’ reading practices as they respond to their students’ multimodal work and brief retrospective protocols are conducted afterwards to identify salient and problematic moments in the reading process. Protocols are triangulated with interviews about teachers’ backgrounds and beliefs and with the collection of classroom artifacts, including syllabi and assignment sheets. A grounded theory analysis of concurrent protocols indicates that teachers’ multimodal response practices are guided by their evaluative expectations, are typically implicit and extemporaneous, and are marked by a concern for the form of student work and the tendency to conceive of multimodal texts as static, rule-driven objects. It is argued that teachers’ multimodal response practices reflect de-contextual and form-focused pedagogical models and, as such, undermine the social and creative goals of multimodality. Suggestions are made for better aligning pedagogical practice with the situated tenets of multimodal theory. Teachers’ response practices are also contextualized with a descriptive analysis of interviews and artifacts, which reveals that teachers’ articulated beliefs about multimodality are based in their professional and educational experiences. Those beliefs are compared with teachers’ response practices in protocol data with a focus on the dominant category of expectations. Gaps between belief and action in multimodal teaching are explored, and methods are proposed for achieving continuity between pedagogical beliefs about multimodality and response to student multimodal work.

Committee:

Raymond Craig, PhD (Committee Chair); Brian Huot, PhD (Committee Member); Pamela Takayoshi, PhD (Committee Member); Albert Ingram, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition

Keywords:

multimodal; assessment; teacher response; expectations; reading; composition pedagogy

Watson, Siobhan Teresa“Identity Issues”: Tutor Identities, Training, and Writing Center Communities
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2012, English
This paper discusses the issue of writing center tutors’ claims to identity, as well as how those identities are changed by their training to become writing center tutors and the writing center community at large. It is based in a person-based study for which interviews were conducted with four volunteer tutors-in-training, as well as an anonymous online survey taken by five volunteer experienced tutors. The participants’ interviews and survey responses are discussed and analyzed in conjunction with writing center literature. This paper also provides suggestions for improved writing center practices.

Committee:

Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson, PhD (Committee Chair); Jason Palmeri, PhD (Committee Member); John Tassoni, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Higher Education

Keywords:

writing centers; tutors; tutoring; peer tutoring; writing; identities; tutor training; communities

Polak, MicheleBeyond Digital Play: Integrating Girl-Created Subjectivity Into the College Composition Classroom
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2011, English

This dissertation focuses on the intersections between digital literacy studies and Girl Studies. Informed by current theories of the development of girls’ subjectivity, I contend that girl-created subjectivities outside of the classroom should be connected to what girls (or by the time they enter our college classroom, young women) are asked to do inside the digital classroom. I propose that girls’ practices of online identity formation before coming to college are a powerful form of digital literacy that college writing instructors should recognize and foster.

In this project, I investigate the following questions: How have online writing spaces affected girls’ subjectivity before entering college? What literacy skills have girls developed from a girl-created subjectivity? Are the criteria of what constitutes girl space adaptable to the composition classroom? What are the routines and familiarities of our female students’ writing processes outside of the classroom? Are such processes and forms recognized within the academic environment? Is the notion of a girl-created subjectivity able to thrive in the academic setting and perhaps more importantly, should it?

With this dissertation, I suggest that we need to have an understanding of a girl-created subjectivity and that it needs to be recognized if we as scholars are to move forward into understanding girls’ development for the sake of girls themselves. I contend that teachers of college composition should work toward allowing an integration of girls’ social activities online with their writing processes in the classroom if young women at the college level are to succeed in the identity exploration that begins in early adolescence.

Committee:

Dr. Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson, PhD (Committee Chair); Dr. Heidi McKee, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Michele Simmons, PhD (Committee Member); Sally Lloyd, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Gender Studies; Literacy; Rhetoric; Technology; Web Studies

Keywords:

composition; digital literacy; web studies; girl studies; girl cutlure; subjectivity; identity

Rutherford, Kevin J.Playing/Writing: Connecting Video Games, Learning, and Composition
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, English
This thesis examines the connection between video games and composition pedagogy. Video games are defined generally, and then specifically outlined in relation to writing classrooms. The remainder of the thesis outlines three distinct examples of ways composition pedagogy might connect with the interdisciplinary field of game studies. Chapter 2 outlines a heuristic of interrelated approaches – contextual, narrative, and procedural – to analyze video games as rhetorical objects. Chapter 3 introduces “serious games” as an enactment of the heuristic and as a type of video game that fits with composition’s goals of citizenship education. Chapter 4 discusses a class unit wherein students programmed/wrote text-based video games, arguing that writing and programming overlap and suggesting this overlap is a fruitful space to explore in writing classrooms.

Committee:

Heidi McKee, PhD (Committee Chair); Jason Palmeri, PhD (Committee Member); Timothy Melley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Education; Educational Software; Rhetoric; Teaching

Keywords:

games; video games; metal gear; interactive fiction; serious games; oiligarchy; composition; writing; pedagogy; game studies

Stuart, Jason ToddThe Disciplinary Rhetoric of the 21st Century: The Emergence of Computers and Composition
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, English

This dissertation ("The Disciplinary Rhetoric Of The 21st Century: The Emergence of Computers and Composition") analyzes the disciplinary formation of a domain - "computers and composition" - by examining the rhetorical history of scholarship and policy among composition studies scholars. The mixed methodology uses Lloyd Bitzer's "The Rhetorical Situation" and David Shumway and Ellen Messer-Davidow's work on knowledge and disciplinarity as analytical frameworks for investigating, within composition studies, the effect of the personal computer on university writing instruction.

The analysis focuses on scholarly and organizational discourses that disclose the strength of the disciplinary bond between composition and computers and composition. The research and policy recommendations specific to the domain of computers and composition are established under the terms of a disciplinary rhetoric derived from the composition studies, a rhetoric often critical of discourses of the sciences.

I suggest that the identification, examination, and critique of a humanistic rhetoric of technology, and the corresponding rhetorical figure of the "21st century," is crucial to reframing professional development in computers and composition. Furthermore, I call for the creation of permeable, truly interdisciplinary boundaries for computers and composition. I question whether effective disciplinary boundaries between traditionally scientific and humanistic forms of inquiry are even possible or desirable between when investigating "21st century" technologies of communication.

Committee:

Kimberly Emmons (Committee Chair); Todd Oakley (Committee Member); T. Kenny Fountain (Committee Member); Marc Buchner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition

Keywords:

COMPUTERS AND COMPOSITION; DISCIPLINARY; Hawisher

Braun, Catherine Colletta“I’m really not a technology person”: digital media and the discipline of English
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, English
This dissertation is a study of digital media and professional identity. Digital media and informational/instructional technologies are profoundly affecting teaching, learning, and literacy and have consequently become a necessary part of our jobs as scholars and teachers. But many questions exist—how to strike the proper balance between traditional and digital composing, train GTAs to incorporate technology into teaching and research, provide ongoing support for pedagogical and scholarly integration of digital media, and evaluate electronic scholarship. In “I’m Really Not a Technology Person,” I explore the digital literacy practices of graduate students and tenure track faculty members at three institutions with varying levels of support for pedagogical applications of technology and research in/with digital media. I argue that individuals’ disciplinary and departmental identifications are in constant negotiation with their uses of digital media for teaching and research, and local departments shape individual graduate students’ and assistant professors’ negotiations of professional identity in regards to digital media. I explore the role of departmental leadership in shaping individuals’ negotiations of their disciplinary identities, analyzing participants’ perceived relationships between digital media and their own disciplines. I explore the role of departmental culture in shaping individuals’ access to digital media, their opportunities to learn about digital media, their opportunities to integrate digital media into their sense of what it means to be a professional in their disciplines, and their negotiations of the relationship between their work with digital media and their place (central/marginal) in their departments. I explore the role of departments in structuring professional evaluation so as to accommodate (or not) work with digital media, analyzing the critical moment (for faculty) when these two identities (disciplinary and departmental) are evaluated: the moment of review for tenure and promotion. Finally, I discuss implications for institutional change, implications for teacher-training programs, and questions for future research.

Committee:

H. Lewis Ulman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

digital media; digital literacy; technology; literacy; composition; rhetoric; English; disciplinarity; professional identity

Cech, Andrew J.Brother's Lament for Wind Ensemble
Master of Music (MM), Ohio University, 2009, Composition (Fine Arts)

The main theme for this piece was derived from a young man with autism, thebrother of a friend of mine. Unlike most people, when he is upset, or feeling pain, rather than crying, he sings a melody (which can be heard in its entirety in the first trumpet part starting in measure 14). Upon hearing this melody, I immediately began thinking of ways to develop it into a work for wind ensemble. The result is the piece of music presented here.

The piece ends on an open 5th on the major 7th scale degree of G minor and does not satisfy the desire for a return to tonic as a cadence. Since there is usually no satisfaction in pain and suffering, I felt that there should not be an ending that would normally satisfy an audience.

Committee:

Mark W. Phillips (Advisor); Richard Wetzel (Committee Member); Andrew Trachsel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Music

Keywords:

Brother's Lament; Wind Ensemble

Bassett, Dennis M.The Five Song Collections of John David Earnest Set to the Poetry of Robert Bode: A Performer's Perspective
Doctor of Musical Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Music
The collaborative ideas of composer John David Earnest and poet Robert Bodehave resulted in musical compositions that are an important addition to 21st century American art song repertoire. The collaborative ideas of these two men are manifest in five collections of songs: Crickets and Commas (Five Haiku), In Tomorrow’s Fields, Four Songs of Sophistication, The Future in My Hand, and War Dreams. This document provides biographical information on these two artists, as well as detailed information about the five song collections on which they collaborated. It is the author’s intention to give the reader a general outline and working knowledge of each piece, and share with them some of the subtleties and nuances discovered in the preparation and presentation of these works.

Committee:

C. Patrick Woliver, Dr. (Advisor); Loretta Robinson, Prof. (Committee Member); Kristine Kearney, Prof. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Music

Keywords:

John David Earnest; Robert Bode

Riske, Amy LynnReflections of Florence
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Music Composition

Reflections of Florence is a composition for concert band in four movements, each representing a musical snapshot of the European city. The first and last movements are scored for full ensemble, while the middle two are scored for woodwinds/ percussion and brass/ percussion, respectively.

The first movement depicts the glory of the sunrise over the surrounding Tuscan mountains in an aleatoric musical picture. The harmonic material is based on a synthetic scale derived from the opening pitches of the movement and eventually develops into carefully orchestrated tone clusters. Single pitches pass through the ensemble and create a gradual timbre shift which serves as the directive force for the movement.

The second movement reflects the history of the city and looks back to the Renaissance. Entitled Visin, Visin, Visin (15th century, Song of the Chimney Sweeps), it is based on a popular tune that was sung in the streets during Florence's festival season. The contemporary setting presents musical imagery, such as alternating triplet figures to represent the Arno River; the song is finally heard in its entirety at the end of the movement.

The third movement departs from the strong modal tonality set forth in the preceding movement and focuses again on shifting colors and timbres rather than strict melody. Based on a whole tone scale, the first section uses sweeping motions orchestrated throughout the entire range of the brass ensemble to represent the massive cathedral which dominates the skyline of the city. The second section moves into a distinct tonal center and is minimalistic in style.

The final section of the piece combines aspects from the previous three movements. The music acts as a representation of the festive spirit of Florence and utilizes harmonic and melodic elements that are rooted in gestures from the earlier music. Though alterations in orchestration and context occur, several aleatoric textures return to bring the entire piece to a close.

Committee:

Marilyn Shrude (Advisor); Kenneth Thompson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Music

Keywords:

Reflections; Florence; Concert Band; Music; Composition; Duomo; Visin; Fiesole

Murphy, Robin Marie MerrickPost-9/11 Rhetorical Theory and Composition Pedagogy: Fostering Trauma Rhetorics as Civic Space
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, English/Rhetoric and Writing
Though a recent series in JAC (24:1&2, 2004) featured special issue on Trauma and Rhetoric, little to no information is available in the Composition and Rhetoric field that provides instructors a writing curriculum by which to address social traumas. At the same time, only in the last several years has there been a noteworthy surge of theory and practice in the field calling for the inclusion of technology and visual rhetoric in composition production. Add to that lack of training available for teachers to maintain the knowledge to meet the growth of new media and its influences on current literacy demands and classroom practices, and these omissions constitute significant gaps in curriculum needs necessary for the 21st Century, post-9/11 writing classroom. Defining the needs of a post-9/11 writing student is a complicated process and requires a wide scope consideration of both ancient rhetorical traditions and contemporary composition pedagogies. This study uncovers the common characteristics of those traditions and pedagogies that best suit post-9/11 students by first considering the historic role linking rhetorical and composition education while explicitly concentrating on their shared function of teaching citizenry. Next, the text explores rhetorically resonant artifacts from WWII, The Vietnam War, and the Oklahoma City Bombing to indicate the shifts in literacy practices that seem to correlate with traumatic social events. The text triangulates Critical Theory, Culture Studies, and the Post-Process Movement to build a rhetorical theory and subsequent composition pedagogy based on three tenets: 1) the democratic values of traditional rhetorical education, 2) a complex citizenry that is both global- and cyber-responsible, and 3) the importance of multi-modal literacy. In the compilation of Post-9/11 Rhetorical Theory and Composition Pedagogy, it seemed sensible to describe the theory and pedagogy via three areas: literacy, rhetoric, and curriculum while also negotiating alternative production practices, teacher training, and assessment strategies. The result is a complex theory designed to utilize the intricate social and rhetorical situations derived from trauma events to provide students a commonplace by which to produce alternative compositions. Thereby, the theory and pedagogy developed here asks instructors to end the marginalization of students and their cultural and critical ability to engage in an advanced citizenry when met with trauma and rather to encourage them to be more involved in their education, their communities and their democracy.

Committee:

Kristine Blair (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

post-9/11 rhetoric; trauma rhetoric; civic education; rhetorical education; composition pedagogy; alternative composition; multi-modal literacy; writing curriculum

Blankenship, LisaChanging the Subject: A Theory of Rhetorical Empathy
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2013, English
This project explores the concept of empathy as a rhetorical stance and strategy of engaging across marked social differences. It contributes to Krista Ratcliffe’s call for scholars in rhetoric and composition studies to "map more theoretical terrain and provide more pragmatic tactics for peaceful, cross-cultural negotiation and coalition building" (Rhetorical Listening 72). I define rhetorical empathy as a trope characterized by narrative and emotional appeals and as a topos or attitude interlocutors adopt to engage with socially marked difference, building on Susan Miller’s conception of rhetoric as emotion-based trust (Trust in Texts). This dissertation also addresses a gap in studies on empathy within cognitive science and psychology that typically focus on bodily responses to attempt to measure someone’s level of empathetic engagement within staged scenarios. Such studies often do not take into account the social position of research subjects or the role of motivations in empathetic responses. My research methodology for this project involves an analysis of three rhetorical exchanges involving marked social difference: in Chapter Three I focus on class in two late-nineteenth labor rights speeches of Jane Addams; Chapter Four centers on the intersection of sexuality/gender and religion in the rhetoric of two contemporary gay rights activists; and in Chapter Five I focus on constructions of race in the online, multimodal response of a minority student group to a racist Twitter incident at a midwestern U.S. university. I identify the following recurring and recursive moves as characteristic of rhetorical strategies based on empathy: • Appealing to the personal within discourse systems: experience and emotions • Considering motives behind speech acts and actions • Confronting difference and injustice • Situating a rhetorical exchange as part of an ongoing process of mutual understanding and (ex)change (including vulnerability and self-critique on the part of the rhetor) Rhetorical empathy functions as a way of forming connections and shifting power dynamics among interlocutors within a complex web of rhetorical exchange. By combining rhetoric and empathy, I highlight aspects of each: rhetoric as a strategic use of symbol systems using various modes of communication—language, still and moving images, and sound—and, after Wispe ("Distinction" 318), empathy as involving both a volitional, deliberate attempt to understand an Other and the emotional elements involved in such attempts.

Committee:

Kate Ronald, Dr. (Committee Chair); Cindy Lewiecki-Wilson, Dr. (Committee Member); LuMing Mao, Dr. (Committee Member); Heidi McKee, Dr. (Committee Member); David Cowan, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Composition; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; Rhetoric; Sociolinguistics

Keywords:

rhetorical empathy; communication across difference; ethics; civil discourse; rhetorical theory; gay rights and fundamentalist discourse; labor rhetoric; multimodal rhetoric; public sphere rhetoric; critical race theory

Dadas, Caroline E.Writing Civic Spaces: A Theory of Civic Rhetorics in a Digital Age
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2011, English
In this project, Writing Civic Spaces: A Theory of Civic Rhetorics in a Digital Age, I explore how citizens are using digital technologies to participate in civic processes. Although scholars have begun looking at civic rhetoric online, I extend this conversation by focusing on the use of social networks for civic participation. Based on an analysis of online texts and interviews with online participants, I theorize civic rhetorics for a digital age and how citizens are using the affordances of networked and digital technologies to create online texts that in some cases serve as publics spheres and in other instances lack the presence of debate necessary for a public sphere. Through this theory of civic rhetorics I seek to inform future scholarship, pedagogies, and methodologies in rhetoric and composition, guiding the field in one of its central concerns: to prepare critical, engaged citizens. Ultimately, this project generates a rhetorical participatory framework for meaningful engagement in online civic activity, covering a range of strategies from designing more generous website interfaces to negotiating the increasingly blurred boundaries between the civic and the political.

Committee:

Michele Simmons, PhD (Committee Chair); Heidi McKee, PhD (Committee Member); Kate Ronald, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Palmeri, PhD (Committee Member); Leighton Peterson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Civic rheorics; digital rhetorics; civic participation; Proposition 8; multimodality

Micer, DominicAnother Philosophy, Another Composition
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2004, Composition and rhetoric
This dissertation explores ontological issues, the real conditions of experience, and their relation to contemporary composition studies. Given the shifting terrain of contemporary socio-cultural practices concerned with issues of experience, affect, and labor, I explore alternative ways of thinking about and understanding these concerns. In order to develop this concern, I argue for a relational ontology that is normative rather than absolute and which speaks to the real conditions of experience and transforming the double binds that capture students, teachers, and institutions in oversimplified modern and postmodern ontologies. In Section One, I raise three concerns about the way students and composition scholars typically treat experience. I argue that composition studies would be best served by making relations, rather than student agency, the subject matter of composition. I then explore two attempts that try to develop the idea of experience and relations pointing out that these attempts need to go farther. In Section Two, I argue that a model of composition studies generated by an understanding of relations needs a different model of critique. Such a model of critique emphasizes the study of bodies and emotions and recognizes that the point of critique is to transform persons’ feelings about and sensibility of experience. I use what I call the Spinozist assemblage to reconstruct thinking about affect, experience, and bodies along radical monistic lines that develop the thought of difference. In Section Three, I turn to the issue of labor—particularly the work composition studies asks its students to do. I take the insight of composition scholars that what students produce by their labor are social relations and push this insight to a radical conclusion: I theorize writing as a kind of becoming—a symbiotic process whereby multiple bodies interact on affective, perceptual, and conceptual levels to think differently and beyond the boundaries of a simplistic ontology.

Committee:

Cindy Lewiecki-Wilson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

Worsham; Deleuze; Spinoza; composition studies; Coleridge; ontological; Horner

Sun, SanjunMeasuring difficulty in English-Chinese translation: Towards a general model of translation difficulty
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies

Accurate assessment of a text’s level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text’s translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the results more objective, an instrument needs to be developed.

In order to develop an instrument to measure translation difficulty, two basic research questions must be answered: what to measure and how to measure it. The potential sources of translation difficulty include translation factors (i.e., text difficulty and translation-specific difficulty [i.e., translation problems in a task]) and translator factors (i.e., translation subcompetences). Accordingly, to measure translation difficulty, we need to measure text difficulty, recognize translation-specific difficulty, and assess translation difficulty (i.e., mental workload) for the translator.

NASA Task Load Index (TLX), a multidimensional scale for measuring subjective workload, can be used to assess translation difficulty for the translator, and it was proved to be reliable in this study.

Performance measures are often used to derive an index of difficulty, and two commonly used indicators are speed (i.e., time-on-task) and accuracy. In this study, it was shown that time spent on a translation was significantly, but weakly, related to translation difficulty level as measured by NASA-TLX. The translation difficulty level self-assessed by high scorers was not consistently lower or higher than that by low scorers, and this indicates that accuracy (i.e., translation quality score in this case) may not be a reliable indicator of difficulty level.

Readability formulas are for measuring text difficulty, and are based on such measurable factors as average sentence length and percentage of difficult words. It was hypothesized that they might be able to measure translation difficulty. This study found that the readability score was weakly correlated with translation difficulty score. That is, a text’s readability only partially accounts for its level of translation difficulty.

A formula was developed using multiple regression to predict a text’s level of translation difficulty (as measured by NASA-TLX) for a translator by using the translator’s pre-translation rating. This will greatly facilitate future studies.

Committee:

Gregory M. Shreve, PhD (Committee Chair); Carol Maier, PhD (Committee Member); Erik B. Angelone, PhD (Committee Member); Jocelyn R. Folk, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Barnes, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Composition; Education; Educational Software; English As A Second Language; Experiments; Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics; Modern Language; Pedagogy; Teaching

Keywords:

translation difficulty; mental workload; cognitive load; readability; competence; measurement; method

Cadle, LanetteA Public View of Private Writing: Personal Weblogs and Adolescent Girls
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2005, English/Rhetoric and Writing
This dissertation examines the public and private nature of personal weblogs written by adolescent girls. During a four-month observation period, the participants continue to post material to their weblogs and the posts during that time are available for examination and analysis. There is also an email interview and an end-of-study questionnaire that lend an inside view to the process. The reflection, collaboration, and mentoring that these blogs enable act as a feminist space as well as a personal one uniquely qualified for investigating identity. At the same time, the intersection of writing, introspection, and digital tools also lends the possibility of answering another feminist goal, that is expressed in AAUW’s Tech Savvy of bringing more girls to the sciences and to make them more comfortable in digital spaces. I propose that identity development and the need for a space that is both public and private may be behind the steady increase proportionately and numerically of adolescent girls in the LiveJournal user base. From April 2004 to April 2005 the increase has been steady, with the female user base rising from 65.2% to 67.3%, the majority of those being between the ages of 15 and 21 as per the statistics on April 30, 2005. This indicates that a need is being filled and provides an important part of the rationale for my study. It is significant also because by sheer numbers, adolescent girls in personal weblogs are making the definition of what acceptable public discourse is more diffuse and inclusive.

Committee:

Kristine Blair (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

weblogs; adolescent girls; personal writing; gender; blogs; feminism; literacy; identity

Ehret, Sara R.Using the Graphic Novel to Assist in Developing Various First-Year Composition Writing Skills
Master of Fine Arts, University of Akron, 2012, English-Composition
Current scholarship suggests a positive correlation between the use of the graphic novel and its overall effectiveness as a tool within the classroom. It was apparent, however, that there was a gap in the research in terms of using the graphic novel as it applies to helping composition students develop certain writing skills. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is to explore the ways in which the graphic novel can be used inside of the composition classroom to help strengthen first-year students' writing skills. In specific, in-class activities were designed to be used in conjunction with the graphic novel, Maus, to develop analytical skills, strengthen skills for interviewing, and expand descriptive writing skills.

Committee:

William Thelin, Dr.. (Advisor); Hillary Nunn, Dr. (Committee Member); Lance Svehla, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition

Keywords:

Graphic Novels; Composition; Writing Skills

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