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Palmore, Aaron GDesire Interrupted: Erotics, Politics, and Poetics in Horace, Odes 4
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Greek and Latin
This project offers a re-examination of the relationship between love and politics in Odes 4, Horace’s final lyric collection. The fifteen poems that make up the collection are on a diverse set of topics, with love, politics, and poetics among them. I claim that the concept of desire is a thread that unifies the work. Combining the resources of psychoanalytic literary criticism and more traditional philological scholarship, I demonstrate how desire—for stability, for love, for the future—emerges systematically from slips in phonemes, thematically ambiguous language, and the consonance of love and politics. In doing so, I advocate a style of philology that is on the border of language and the unconscious. My primary method is to focus on sounds, patterns, and rhythms as material traces of desire and as significant conveyors of meaning. These material traces of desire constitute a discourse about the contingency of subjectivity in a changing socio-political landscape. Desire is predicated upon lack or absence, which conceptually links Cinara, Ligurinus, and Augustus. Horace’s poetic practice in Odes 4 attempts to overcome the insurmountable distance between himself and these targets of his desire. The collection also reenacts the Augustan achievement through its trajectory of confusion to order. Ultimately, Augustus is set up as the guarantor of this order not only in the world, but also in poetry. Throughout most of the collection, this order is imperfect: a threatening darkness lingers throughout the poems and suggests that everything is not as it seems. In the final poem, the perfect order that is proposed emerges through the systematic reorganization of desire itself, as the desire of the poetic and erotic subject is enveloped by the totalizing desire of Augustus. Among many smaller observations that emerge from reading the collection through desire, two conclusions seem most significant. First, Horace’s final collection is not a scatter-shot collection of late poems, but presents a coherent trajectory under the rubric of desire. Second, despite masquerading as an idiosyncratic lyric project, Odes 4 is informed by many of the same sort of the socio-political developments that signal the rise and fall of elegy. The collection is not about an abstract experience or poetry for the sake of poetry, but about Horace’s experience in this changing world. In this world, erotic targets of desire are analogized to Augustus and his political power until, in the final poem, the diversity and energy of desire are flattened out by Augustus himself.

Committee:

William Batstone (Advisor)

Subjects:

Classical Studies; Comparative Literature; Literature

Keywords:

Horace; Odes 4; Ligurinus; Cinara; Augustus; Lacan; psychoanalytic literary criticism; psychoanalysis

Hinkelman, Sarah AEURIPIDES’ WOMEN
Bachelor of Arts, Ohio University, 2015, Classics and World Religions
The Athenian playwright Euripides has often been labeled a misogynist, both by some of his contemporaries and some modern scholars. In my thesis I attempt to show that this claim is unfounded. I examine the evidence that has been brought forth by scholars for Euripides’ misogynistic reputation. Then, I look closely at Euripides’ works Medea, Hippolytus and Phaedra, particularly focusing on how Euripides changes the characterization of the women from myth and previous tragedies, and fashions their thoughts, feelings, and struggles to resemble those of 5th century B.C. Athenian women. A close reading of these works makes clear that Euripides was aware of tensions in Athenian society between men and women, brought about by their subordinate position to men in Athenian society, and was attempting to make his audience acknowledge and understand their struggles. He was not offering solutions for the tensions he observed, rather he was provoking his audience to question their assumptions and conceptions about women and possibly make a change in society.

Committee:

Tom Carpenter, Dr. (Advisor); Lynne Lancaster, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Euripides; Classical Athens; Medea; Helen; Phaedra; Hippolytus; Aristophanes; Greek Women; Greek Tragedy

Roane, Nancy LeeMisreading the River: Heraclitean Hope in Postmodern Texts
BA, Oberlin College, 2015, Comparative Literature
Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus, known for his theory of "constant flux," may be one of the most misunderstood and misquoted thinkers of Western philosophy. The way that the protagonist of Julio Cortazar’s Rayuela misreads Heraclitus serves as one example of this phenomenon wherein poorly-conceived postmodern inquiries that seek to weaken the idea of a Truth lead to a nihilistic apathy. Horacio Oliveira misunderstands Heraclitus’ doctrine of constant flux and uses this misreading to “logically” justify his sexist and elitist behavior towards others. This phenomenon crops up again in Samuel Beckett’s absurdist play Fin de Partie through Hamm, a patriarch that no longer sees any point in trying because the world as he knows it is disintegrating. We can use Heraclitus as a central theoretical point for parsing through what exactly goes wrong with the ethical decisions of these characters. Carole Maso’s AVA serves as a counterexample to Rayuela and Fin de Partie, for the novel revolves around similar theoretical questions but provides us with a more properly “Heraclitean” approach for how to confront a world without fixed meaning. Studying these failures and successes supply us with examples of how Postmodern thought can be used for harm or for good. A Heraclitean reading of these texts shows us how, properly understood, Postmodernism moves not only towards deconstructing structuralized systems of violence and marginalization, but also towards building something out of the rubble.

Committee:

Claire Solomon (Advisor); Jed Deppman (Committee Chair); Benjamin Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; Comparative; Comparative Literature; Epistemology; Ethics; European Studies; Gender Studies; Latin American Literature; Latin American Studies; Literature; Metaphysics; Modern Literature; Philosophy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Heraclitus;Julio Cortazar;Cortazar;Rayuela;Hopscotch;Samuel Beckett;Beckett;Fin de Partie;Endgame;Carole Maso;Maso;AVA;Postmodernism;Ancient Greek philosophy;Poststructuralism; Deconstruction; Cixous;Derrida;Deleuze;Kahn; TM Robinson

Swain, Brian SidneyEmpire of Hope and Tragedy: Jordanes and the Invention of Roman-Gothic History
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History
This dissertation explores the intersection of political and ethnic conflict during the emperor Justinian’s wars of reconquest through the figure and texts of Jordanes, the earliest barbarian voice to survive antiquity. Jordanes was ethnically Gothic - and yet he also claimed a Roman identity. Writing from Constantinople in 551, he penned two Latin histories on the Gothic and Roman pasts respectively. Crucially, Jordanes wrote while Goths and Romans clashed in the imperial war to reclaim the Italian homeland that had been under Gothic rule since 493. That a Roman Goth wrote about Goths while Rome was at war with Goths is significant and has no analogue in the ancient record. I argue that it was precisely this conflict which prompted Jordanes’ historical inquiry. Jordanes, though, has long been considered a mere copyist, and seldom treated as an historian with ideas of his own. And the few scholars who have treated Jordanes as an original author have dampened the significance of his Gothicness by arguing that barbarian ethnicities were evanescent and subsumed by the gravity of a Roman political identity. They hold that Jordanes was simply a Roman who can tell us only about Roman things, and supported the Roman emperor in his war against the Goths. In this study, I argue that Jordanes must be appreciated as both Roman and Gothic. His texts reveal an individual negotiating his own dual identity in reaction to the acute crisis of the Gothic War. It is my contention that through his praise for both Goths and Romans, and his incorporation of contrived Gothic origins into the fold of Roman history, Jordanes sought to establish an inextricably entwined Roman-Gothic destiny in order to reconcile the two warring peoples with whom he personally identified. This project examines how Jordanes’ multivalent identity informs his conception of both historic and contemporary relations between Goths and Romans, and thereby significantly enhances our ability to interpret Roman-Gothic cultural dynamics, while also advancing debates over barbarian ethnicity. Jordanes provides unparalleled insights into the complex processes that accompanied ethnic confluence and assimilation into the Roman order. This study is also the first to examine Jordanes and a chorus of other authors as interlocutors in an empire-wide polemical discourse on the nature of Gothic rule in Italy and the war that forever halted imperial ambition to reconquer the west. Importantly, at the moment when the emperor Justinian was calling for the extermination of the `tyrannical, barbarian’ Goths, Jordanes published a counter-narrative which praised the Goths, challenged the stereotype of Gothic barbarism, and criticized the emperor’s war of aggression. He calls for the establishment of a modus vivendi between Goths and Romans – a desire clearly reflective of his own imbricated sense of self.

Committee:

Timothy Gregory (Committee Co-Chair); Kristina Sessa (Committee Co-Chair); Anthony Kaldellis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Civilizations; Ancient History; Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; Medieval History; Medieval Literature

Keywords:

Jordanes; Getica; Romana; Goth; Gothic; Gothic identity; Gothic ethnicity; Gothic War; sixth century; barbarian; barbarian history; barbarian identity; barbarian ethnicity; Justinian

Popescu, CatalinaHippolyte, Atalante and Penthesileia: memory and visualization of three heroic feminine prototypes
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2006, Greek and Latin
This paper deals with the analysis of three heroic feminine models and their representation in the literary texts: Hippolyte (an Amazon with ambiguous identity), Atalante (a huntress and a racer) and Penthesileia (an Amazon queen). The method we used is literary theory combined with text philological study. The point of departure in this research was the theory of the sign: we acknowledge specific differences between the linguistic sign and the literary signifiers of the three feminine prototypes: unlike the linguistic sign, the literary signifier is not governed by the arbitrary and in its case it is much more difficult to establish variants’ filiations. Nevertheless the literary sign still preserves the possibility to mutate by regular use and abuse and to create multiple versions. Our main concern in this paper is to see how the three feminine models/signifiers are represented and visualized in the literary tradition: “Sight”, ’’absence”, “memory” and “oblivion” will be in our case the main points of interest. All these notions create a web of interdependences within the economy of the text. There is a certain type of visual within each literary genre: the epic, (the vehicle of Penthesileia) insist on panoramic and hyperbolic, deforming a little bit the character’s image, the lyric (in the poetic texts that represent Atalante) tends to magnify the heroine’s details and to focus on movement while the dramatic genre (the literay space for Hippolyte) uses strong imagery but it is limited by the unity of the three elements: time, action and space. The visual presence or the absence of the visual creates in many contexts the mnemonic function. Inside of the text, before any memorial function and control, we deal with a visual diegetic empire. Sight (visual acuity) is one of the text forces of preservation. In some versions it is the memory that reconstructs the visual itself for readers or for the passive listeners, by using its reiterative, constructive function. Subdivision of memory exists. There is memory with archiving/taxonomic function, creative memory, visual, static and kinetic memory. They all are going to be analyzed in this paper, by their report with the characters. The literary success of the three feminine models depends a lot on their position in the mythical tradition. Therefore, Hippolyte who has a secondary role in the story of Theseus, Phaedra and Hippolytos, will tend to preserve this ancillary position in most of the texts, being subjected to confusion and name/identity alterations. Atalante has a very prominent position and a personal saga within the heroic epic, facts that make her physical presence conspicuous in most texts, especially in versions in which lyric and epic is combined (both genre having an increased power of visualization). In some cases, the abundance of details concerning her legend, determines poets and mythographers to take into consideration the existence of two heroines. Penthesileia is the most coherent sign: it is protected against confusions by its own prominent position in the epic tradition (as an Amazon queen) and by her short and concentrated story of heroism. She is a very conspicuous dynamic character and the texts tend to emphasis her physical presence. The memory of her story is also very coherent within the mythical tradition.

Committee:

Victoria Wohl (Advisor); Duane Roller (Committee Member); Thomas Hawkins (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Self, Stephen N.“I am One”: The Fragile/Assertive Self and Thematic Unity in the Theocritean Oeuvre
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Arts and Sciences: Classics
Since antiquity, critical reception of Theocritus has focused on bucolic as the poet’s quintessential domain, whether in the belief that the term designates a small, separable portion of his total corpus or more generally applies to many, most, or all of his hexameter works. As a result, many of Theocritus’ non-herding poems have received, on the whole, less critical attention than the herding ones. The book-length studies of Griffiths (1979b), Burton (1995), and Hunter (1996) attempt to redress this imbalance in treatment by dividing the non-herding works into various sub-genres, such as patronage poetry, mimes, hymns, and pederastic poetry, and dealing with each in relative isolation from the rest of the corpus. While this approach may finally give less scrutinized poems their due, it results in the same kind of tunnel vision vis-à-vis the figure of the poet as bucolic-centered studies. A more unitary view of Theocritus is called for. Analysis of the Idylls as a whole from the standpoint of themes and imagery, as opposed to genre, may hold the key to that view.

Committee:

Kathryn Gutzwiller, PhD (Committee Chair); Holt Parker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Theocritus;criticism;themes;fragile;assertive;self

Ricciardi, Ryan A.Where Did All the Women Go: The Archaeology of the Soldier Empresses
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Arts and Sciences : Classics

In the long history of the Roman Empire, there is no other period for which we know so many names but have so little evidence than the third century A.D. The leaders are collectively called the soldier emperors in reference to the majority’s origin in and promotion by the Roman army. Absent for this period are the colorful (and colored) historical views available for other periods. The emperors and their wives, however, lasted long enough to mint coins, make dedications, and have official portraits created. Even less well understood are the soldier empresses, the wives of the soldier emperors. While sculpture experts have evaluated surviving images for their intrinsic value, the social and political implications of such images have not been explored. In this project I reevaluate existing literary, historical and visual evidence to recover the identity of these women. In this liminal period, imperial women, often considered mere figureheads in a rapidly revolving power struggle, wielded considerable power and influence in the political realm.

Each type of evidence has its strength for revealing the role of the empresses; combined, the evidence speaks louder than the individual pieces. Epigraphic remains not only express official titulature, but they can be more confidently connected to a specific time and place than contemporary sculptural remains. Numismatic evidence combines image and title in an official medium. Official imperial portraiture consisted of both the image of the individual together with an inscription used both to identify the depicted person as well as to honor the dedicator. The combination of sculptural, epigraphic and numismatic evidence provides a more complete picture of the social implications of contemporary imagery.

I propose that the wives of the soldier emperors wielded more power than historians have traditionally suspected. The extant evidence reveals that the emperors continued to manipulate the public persona of their wives in order to create a semblance of harmony within the imperial union, to advertise the longevity of dynasty, and to foster connections with the Roman army. The group of imperial women who ruled Rome during the so-called third century crisis still strove to create the image of perfection in both the civic and military worlds.

Committee:

Dr. C. Brian Rose, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Barbara Burrell, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Kathleen Lynch, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Steven Ellis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Art History; Classical Studies

Keywords:

Roman women; Imperial art; Roman Empire

Rainsberg, Bethany Rose BanisterRewriting the Greeks: The Translations, Adaptations, Distant Relatives and Productions of Aeschylus’ Tragedies in the United States of America from 1900 to 2009
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Theatre

The purpose of this study is to examine the practices of rewriting Aeschylus’ tragedies for American audiences and the manner in which these rewrites are “read” by stage directors who adapt them in their academic and non-academic theatre productions in the United States. In order to analyze the translation and performance practices of Aeschylus’ plays, this study will examine all English language translations, adaptations, and distant relatives of Aeschylus’ works for the twenty and twenty-first centuries and analyze key moments that connect and illuminate those works. The two central questions that drive this investigation are: (1) what kind of choices have the English-speaking translators made regarding the tragedies of Aeschylus, and (2) how have Aeschylus’ tragedies been rewritten by the practitioners of the American stage?

Because of the proliferation and variance of Aeschylean translations into English, and research published to-date, an examination of these practices and texts provides a rich source for analyzing the larger issues of practice and critical evaluation of translation and performance. The seven tragedies of Aeschylus (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, Eumenides, Prometheus Bound, Persians, Suppliants, and Seven Against Thebes) and the manner in which they plays have been interpreted by translators and producers from 1900 to 2009 will provide the data for this study.

Committee:

Stratos Constantinidis, Dr. (Advisor); Bruce Heiden, Dr. (Committee Member); Joy Reilly, Dr. (Committee Member); Anthony Hill, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Languages; Classical Studies; Theater

Keywords:

Aeschylus; Translation; Adaptation; Classical Greek Tragedy; Performance

Trygstad, Emily J.Excellence Redefined: The Evolution of Virtus in Ancient Rome
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences - Classical Humanities
Virtus, which was in many ways held to be the paramount quality an ancient Roman male could possess, was initially expressed through an assertion of martial prowess. No simple translation for this ideal exists, however; “bravery” or “manliness”, while sometimes used, do not fully render the complex importance of virtus. Over the course of time, history sees virtus make a gradual shift as an ideal manifested through military distinction to a more liberal celebration of “excellence”, not dissimilar from the Greek notion of 'αρετή. Figures such as Fabius Maximus, Scipio Africanus, Titus Flamininus, Marius and Julius Caesar all had the same goal of attaining virtus, yet the manners in which they approached this goal were all different. Furthermore, under the establishment of the principate, emperors such as Augustus, Gaius, Claudius, Nero, and Domitian would use their position to endorse a less militaristic definition of virtus, and consequently strengthen their own position, making virtus independent of military achievement.

Committee:

Steven Tuck, Dr. (Advisor); Judith de Luce, Dr (Other)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Rome; virtus; Fabius Maximus; Marcus Curtius; Scipio Africanus; Caligula; Nero; arete; Myles McDonnell

Gentile, Kristen MarieReclaiming the Role of the Old Priestess: Ritual Agency and the Post-Menopausal Body in Ancient Greece
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Greek and Latin

This dissertation examines the roles of old priestesses in the Greek religious system. In addition to providing a comprehensive survey of the evidence for these priestesses, I present a theoretical model to explain the appointment of old women to these cults. I argue that their post-menopausal identity is fundamental for their selection as priestesses. This conception of post-menopausal identity has two facets—the physiological and the social. In each chapter, I discuss how different aspects of post-menopausal identity were relevant to specific cults and the ritual tasks performed by the priestess. Ultimately, it is their post-menopausal identity that necessitated the selection of post-menopausal women to these priesthoods.

As an introduction to this study of old priestesses, I discuss the history of scholarship on old women and the priestess in Chapter 1. I then explore the ancient conception of the old female body in order to clarify the physiological facet of post-menopausal identity in Chapter 2. I undertake a systematic study of menopause in the Greek world, using both ancient and modern comparative evidence. In subsequent chapters, I examine the different priesthoods to which post-menopausal women were appointed, each of which emphasizes different aspects of post-menopausal identity. In Chapter 3, I discuss the tendency of the Greek religious system to equate young and old women as ritual agents, using the Delphic Pythia as a case study. I propose that post-menopausal women were able to renew their virginity. With their “renewed virginity,” post-menopausal women were ritually equivalent to physical virgins and were able to attain the same high level of ritual purity. The debates concerning women and sacrifice are addressed in Chapter 4, specifically in relation to the role of the sacrificing and slaughtering priestesses at the Chthonia. These post-menopausal priestesses were exceptional within the Greek sacrificial system as they are the only known example of female cult agents who slaughtered the sacrificial animal. I address the issues of why these women could sacrifice and why they were involved in the Chthonia specifically. I argue that these post-menopausal women were accepted as slaughterers because they were no longer viewed as a threat to the male patrilineal system. In addition, the female focus of the Chthonia as a mystery cult in honor of Demeter prompted the choice of post-menopausal priestesses. In Chapter 5, I utilize the cross-cultural perception of the old woman as the bearer of wisdom and transmitter of cultural traditions to examine the Sixteen Women of Elis and the Gerarai of Athens. Although the cult traditions of these two collective priesthoods differ, they are linked because of their connection to marriage and a younger female generation.

In this study, I offer an explanation for the appointment of old priestesses by focusing on the conception of post-menopausal identity with both its physiological and social facets. Post-menopausal identity, and specifically renewed virginity, is the initial step toward a more complete understanding of the post-menopausal woman’s role in ancient society.

Committee:

Sarah Iles Johnston, PhD (Advisor); Fritz Graf, PhD (Committee Member); Julia Nelson-Hawkins, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Classical Studies; Religion; Womens Studies

Peterson, Anna I.Laughter in the Exchange: Lucian's Invention of the Comic Dialogue
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Greek and Latin
My dissertation examines Lucian’s claim to have invented the comic dialogue. For Lucian, this new generic category resolves the quarrel between Old Comedy and Platonic dialogue, which he imagines arose from Aristophanes’ portrayal of Socrates in the Clouds and the subsequent blame that Socrates directs at Aristophanes in Plato’s Apology. Through a study of specific texts such as the Fisherman and the Nigrinus as well as broader categories within Lucian’s corpus, I argue that Lucian rescues Old Comedy from the attacks of Plato and his successors by attributing philosophical value to it. My work stands in contrast to recent scholarship on Lucian, which has focused on his relationship to the historical and cultural debates surrounding the Second Sophistic and the Cynic tradition. While these approaches have contributed substantially to our understanding of Lucian’s cultural and philosophical identity, I extend its implications to articulate the significance of Lucian’s characterization of his writings as the union of the comic and philosophic traditions.

Committee:

Tom Hawkins (Advisor); Fritz Graf (Committee Member); Richard Fletcher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Lucian; Second Sophistic; Imperial Greek; Ancient Comedy; Platonic Dialogue

Ladianou, AikateriniLogos Gynaikos: Feminine Voice in Archaic Greek Poetry
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Greek and Latin

This dissertation argues that feminine voice can be found in Archaic Greek poetry. Attempting to answer this question, I tried to build a case for a feminine voice that is historically contextualized, since it is constructed within the context of archaic Greece. For this thesis, such a voice is not as a natural, physical voice but a constructed gendered voice. In the beginning, Sappho’s construction of feminine voice is considered as dialogic. Sappho re-reads, re-writes Homeric epic as a feminine epic: polyphonic, against dichotomies and hierarchies. In the case of Sappho, feminine voice is constructed as the voice of the persona loquens, be that Sappho or the female performer. In Homer, a similar feminine voice is constructed as the voice of Helen, a poetic female figure. Thus, Homer constructs a double, unfixed, polyphonic feminine voice that functions as an alternative poetic discourse within the Iliad. Finally, in Alcman the female voice of the chorus proves to be essentially masculine. Thus, emphasizing hierarchical models, or male models of desire, the chorus is reinforcing patriarchal structures.

Building on French feminist theory and late Bakhtinian discussions, this thesis attempts to map down polyphony, multiplicity, fluidity and mutability as the main characteristics of a feminine voice. By demonstrating how both male and female authors are able to construct a feminine voice with the aforementioned characteristics essentialist arguments are avoided. Hence, both Sappho and Homer produce a feminine voice, a multiple, dialogic, unfixed voice. The use of such a feminine voice is an ideological choice with sociopolitical implications. My objective was to explore a feminine voice that is neither essentialist nor victimized: if Sappho’s feminine voice is not anchored on her gender, it is a position in language rather than a biologically defined position, then, an écriture feminine can be composed by male writers as well. Moreover, if Sappho is able to speak at the same time within and against the specific androcentric society, then, indeed, the subaltern woman, and her voice, does exist.

Committee:

William Batstone (Committee Chair); Thomas Hawkins (Committee Member); Bruce Heiden (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

archaic poetry; greek; Sappho; Homer; Alcman; gender; feminine voice;french feminist theory

Jazdzewska, Katarzyna AnnaPlatonic Receptions in the Second Sophistic
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Greek and Latin

The dissertation examines interactions of three Second Sophistic authors (Plutarch, Dio Chrysostom, and Ailios Aristeides) with Plato and his dialogues. Although the significance of Plato and his dialogues for Greek literature of the imperial period is well-known, there is lack of nuanced case studies attempting to uncover the mechanics and purpose of literary interactions with Plato. Scholarship tends to explain Plato’s presence in the Second Sophistic literature en masse as a socio-cultural phenomenon, interpreting Platonic presence in the Greek imperial authors as a cultural and stylistic statement on their part: as a means by which authors create their cultural identity and construct the cultural status of the present. Consequently, particular instances of the interaction between Second Sophistic authors and Plato frequently remain unexamined. In my examination of texts by Dio, Plutarch, and Ailios Aristeides, I focus on their meaning and how it is shaped and modified by placing Plato in the background.

In the Introduction, I offer a broad picture of the reception of Plato and his dialogues before and during the Second Sophistic. I draw attention to the fact that by interacting with Plato, a Second Sophistic author located himself within a lengthy and complex tradition of Platonic reception. I examine different literary strategies by means of which Second Sophistic authors interact with Plato, with special emphasis on a literary allusion and a dialogic genre as two ways of positioning one’s work vis-à-vis Plato’s text(s).

The three chapters of my dissertation examine different approaches to Plato and Platonic legacy. In the first chapter, I examine two dialogues which evoke Plato both structurally and verbally: Dio Chrysostom’s Charidemos and Plutarch’s Symposion of the Seven Sages. Both these texts make a considerable use of Plato’s Phaidon. I examine literary techniques by means of which Dio and Plutarch evoke Platonic text and ask the question about the function and significance of the Platonic background.

In the second chapter I focus on Platonic allusions in two non-dialogic works by these two same authors: Plutarch’s On listening, a work focused on philosophical education, and Dio’s Euboïkos. The affinity of these two works lies in their choice of the Republic as a subtext; in my examination I argue that recurrent references to the Republic are a sign of an intense interaction with Plato’s views on education and politics as expressed in this particular dialogue.

In the third chapter I move to a slightly younger author and examine Ailios Aristeides’ To Plato: in Defence of Oratory, to show an author actively engaged in the discussion over the Platonic legacy and the values and perils that it involved.

Committee:

Anthony Kaldellis, PhD (Advisor); Richard Fletcher, PhD (Committee Member); Tom Hawkins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Greek literature; Second Sophistic; Plato; Plutarch; Dio Chrysostom; Aelius Aristides

Bissler, Joseph SCaligula Unmasked: an Investigation of the Historiography of Rome's Most Notorious Emperor
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
BISSLER, JOSEPH STEPHEN, M.A., August 2013 LATIN CALIGULA UNMASKED: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF ROME’S MOST NOTORIOUS EMPEROR (116 PP.) Director of Thesis: Brian K. Harvey Several Roman emperors have come down to the present with negativity attached to their names and one well-known example is Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, better known as Caligula. The primary literary sources narrate that Caligula was a loathsome and immoral emperor by pointing out specific instances in his life that demonstrate their claims. Although there are several instances that the authors discuss, I chose to investigate and analyze specifically these three in hopes of portraying the actual Caligula, not the monster: the supposed British invasion, the claims of incest with his three sisters (and especially Drusilla), and the claims of his divinity. My goal with each of these instances was to show that the literary sources (the aristocrats) filled their accounts and biographies of Caligula with distortions, lies, and/or exaggerations. Whenever possible, I utilized other primary sources (e.g., inscriptions, coins, artifacts, and archaeological remains) in order to show that their writings must not be taken completely at face value. After researching the three instances, I found the following about the emperor to be most accurate: Caligula never invaded Britain, but he intended to capture it in the future; his sisters were political tools and sources of affection, not incestuous play toys; he was not worshipped as a god in Rome but he was in the East (as was acceptable for all emperors). Today, the word “Caligula” immediately elicits wicked imagery and it is imperative, therefore, that all instances that portray Caligula negatively be understood most accurately so that the full range of Caligula’s character may be able to be shown, not just the monster.

Committee:

Brian Harvey (Advisor); Radd Ehrman (Committee Member); Jennifer Larson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Caligula; Latin; emperor; Rome; insanity; Britain; incest; god; Jupiter; Claudius; Agrippina; Drusilla; Augustus; Germanicus; Agrippa; Suetonius; Dio Cassius; Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; Nero; Elagabalus; worst; historiography; epigraphy;

Conley, Brandon WMinore(m) Pretium: Morphosyntactic Considerations for the Omission of Word-final -m in Non-elite Latin Texts
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
This research examines the circumstances of the omission of the letter m in word-final position in non-elite Latin texts, and proposes a morphosyntactic pattern to explain omission. Word-final m was not pronounced in non-elite Latin of the imperial period, and the letter is frequently absent in phonetically spelled texts, particularly as a grapheme. However, a number of texts remain in which the letter is both written and included. The authors of such texts demonstrate awareness that the letter should be written in final position (despite the lack of pronunciation), yet under certain circumstances they still choose to omit it. The paper suggests that the circumstances of the letter’s omission and inclusion are pattern-based, and that authors are more likely to omit the letter in two morphosyntactic environments (which are not independent from one another). Firstly, omission takes place more often following the vowels a and e than after u. Inflected words ending in a or e were common to the non-elite Latin morphological system, whereas words ending in u were not. Omitting final -m after u would have thus produced a word which did not end in an acceptable word-final grapheme. Secondly, omission is more likely in prepositional phrases, and nominal phrases in which another grapheme marking the same function is present. Both types of phrase contain another form which marks the syntax, rendering the presence of the grapheme less valuable; the prepositions themselves govern their phrases, while the presence of at least one grapheme appears to sufficiently identify the syntactic role of the entire phrase. The greater willingness to omit after a and e continues to be operative within the phrases. Several types of non-elite texts are examined for their patterns of omission and inclusion of final -m, including business contracts, personal letters, graffiti, and votive offerings. The texts range from the first century BCE to the fourth century CE, with wide geographic distribution from locations such as Britain, Egypt, Italy, and Turkey.

Committee:

Jennifer Larson, PhD. (Committee Chair); Brian Harvey, PhD (Committee Member); Radd Ehrman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient Languages; Classical Studies

Keywords:

Latin; Non-elite Latin; Non-literary Latin; Latin Linguistics; Classics; Latin Morphology; Latin Phonology; Latin Syntax; Vulgar Latin

Beal, Sarah ERoman Battle Sarcophagi: An Analysis of Composition as a Reflection of Changing Imperial Styles and Production
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Arts and Sciences: Classics
Roman sarcophagi that show battle scenes were produced in Italy during the Antonine period. These scenes are completely devoid of mythological figures and likely represent real battles from Rome’s history, in which Roman soldiers fought wild barbarians. Past scholars, such as Per Gustaf Hamberg and Bernard Andreae, have studied the iconography and compositions of these battle sarcophagi; however, they have yet to be reexamined in light of recent developments in the study of sarcophagus production. This thesis seeks to examine the compositions of Roman battle sarcophagi in order to answer questions about their production. It considers the precedents for such battle scenes, from Classical grave stelai to grand imperial monuments. This study demonstrates how the battle sarcophagi expand upon trends already seen in imperial art of the Antonine period, while incorporating stylistic elements from Hellenistic sculptures. Next, the compositions of the battle scenes are examined, in which the prevalence of specific figural types and groups that are repeated on the full corpus of battle sarcophagi are noted. Many of these figural types are identical to Roman copies of the Attalid victory statues, leading to the argument that the compositions of the Roman battle sarcophagi were inspired not by a single painted prototype, as suggested by Andreae, but instead are the gathered collection of various statuary forms that were applied to a relief. This thesis then discusses various models of production in order to show that the Roman battle sarcophagi support the heterogeneous model developed by Ben Russell. While some workshops were large enough to maintain a stock of completed works to be sold off the shelf, others were much smaller, only creating commissioned works. Finally, the figural types on the battle sarcophagi are examined alongside the figural types on sarcophagi that show Amazonomachies. This examination brings to light the similarities between these two sarcophagus types. This thesis argues that these similarities in composition are evidence that a workshop could rough out a generic battle narrative on a sarcophagus, to which finer details could later be applied according to the wishes of the customer in order to transform the scene into either an Amazonomachy or a battle between Romans and barbarians. The figures of Roman soldiers and Amazons in these scenes would have been interchangeable, which suggests complexities in how the Romans viewed these female warriors.

Committee:

Barbara Burrell, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kathleen Lynch, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Battle sarcophagi;Roman sarcophagi;Antonine period;Amazonomachy sarcophagi;Production;Composition

Post, Kaeleigh ANo Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement
Master of Sacred Theology (S.T.M.), Trinity Lutheran Seminary, 2014, History-Theology-Society Division
"No Greater Love Than This: Violence, Nonviolence, and the Atonement" looks at the role of violence in the discussion of the atonement. This is accomplished by first examining a number of well-known atonement theories including Anselm's substitutionary theory, Abelard's moral exemplar, ransom theory, and Christus Victor for their connection to violence. Then, three less well-known theories such as Julian of Norwich's theory, Patrick Cheng's theosis theory, and womanist theories are looked at in light of their connection to violence. Finally, a proposed theory of atonement, which attempts to be as low-violence as possible, is presented. Throughout the thesis, the topics of what is violence and why a nonviolent atonement theory is needed are addressed.

Committee:

Joy Schroeder, PhD (Advisor); Cheryl Peterson, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Bible; Biblical Studies; Classical Studies; Divinity; Gender; History; Medieval History; Middle Ages; Religion; Religious History; Theology

Keywords:

Atonement; Abelard; Anselm; Womanist Theology; Sin; Queer Theology; Violence; Aulen; Christus Victor; Romans; Ransom Theory; Theosis

Luckenbill, Katie M.Cavalry in Xenophon
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2015, Humanities
Recent scholarship concerning Xenophon’s works has focused on his ideas of leadership. A very few, if any, scholars have examined his portrayal of the cavalry and the cavalry commander. With so many of Xenophon’s writings involving cavalry, it is possible to draw a comparison between Xenophon’s idealized portrayals of cavalry operations in the Cyropaedia and Cavalry Commander, and his historical accounts of the cavalry, especially with regards to its training and effectiveness in battle. In comparing these works, their similarities and differences, a cohesive portrait of Xenophon’s ideal cavalry and its commander emerges.

Committee:

Bruce Laforse, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Rebecca Edwards, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jeannette Marchand, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ancient History; Classical Studies; History

Keywords:

cavalry, Xenophon, 4th century BC, Cyrus the Younger, Cyrus the Great, Cyropaedia, Anabasis, Art of Horsemanship, Cavalry Commander, hippeis, Hellenica

Fischer, Julia ClairePrivate Propaganda: The Iconography of Large Imperial Cameos of the Early Roman Empire
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, History of Art
The contribution of this dissertation to the field of Roman art is threefold. First, this dissertation examines exclusively the iconography of large Roman Imperial cameos. While previous scholars have thoroughly examined individual Roman Imperial cameos and their iconography, I address the cameos as a coherent group. In this way, I reveal how large Imperial cameos are in conversation with one another and are referential. That is, the Gemma Augustea is a response to the Tazza Farnese and the Grand Camee is a response to the Gemma Augustea. Second, my study of the iconography of Roman Imperial cameos reveals a language of private propaganda that is different from the public art seen by the general population. In particular, I analyze the iconography of large Imperial cameos for what the private symbolism says about Octavian/Augustus, and the Julio-Claudians. For example, in cameos emperors and members of the Imperial family had the freedom to present themselves, and their family members, how they truly wished to be viewed, versus art in the public sphere in which the emperor and his family had to adhere to certain criteria. Finally, this study will illuminate the importance of these Roman Imperial cameos in understanding the development of Roman Imperial art. The iconography of Roman Imperial cameos follows Goran Hermeren’s four stages of the development of symbols. In these four stages of development, Imperial cameos experiment with transmitting new Imperial messages that will become common in subsequent dynasties. In other words, the Tazza Farnese, Gemma Augustea, and Grand Camee de France serve as an iconographic testing ground for the Julio-Claudians. Furthermore, perhaps the most important contribution of this dissertation is that these large Imperial cameos, which are for all intents and purposes private works of art, actually address a broad cultural sphere. In other words, the style and iconography of the Tazza Farnese, Gemma Augustea, and Grand Camee de France are Hellenistic and Imperial in orientation rather than being very limited in their scope.

Committee:

Mark D. Fullerton (Advisor); Barbara Haeger (Committee Member); Timothy J. McNiven (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Art History; Classical Studies

Keywords:

Roman Imperial cameos, luxury arts, iconography, propaganda, Roman art

Frangoulidis, StavrosThe structure and repetition in the Prometheus Bound and the Persians
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1985, Greek and Latin

Committee:

June W. Allison (Advisor)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Campbell, CharlesPoets and Poetics in Greek Literary Epigram
PhD, University of Cincinnati, Arts and Sciences: Classics
This dissertation offers a new analysis of the treatment of poets and poetics in Greek literary epigram from the early Hellenistic Period (3rd century BCE) down to the early Roman Imperial Period (1st century CE). In their authorial self-representations (the poetic ego or literary persona), their representation of other poets, and their thematization of poetry more generally, literary epigrammatists define, and successively redefine, the genre of epigram itself against the background of the literary tradition. This process of generic self-definition begins with the earliest literary epigrammatists' fusion of inscriptional epigram with elements drawn from other genres, sympotic and erotic poetry and heroic epic, and their exploitation of the formal and conceptual repertoire of epigram to thematize poetic discourse. With the consolidation of the epigrammatic tradition in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, the distinctively epigrammatic poetic discourse that had evolved in the 3rd century BCE was subsumed into the persona of the poet himself, who is now figured as the very embodiment of the epigrammatic tradition and genre. In the first century BCE, as epigram was transplanted from Greece to the new cultural context of Roman Italy, the figure of the epigrammatist served to articulate the place of both poetry and the poet in this new world.

Committee:

Kathryn Gutzwiller, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Lauren Ginsberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Daniel Markovic, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Greek;Poetry;Epigram;Hellenistic;Leonidas;Allusion

Eisenfeld, Hanne EllenOnly Mostly Dead: Immortality and Related States in Pindar's Victory Odes
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Greek and Latin
Pindar's victory odes have long been the subject of frustration, admiration, and bafflement - often all at the same time. Their perceived obscurity, however, derives largely from a lack of the contexts that surrounded fifth century audiences. In this study I argue that an important element of that context lies in the complex religious landscapes inhabited by Pindar and his contemporaries. The communities of fifth century Greece were shaped by their experiences - communal and individual - of the divine. Interaction with the gods was as much a part of life as interaction with one's neighbors or the state. Despite the integration of what we, as modern scholars, would call 'religious' experience into every aspect of fifth century life, the importance of the divine in Pindar's victory songs has been insufficiently appreciated. Epinician representations of the divine draw on the stories and hymns that the audience already knew, the festivals they attended, the traditions of their cities and families. These contexts are now fragmentary, but by looking to the many types of evidence we have - from visual representations to cult inscriptions to mythical narratives - I have tried to glimpse the interwoven frameworks that expressed contemporary conceptions of the divine. When Pindar sings about gods and heroes he is neither simply repeating tired scripture nor telling empty stories for entertainment. Instead, representations of these beings in the odes articulate the order of the world and (re)constitute the appropriate relationships between humans and the gods. As part of the project of asserting order Pindar introduces into the odes figures who exist in a borderland between mortality and immortality. The elements of ambiguity inherent to these beings constitute a challenge to which the surrounding material of the ode responds, reaffirming the validity of the human/divine distinction. Four of these figures - Amphiaraos, Herakles, and the Dioskouroi - are examined here within the contexts of their individual odes and with reference to the broader epinician project.

Committee:

Sarah Iles Johnston (Advisor)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Pindar; epinician; Greek religion

Osland, Daniel K.Urban Change in Late Antique Hispania: The Case of Augusta Emerita
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Arts and Sciences: Classics

This dissertation focuses on the Roman city of Augusta Emerita, modern Mérida, Spain, as a case study for understanding changes in the culture, economy, and society of Hispania in late antiquity. The evidence presented here shows that some of the major cultural shifts that appear in the archaeological record for the sixth and seventh centuries have their roots in the fourth century, when Emerita was still fully integrated into the Roman Empire. This evidence also shows that Visigothic period residents were driven by a different set of values and interests from those that inspired urban investment in the Roman period, while the wealthy Christian hierarchy was a key stabilizing force throughout the Late Antique period.

A presentation of the physical setting and the infrastructure of the Roman city serves as the foundation for my analysis of the ancient city of Emerita. Public buildings were important venues for elite display, at times even receiving attention from provincial and imperial officials, especially in the early Roman period. In the Late Roman period, the class that had built the Roman face of the city was also instrumental in the de-Romanization of Emerita, by permitting or even participating in the deconstruction and privatization of the public monuments and spaces. For the Visigothic period, archaeological and textual evidence, including the Vitae Patrum Emeritensium, both point to shifting venues for elite investment, away from structures associated with traditional Roman identity to those associated with Christianity. The elite of Visigothic Emerita expressed and enhanced their status not through further contributions to the city’s Roman identity, but through new contributions to the promotion of Christian ideals.

My unprecedented analysis of the ceramic record from a cross-section of Emerita’s late antique sites has allowed me to provide new insights into changing trade networks, dining habits, and the technology of pottery production. I have included a discussion of the potential causes for, and ramifications of, these changes, in order to flesh out the image of the city that is cast by architectural remains and written sources. By offering a comprehensive analysis of the available evidence, this dissertation goes beyond the narrative of decline and stagnation that often frames discussion of the late antique West.

Committee:

Peter Van Minnen, PhD (Committee Chair); Jack Davis, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Ellis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

Late Antiquity;Emerita;Visigoth;Hispania;De-Romanization;Roman Spain

Rask, KatherineGreek Devotional Images: Iconography and Interpretation in the Religious Arts
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, History of Art

This dissertation concerns the uses of iconography, visual culture, and material culture in the study of Greek religion. I draw on methods and theoretical frameworks from outside the discipline in order contextualize the study of images and symbols in larger discourses and to introduce the most recent developments in scholarship. To better understand the religious aspects of Greek experience, this dissertation presents a mixture of intellectual history, historiography, and methodological critique. I provide an interdisciplinary overview of symbol theory and approaches to signs, the deep-seated interweaving of theological and artistic concerns in occultist traditions and 19th century scholarship, and iconographic methodologies employed by Classical studies and archaeology. Several themes repeatedly appear throughout the discussion, including the theoretical relationships between material culture and religion and the perceived dichotomy between phenomenological responses and interpretation.

By exploring these topics, it becomes clear that approaches to religion in ancient Greece need to be adapted to better account for visual and material culture. Despite most emphasis on public, ritual-centered aspects, images and objects attest to private encounters with divinities. Based on comparative analysis, I argue that the religious experience of ancient Greeks exhibits many elements of devotionalism, a religious phenomenon developed by Robert Orsi. Two case studies explore Classical Greek iconography in the context of everyday life, personal biography, and emotional response. The first argues that Athenians interacted with the deceased in much the same way as with deities, especially in their use of material culture. Using white-ground lekythoi, I show that tainiai (fabric garlands) are evidence of everyday materials that were used in devotional activity and can be found in women’s domestic experience, shrine activities, and gravesides. In the second case study, I consider iconographic conservatism in the context of personal biographies. I explore childhood encounters with devotional media and the way that such media continued to exert emotional force throughout an individual’s life. I also discuss the emotional impact caused by the perceived uniformity of devotional media, as well as manifestations of the aesthetics of accumulation in the massed votives displayed in sanctuaries.

Committee:

Mark D. Fullerton (Advisor); Timothy J. McNiven (Committee Member); Sarah Iles Johnston (Committee Member); Hugh B. Urban (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Art History; Classical Studies

Sterrett-Krause, Allison E.The Impacts of Private Donations on the Civic Landscapes of Roman Africa Proconsularis
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Arts and Sciences: Classics

This dissertation examines the role of architectural patrons in North African cities during the Roman empire. Through a combination of epigraphic and archaeological evidence, I investigate how benefactors impacted the lived experience of inhabitants of Roman African cities. A three-fold theoretical rubric governs the interpretation, using agency theory, reception studies, and phenomenology to uncover the motives behind benefactors’ choices and the visibility of their choices in urban life. Case studies of individual buildings at several cities in North Africa, and a diachronic examination of Thugga, offer glimpses into the nature of euergetism over a period of four centuries.

Architectural donors consciously sought to communicate messages of their own identity—based on gender, familial relationships, and political offices—through buildings. For example, in some cases buildings and their contents communicated information about their donors’ gender identities, creating complex visual messages that placed donors in their social context on both local and regional levels. In other instances, the fragmentary archaeological record hinders our understanding of donors’ gender identities, but topographic, archaeological, and epigraphic clues emphasize repeatedly the complex nature of civic identity in Roman North Africa.

This mixed civic identity can be most clearly seen at Thugga. In the first century C.E., donations in the city’s forum mimicked buildings being erected in Augustan Carthage. At Thugga, construction in the Julio-Claudian period looked both to the provincial capital and to its own pre-Roman history, focusing on the Numidian shrine of the deified king Massinissa as the centerpiece of the Roman civic space. Thugga’s African past contributed to the character of donations throughout the Roman period, particularly of temples. In the second and third centuries C.E., Carthage continued to be an important source of architectural inspiration for Thugga’s benefactors, many of whom were citizens and public officials of the colonia Julia Concordia Karthago.

The role of these public officials at Thugga increased in importance over time. The earliest donors of the city presented themselves as benefactors eager to contribute to the development of the city’s urban landscape and to establish familial traditions of architectural patronage in the city. In the late first century, donations more explicitly connected to public office-holding replaced these traditions of benefaction based on civic duty and familial responsibility. In particular, priests of the imperial cult (flamines and flaminicae) were particularly active in the second and third centuries, and donations not linked directly to public office-holding apparently disappeared by the third century. In the Christian period, euergetism continued, but it was directed toward the Christian community rather than toward the civic life of the city.

Donors employed visual cues, like architectural styles; topographic cues, including proximity and orientation; and epigraphic cues, such as similar phrasing, to explicitly link their work with that of others. Additional response to benefactions came in the form of honorific statues and bases set up in public spaces. At Thugga these honors were reserved for donors whose work had the greatest impact on public life, emphasizing how visible architectural patronage was in the urban landscapes of North Africa.

Committee:

Steven Ellis, PhD (Committee Chair); Barbara Burrell, PhD (Committee Member); Lea Stirling, PhD (Committee Member); Holt Parker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Classical Studies

Keywords:

North Africa;Roman;archaeology;architectural patronage;benefactors;Thugga;

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