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Gross, Carol AIndividual Differences in the Addition Strategy Task in Adolescents
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Psychology
Strategies used to solve addition problems without pencil and paper have been evaluated and connected to math achievement in multiple studies of children and adults. However, only a few studies have used adolescent samples, and addition strategies have not been evaluated in a behavior genetic framework. In this study the addition strategies used by a group of adolescent twins (77 MZ pairs and 136 DZ pairs) from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Project were evaluated. Participants solved 20 addition problems (14 simple and 6 complex) and reported the strategies that they used to solve each problem. Memory based strategies included retrieval and decomposition and procedural strategies included counting. Measures of strategy use on the task were taken from previous studies of children and adults. The measures that best characterized adolescent strategy use were the child and adult measures that described frequency of retrieval and decomposition. All measures of strategy use had significant nonshared environmental influences, and none of the measures had significant shared environmental influences. Further, strategy use measures for complex problems had a significant estimate of heritability.

Committee:

Lee Thompson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

math; addition strategies; twins; behavior genetics

Miranda, David JMusic Blocks: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of Interactive Tangible Block Games with Audio and Visual Feedback for Cognitive Assessment and Training
Master of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2018, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
Tangible Geometric Games (TAG-Games) were developed initially for automated cognitive assessment using custom sensor-integrated blocks (SIG-Blocks). Building on this existing technology, Music Blocks focuses on incorporating music and audio feedback in TAG-Games to examine the potential of tangible games for cognitive training and assessment. New block enclosure and game board designs implement textures that portray information tangibly. Game algorithms support real-time gameplay and data collection. For preliminary game evaluation, a small scale human subject study was conducted involving 17 participants. Among the five Music Blocks games created, Direction Blocks, MineSweeper, and Password Blocks were tested along with three subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test – Fourth Edition (Block Design, Digit Span, and Matrix Reasoning). Initial assessment concluded that tangible games pair best with audio-visual stimuli. Individual games correlated well with some subtests from WAIS-IV. Other results, the limitations, and conclusions of this study are discussed within the text.

Committee:

Kiju Lee (Committee Chair); Ming-Chun Huang (Committee Member); Marc Buchner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Computer Science; Mechanical Engineering; Music

Keywords:

tangible games; cognitive assessment; music games; block games; computerized cognitive assessment; audio-tangible games

Pinard-Welyczko, KiraDoes Training Enhance Entraining? Musical Ability and Neural Signatures of Beat Perception
BA, Oberlin College, 2017, Psychology
Perception of beat and meter is a nearly universal human skill that requires little to no conscious effort. However, the extent to which music training influences this perception in the brain remains unknown. Music performance requires high sensitivity to timing and physical entrainment to external auditory stimuli. Additionally, compared to untrained individuals, musicians show higher performance on a number of auditory and speech tasks, as well as different brain morphology and fiber connections. Beat and meter perception are thought to be subtended by oscillations of groups of neurons at corresponding frequencies. Here, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine the magnitude of neuronal entrainment to beat and meter in individuals with high or low levels of music training. EEG signals were recorded while participants attended to a musical beat, and then imagined a binary or ternary meter over that beat. Beat-keeping ability was also assessed using a synchronous tapping task. A strong EEG signal was observed selectively at beat and meter frequencies, indicating entrainment across participants. No differences in the magnitude of entrainment were observed based on level of music training or beat-keeping ability. These results suggest that music training may not influence beat and meter perception at the level of neural networks and that entrainment could be innate. Broadly, results provide a foundation for further research into whether entrainment has evolutionary significance.

Committee:

Albert L. Porterfield (Advisor); Patrick Simen (Committee Member); Sara Verosky (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Music; Neurosciences; Psychology

Keywords:

beat perception, entrainment, music, meter, music cognition

Hamilton, Lucas JohnDoes posture impact affective word processing? Examining the role of posture across adulthood in an incidental encoding task
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2018, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Research in emotional aging has primarily investigated mechanisms that could explain the age-related increase in positive emotionality despite various age-related losses. Of particular note is the increasing importance of age-related positivity effects and underlying biological influences on affective processes. Despite evidence of weakened mind-body connectivity in older adulthood presented in the maturation dualism framework, research shows age-similarities in subjective and objective reactivity for certain negative emotional states across adulthood. Thus, robust physiological-experiential associations may still exist in later life. Investigations of integrated mind-body connectivity have lead researchers to examine the influence of posture on cognitive outcomes. Prior evidence has observed that specific postural manipulations (i.e., stooped posture) is linked to negative affective biases in memory and emotional experiences. To interrogate potential posture effects on word recognition, an incidental encoding task was utilized. Although no age differences emerged for concrete words, younger adults outperformed older adults on both negative and neutral abstract words, and older adults remembered more positive relative to neutral abstract words. These results provide partial support for age-related positivity, perhaps in line with older adults’ motivated positive affective goals. Although posture effects were absent in both age groups, there remains considerable room for other integrative research assessing mind-body connectivity within emotion-cognition links across adulthood.

Committee:

Eric Allard (Advisor); Katherine Judge (Committee Member); Jennifer Stanley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

posture; emotion; memory; age-related positivity; mind-body

Carlson, Krista DisaCultural Differences in Affordance Perception
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2018, Psychology
Across many domains, Nisbett and his colleagues have demonstrated that East Asians tend to employ holistic cognitive processes that emphasize contextual relations, associations, and the importance of the entire visual field, while Westerners tend towards analytic processes, focusing on rules, logic, and the importance of a single agent. Ye (2008) found that culture of origin also influences affordance perception: under certain circumstances, Chinese participants displayed an advantage over American participants in identifying a second affordance for an object. The current study extended these results by asking 89 native Mandarin Chinese speakers and 89 native English speakers to generate affordances of visually presented objects. In order to explore potential mechanisms behind any cultural differences, participants also completed several individual difference measures: a handedness inventory, an assessment of visual/verbal cognitive style, and verbal and spatial working memory tasks. Contrary to predictions, on average Chinese participants generated significantly fewer affordances for common household objects than did European Americans. Similarly, we found no cultural differences in the typicality structure of the affordances listed for each object. In contrast, exploratory analyses revealed that increases in working memory, as well as the tendency towards mixed-handedness, both led to an increase in the average number of uses listed by Chinese participants, but not by European Americans. However, further research should be done with alternative coding criteria, quantitative dependent measures, and a wider range of working memory tasks before detailed interpretations of the relationships between these constructs are offered.

Committee:

Robin Thomas, Dr. (Advisor); Leonard Mark, Dr. (Committee Member); Vrinda Kalia, Dr. (Committee Member); Vaishali Raval, Dr. (Committee Member); Anne Farrell, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology

Hampton, Andrew J.Symbol Grounding in Social Media Communications
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2018, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Social media data promise to inform the disaster response community, but effective mining remains elusive. To assist in the analysis of community reports on disaster from social media, I draw on an integrated model of psycholinguistic theory to investigate the patterns by which language use changes as a function of environmental influence. Using social media corpora from several disasters and non-disasters, I examine variations in patterns of lexical choice between domain independent paired antonyms with respect to an Internet-specific base rate to determine generic sentinels of breach of canonicity. I examine social media content with respect to disaster proximity and examine relative proportions of actionable content in messages containing words that indicate breach. Results indicate a preliminary set of antonym pairs that vary consistently with respect to breach. Despite the absence of correlation with actionable content density, two related findings support the role of a psycholinguistic perspective on the mining of social media data. First, several diagnostic pairs reflect human function in an environment independent of sentiment. Second, the analysis of sentiment by spatial proximity suggests an increase in positive sentiment with proximity. Both findings motivate the continued study of how human behavior contributes to the production of social media messages, and hence the analysis of the messages they produce. I note several methodological contributions resulting from this work, including the expanded set of informative domain independent lexical items, consideration of base rates that both enables detection of departure from canonicity and reduces reliance on anonymous reporting, and a complement to sentiment analysis that is sensitive to environmental variability. Theoretical contributions include consolidation of disparate threads of language production research (including a focus on grounding). Finally, I identify several limitations in my own analysis, and more general concerns regarding the mining of social media data, to guide future work.

Committee:

Valerie Shalin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); John Flach, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Amit Sheth, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ion Juvina, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

psycholinguistics; lexical choice; breach; disaster response

Fedder, Joshua C.Causal Complexity and Comprehension of Evolution by Natural Selection
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Psychology
Learning the theory of evolution by natural selection has proven to be difficult for students and adults alike. This may be due, in part, to the finding that adults reject the existence of within-species variation. Within-species variation is a requirement if evolution is to occur. Individuals who reject within-species variation often times misconstrue the process of evolutionary change as not the survival of some members of the species at the expense of others, but rather as the gradual change of all members of the species simultaneously. In this manner, rejection of within-species variation leads to misconstruals and misunderstandings of the theory of evolution by natural selection. One proposal for this tendency to reject within-species variation is psychological essentialism, which proposes that individuals construe species as possessing an underlying essence, shared by all species members, determining the observable properties of that species. Here we propose an alternative explanation, which we term the causal complexity hypothesis. We posit that biases for single-cause explanations lead participants to reject within-species variation. We argue that these simpler causal structures make within-species variation probabilistically less likely. In Studies 1 and 2 we find evidence that not only are preferences for single-cause explanations correlated with decreased estimates of within-species variability, but that manipulating number of causes has a causal effect on variability judgments. In Study 3, we find that evolution comprehension also predicts performance on category identity tasks, and find some support for the proposal that this is also related to within-species variability and causal complexity. Overall, we find that our causal complexity hypothesis can account for individual differences in variability judgments, and may offer a target for interventions in the domain of evolution comprehension. However, whether a preference for single-cause explanations influences reasoning within intuitive biology beyond judgments of within-species variation remains an open question and direction for future studies.

Committee:

Susan Johnson, Dr. (Advisor); John Opfer, Dr. (Committee Member); Stephen Petrill, Dr. (Committee Member); Laura Wagner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Educational Sociology; Psychology

Keywords:

causal complexity, simplicity, evolution, natural selection, essentialism, within-species variation

Courtice, April M.Chat communication in a command and control environment: How does it help?
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2015, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Military command and control (C2) teams are often faced with difficult, complex, and distributed operations amidst the fog and friction of war. To deal with this uncertainty, teams rely on clear and effective communication to coordinate their actions; two current conduits for communication in distributed military teams include voice and chat. Chat communication is regarded by many in the C2 world as the premier method of communicating with the power to lessen some of the traffic and disturbances of current voice communication, and its usage continues to exponentially increase. Despite this operational view, countless laboratory studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of chat communication relative to voice communication. The current study investigates the gap between laboratory research results and usage in complex environments, and empirically tests the effect that chat communication has on tactical C2 performance through an air battle management synthetic task environment. Results demonstrate that participants performed better on time-critical, emergent events with voice communication and better on preplanned missions when they had access to archival information. Voice communication is a valuable, high bandwidth channel that is essential for coordination in highly complex situations, while chat communication is a nonintrusive form of communication that allows the operator flexibility in prioritizing the information flow through the use of archival information. The challenge in operational settings with overcrowded radio channels, however, is to protect the voice channel to ensure it is available when the situation demands it. With careful implementation, voice and chat communication can be complementary technologies to facilitate complex work.

Committee:

John Flach, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Valerie Shalin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Benjamin Knott, Ph.D. (Committee Member); W. Todd Nelson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Experimental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Chat Communication; Military Command and Control; Complexity; Uncertainty; Team Communication

Hendershot, LeslyAggression in traumatic brain injury: Difference in perception and impact on family functioning
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2010, Psychology
The objectives of this study were to describe the post injury experience as reported by TBI survivors and family members, with specific focus on aggressive behaviors and family functioning. Participants were 27 TBI survivors and 21 caregiver/family members with a mean time since injury (TSI) of 13.59 years (SD=9.38). Both members of the dyad completed measures of aggression and family functioning and were interviewed separately using a semi-structured interview to gain qualitative information related to post-injury changes. Results showed no significant difference between the reports provided by the TBI survivors and the caregiver/family members. However, TBI survivors who reported an unhealthy level of family functioning endorsed a significantly higher level of aggression than TBI survivors who reported healthy family functioning. Themes that emerged related to long-term changes in the TBI survivor post-injury included the presence of anger/irritability, memory problems, and depression and increased emotionality.

Committee:

Kathleen J. Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); John Barrett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Renee Zucchero, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Individual and Family Studies; Neurology

Keywords:

brain damage; aggressiveness; family research; family functioning

Chen, WeiDeveloping a Framework for Geographic Question Answering Systems Using GIS, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, and Ontologies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Geography
Geographic question answering (QA) systems can be used to help make geographic knowledge accessible by directly giving answers to natural language questions. In this dissertation, a geographic question answering (GeoQA) framework is proposed by incorporating techniques from natural language processing, machine learning, ontological reasoning and geographic information system (GIS). We demonstrate that GIS functions provide valuable rule-based knowledge, which may not be available elsewhere, for answering geographic questions. Ontologies of space are developed to interpret the meaning of linguistic spatial terms which are later mapped to components of a query in a GIS; these ontologies are shown to be indispensable during each step of question analysis. A customized classifier based on dynamic programming and a voting algorithm is also developed to classify questions into answerable categories. To prepare a set of geographic questions, we conducted a human survey and generalized four categories that have the most questions for experiments. These categories were later used to train a classifier to classify new questions. Classified natural language questions are converted to spatial SQLs to retrieve data from relational databases. Consequently, our demo system is able to give exact answers to four categories of geographic questions within an average time of two seconds. The system has been evaluated using classical machine learning-based measures and achieved an overall accuracy of 90% on test data. Results show that spatial ontologies and GIS are critical for extending the capabilities of a GeoQA system. Spatial reasoning of GIS makes it a powerful analytical engine to answer geographic questions through spatial data modeling and analysis.

Committee:

Eric Fosler-Lussier, Dr. (Committee Member); Rajiv Ramnath, Dr. (Committee Member); Daniel Sui, Dr. (Committee Member); Ningchuan Xiao, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Computer Science; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Language

Keywords:

geographic information system; GeoQA; geographic question answering framework; geolinguistics; spatial ontologies;

Christopher, Fisher RyanAre people naive probability theorists? An examination of the probability theory + variation model.
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Psychology
Four experiments tested the Probability Theory + Variation model of probability judgment. The model posits that judgments follow the rules of probability theory. Errors occur because otherwise normative judgments are perturbed with noise. Experiment 1 found some evidence for the model’s account of noise and errors. However, no support was found for a prediction derived from the variance sum law and the integration rules of the model. Experiment 2 found some support that noise is associated with more errors in conditional probability judgment and judgments adhered stochastically to Bayes’ theorem. Experiment 3 reformulated the model as a simple process model in which judgments are formed through the dynamic accumulation of exemplars. Noise was increased through a response deadline, but only resulted in less semantic coherence for conditional probabilities. In Experiment 4, three interventions based on the model and variants the wisdoms of crowds effects were largely ineffective in reducing errors.

Committee:

Christopher Wolfe, Dr (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Probability Judgment, Rationality,Cognition

Adams, Laural L.Theorizing Mental Models in Disciplinary Writing Ecologies through Scholarship, Talk-Aloud Protocols, and Semi-Structured Interviews
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, English (Rhetoric and Writing) PhD
This project explores how disciplinary habits of mind are circulated through forms of representation to instantiate English Studies disciplines, institutions which then shape scholars' practices for producing knowledge. Using a critical discourse analysis on scholarship, semi-structured interviews, and a talk-aloud protocol, I find that scholars' thinking and writing rely heavily on mental models. Scholars employ small-scale working representations of dynamic systems to help them reason through disciplinary problem spaces, including research questions and composing issues. Unlike the sciences, English Studies fields have not fully exploited mental models in research and teaching; nor have they been considered fully in writing studies' research on cognition and writing. In order to understand the role of mental models in writing and disciplinarity, I employ ecology theory to link the representational nature of mind to external media. I find that as scholars write, they produce complex mental models of disciplinary content that are comprised of objects of study, relationality between these objects, and discipline-specific forms of dynamism applied to "run" the models. Mental models are multimodal compositions that employ representational modalities afforded by "mind," such as force, image, and affect; their design reveals scholars' tacit values and assumptions. My research suggests that reflecting on mental models can enable scholars to extend their reasoning and critically evaluate their assumptions. During writing and revision, scholars model a generic reader's mind "unfolding" as it encounters the writing in order to anticipate eventual readers' "situation models." Scholars also model hypothetical exchanges with familiars with whom they have previously written in order to predict critiques and feedback. Mental models have a significant role in enculturating new members and constructing and maintaining disciplinarity. I propose that a facility with mental models is a significant component of reasoning-based "literacies" and suggest ways that scholars and teachers can make deliberate use of mental models in scholarship and in teaching writing. I describe the significance of mental models in knowing and composing in new media contexts with multimodal affordances that compare and contrast to those of the mind. I also suggest additional methods for analyzing and collecting data on mental models and writing.

Committee:

Lee Nickoson, Dr. (Committee Chair); Kristine L. Blair, Dr. (Committee Member); Jorge Chavez, Dr. (Committee Member); Sue Carter Wood, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Communication; Composition; Ecology; Educational Theory; Epistemology; Higher Education; Language; Literacy; Multimedia Communications; Organizational Behavior; Rhetoric; Social Research; Teacher Education; Technology

Keywords:

Mental Models; Writing Studies; Ecology and Complexity Theory; Disciplinarity; Disciplinary Writing Ecologies; Cognition and Writing; Social Cognition; Scholarship; Multimodal Composing; English Studies; Critical Discourse Analysis; Talk-aloud Protocol

Pack, Jessica SpencerEffect of Localized Temperature Change on Vigilance Performance
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2015, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology MS
This study examined the influence of localized temperature change on vigilance performance. Additionally, the effect of stressor appraisals on the relationship between localized temperature change and vigilance performance was investigated. A total of 36 male and female participants between the ages of 18 and 45 completed a stressor appraisal scale before completing a 40-minute simulated air traffic control vigilance task. Depending on the condition, either a hot, cold, or neutral temperature change was induced using a thermoelectric pad and blanket 20 minutes into the vigilance task. Although localized temperature change did not have a significant effect on vigilance performance 25-30 minutes into the task, those who were randomly assigned to the cold condition did experience a significant reduction in their vigilance decrement over time when compared to the neutral condition. Participants were classified as challenged or threatened, depending on their task appraisals. A marginally significant main effect of stressor appraisals on vigilance performance was observed. Challenged individuals appeared to perform better over time than threatened individuals. Although a moderating effect was not observed, these results suggest that individually both localized temperature change and stressor appraisals tend to influence vigilance performance over time.

Committee:

Tamera Schneider, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kevin Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lloyd Tripp, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Climate Change; Cognitive Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Personality Psychology; Physiological Psychology; Psychobiology; Psychology

Keywords:

vigilance; temperature; stressor appraisals; challenge; threat

Greenberg, Jeffrey AlexanderA Single Trial Analysis of EEG in Associative Recognition Memory: Tracking the Neural Correlates of Associative Memory Strength
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Psychology
The neural correlates of recognition memory retrieval have long been studied, usually by identifying patterns of activity that differ between experimental conditions such as “old” (studied) or “new” (non-studied). However, recent studies have revealed differences in neural activity between conditions that may not necessarily reflect the underlying cognitive process of interest. In fact, some of these studies argue a thorough interpretation of these results must involve mapping the data onto computational model parameters (Ratcliff, Philiastides, Sajda 2009; Philiastides, Ratcliff, Sajda, 2006). In this study, we recorded scalp EEG data from participants as they performed a simple associative recognition task, and searched for neural activity that discriminated between “intact” (studied) and “rearranged” (non-studied) test pairs during the decision (retrieval) period on a trial-by-trial basis. We did so by using a single-trial analysis method of EEG, which involves combining the electrical signal from all electrodes for each intact and rearranged trial and assigning logistic regression weights to them. These weights measure, within a given experimental condition, how strongly the neural activity resembles an intact versus rearranged signal across the time of the decision period. To determine whether such components actually reflect the evidence accumulation process of decision making during retrieval, we relate independently derived neural measures (via the single-trial regressor weights) and behavioral measures (via diffusion model fits). We find a single neural signal at 600 ms after test pair presentation that discriminates between intact and rearranged pairs. Furthermore, the magnitude of this signal sorted the behavioral data across intact conditions into halves such that, when re-fit separately by the diffusion model, drift rates were different for the two halves. This result suggests that the component we found reflects a measure of associative memory strength. Furthermore, a similar study using the same methods to study item recognition also found only one component that reflected drift rate with qualitatively similar timing and topography, suggesting that this component is a more general memory strength signal that is conserved across recognition tasks.

Committee:

Roger Ratcliff, Ph.D. (Advisor); Per Sederberg, Ph.D. (Advisor); Gail McKoon, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Neurosciences

Keywords:

associative recognition; diffusion model; EEG; retrieval; decision making

Appleman, Michael JEmerging Adulthood: The Pursuit of Higher Education
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Educational Foundations-Social/Philosophical Foundations of Education
The introduction of this thesis project will provide an overview of emerging adulthood and the context of higher education in contemporary society. In chapter two, a conceptualization of emerging adulthood will be provided. Given the social psychological nature of emerging adulthood, chapter two will explain the influence of identity development and social factors on emerging adults. In chapter three, self-authorship will be discussed as a theory for considering how emerging adults make meaning of their experiences, progress toward mature thinking, and assume responsible roles in adult life. Next, chapter four will provide an analysis of the relationship between emerging adults and higher education. An emphasis in chapter four will be the Learning Partnerships Model which articulates the potential for higher education to foster the development of self-authorship. This will provide one example of the way higher education cultivates individuals, and the implications for emerging adults. Lastly, a conclusion follows in chapter five to discuss the intersections between emerging adulthood, self-authorship, and higher education, with an emphasis on the social and cultural implications of emerging adulthood as a newly theorized phase in the human lifespan.

Committee:

Suzanne Mac Donald, Dr. (Advisor); Li Huey-Li, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Spickard-Prettyman, Dr. (Committee Member); Megan Moore-Gardner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Aging; Cognitive Psychology; Curriculum Development; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Individual and Family Studies; Multicultural Education; Social Psychology; Social Structure; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

emerging adulthood; higher education; self-authorship; educational philosophy; social and cultural foundations; lifespan; student development; identity development; decision-making; possible selves; future-oriented thinking; student learning outcomes

Milecki, Heather H.Virtual Agent Interaction – Improving Cognitive Abilities and Trust for a Complex Visual Search Task
Master of Science in Industrial and Human Factors Engineering (MSIHE) , Wright State University, 2015, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering
Introduction: This thesis research examined a novel decision support aid ("Spatial Cue + Virtual Agent") on human performance in a simulated complex visual search task. Method: Participants in the “Control” condition did not receive support from an aid. Participants in the “Spatial Cue” condition received support from an aid in the form of a bounding box. Participants in the “Spatial Cue + Virtual Agent” condition received support from an aid in the form of a bounding box and a virtual agent. The aids’ reliability was held constant at one level, 70 percent. Image difficulty was based on clutter; clutter was manipulated by varying image white space. Results: The "Spatial Cue + Virtual Agent" improved participants’ Probability of Detection, sensitivity, trust, and confidence. Discussion: This study indicates that there is a potential to mitigate declines in automation trust by simply increasing aids’ humanness.

Committee:

Jennie Gallimore, Ph.D. (Advisor); Subhashini Ganapathy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Alissa Golden, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Experimental Psychology; Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

cognitive psychology;experimental psychology;industrial engineering

Bookmyer, Eric DanielNeed for Cognition and its Effects on Equity Theory Predictions
Master of Arts (M.A.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Despite the growing trend in workplace applications of need for cognition (NC) on decision making, a gap still exists in its applications to other areas of I-O psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the individual difference of NC on equity theory predictions. This study consisted of a sample of 225 Mechanical Turk participants who completed a 32-item survey measuring their NC level and perceptions of equity and satisfaction based on a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated no significant differences between NC level and the amount of information utilized in the equity comparison process, contrary to predictions. Additionally, there were no significant differences between NC level on perceptions of distributive justice. The present study did, however, further support equity theory predictions by indicating lowered distributive justice in the underpayment and overpayment conditions and higher distributive justice in the equitable payment condition. Supplemental analyses were also conducted into pay satisfaction, which found that those low in NC were more satisfied in an underpayment condition than those high in NC. This research has implications on the workplace suggesting that employers should strive to compensate employees equitably to achieve the highest distributive justice perceptions. Additionally, results suggest that employers may want to consider an employee’s NC level when focusing on pay satisfaction, and this is an area that future research should further examine.

Committee:

Mark Nagy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dalia Diab, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Morell Mullins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Cognitive Psychology; Occupational Psychology; Organizational Behavior; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

equity theory; need for cognition; equity; distributive justice; pay satisfaction; decision making; mechanical turk; MTurk; equity perceptions; workplace; individual differences; organizational behavior

Riley-Behringer, Maureen ElizabethEffects Of Prenatal Risk and Early Life Care on Behavioral Problems, Self-Regulation, and Modulation of Physiological Stress Response in 6 to 7 Year-Old Children of Intercountry Adoption (ICA)
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Social Welfare
Guided by teratology, attachment, and stress theories, this cross-sectional secondary dataset analysis examined relationships between prenatal exposure to risk and pre-adoptive placement on behavior problems, self-regulation, and stress response modulation in 6-7 year old children of ICA. Early care comparisons were made between three groups matched on age at assessment (m = 6.9 years; SD = 0.6) and gender (girls n/group = 30) in children reared in institutional care (IC) (n = 40; m adoption age = 19 months; SD= 6.7 months), foster care (FC) (n = 40; m adoption age = 8.0 months; SD = 5.3), or birth family care (BC) (n = 40). Prenatal risk comparisons were made between the IC and FC groups; children were exposed to low (0 or 1) or high (2-3) prenatal risks (global measure of alcohol, malnutrition, and/or prematurity). Adoptive parents provided child/family demographics, historical adoption and known prenatal risk information, completed behavior and temperament scales, and collected home baseline salivary cortisol samples. In the lab, children were tested on inhibitory control, attention regulation, and salivary cortisol sampling. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-tests, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) tested the individual effects of prenatal risk and early care on outcomes. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to investigate whether early care moderated prenatal risk on children’s outcomes when controlling for adoption age. For type of early care, results indicated significant differences between groups on behavior problems (IC > BC), self-regulation (IC < BC) and lab cortisol baseline (IC < FC), but only without controlling for adoption age. When comparing high and low prenatal risk on child outcomes, high prenatal risk denoted greater behavior problems and elevated home cortisol baseline results, even when controlling for adoption age and early care type. Early care type did not moderate the prenatal risk effects on the study’s developmental outcomes, indicating that, at least in this sample, the effects of prenatal risk were strong. Further implications include the need for further investigation of effects of prenatal risk and institutional care risk on ICA children’s developmental outcomes as well as collaborative research between social work, neuroscience, and stress researchers.

Committee:

Victor Groza, Ph. D. (Committee Chair); Meeyoung Min, Ph. D. (Committee Member); David Crampton, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Andrew Garner, MD, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Developmental Biology; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Physiology; Psychobiology; Social Work

Keywords:

Intercountry adoption; institutionalization; foster care; prenatal risk; prenatal alcohol exposure; malnutrition; prematurity; behavior problems; self regulation; physiological stress response; cortisol

Reif, AngelaSelf Regulatory Depletion Effects On Speed Within A Complex Speech Processing Task
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Communication Disorders
Past research has supported the idea that self-regulation uses a limited resource which is subject to depletion (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). Depletion has generally been measured by the reduced accuracy of task performance on one executive function task that follows another executive function task. The current study used two measures of time within a speech processing task to explore the effects of depletion on complex speech processing. Half of the participants completed the speech processing task before an inhibitory writing task (Group A), and the other half of the participants completed the inhibitory writing task before the speech processing task (Group B); Group B was therefore predicted to be depleted in their ability to complete the speech processing task relative to Group A. During the speech processing task, participants listened to sentences from two different speakers simultaneously, one a native speaker of English and the other a non-native speaker of English. Listeners were visually cued to listen to and repeat one speaker or the other in a random sequence. After repeating each sentence, participants were given a forced choice question requiring them to identify the sentence spoken by the target speaker. The forced choice answer set provided two answer choices, the sentence spoken by the native speaker of English and the sentence spoken by the non-native accented speaker of English. Answers to these forced choice questions were used to verify whether participants had attended to the correct target. The current study analyzed response times for the forced choice questions (FCR) as well as the self-paced advancement (SPA) times (the times the participants waited before progressing from item to item). Times were analyzed for each participant and as means across participants between the two experimental groups. Results indicated no significant group differences for either forced choice response (FCR) times or self paced advancement (SPA) times. Regression analyses revealed a trend of decreasing SPA time over the course of the experiment but no trends were observed for FCR time. These results indicate a lack of depletion effects on measures of FCR and SPA time and the possible effect of increasing automaticity on the SPA time measure.

Committee:

Miriam Krause, PhD (Advisor); Alexander Goberman, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald Scherer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

depletion; speech processing; processing speed; self-regulation; executive function

Himes, SamanthaAn Examination of the Executive Functioning of Juvenile Offenders
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2013, Psychology
The current study sought to provide a description of the neurocognitive functioning of a sample of male juvenile offenders with special attention to the executive functioning. The WISC-IV scores of a sample of 599 male juvenile offenders evaluated through a multidisciplinary juvenile court assessment program were analyzed. The sample included predominantly African American boys (77%) with a mean age of 14.75 (SD = 1.18). A mixed model cluster analysis, based on WISC-IV index scores, yielded a three cluster solution labeled "Below Average", "Low processing speed", and "Very Low Functioning" groups. The "Very Low Functioning" group demonstrated significantly lower CBCL scores in the areas of attention, more symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity, and Anger Control problems than the other clusters. The findings support previous research which indicates neurocognitive diversity among juvenile offenders.

Committee:

Kathleen J. Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); John Barrett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Susan LaVelle-Ficke, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Criminology

Keywords:

executive functions; male juvenile delinquents

Weismantel, EricPerceptual Salience of Non-accidental Properties
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Psychology
The different types of non-accidental properties have been commonly treated as having equal perceptual salience. In an effort to test this hypothesis, discrimination thresholds were measured for four different types of transformations that altered the Euclidean, affine, projective, or topological structure of two basic 2D objects. The results confirm that there are significant differences in the relative perceptual salience of these transformations such that the topological change was the most salient followed by projective change which was followed by affine change. Changes in Euclidean structure were the most difficult to detect. To determine how well existing metrics account for the observer data, these thresholds were compared to the predictions from pixel distance, pixel angle, correlation, total area, and Hausdorff metrics. The results suggest that all the tested metrics are poor predictors of observer data for the perception of non-accidental properties.

Committee:

James Todd (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology

Keywords:

Non-accidental properties; object invariance; object recognition

Prichard, Eric CharlesInterhemispheric Communication and Prose Processing
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2013, Psychology
Previous research suggests that those who use their non-dominant hand for at least some tasks (“mixed handers”) have better episodic memory than people who use their dominant hand nearly all the time (“strong handers”). Evidence suggests that this is because mixed handers have greater access to the right hemisphere, which is active during the retrieval of episodic memories. Most of this previous research has focused on list learning. The present study extends these findings to memory for prose. Furthermore, this study investigated whether mixed or strong handers would be more susceptible to previously studied effects demonstrating that taking a specific perspective may affect what someone remembers from a story. One hundred fifty UT students were split into three groups of 50. All 150 were given a short story about two boys skipping school. However 1/3 were told to imagine they were burglars, 1/3 were told to imagine they were potential homebuyers, and 1/3 were given no such instructions. After a five minute lag time, during which participants completed a handedness questionnaire, everyone was given five minutes to recall as much as possible from the story. While perspective did affect what was recalled, perspective and handedness did not interact. More importantly, there was a main effect of handedness. As predicted, mixed handers remembered more from the story than strong handers. The findings suggest that degree of handedness may be a variable of interest to cognitive and educational psychologists who studying reading the processing of prose material.

Committee:

Stephen Christman, PhD (Committee Chair); John Jasper, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Rose, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

memory; handedness; laterality; interhemispheric communication

Dewey, RyanA Sense of Space: Conceptualization in Wayfinding and Navigation
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Cognitive Linguistics

This thesis addresses a gap in current cognitive work on fictive motion by exploring the factors involved in the production of fictive motion rather than the standard approach of investigating fictive motion processing.

Part 1 of this study consists of an experimental study of the production of coextension path fictive motion (such as the ravine ran beside the trail) in language used by hikers as they move along a trail through a complex terrain.

Part 2 is an ethnographic study of the wayfinding strategies recruited by American tourists in Paris in the production of general emanation path fictive motion (such as the museum overlooked the courtyard). The major findings in this work suggest 1) that the role of compression in conceptual blends is a facilitating force in the production of fictive motion, and 2) this facilitating force motivates a semiotic typology of fictive motion that refines Talmy¿¿¿¿s original analysis.

Committee:

Todd Oakley, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Turner, PhD (Committee Member); Fey Parrill, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Cartography; Cognitive Psychology; Design; Linguistics

Keywords:

mental scanning; fictive motion; palpability; map usage; figure-ground organization; semiotics; compression; conceptual blending

Davis, Christen R.The Effect of a Computerized, Cognitive Intervention on the Working Memory and Mathematical Skill Performance of Inner-City Children
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2012, Educational Psychology
This study examines the effectiveness of a computerized, cognitive intervention on the working memory capacity and mathematical performance of elementary students from an urban school. Working memory and mathematics performance were measured using two subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (Wechsler, 2003), the Calculation subtest from the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery – Third Edition (Woodcock, McGrew & Mather, 2001), and the Math Concepts and Applications (MCAP) and Math Calculation (MCBM) assessments from AIMSweb®. Results were analyzed using a paired samples t-tests to evaluate if working memory and mathematics performance scores significantly increased after the cognitive intervention. Results reflected significant differences in working memory capacity and mathematical performance after the intervention. Implications of these results, future research directions, and tips for using cognitive interventions within an RTI framework are discussed.

Committee:

Michael Woodin, PhD (Committee Chair); Raymond Witte, PhD (Committee Member); Iris Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Jane Bogan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Therapy; Developmental Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Educational Software; Educational Tests and Measurements; Mathematics Education; Special Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Cognitive Intervention; Working Memory; Math Skill; Cogmed

Fisher, Christopher R.The Description-Experience Gap in the Double Down Gamble
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2011, Psychology
Risk taking on the double down gamble was examined as a function of experience or descriptions. Participants attempted to win a fixed amount of hypothetical money by betting that a coin would land on heads within a predetermined number of trials. Risk increased as a function of trials while the expected value remained constant. Some received information tables of potential losses or probabilities while others experienced simulations. Based on studies that found underweighting of low probabilities when experienced, experiencing a win was hypothesized to increase risk taking. Describing the probability of winning resulted in the most risk taking. The other conditions did not differ from each other. Perceived risk was comparable to the control condition when losses were described or experienced but decreased when wins were experienced or probabilities were described. Degree of handedness and risk taking were not associated with doubling down.

Committee:

Christopher Wolfe, PhD (Committee Chair); Robin Thomas, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Johnson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology

Keywords:

decision making; risk taking; judgment; gamble; double down

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